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Volume 3 Issue 3 lan 1995

For Private Circulation Only

A Time to ReJlect
By the time you receiae this copy of the ANLetter, some major issues pswers, which because it is supposed to be shared utith NGOs
in the kind of actiaism that seaeral of us are inuolued in, wiII be in becomes legitimate. There are no contradictions in the intunal logic
for tating times. As the country is draum increasingly and not with which this process works. For, the primary assurnption is that
unexpectedly, into the aortex of free-market economics, a lot of the the common person has no empowered subjectiaity. Thuefore the
basic freedoms are being incessantly eased away from the reach of decision of her/his future would haue to be determind by this
the cunmon persan. polito-scientific class and thut as the'libertarinn' ualues of this class
become a threat to the oaerarching goal of 'Iiberalisation' wen the
The process of 'Iiberalisation' is structurally such thnt it forces rEresmtatiae participation is gtaen the go-W, while
millisns of us to be bystanders of the caaalcade of progress. What representatiaism is itself questionable.
better form of tightening the organising structures of society (tlmt
it communes with its destiny 'standard of lioing'), than raising the The other serious issue thai this raises is thnt, it opens the debate
bogey of disintegration, chaos and anarclty? A ionstant reference to of tlu 'insidu outsider' argummt through a new aaenue whcn it
the exarnples of such dis-organising elernents is the basis of states thnt only people liaing around the project area haae accus to
containing dissent utithin the dominant discourse. Dissent which is such informntion. Thueby, stating thnt public interest has narrow
basis of a functional democra'cy is today seen as the road-block on definitions and better still the determination of public interest will
the path of progress. reside in structures that haae themselaes dubious records of ensuring
participatory processes. Meanwhile, a Constitution Bench of the
Of course, the smnrter oies amongst us ill be better off, participating Suprune Court is proposd to hear the case filed way back in 1982
in the process of the politico-scimtific ascendancy that is emerging in which interalia, the ability of a strangu to initiate action before
now. this participation is justified by rejecting dissent as a functional that Court in public interest unless that stranger has a direct intuest,
rmlity in the process of eaoluing netoer ways of lfuing and being. has beefi raised.

A more insidious process is that of creating a make belieae world of Concunently, thue is the reasoning in the Ministry of Tourism that
the'politically correct' leading to co-option. Take the case of the the ministries of tourism, culture and enaironment be merged to
proaisions made by the Ministry of Enaironmcnt & Forests make their functioning, especially promotion of tourism, more
regarding Enaironmental Impacts Assessment. Born out of a ffictiae and hurdle-free. And this so that these departments do not
concerted public exercise of instilling participation as the core aalue uiau the sqme isstres diffuently, leading to multiplicity of
was a regulatory body, the Enaironmmtal lmpacts Assessment intupretations. The premise being thnt there is only one version
Agency (EIAA), which in consultation with a committee of non- possible that which supports the marlcet rationale.
gwernmental organisations Taas to eaahrale projects - new,
modifications/ expansion of existing ones. The amendment to the In continuing to struggle for a political psychology that allows a
notifications' states that the consultation with the committee of plethora of possibilities, we haae to be carefitl about copying the
NGOs wiII be at the discretion of the EIAA and that only those image of the structures that we are in dissonance with. A possible
people liaing around the the project site are eligible to participate opening in the midst of thue dark foreboding clouds is that there
in the assessmrnt process. would haue to be a renetaed aigour in working usith communities
and be catq:gtic to their self-empowering strategies.
What is interesting to obserae is the assumptions that underline
these sets of actions. There is a process of leading credence to the
ce4tralising process of creating a unitary cell with judgmental K.T .Sr,"Ltl'
?traa anz ap,huu to acfiadaze a44q ol t/re taeaZeta,(, eto f/a, eoeatofuA"r. ?ka4p eezddt
aa afftzop:te:ateq atd 4zid eo a. eofrr' ol tlo aateneat /ao aa .dlotwrcatlot . 7Ao
aaeo@. b t/z anficho at?p t44ae al t e azliou atd, aat
luroSrOUernr-

I share with you some observations and questions on tourism political pressures (such as a village having no connection with
f policy, its implementations, and tourism activists in tourism in Coa gets its roads flood-lit because its MLA is associated
L developing countries. I will use illustrations from Goa and I in the Tourism Department in some capacity). The three crore
want to know about Kerala. rupees received by the Goa Govemment for the exposition of
the body of St. Francis Xavier is yet another illustrationof an even t
There is considerable discrepanry between the Tourism policy of that is designed to attract natives and domestic tourists, though
the Central Government and tourism arrival/departure behaviour the expenditure is borne in theinterestof attractingintemational
in India. For one, out-bound tourism out numbers in-bound tourist tourists. UIhile no studies quantifying such transfers are available,
arrivals despite the policy'sobjective of discouraging theformer these cannot be seen as mere aberrations or deviances. All
and encouraging the latter. investments are necessarily refracted through social and political
filters, deflecting from the implementation of stated policy.
When it comes to in-bound tourism (the major concern of this
seminar), the policy's sole aim is to encourage the arrival of 'high It is therefore not sulprising that ever since the late eighties when
spenders'so as to increase foreign exchange earnings. Here too, we the Centre has announced its policy of attracting high spenders,
find amajor discrepancybetween policyand practicesome of which Goa has paradoxically seen an increase in the much more modest
I illustrate below spending charter tourists while FIIs have remained constant
(see Table). Notwithstanding the rhetoric of changing the market,
This policy is far from unique as it is shared by every other Goa has followed the classical tourist area life cycle, and is tending
country of the world with the exception of Japan. What the to peak with charter tourists.
policy demands, is 'niche' marketing. To my mind it is not
possible to market India to a niche without changing India's International Tourist Arrivals in Goa: Distributed as Charter
global image in some way. The analogy that is sometimes evoked
and Non-Charter
to explain such an exercise is corporate image management
strategies where it might be proposed to refurbish old and Foreign Charter Non-charter
rundown hotels, give them a new image and market the hotel to an tourist arrivals tourist arrivals tourist arrivale
upper market segment. The point is that global representations of
Nations are constructed historically and politically and have to be Year A B C=A-B
understood through a semiotic where power and asymmehy are
critical. It is simplistic to use behavioural assumption to
1985{6 8&838 3,568 85,207

extrapolate experiences of renovating hotels to transforming fK-87 7,03,444 4,40\ gg,Mg


images of countries (even that of a niche) as some marketing
people have proposed. 87{,8 86,479 5,419 81,060

Besides the policy being based on problematic assumptions, there


88€9 93,M3 9,705 83,338

are crucial discrepancies between poliry and implementation. To 89-90 97,555 9,3't6 8&340
illustrate, Govemment spending is aimed at infrastructure
development and marketing support. Howeveq, most State 90-91 91,982 1815 85,167
Govemments (Kerala maybe one of theexceptions) havenotshown
much enthusiasm and much of the planned budget remains
91-92 96,U3 L7,102 79,74't

unspent.l 92-93 7,28,89 39,87t 88,581

While the Central Government is concemed with eaming foreign Source Tourism Minister Shri Pandurang D. Raut in the Goa
exchange the State Governments have other prioritie. High Legislative Assembly on 31/3/7992
spenders who bring in the dollar do not generate employment and
regional development, as much as other types of tourists. Quite incontrast to a rhetoric of intervention and change at the level
of poliry formation, expendifure and implementation ends up being
Further, a number of factors influence the expenditJre of State driven by the industry or local pressures. It is tempting to we the
Govemments. The Tourism Department of Goa has organised above interpretation to suspect the motives of Government but
festivals such as 'Carnival' or the recently concluded it is more instructive to understand the global positioning which
'International Food Festival' with financial assistance from the determines unattainable poliry objectives, and industry and local
Central Govemment. These festivals attract natives rather than contexts which channel investments in infrastructure. This
tourists and even the tourists that do come are domestic paradox must be seen.rs reflecting on the one hand the inability of
tourists. The various expenditures on infrastructure development India (or most of our fellow aspirants in the third world) to conhol
for tourism have to be incurred in keeping with local industry. and its global image (which in turn determines the nature of tourist
demand) or at the regional level to manipulate the tourist area life The JGF has pioneered the demand for a reconsideration of the
cycle premised on a semiotic of consumption and difference in the propagation of softer forms of tourism from within the
modern world. Intemational Movement for altemate forms of tourism. The JGF
highlights neo-colonialism and class as the causes for the
An aside: If newspaper reports are right, Kerala seems to aspire to present 'destructive' tourism policy in the third world. While the
do a Goa 2 in terms of tourism development and arrivals. There link between global structures and tourism policy and practice
is an attempt to skip stages in the tourist area life cycle- avoid is essential, I am not sure of how the fight against tourism could
the explorers and aim for the high spenders. I am not optimistic lead to the dismantlingof the present model of development - the
about Kerala's efforts. I am afraid that the rather vigorous core of the JGF agenda. More specifically in the case of Goa, where
marketing of 'God'sOwn Country' will make itsuspect in the infrastructure developments have led to rising expectations, I am
eyes of dollar bearing angels. A deeper understanding of the unsure if a groject could always be blocked, even in its conception
semiotic of tourist attractions is called for. stage itself./

Thus far my comments have been within the tourism policy Another issue that has engaged the tourism activists is the
perspective. 'Representation of Goa'. The activists have demanded that the
representation of Goa as'westernised' is a distorted image
A more radical critique has emerged from the tourism activistt presented by the Government. While the activists have protested
led by the movement called the JGF (|agrut Goenkaranchi Fauz - the commodification of a distorted image of Goa, there is an
Vigilant Goans Army.) and other grouPs. The initial resPonse of intermittent debate in Goa as to what constitutes Goan Culture.s
tourism activists highlighted the loss of traditional occupations
and cultural degradation brought on by the 'hippies' in the late This representation of Goa to the outside has drawn flak from a
sixties and seventies, etc. Gradually environmental concerns variety of opposing views. On the one hand Hindu revivalist have
began to dominate the movement. During this period the JGF argued that the westernised image is not the true image of Goa
gained international recognition. As strategy the Government and but merely an aberration of colonialism. On the other hand, the
industry have responded by trying to discredit the movement. Catholic community (identified with the westernised image) has
Howeveq, the industry and Govemment have had to be more been upset with the mis-represented and the distortion of their
cautious of their plans and violations of environmental regulations. culture being used to attract tourists. Tourism throws a
So long as the movement was confined to the courts and the press, representation of culture and identity into the global market of
it amounted to a proxy battle in the name of the 'people'. Industry signs. What follows inevitably is a repositioning of identity within
and government were cautious but their caution and their energies the global community. The contests over identity are bound to
were directed towards using loopholes in the law, delays by the increase and tourism is a facilitator for such contests. The difficulty
courts etc. to overcome the obstacles presented by the activists. with retrievals of images of the past toconstituteidentityisthat
such revivals are themselves colonial constructions9 posing the
Over the last few years there has been a shift in tourism question of how are we to engage with the other in our past?
development and the movement.
In the case of Goa, the local administration has tried to be a wee
1. The size of tourism projects have grown demanding larger Iands
bit sensitive in its own activities not out of conviction but due to
for projects such as golf courses, the ]apanese village etc.
pressures. It washes its hand of the responsibility of policing hotel
2. The projects have therefore had to shift from the traditional and tour operators. The Central Govemment refuses to take
touriit destination area in Central Goa (Old Conquests)3 to the cognizance of these areas of conflict.
New Conquest.
The academic study of impacts ignore crucial and intangible
3. The Government has taken upon itself the task of acquiring land questions such as those of culture and representation that are
and handing it over to the Promoters. generated with the arrival of tourism. These indirect
consequences of tourism can be critical within the region not only
The demand for land of these projects comes into conflict with for culture but also for demographic and social
prospective plans that villagers have for the use of this la.nda and transformation. In Goa, for instance, a number of residential
in North Goa the new tourism projects are likely to up_set the edsting colonies have been coming up for NRIs. These colonies which are
tourist arrivals which are integrated in the villages.5 designed as investment opportunities, for NRIs to hedge against
inflation, have long term effects on land use and costs which are
The movement has therefore been able to, detrimental to native interests economically and politically.

1. mobilise the villages and at the momenthas preempted the


Strucfural Adjustments currently underway are directed towards
developments of these projects and
consolidating the market. I have argued that the market has
2. articulate their objections through the local democratic always been driving tourism in India notwithstanding the rhetoric
institutions such as the Panchayat. (\A/hile some activists might about atLracting particular market segments. The trend will
be critical of the legitimacy the Panchayats enjoy, this is not true therefore continue with less rhetoric about market intervention.
of the wider society. Movements have been more successful I,1/hat will change is the social and economic context in which
where they are able to articulate their demands through tourism arrives.
legitima te institutions).
While the demandsupply, growth and efficiency increase, the
The movement is also aware that once tourists arrive they middle class, particularly the fixed income middle class, such as
generate options, and expectations among the people. Hence their academics and government officials will find their relative
suggestion "The people must be equipped to block the starting of a economic positions failing- and many of us are beginning to feel
destructive project at its concePtion stage".b the pinch (e.9. life saving drugs). On the other hand a vigorous
consumer culture will ensure that the middle class aspirations will capita income and other development indicators, than the new
continue to escalate. Chasing our ever increasing dreams will be conquests,which have experienced only two centuries of colonial rule
our constant preoccupation. The category of concem is those who and occupy a larger part of the land area of Goa.
fall below the demand curve. What is going to be the fate of these 4. In bothKeralaandGoa agriculturallabour costs arehigh. However
people? -agriculture
in Goa is seen as unremunerative and the-peasants are
Steadily loosing interest in it. This is rather different from Kerala. What
The poliry of liberalisation moves on and as of now there is little could be the reason?
in sight to suggest any prospects for its dismantling. The
possibility for an altemative model of development seems far. 5. There are also other forms of conflict between the early FIT
tourism and
charter tourism. For instance the charter tourist prefer to travel bv
This makes the task of a critique of the established mode of critique
coach (bus). This,leaves the many taxi operaiors that have been
even more urgent and there is little forthcoming on that front too. licensed during the period of growth of the FITs idle and they have
I therefore find myself in a situation of ambivalence where on protested the use of coaches by Hotels.
the one hand I am uncomfortable with the onrushing changes and
on the other I can see no way out. The academia itself has long 5. Roland Martins, 'Peoples Action on Tourism in Goa - A Future
abandoned its illusions of neutrality in understanding society. Perspective' paper presented at the consultation: RethinkingTourism,.
Much as I enjoy the exploration, I am haunted by the line from Bah.L994.

Marx's "...the point, however, is to change it." I 7. Some of the interior villages lying outside the tourism belt have
demanded that the govemment should promote them as tourist
Department of Sociology, Goa University. destinations. These villages are obviously looking for the opportunities
Paper presented at the National Seminar on Tourism, Development, that tourism has opened out in the villages of the tourist belt.
Globalisation and Justice held on 3-4 December 1994 at Kochi, Kerala,
organised by EQUATIONS and School of Social Sciences, M.G. University, 8. SuchaquestioningontheidentityofGoabythe people of the state is
Kottayam. often seen as unique to Goa. At a Seminar on'Understanding Goan
' Culture' a partibipant from Kerala remarked that she could not imagine
1. Sunil Jain "lburism Policy Snags', Economic Times, June 30, 1994 as a question in Kerala as regards to'what is Kerala culfure'. This question
abstracted in Docrrmentation Update, Vo1.2 No.4-4EQUATIONS of identity within Goa is sometimes understood merely as a
2. Official data shows that both Goa and Kerala receive about one lakh consequence of the vigorous policy of conversion of the Portuguese and
international arrivals each. However, it is important to note that Goa its fall out in terms of a section in the population seen as having a distinct
collects its data from retums submitted by Hotels leading to identity. I am of the opinion that the question is also because Goa joined
under-reporting (particularly foreign nationals of Goan origins who stay the Union much after the linguistic division of States and hence the
with friends and relative.) Kerala, I prcsume, uses the more standard issue of dominance of one culture/language over the other
WTO recomrnended practice of recording arrivals at thepointof entry sub-regional cultures that have come up in some State only recently has
and departure. As the operational definitions are different this could and will continue to be debated in Goa from tirne to.time.
result in Goa's figures being unreported as compared to Kerala. I might
require to be corrected on this point, if my information is wrong. 9. See Romila Thapar, Cultural Tiasaction and Early India: Tradition and
Patronage, Oxford University Press, Delhi (1987) foor h detailed
3. The Old conquests have had over four centuries ofcolonial rule and discussiorl on the colonial origins of the concept of. a Hindu Indan
enjoy a higher population density, better infrastructure, higher per culture.

ourists arc,by definitiory not ieen as people who embody sector in overall employment. Similarly, Tourism services account
social relations. Their positions and roles as wider agents fot 7/3rd of totil exports of commercial services. Consumption
of social change are ignored. There is, therefore a abroad is the most important mode of the delivery of Tourism
tendency to view tourism as an unproblematic and apolitical services, and it accounts for the greatest volume of trade.
activity that is beyond a political critique. It is for this reason that
Govemments and inter-governmental agencies concerned with WTO therefore reconunends that all countries, to realise the value
tourism have generally not been questioned on who makes of the process of liberalisatiory should have a Tourism poliry,
Tourism policies and what the thrust of such policies should be. which defines the means by which the objectives of Tourism
development are to be realised. To be'meaningfu l' these objectives
The World Tourism Organisation (VVIO) sees the role of policy as should be'fixed'in a tourism master or developmentplan which
the means by which Government motivations can be balanced has the sanction of the Government.
with private sector motivations. This is primarily because it
views Tourism as one of the few development options for third In this view, thecentralobjectiveof Tourism poliry is toachieve
world countries, and a means of participation in the Intemational balanced and competitive tourism development, with the partial
trade in services, which form 70"h of GDP in the industrialised objectives of job creatiorL overcome regional backwardness,
countries and about 50% in many developing countries. Sirnilar conservation of nafure and heritage etc. For competitive
percentages are observed with regard to the share of the services development the following factors are important.
o The Value Added Effech Through incorporation of local inputs, If we look at the performance of foreign airlines, we see another
to retain increasing proportions of value added income. illustration, these airlines have mopped up revenues of Rs 3524
r Transfer of Technology Effect lncreasing know how and crores of which Rs 1.940 crore, have been repatriated (55%)
technology incorporated in these services. Lufthansa has repatriated66.48% of its profits whilst, committing
o Positive Foreign Exchange Effect To propitiate in{lows of Rs 30 core to an India Tourism Development Fund, to be taken
foreign investment and simultaneously reduce the import from the amount to be paid in royalty to Air India.
content of tourism services.
r Effech By Meanwhile Tour operators and Hoteliers have been having a
Enhancing The Employment increasing the
proportion of local workers to foreign staff.
slanging match over dual tariffs whidr hoteliers introduced to
cover losses due to devaluation of the rupee. Operators view the
dual tariff as discriminatory to tourists as well as reducing their
Experience however shows that as the tourism industry draws on
profits in a price sensitive market. Hoteliers hold that rates offered
a country's infrastructure, the more developed and complex the rest
to the travel trade are negotiated and therefore lower than those
of the economy, the greater are the economic gains and the power
offered to Indians who have a lower earning capacity than the
of the econo.my to retain the value added in the country.
tourists. The dual tariff system has saved us Rs 587.3 crore in
foreign exchange. The Ministry is unable to settle this dispute for
To ensure a competitive Tourism growth, Tourism professionals and
the past year.
officials are tobe encouraged to takeanactive part in the decision
making process.
Similarly, while the DOT issues circulars to airlines to discount
For achieving rapid growth five key areas have been identified.
tickets, the Ministry issues counter arguments to protect Air
India's traffic. Since.the bottom line is dollar eamings, every effort
is being made to increase the number of arrivals, including the
1. Socio-demographic factors of demand
setting up of unattainable targets, without establishing that a
2. Technology development and changes
transfer of wealth is taking place from the rich to the poor.
3. Current trends in consumer behaviour
4. Strategy of sustainable development
The NAPT is also pushing Special Tourism Areas as integrated
5. Development and improvement of human resources
development. The recent referendum in the popular media on
Bekal in Kerala, and the debate in the State Assembly on
These factors will determine international Tourism flows in the
Puri-Konark are an indicator of the disaster that such developments
next decade.
are going to create. The Puri-Konark marine drive accommodates
2,227 acres of forest land, of which 576.12 acres have been
We have to critique the existing thrust of our Tourism Policy and
dereserved to build 1,100 rooms, a golf course, housing, an
locate alternatives within the reality of these factors. We have to see
artisan village, bus terminal and market complex. At Bekal 400
how these issues are going to increase the unequal trade in global
acres of coconut growing land are to be acquired for the tourist
tourism.
complex, details of which are a closely guarded secret.
South Asian destinations have a marginal share of the
InternationalTourism marketandyetthe60'svision of the economic On the HRD front &,00049,000 trained professionals are required
and developmental benefits and foreign exchange eamings from within two years. Since hotel management schools are in the
Tourism continue to dominate the developmental debate. Tourism
planning stage, with India signing GATS, it's anybody's guess
where the staffwill come from.
is penetrating deeper into our political and economic thinking and
our culfure.
Tourism is also causing landscape and habitat changes. There is
In reply to a recent question in the Indian Parliament, the Minister the two year old controversy on the displacement of several
for Civil Aviation and Tourism stated that in pursuance of the thousand Gujjars from the Rajaji National Park in Uttar Pradesh.
National Action Plan for Tourism (NAPT), an integrated plan to NGO's led by the VWVF have justified the removal of Gujjars whilst
attract 5 million tourists by 1996-97 will require an investment of environmentalists have suggested a combined management
Rs 39,000 crores. This plan is being pushed despite the fact that system. Whilst the debate continues the Gujjars are being
tourist arrivals increased by 2.8% and rupee earnings by 14.6%. terrorised in a housing colony with 512 houses at Pauri.
These figures hide the fact that India's global share dropped from
0.72%in 1988 to 0.46oh and receipts to 0.51%. Tourism Poliry in India, which is conceived and pushed from the
top, is always justified and legitimised by the yardstick of
The Department of Tourism has accepted the U.5. worldview that customer satisfaction.
India is unsafe and has identified poor conununications and bad
management as the reasons for our poor performance. We have no In the "free market" economies few needs are satisfied locally.
empowered subjectivity to deterrnine the magnitude of Tourism Products originate in communities that cannot consume them. The
flows and we accept the representative image of India that is determining factor is access to money and the empowerment it
promoted abroad. gives to the consumer. Tourism is an advanced form of
consumerism that'depends on the distant, unknown "other" to
A clear example of this attitude is reflected in recent data released supply it. It compels people who have unknown names and
by the Department of Tourism (DOT), Government of Lrdia. Travel identities to "acrifice the means to meet their daily needs so that
Agents aciounted for 14.6Yo of arrivals, the DOT information offices the affluent tourists can effortlessly reach out for whatever they
abroad accounted for 12"/",Intemational carriers brought in7.4"h, desire - at their price.
the national carrier brought in 7.77" and Hotel chains brought in
4.77o, Charters brought in 50%. 80'/" of the tourists were ethnic An altemate tourism poliry mustreject thisvalue system. Itmust
Indians. . stop being consumer centered. Its focus should be on that form of
tourism that encourages an exchange of cultures and wealth, a contextof unequal trade so thatwe do not subsidise themass tourist
sharingof skills and problems. This would includeboth domestic and become victims of the travel trade.
tourism (81 miltion inlndia in'92) and thoseinternational tourisis
Therefore the Tourism Policy must be re-defined by peoples needs,
who wish to come at the terms of the destination. If India has
peoples movements and peoples organisations, in co-operation
developed resistance to tourism it is because the people at the
destination have no role in decision making or in the benefits from
with similar bodies and counterparts elsewhere. I
tourism.
Teaches at College of Vocational Studies, Delhi University and is a mernber
of the Programme Sub Committee, EQUATIONS.
We want a poliry that does not reduce us to a 'field'for which our Paper presented at the National Seminar on Tourism, Development,
government has become the 'native informant', making value and Globalisation and Justice held on 3-4 December 1994 at Kochi, Kerala,
cultural statements that are neither authentic nor representative for organised by EQUATIONS and School of Social Sciences, M.G. University,
cultured. We rn ant a policy that asserts our subjectivity in the Kottayam.

n /l /l AMDOUH el-Beltagui, Egypt's minister for tourism, economy; as long as everything is going well, it generates a great
ll Il I would like to see this industry become the hub of his deal of money, but at the first sign of trouble profits evaporate.
A A U country's economy.' In the past two years, however, For this reason tourism is one of the most accurate indicators of a
Egypt has learned some of the dangers inherent in relying on an country's stability, both internally and extemally.
industry as fickle and sensitive as tourism.
"Tourism is inseparable from politics,'' says el-Sayyid. "Since
Prior to 1993, tourism was Egypt's leading source of foreign tourism does not exist without healthy diplomatic relations, any
revenue, bringing in just over US$2.25 billion in 7992. A spate of problem a tourist-dependent country has with foreign powers is
terrorist attacks late that year, however, dealt the industry a likely to mean a drop in tourism."
crippling blow: earnings in 1993 were $1.3 billion, a crushing 41
percent drop in one year. This was most apparent during the 1960s and early 1970s when the
bulk of the visitors to Egypt were from neighbouring Arab
"Egypt had always been so safe, the violent events came as a countries. When Egypt singed the 1979 peace accord with Israel,
shock and they scared people away," says Elhamy EI Zayat, CEO the number of tourists from the Arab states dropped precipitously,
of Emeco Tiavel. lnElZayat's opinion, the extent of the violence but there was a corresponding increase in visitors from Europe and
by the IslamicJihad and Gamaa-al-Islamiya hasbeen exaggerated the US. It was not until Egypt was readmitted to the Arab fold,
by ihe foreign media, obscuring the government's decisive efforts following a quiet but persistent campaign by President Hosni
to halt the terrorists. Although government crackdown on militant Mubarak, that the number of Arab visitors began to climb.
areas appear to have neutralised the threat to tourists, People are
still too afraid to visit Egypt. "1 /hile I would not say that tourism is dictated by governments,
one must realise that there is an extremely powerful interaction
According to Mustafa el-Sayyid, a Political Science Professor at the between businesses and governments," says el-Sayyid. "Tourism
American University in Cairo, the terrorist attacks in Egypt had a involves a multitude of economic institutions operating in
particularly alarming effect because of their personal nature. different fields, and of course there are certain services that
government can provide, like infrastructure, communications
"The attacks against tourists in Egypt were a major poliry adopted and foreign exchange facilities."
by various extremist groups vis-a-vis the government " he said.
"So, while in other countries tourists felt they might be the The militant Islamic groups that appeared on the scene, fostered by
incidental victims of terrorist violence, in Egypt they felt they an atmosphere of social and economic unrest, were determined to
might be targets." This fear was encouraged by Gamaa discredit the government by striking at a major source of revenue.
al-Islamiya, which faxed a statement to Western media outlets in The tourist industry is still reeling from their efforts. Normally, in
February saying that they regarded tourists as legitimate targets. Cairo's Khan el-I(hanlhbazaar one must push one's way through
close crowds of bemused tourists and vendors leaning out of their
This approach is not, in el-Sayyid's opinion, peculiar to Egyptian tiny shops. Now, one can almost stroll through thebazaar during
extremist groups. He believes they were inspired by Algerian the height of the tourist season.
radical organisations who started attacking foreigners as a way of
embarrassing their government. The economic implications translate easily into social ones.
Madiha el Safty, a Sociology Professor at the American University
The creative inspiration of these groups aside their success in Cairo does not, howeve4 agree with the often voiced claim that
illustrates the precarious position of tourism within a nation's basing an economy on tourismbreeds a nation of shopkeepers. "It's
a service like any other. In fact, there is a great deal tobe said about country, they leave. Tha t's it. People should simply be careful what
exposure to different cultures," she says. facets of alien cultures they choose to adopt."

It is precisely thisminglingof cultures, however, that hascaused But the selectiveness of the average citizenis not the government's
trouble. "Two years ago, you couldn't open an opposition highest priority. The staggering loss of foreign currency during a
newspaper without reading that tourism was destroying the fabric time of economic change is. Tourism might be a dangerous
of Egyptian society, and particularly Islamic values," says el- industry to rest one's hopes on, but the Egyptian governmerrt has
Sayyid. "What do you think set the extremist groups off?" no intention of giving up on it.

El-Safty counters with the fact that this is an extremist viewpoint The author is an editor and senior writer for the Cairo-based EgyptToday.
that most people disagree with. "These people come, they see the This article is reproducecl from Bassiness lndia,October 7U23,1994.

,:.:.,'lil,, " , : ..: :1. ::: ::.:.... : :::: r :.....

Aa"a, Ak*aadzn - /4 ?,u/qte


Anna Vareed Alexande4 a rnernber of Equations' General
Body, passed (rway on Christmas Day, 1994, following a brief
illness. She leaues beh.ind her husband, Dr M P Alexande4
son Philip and daughter Mary Ann.
The WTO has predicted that the total volume of tourist traffic
Her parents were both doctors in Penang (former Malnya),
by 2000 A.D will be 650 million with the figure going up to
where Anna was born in 1934. Anna's early education,
937 billion by 2010. East Asia and the Pacific regions are
duing the Wa4 was largely at home. The family moued to
expected to receive one-fifth of total arrivals by 2010,
India in 1947, where she obtained a degree in Home Sciences
implying a market share of 30 percent. In comparison, the
from Madras.
number of tourist arrivals in South Asia has been projected as
6 million by 2000 and 10 million by 2010. She was manicd in 1959, and the sdme year trauelled with
her husband to the USA for furtlrcr studies. An na graduated
- Tourism the Year of the Plague, The Pioneer, 14 Oct 1994. with a M Sc from Ohio State Uniuersity, and they returned
to India in 1963. Anna was a lecturer in Home Scie.nces for
sonle ye&rs in a Coimbatore college, before mouing to
Q. What are the major projects on which you are working at Bangalore in 1969.
present?
An Orthorlox Syrian Christian, Anna had strong Protestant
conuictions, and her eueryday life reflected her committment
A. We are talking to the Government of Kerala to develop a
to strengthening thc role of women in Ch.urch and society.
major project which will be one of the biggest tourism project
Since 1983, slte helped teach courses on fem.inist theology at
ever undertaken in the country. The project, currently in the
the United Theological College, Bangalore. Along with. Stella
planning stage is called Bakel project and is situated at the
Faria and Jessie Tellis-Nayah, she founded WINA Momen's
Kasargod district. The Kerala Government is acquiring about
Institute for New Awahening), and co-edited'The Emcrging
2,000 acres of land to construct a mega-tourist village. This
Christian Wornan'in. 1984, the first such effort in India.
village will have all the amenities which a touristwill require.
Apart from this, we are talking to the state government of I met Anna in July 1987 at a worhshop on writing Human
Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh to Rights. We discouered u)e were neighbours, and our families
promote certain tourist spots. becarne friends. Soon aftet; Anna accepted an inuitation to
become a rnember of Equations, and she serued as Secretary
Mr R Subramanian, Managing Director,Tourism Finance till 1992.
Corporation of India Ltd (TFCI). Interview by Dev Chatterjee,
Gentle and unassuming in her ways, Anna displayed a rare
Fanancial Express, New Delhi 6 Nov. 1994
and, genuine sensitiuity to the reality of men and women
worhing together. During a crucial transition phase at
Equatians, she wa.s inuolued in many organisational issues,
and at each point she brought her gifts ofcare, ruurturing and
trust in people. Seueral times, when things got eomplex,
contentious and. rarefied, Anna's directness and seeming
simplicity were truly examples of the compassion of her
wisdom..

Anna will be rnissed deeply by all of us, and we share with


her family their loss and grief at her unexpected passing. I
can po.y no better tribute to her mnmnry than to conclude by
quoting from a letter the staff of Equations wrote to Anna's
family upon the news of her death: Although we shall greatly
miss her gentle, gracious presence, she leaues behind a legaqt
that will be cherished. May Anna's ffi and gifts to all of us
light our path to the future.
Paul Gonsaloes
^ a.Illpai
ti-
IN TIIE NAME OF
zooLoGICA,r PARK - TOURTSM,
I}IND GRAB
AND ATROCITIES

C R BIJOY

n June 5, 1,994 a protest rally against the Coimbatore Z.O.O has managed to establish itself giving itself a cover as a
Zoological Park (CZP) was held adjacent to the committed NGOfor thewelfareof wildlife especially inZoos. Z.O.O
Kodungaraipallam (river) that divides the homeland of is one of the 12 organisations through which the ntitirn Airways'
Irula - thesecond major Adivasi community in Southlndia,between Assisting Nature Conservation programme operates with its
Coimbatore and Palakkad districts'of Tamilnadu and Kerala states prinrary concern being captive breeding and tourism. Z.O.O also
respectively. Under the overcast sky and in the desolate valley of the convened the first regional branch of the Captive Breeding Specialist
Anaikatti Hills when the informed minority celebrated the World Group (CBSG) of the Lrtemational Union for the Conservation of
Environment Day, these Adivasis demanded action against the CZP Nature. CBSG-India operating through Z.O.O and in collaboration
and others for alleged crimes against Adivasis in the name of with Z.O.O have been holding a large number of Intemational
environment and wild life. workshops in different parts of the country. The media earlier this
year (Indian Express, January 3,\994 titled "Gene Pool in Peril" by
The assault of 8 year old Adivasi girl 'Pappa' for pulling out the Usha Rai) had exposed that these workshops have been used as a
marker flag planted by the Survey department, the illegal cover where foreign scientists are "believed to have flown out with
demolition and destruction of the houses of Vettai and Maruthan in blood and semen samples of lions, clouded leopards and lion tailed
1991 when they refused to give up their landstoCZP, the assault of Macaques in test tubes, submerged in "Nilrogen containers".
Panikkan, detention and threat meted out to Boddan, Ramaswamy, Incidentally Ms Sally Walker had applied for permission to take out
Rangaswamy and Muthuswamy - the list continues. They were the blood and semen samples of these very species which was
demanding the retum of their lands which they say were taken rejected by the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
away from them fraudulently. They condemned the Govemment
for coming down to the wishes of CZP. Z.O.O has managed to become a member of the Animal Welfare
Board of India withMs SallyWalkerbecoming also a memberof the
Coimbatore Zoological Park established in 1986 as a
Central Zoo Authority of the Ministry of Environment and Forests,
non-goverrunent organisation by industrialists, financiers and
created under the Wild Life Protection Act 1972 to oversee the
hoteliers intends to establish the first ever private Zoological park
functioning of zoos in the country which attracts sizable number of
in Thuvaipathy village, 3kms from Anaikatti in Coimbatore. Falling
tourists. With such an elaborate cloak they have been able to
within the 5600 Square kilometer Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR),
demonstrate their clout with the politico-administrative machinery
the Zoological park is projected to be an interpretation Centre for
and so far has managed to avoid any action against them for the
NBR in about 250 acres of the most modem kind where primarily
allegations made by the people, specially the Adivasis.
the flora and fauna of the NBR would be recovered and introduced.
Situated 25 kms away from Coimbatore city, this park is to be built
Wildlife from the tropical region seldom service in the zoos in the
up as a tourist Centre with tours conducted to the wild life west for long because of changed environment and weather
sanctuaries and National Parks whidr cover a substantial variety of
conditions. These zoos are in constant demand of replacements.
ecosystems in the peninsula.
Global trade in wild life is moreover banned. Clandestine
With an outlay of Rs.10 crores of which Rs 3 crores have already operations to smuggle wild life illegally however continues. Quite
been raised from industrial and business houses, CZP has applied often the laws are by-passed because of loopholes in the laws. The
for a "planning grant" of US $ 30,000 from the Biodiversity acquisition of wild life by a foreigner is prohibited in India but is
prograrune of the World Wide Fund for Nafure and have registered permissible to a resident. Quite often the residentgets the wildlife
a proposal of US $ 3,59,750 with the world Community Services of and lends it to foreign zoos. The profit margin is enormous. Ior
the Rotary International to purchase equipments and other goods. example, an elephant calf costing Rs.50,000/- earns about Rs.l"7
lakhs in the West. Another problem $'ith the wildlife of tropical
Headed by G.Rangaswamy, the secretary of CZP (also the region in the zoos of the West is that the chances of their
Managing Director of Pioneer Mlls), this project has another NGO reproduction is very slender. Consequently, semen and blood
- Zoo Outreach Organisation (Z.O.O) as its associate with its samples to test for diseases fetches a huge price. Environmentalists
secretary Ms Sally Walker as the Project Coordinator. Interestingly and conservationists fear that with ecotourism and wild life tourism
G.Rangaswamy of CZP b also the President of Z.O.O and one finds becoming a rage with tourists the genetic stock of third world is
a large number of the erecutive members of CZP also in the subject to ruthless plunder. The setting up of the zoological park by
Managing Committee of Z.O.O excePt that Z.O.O has a number of CZP has raised the specter of threat to wild life on the one hand to
environmentalists, veterinarians, foresters etc actively involved. In sustain wild life tourism through zoos in the West as well as the
effect it seems clear that CZP and Z.O.O are controlled by the same rapidspread of wildlife tourism inlndia withits disastrous fall outs
set of people with CZP being more closely held. here.
Already over 6,00,000 people of which 5,00,000 Adivasis
(indigenous people) are displaced by 421 sanctuaries and 75
national parks from amongst the 135 lakh adivasis who are affected
carnpai
in the name of conservation and protected areas. Tourism projects
in and around these areas are further displacing or alienating these
people.

The CZP has already "purchased" 55 acres of land mostly from the
Adivasis where the Adivasis allege the use of coercion and
fraudulentmeans. The Peoples Union for Civil Liberties, Tamilnadu
carried out a fact finding mission in early August 1994 and
confirmed the allegations (their report is yet to be released). In
addition, CZP has requested the transfer of government lands,
mostly enjoyed by Adivasis for decades measuring around 160
acres. In addition to this the Collector of Coimbatore announced in to couch their project with environment, biodiversity conservation,
1993 that 400 acres of land of which 100 acres belong legally to the tribal development etc., in the face of stiff opposition by the people
Adivasis and rest held by the government would be acquired by the does not dazzle at least those who have faced the wrath of CZP. In
government and handed over to the CZP. All these add up to over a desperate attempt to stifle the local opposition, CZP has been
600 acres. Once established and with the development of organised literally doling out money to all and sundry in the village in tens of
tourism (with the Zoological Park as the operational cenhe), the thousands hoping that such huge amounts wouid shut the mouths
spin-off effect that it will cause by bringing in peripheral interests of the victims to suppress the truth from coming out.
to the area would be that, more lands of the marginalised will be
lost along with the destruction of the local economy. FIAN, an international Human Rights organisation has initiated an
international campaign against the CZP for its human rights
The project is shrouded in mystery as attempts by public interest violations in August 1994. A number of organisations in the West
groups to get the details of the project have failed under the plea connected mostly with zoos and others like the prestigious IUCN
that the details are yet to be worked out. The manner in which CZP are being mobilized by Ms Sally Walker for CZP to counter
has been grabbing land and the use of money and muscle power allegations against CZP. I
further confirms the suspicion that the intentions of CZP are evil.
There have been attempts to co-opt or suPPress opposition to their The author is involved in the Human Rights issues linked to that of the
project. It is
feared that very soon the 500 odd Adivasis of AdivasisinSouthlndia.Historicaldetails ofthisissueisavarlableinTottrism
Thuvaipathy would be eased out of the place. The attempts of CZP Altemai,tiaes Exchange Issue 3, March 1993, ask EQUATIONS.

RI-RI TSOMORIRI !

SHUBHENDU KAUSHIK

o, Kai and I went on a trek this summer, from Spiti valley magical lake cast on us as we walked along its shore was all the
in Himachal Pradesh to Tsomoriri lake in Ladak. more powerful.
Tsomoriri is a large and exquisitely beautifirl
high-altitude lake in the Rupshu plains of Ladak, very close to the This spell turned out tobe short-lived, though. The moming after
imaginary line that separates a concept called'India'from another we reached, as we lounged around in the meadow below Korzok
concept called 'Tibet'. I will not try to describe the beauty of the which serves as a lakeside camping ground, I felt like weeping.
lake and its surrounds, not only because it is quite beyond 'This place', I exclaimed touthoevef wouldcarc to hear,'is going
description, but also because that is not the main purpose of this to the dogs in front of our very eyes!' Here was Tsomoriri in its first
article. sedson of tourism since innerline restrictions for visitors were
relaxed last autumn, and rape was on.
It was a long and hard trek. We crossed the 18,000 feet high
Parang la, walked along the Pare Chu river from its source to near Maruti Gypsys and jeeps all over, tents, tourists and garbage.
the point where it unconcernedly flows across the imaginary line This meadow, where marmots might earlier have frolicked
into Tibet, and then walked spellbound for an entire day along the undisturbed, fattening up for their long winters of hibernation, had
westem shore of this rather long lake. Near the northern end of now been invaded and taken over by a pest-species called
the lake, we finally reached the roadhead village called Korzok, the 'people', and tumed into a picnic spot, camping ground, parking
first human settlement we had come across in seven days of lot and. garbage dump, all rolled into one. The marmots were told
hekking. to go dig their burrows somewhere else.

The difficulty of the trek had weakened our bodies, while the This same meadow, wide, flat and grassy, was clearly a good place
surrealistic beauty of the terrain as we approadred the lake had to drive around in, somewhat like the India Gate lawns, and in
begun to disarm us of our minds, so that the spell that this sharp contrast to the suspension-testing dirt road that got you here
_
17- a,Illpai- One car less to the carnage is how I look at it now, but
undeniable fact is that dreaming about that car and the goodies on
the

it did actually sustain us during the last few days of the trek, and
that made us, in a way accomplices in the ongoing rape. Which
made me really wonder, for weren't we ordinary, well- meaning
human beings, who would just as much enjoy a 'picnic' in an exotic
setting as anyone else would? Were we, then, any different from
the tourists whom I was looking at with murder in my eyes? Or
was there, perhaps, such a thing as being innocent accomplices to
rape?

These questions need to be asked, if only to try and figure out


whom to point fingers at, and whetl-rer. We might be able to
understand the real problem better, I now feel, and thus be closer
to real solutions, if we only stopped pointing fingers at 'people',
that is all of us, and looked instead at why we do what we do - the
from Leh. One gypsy could be seen towing another one round and
circumstances behind our actions, and the underlying patterns. We
round at high speed, its engine roaring, apparently for the sheer
would still remain responsible for our action, but not blarneworthy.
exhilaration of driving around a high-altitude meadow on the
And there is a crucial difference between the two.
shores of a map;ical lake in a wild, middle-of-nowhere valley, but
actually in an effort to get the second one started. Maybe they
Back in the meadow, the guides, cooks, drivers and intelligence-
should set up a service centre in one corner of this meadow. And a
agents-in-disguise who had accompanied the Britishers were busy
lakeside petrol pump. And...
winding up camp as we had our breakfast. The last step in this
'There aren't too many vehicles here today,' commented the driver
ritual tumed out to be garbage picking. The Britishers joined in a
token sort of way and, after greedily gobbling down a second
of one of the seven or eight vehicles parked there, 'probably
helping of their cornflakes, so did we - in a token sort of rvay, since
because it hasbeenrainingiheselasttwodays. A few daysback,
I counted 25 gypsys here, and a number of chartered buses have
it wasn't our garbage, after all. Satisfied with their hurried
cleanup, they walked off with the trash they had collected, and
also been coming of late.'
made a pile a little distance away.
The picture that hi t us when we reached Korzok was quite contrary
to what we had imagined it to be, and to what it had in fact been
It is funny how people are always in a hurry when they 'vvind ul'r
camp, for one legitimate reason or another, so that when they do
until this summer. Mo had been fortunate enough, through army
their token cleanups, their faces and gestures always seem to be
contacts, to havebeentotheiaketwosummers ago. At thattime,
saying, we would have done better if we had the time, but since
he had to hunt for two days just to find a driver in Leh who knew
the way to Korzok. He had, on that visit, found Korzok to be 'one
we don't, this will have to do for now - innocent, well-meaning
accomplices to rape.
of the most primitive experiences of my life'.

Many days later, still numbed by the shock of the'carbage' that we As Kai and I lingered at the campsite-that-was, picking up
had seen at Tsomoriri, I tried to sum up the situation with these whatever we could of what was left behind, and Mo chatted with
lines :
the retired British colonel ancl his wife who were oLrr chief saviours
for the day, we saw a hasty fire being made of the pile of rubbish.
Droaes of people Almost immediately, they started preparing to get into their cars
Driae down and drive off.
To Tsomoriri,
And drizte back. I walked over to the fire and said, trying hard not to shout, 'Hey,
this lust won't dol' Some of them came back to the fire, a trifle
Basho must have had better things to compose haiku on in his irritated, while the others looked on'vvitir ill-concealed impatience,
days. But these are not his days. Nor, for that matter, am I Basho. looking at watches and muttering and shaking their heads. The
smoothness of their ritual had been somewhat disrupted.
We had exhausted all our fbod on the trek, so we sent out not-so-
subtle feelers among the campers in the meadow with as much self 'This tin foil won't bum,' I said, sifting through the half burnt
-respect as was possible to muster in such a situation. Seeing our remains of the already dying fire, 'and this can won't, either.
hungry faces, tired eyes and badly sunburnt noses, a group of British Plastic shouldn't have been burnt in any case.' Kai joined me at
tourists decided that a good deed would be a nice way to conclude the fire with the collection he had made, while Mo looked on with
such a nice picnic, and invited us over for breakfast. This group, an eloquent'don't stir up trouble, boy' expression on his face. 'ln
we found, consisted of four tourists who had driven dor,r'n from fact,' continued my sermon, 'you should have carried every single
Leh in just as many taxis, so the breakfast invitation soon got bit of garbage back to Leh, and thought about burning or whatever
extendedinto an offer todriveusoutof Korzok. Thiswas justwhat oui there. But you don't have a decent disposal system in Leh,
we needed, and we were delighted. either, do you?'

You see - treat this as a confession - we had originally planned to


meet up with some friends who would drive down from Delhi in
'Hurry up, guys!' shoutecl the stout colonel, standing ready to get
into his vehicle, 'We've got a long way to go today..'
their Tata Sierra, well stocked with wine,beer and good food, and
were therefore really disappointed to find that they had
apparently not made it. And so they had, I must admit, but....
10
'We will have to do something about this half-burnt trash before we
leave,' I
politeness.
said, still trying hard to keep within the threshold of
-a,rnpai
lr-
This gamewent on for five more minutes, until a dirty compromise
was reached. They got a shovel, dug a pit, and buried the
charred remains, tin foil and all. This was a sad compromise, it was.
If we had been a little less tired, or a little less in a hurry to get out
of Korzok (flights to catch and all that), or the garbage hadn't still
been smouldering, we would have carried this stuff out of here in
our own racksacks, like we were our own garbage of the trek. But
the fact is we didn't, and as we got into the vehicles to drive off, I
felt like a criminal who has helped bury a corpse and is running
from the scene.

During this game, an interesting set of transformations had taken


place among these men, from apathy to irritation and impatience
tq as they triumphantly stamped on the mud after filling up the This is one of the things that make a high-altitude lake like
pit, satisfaction and then even pride. These people were actually Tsomoriri so vulnerable. Every little piece of 'foreign matter'left
proud of their half-baked cleanup. The most interesting lying anywhere within the watershed of the lake will, sooner or
transformation was, however, yet to come - from misplaced pride later, end up in the lake. And lie there for our children's children
to self righteous anger. to go there and admire.

'That group of tourists, the ones who left early this moming,'one Do you know how the lake got its name? The standard version is
of thembeE;an in indignation,'you should see their campsite. They based on the hanslation of 'tso'to 'lake', and'ri'to 'mountain'. A
left suchalotof trashoutthere!'. Said another,'Weknow the lady more popular version, however, is based on the legend of a
who got them here. She's a tour operator from Delhi. We know 'chomo' (Tibetan Buddhist nun) of Korzok who, one winter long
her, and we'll fix her for not cleaning up properly, just you wait till long ago, rode a yak onto the frozen surface of the lake. Realising
wegetback toLeh!' that the ice was too thin, she shouted out to the yak, 'fi-ri !' which,
interpreted one way, means 'watch out, we're falling!' But she
At that, we drove off in the proverbial cloud of dust, scattering shouted too late, the yak went on, the ice broke, and the lake
terrified marmots who had made the mistake of digging their swallowed them both up. And got itself a name, or at least an
burrows rightbeside the road. additional legend to its name, a distortion from 'chomo ri-ri' to
'Tsomoriri'.
Tourists are not the only source of garbage at Tsomoriri (ust as
garbage is not the only problem). The road from Leh, which has I hope we're not too late, like the chomo and her yak, as I stand on
been around for a few years now has brought in the inevitable the shore of the lake and shout out a waming -
flow of consumer goods to Korzok village and with consumer goods
has, of course, come garbage. Both the stream and the irrigation ,RI.RITSOMORIRII'
channel that flow past Korzok are now littered with trash - broken
plastic boots, omnipresent polythme, cans, wrappers, cartons, "The author is an independent researcherwho has focussed on tourism
bottles, discarded items of clothing - all of whidr flows directly or development in Spiti area of Himachal Pradesh. Two of his earlier works,
Towards a Touism Strategy in Spiti and The Blosoming of an Afairhaveben
indirectlv into the lake.
published by EQUATIONS.

"We will make people part of


Tourism" ?
K. M, REMA

"We will make people part of Tourism" says Mr N.M. Salim, well sipificance to dwelo'p Bekal. Tourism is the biggest industry of
known ardritect of Kozhikode Kerala who is appointed as the the world today. If Bekal is developed as a tourism area, it will
Chief Consultant for the Bekal Tourism Project after 'lntemational bring much revenue to the Govemment and also for the people
competition". there.

KMR. What is the importance of Bekal Tourism Prcject in the KMR.What ate the objectioes of the ptoject?
uall tourisnt dev elopmmt of Kedam?
oo
IWfS. The objective of Bekal project is to attract more tourists to this
NMS. Bekal is a very fertile land, full of greenery and natural area - both intemational and national tourists. In India tourist
beauty. The beachisoneof the world's best whichremainsstill composition is 55-415 i.e. 55% intemational tourisb and about 45olo
untouched. So there is every prospect of making it into a great national tourists. There will also be facilities for holding inter-
tourist attraction. From the economic point of view also it is of great national co'nventions when Bekal is developed to thefull extent.
11
KMR. What is the lanil area of the project? KMR. What are the prooisions for sufficicnt ztater anil electricity
iWtS. We are yet to prepare the Master Plan. So we have not supply?
yet decided the total area of the proposed project. But it will A&1S. More water treatment plants will be established. It is
require a minimum of 1000 acres. expected that the necessary electric power would be available
from the new thermal plant to be set up there.
KMR. Is the project to be impler4enteil in a phaseil mannq?
Yes, naturally. Because such a big plan can be implemented only KMR. What is the a nploymmt potmtial of the prc ject?
in a phased manner. But we will do it as early as possible. The
details can be designed after some time only. AIMS. A well equipped township is coming up with more hotels,
hospitalqschools, recreational facilities all of which provide a lot of
KMR. How is the lanil to be acquired? employment opportunities.
l\ilI4S. The necessary land for the project will be acquired by the
KMR. Ate thre enploytment prcspects for the local people i.e. the
Bekal Development Authority and then it will be sold to national
unskill ed, under edu cat e d on es ?
and intemational ftusiness) groups. The profit arising from such
sales will be used for infrastructural development. IWIS. We areplanning toupdate thestandardsof living.by the
general development of the area. There are.also plan$ to set up
KIVIR. Is there sufficient gouernmmt lanil or shoulil some prittate vocational training centres in the area. The local arts will be
lanilbe acquited? preserved and promoted.
IWIS. Some private land will have to be acquired. But the point is
that we don't want tobring tourism by evicting all the local people KMR, What are the tourist facilities planneil?
from their places. Actually, we want to bring more benefits to the IV\4S. There will be hotels of all star-ratings from two-star to super
local people than anybody else. Especially in sensitive areas, where star. There will also be golf courset swimming pools, a handicrafts
there is high density of population, we will make them part of village etc.
tourism. We will help them to change their profession by which
they can avail the economies of tourism to a great extent. KMR, What are the proposeil entertainment altematitses fot
touists?
KMR. Hout many p eople utill b e ezticteil by the proj ect? Are there
any st at is tic s azt ail ab le ?
lln4s. All entertainment facilities in a tourist
area will be available
in Bekal also. Discotheques, bars and massage parlours are all parts
IWIS. Naturally, some eviction will be necessary. We can $ive the of hotels. The availability of such things will depend upon the
exact number onlyafterfinalising themaster plan. But theeffort demand.
is to do it by displacing the minimum number of households. It
is sure that they will not be evicted without any rehabilitation. KMR, What will b e the' carrying cap acity' of B ekal?
KMR. What is the total financial outlay of the project? IWIS. Around 10,000 people.
iV\4S. The total capital outlay can be fixed only after finalising the
Plan. We have to see what amount is required to rehabilitate people, KMR. Will the project afect the ecologicalbalance of the ateaT
to construct the airport, roads etc. And all this money willbe made AllVtS. What we have in mind is a plan to develop the area without
available by selling the land. disturbing its ecological balance.

timn. ruo- much money zaill b e contribute il by the goo emment. KMR. Hozl can you ensure this zahm there are so fitany people
for thisproject? coming anil going, so many hotels etc zaith a lot of garbage and all?
/r/lts. See, the Bekal Development Authority, which is a IVI4S. Itcan'tbe done without affecting the ecology at all, but all,
government agency is implementing the project. They will sell the
efforts will be made to minimise it.
land and get the money
KMR. Kasaragoil is knoum to be short of utatex What are the
KMR. What ate the economic bmefits anticip ated ltom the project,
prooisions mztisageil for ailequate zaater supply? Is there a
both direct and indirect?
ptoposal for a desalination plant?
lVt4S. The main benefit is the inflow of foreign exchange. By the
end of the year 2010, we propose to build atleast 6000 hotel rooms Iri?t4S. The government surveys show that there are enough water
of international standards. There will be a variety of indirect resources. So there is no need for setting up any desalination plant.
benefits also. There will be a lot of employment opportunities.
Providing 6000 rooms means the arrival of at least an equal number KMR, How zaill zaaste water be manageil?
of tourists who will need a number of services like transportation, IW[S. There will be a proper drainage system. Rerycling of water
personal services etc. can also be considered.

KMR, Has a cost-benefit analysis been maile? KMR. What area of forest should be cleareil?
i\&fS. No, not yet.
An4S. There is no need of clearing forests hs almost all the
constructions will be near the beach.
KMR. What are the inlrastructural facilities moisaged to be
prcduceil?
KMR. What ate the marketing plans fot the pro ject?
IVI4S. An international airport is planned in the area besides
approach roads and other transport facilities. The existing can be IWS. The Bekal Development Authority will market it nationally
improved too. and internationally. T
72
rcm the procedings of the aboae conference we haoe translated majority. Of course the foreign tourists will increise given such
Mnnik Sml<ar's paper on "The RoIe of the Educated Touist in a policy. That is why we are projecting our National heritage as a
SocialWelfare" for thepertinent issues it critiquedonDomestic and part of our tourist product. However, we should not imitate the
Intemational Tourism Policy perspectiaes in the state anil in the country. approach of Western countries in
representing our hbritage.
It gioa ahistoical context to the ongoing Touism debate. Foreigners come to India and topresent our country to them is
our task. This is true of West Bengal with regard to domestic
"In Tagore's novel Gora (white man) the hero set out on a Bharat tourists as well. Many people visit West Bengal and the Bengalis
Yatra to assess what were the social needs of the country. (Gora was also tour other parts of India. It is necessary to assist both the
an Irishmary brought up by a Bengali Brahmin, who had adopted inbound and the outbound domestic and international tourists.
Brahminism as a way of life). Vivekananda also became a tourist For the inbound tourists there are some facilities but the outbound
to ftnd a spiritual solution to the social problems of the counlry. tourists suffer. Generally, the potential tourist, through his
Sarat Chandra created a Bohemian characte4 Srikant. These three individual efforts manages to accomplish his tourism goals.
have inspired the touristic ideal for the Bengalis. Individual effort is a part of the joy of travelling
and is a must.
However we are now in the age of co-operation and integration.
Tourism cannot be looked at from a purely economic point of view, In the field of tourism also we feel the need for co-ordination and
although at present, its economic aspects cannot be ignored. In a collective organisation so that individual initiative can be fruitful.
capitalist system, tourism is seen as the means of enhancing private For both inbound and outbound tourists the need of the hour isa
property. In a socialist system, tourism is seen as a necessary well co.ordinated tourism industrv.
attribute in humanising the workers life.
Generally, when we talk of tourists we mean foreigners. This is not
In India, we adopted a democratic, socialistic pattem as our goal. right. Tourists are both foreigners and our own countrymen. Both
Thus we have to balance both the economic and humanising should be considered equally important. In this context we should
aspects of tourism for which the national tourism organisatioru remember that Domestic tourism is the base for foreign tourism
have to be urgently re-oriented. all over the world. The tourism industry will be strengthened if the
base for tourism is strengthened , by encouraging Domestic
In the Post-Independence period both domestic and intemational tourism.
tourism have shown growth. People are looking at India, and the
prestige of our country has grown. A nation with a great tradition, If we are unable to facilitate the domestic tourist in seeing the
whose people are proud of their heritage and have self-respect, entirety of our country, how do we propose to build a stable form
will attract more foreigners. Therefore the kind tourism we wish of International Tourism?
to promotewillbe related to our concept.of progress. Weshould
have the courage to promote a progressive form of tourism. The state has initiated a policy to facilitate the foreign tourist. Some
benefi ts are being receivedby the people, though hardly adequate.
The independent and balanced development of our country will There is plenty of scope for improvement.. The effective utilisation
open up new avenues and possibilities for tourism. As a united of such efforts is yet to be made. For this one should not rely
natiory weare the citizens of an ancient and historically exclusively on the state. In the Soviet Union, private organisations
developed civilisation. Britishimperialism extracted enormous have played an important role in the promotion of tourism. It is
wealth from our country; despite their looting India with both said that youth organisations take up progranunes for youth
hands, there is still potential to develop the wealth of our country. tourism and similarly womens organisations take the
We still have so many riches to project to the foreigner, many of responsibility for women tourists. Literary tourists are helped by
which are yet to be discovered, inspite of what we have lost during their mass organisations. Thus the state and private
British rule. organisations, collectively and in a co-ordinated manner have
developed a dynamic strucfure of tourism.
Today the number of tourist destinations has grown, which will
increasein the future. Greater development of infrastructure is In our country such a system does not exist. Either we depend
being seen in the tourist map of India. Places like Durgapur, entirely on the state or we do things on our own. There is no harm
Bhilai, Rourkela, Bokaro, Chittaranjan and Damodar Valley are now in investigating whether such a poliry is correct or not. Both state
located on the tourist map. In West Bengal, Kalyani, a satellite assistance and private initiative and enthusiasm are necessary.
town of Calcutta has become a tourist spot for the metropolis. However there is no social organisation to co- ordinate
Haldia too will become a tourist sPot. individual effort. This is still in its infancy.

Touring is not synonymous with luxurious travel. Comfort and Tourists are ofvarioustypesand segmerits. Tourists travelacross
luxury are also not the same. Comfort is certainly one of the the world with their individual outlook. Often we ignore this
demands of tourism but throwing money around to buy Westem heterogeneity amongst tourists. For example, some like the beach,
facilities need not buy us comfort. We have just started to rebuild some the hills whilst others go to rivers and lakes. Many like to go
our country and we are accountable for all the money that we on pilgrimage. Some want to visit academic institutes whilst others
spend. When the structure of tourism is based on expensive like to see ethnic groups. Human life is full of variety and the
luxuries it serves the demand of the elite whilst depriving the outlook of tourists is equally varied. In conjunction with varied
13
motivations, the tourists demands have to be met. In the tourism professional the warmth of a welcome is lacking.
Heartfelt warmth is a must for successful tourism. Feelings of
I know a foreigner who came to Calcutta only to visit the Neemtola friendship and solidariry generate heartfelt warmth. Those who
ghats where Tagorehadbeencremated. This is only anexample. visit our state and our country should be treated as honoured
We can find many such examples. It is necessary to keep track of Buests. On the road, in trams and buseq at hotels and railway
tourists who have specific motivations. We have a general rather stations, everywhere we should keat the tourist with humanism.
than a specific approach. A few days ago I met a tourist from Brazil If we treat them well, the tourists will reciprocate with warmth. If
who wanted to know the daily food habits of Bengalis. His friend we keep this in mind we will recognise our responsibility to the
wanted to know how Bengalis dressed at home. foreign tourist.

Those who come to West Bengal generally want to know , The central idea in tourism is to identify our closeness so that
understand and recognise Bengali culture. To know a thing within tourists will be attracted. We can communicate this without
a few days is very difficult. Tourist spots have to be organised in shessing our self-interest. Those who build real bridges are the
such a way so that they present a comprehensive picture of our ones who engage in welfare work. As I said in the beginning let us
culture. This task is notbeingdone. Whateverisdone is devoid not look at tourism as a business, let us see it as social work. I
of authenticity, and done in a superficial manner.

One should remember that a tourist is sensitive, often to the point


of being touchy. Lack of honesty hurts them. Translated by Pradip Biswas and Nina Rao.

Training Prcgramme

On invitation from YMCA and SCM, EQUATIONS conducted a


couple of training sessions in YMCA for the secretaries to be, from
all over the country. The training programme was conducted with
the need to promote Alternative Tourism, influence public ophion,
BY US mobilise community participation and also to recognise that there
is a problem and for some perspective setting on the issues related
to tourism in India.
n the 34 December the National Seminar on The World Student Christian Federation WSCF) organised an
Tourism, Globulisation, Deaelopment and lustice was jointly Interregional Leadership Training Programme in August.
held by EQUATIONS and School of Social Sciences, EQUATIONS provided a basic introduction to the issues involved
Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam at Ashirbhavan, Cochin. in Third World Tourism and also suggested a possible intervention
by the student communities on such issues. Responses from the
Discussions about tourism issues were carried on within two participants revealed that their experience in and of India has
different languages - of governments and industry on the one deeply moved them in a way that has helped them see other
hand, and of activists groups on the other. The seminar was not dimensions of the meaning of life which were not there before.
an attempt to continue any one of those specifi c traditions nor even
to pitch an academic tent on a suitably middle ground. On the At The Asian College of Journalism, EQUATIONS discussed the
contrary, it was an attempt to allow the different forms of role of media in the development of Tourism image.
knowledge to confront and engage with each other.

In all there were around 120 participants varying from activists, Studies
government officials, travel and hotel industry officials and
intellectuals. The papers presented are as follows: Tourism and EQUATIONS for the East Coast Road Action Committee (ECRAC)
Welfare - Dr Errol D'Souza, Department of Economics, University has proposed to conduct a feasibility study. Preceding this study, a
of Bombay, Bombay; Tourism and Development, The Unfolding preliminary survey was undertakenby ShirleySusan and Sabina
Dilemma - Alito Siqueira, Department of Sociology, Goa Suri. The survey included identification and defining the kind of
University, Goa (this paper is available elsewhere in this issue of Tourism projects likely to come up and identification of contact
the ANletter); Tourism Poliry: Need for Reorientation - Nina Rao, groups/collaborators at the different places for their input in the
College of Vocational Studies, Delhi University (also available in final study.
this issue); Third World Therapy: Tourism and the Politics of Serious
Leisure-Ranjit Henry; Tourism Concepts for a Small World- Padma An audio-visual is also being prepared for campaigning purposes
Rajagopal, Farmer, Craftsperson, Design Consultant); Views on for the ECRAC by EQUATIONS with technical help from Sangam
Tourism Promotion - K V Muralidharan, President, Kerala Communications, Madras.
Association of Tiavel Agents, Trivandrum; Tourism Tortured? - Dr
S V Narayanan, Professor and K V K Prashant Kumar, B.E, MTA
both of Centre for Tourism Studies, Pondicherry Central University, North-East Inilia
Pondicherry; A note on the possible Impact of Tourism on Bio
Diversity of the High Ranges Munnar - James Zacharias and P V EQUATIONS proposes to have a meeting in North-East to build
Karunakaran; Political Economy of Tourism Infrastructure awareness on tourism development here. This programme has
Developmenh An Outline, H M Manjunath, Yatna; Free Wynad been initiated with the first contacts being made with severai
from Tourism - Thomas Ambalavayal. The copies of these papers leading intellectuals of that area. The meeting will be held
can be availed from EQUATIONS. sometime in the summer of 1995.
14
A0630 - (G40) A06e6 - (j10)
The Battle Against GoIf Cutse has begun..... Leisure Lifestyles - Touist Actiaities : Are Western Approaches
Amedia backgrounder, documented and compiledby the Goa Desc Sustainable? Paper presented at the WLRA Congress, Jaipur, by
1993,33 pp David Leslie, Glasgow Caledonian Univ., The paper debates the
question whether leisure lifestyles and thus the tourist activities of
A0640 - (H00) those in the western industrialised societies are sustainable.
Thiril Woilil Therapy : Tourism and the Politics of Seious Leisure December 7993,16pp.
by KOLAM - responsible tours & soft travel, Madras
Essay contains quotes from Ashish Nandy, Claude Alvarez, Romila 40730 - (G01)
Thapar, Majorie Sykes, Wolfgang Sachs, Noam Chomsky to Touism Development anil Entsironmental Issues - AClose Look At
mention the most important few. May 1993,7 pp. Tamil Nadu. A paper presented by Latheef Kizhisseri,
EQUATIONS atTamil Nadu Environmental Issues and JointAction
A06se-(r3s/803) Workshop. The paper is an exploratory attempt to look at tourism
BEKAL -Why? : An EQUATIONS Dossier on Bekal Special Tourism development with holistic perspective and focussing analysis on
Area Project, billed as one of Asia's largest projects. This dossier environmental issues emerging from tourism development.
contains a letter from EQUATIONS posing questions to the EQUATIONS, August, 799 4, 42 pp.
government and industry about the objectives of this Project to help
people elsewhere, faced by the challenge of the major tourism 4076e - (177)
projects. April 1994, 14 pp. ThePolitical Effects of Touinn Deoelopment, Geotge Aditj ondto
Papers fromThe Indonesian Activists Program, Yogjakarta, August
40661- (G40) 1994,10pp.
In theName of a Gatne:The Stakes in Golf
Bailancho Saad (a Women's Collective) poses questions regarding A0776 - (G10)
the proposed golf courses to the Government and cites its responses. Draft Wildlife Tburistn Guiilelines fot Inilia, Ministry of
The group's letter to the Director, Department of Tourism, Environment & Forests, Government of India
Govemment of Goa and the Govemment's written response are March 1994,6 pp.
included at the end of the booklet. November 7993,75pp, Rs.S/- or
$2.00 (postage inclusive) A0817 - (r10)
Limited Legal Reilrcss - Pollution Battles, Nomra Alvares, a
A0667 - (G40) lawyer, argues that the mixed judicial record in Goa indicates that
GAG'M - Update, APPEN, Malaysia, December 1993, 103 pp. officers of courts need to be exposed to more primary information
about the environment. The Hindu: Survey of the Environment,
Ao65e-(G1o/G02) 7994,4pp.
Report on: NationalWorkshop on declining access to anil control
oper Nahnal Resources in National Parks and Sanctuaries A0828 - (C10)
Society for Participatory Research in Asia and Rural Litigation Employnent Generation in the Hotel, Catuing anil Tourism S ector,
and Entitlement Kendra. Includes papers on the issues of concem Dr Peter U C Dieke (UNDP), Mr Njeru Kirira (Min. of Tourism
on National Parks and Sanctuaries in India; some observations on and Wildlife), Mr Roger Doswell ([O), [O Publication, August
the issues in Parks and Sanctuaries; critical analysis of the Legal L993,61pp.
Provisions of Sanctuary and National Park in India. October 1993,
68 pp. Ao8s0 - 011)
TOIIKISM - The Ma*eting of P aruilise
In an effort to balance declines in non-oil export revenue growth,
A068s - (136) Indonesia is launching a series of programs to strengthen the
Mastu Plan for the Development of Toutism in Kamataka
tourism indushy. What are Indonesia's chances against equally
by Department of Tourism, Government of Kamataka aggressive tourism campaigns conducted by neighbourhood
December 1993,43 pp. countries? Economic & Business, Review Indonesia, No.120, |uly 30
1994,7 pp.
40589 - 03s)
lmpact of TouristnDeoelopment: APilot Study of KovalamBeach
in Kerala Dissertation submitted to the University of Kerala by B
Vijayakumar. The study analyses the various impacts created by * Programme Associate, EQUATIONS Documentation Cell
tourism on the resident. April 193, 8a pp.
15
I write in response to your invitation to co t on the r I very much agree with your argument of a
"Statement of Concern" adopted at the Ninth Meeting of the development-rationale related to the improvement of quality of
General Body of EQUATIONS and published in the luly 7994 life of the communities and the need for profound shifts in the
issue of ANletter. It may be helpful to add another statement concerns of planning. Paul and Basavaraj Hebballi's report on
on tourism in the context of neo.colonialism, and it would be the Andaman and Nicobar Islands sourrCed alarming. The
this: BOT(build,operate and transfer) policy will certainly constrain
any control of negative i.mpacts on the fragile island worlds. The
Tourism marginalises and takes resources away from economic announcement of the IGNOU programme in tourism studies and
development, which gives priority to economic activities that the report of the panel discussion at trC manifest recent
support the quality of life of its community's residents. This may developments. I'm keen to learn about the seminar in Kerala on
not be the best wording, but it is an attempt to state what I see Tourism Poliry. The report on Bekal offered very interesting
the "visitor industry" having done to Hawaii. Tourism, opinions about this location.
orchestrated by the state and private corporations, truly
marginalises economic development activities growing out of
a community base because they aren't seen as making an impact
they fall
Latheef Kizhisseri's questions are as important as
on the state's economy. Policy makers forget that the colonisers
into polemics in describing the post-modern reading as
war-fare. (Understanding post-modern realities could
imposed export industries (sugar and pineapple) to form
contribute to a more profound critique of modem tourism.)
Hawaii's economic underpinning, and when those began to
Could you please explain to me what he means by profit
sag, began to build up tourism. Now that tourism, the neo-
ashwamedha?* The justified criticism of the political economy
colonial. economic activity is sagging, it again looks to attracting
of tourism by Yatna didn't offer convincing solutions. The
a big industry with capital from elsewhere, rather than looking
inter-generational parity is being discussed in Europe too. (But
at the economic activities which had been displaced by sugar
Pareto-optimality as reference is disputed). There is the need
and pineapple and which had been sustaining a people. As
for a new understanding of redistribution and welfare-policy.
is suggested in the article on "Responsible Tourism" (page But focussing on domestic tourists and demanding a more jirst
10-11, July 1994)," ...any decision to further develop tourism has
economywill be insufficient and not really effective. The
to be weighed carefully with its possible outcomes... as well as
times of polarized counter-positions and simplifying
the opportunity costs of developing other economic sectors,
class-thinking is over. The economical system is more complex
whidr are often more crucial for our subsistence".
as neo-colonial critique and center-periphery thinking can ever
reach (nothing to say change).
Thank you for the opportunity to comment.

June Shimokawa, Hawaii Area Program Office, Hawaii, USA The contetnporary role of the economics of tourism is related
to different processes which are not considered in the article.
o Thanks for the ANletter of July 94 (Vol 3, No 1). Your editorial How tourism actually interacts and works will become more
- Statement of Concern - was eitiemely thought provoking. important than such anti-tourism approach. As important as
the problematic effects are the multivarious changes whicJr
M.Thomas. Madras actually occur. In all the ambivalence they take forni largely
as altered opportunity structures in which individuals and
groups make (or cannot make anymore) choices and exercise
o Again, congratulations on another fine issue of ANletter. What
options...(capital powers, ownership, properfy rights, legal
feed back do you get from your North American friends? Your
Statement of Concern is well done. It must have brought a new
system, etc) The inequal endowment questions and
constraining conditions have to be taken into systematic
awareness of solidarity among your general body members as
account. Morals and justice dimensions cdnnot be imposed
you went through the process necessary to develop it. What
but must be "produced" and emerge th-rough an according
prograrnmatic changes are resulting from this? I am copying the
socio-ecological economic system. This does not exclude the
statement for all our board members - one way for them to
criticism that opting for opendoor p9liry and putting no
increase their awareness of EQUATIONS and global
restriction whatsoever on foreign intrusion while refraining
partnership.........
from channeling the development by strict laws and
Have you ever considered making one page of your ANletter a
regulations as a market-systen strategy( equitable
redistribution?) will cause long-term detrimental changes with
report on what you do, are thinking, personalising your work for
unpredictable consequences. But we must try to overcome
those of us far away? Also, as non-Indians, we often wonder
.overgeneralisations and develop a more sophisticated
about the writers of the articles you include, what organisation
approach asking different questions and a more differentiated
they represent, what criteria is used for choosing their articles?
notion of political economy.
And continual thanks for the copies of your Up-Date! We plan
to use this to launch an India corner in our newsletter, Wendelin Kuepers, Germany
Responsible Traveling. We hope the German parallel News
Watch will be translated into English soon. *
Profit ashwamedha:The global war for increasing profit by aarious
mefrnq conductedby MNCs throughout the entireworld- Editor
Virginia T. Hadsell, Center for Responsible Tourism, USA

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