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Volume 4Issue 7 August 1%5

For Private Circulation Onlv

Wbmen and Tourism

the time this edition of tfu ANlztter is publishail. the mrrrtt awaited agenda nnd uvmen 0 more prominent palt ol the tourism ngenila. The
4th UN Conference on Womm and the NGO Forum m bcqing zoill be time is especinlly npe because ooernll questions about toui:ism policy
taking place. The unrlil tday lus recognivd tlut women u the other and act.iuism are-being redfincd. This was with the objective of wantin6
lwlf of the hunun population luve been neglected, dqtfued, to articulate the complexity of tourism as a women,s issue, ii
tl-iscri-minateil against, misused and mbted
for reasons aplenty. Ttris past colhboration with women concerned about such issues in Intlia, hut
decl( has- yen heighteneil effurts with reganl to ntailishing the with the merall aim of vnting tinks with the twmen,s.mornment.
principle of shared pmnr and respansibility gt ttu home and wortiplace
and in wider rwtiannl and intqnational communities. Women actioists, As a part of this ffirt we ore in the midst of inpntting into the Forum
NGOs and wluntary groups haoe scrmmed themselves hmrse, that the Meeting al Beiiing, through presenlations by Nina Rao (see leod nrticle)
equality between men and uomcn is a matter of hutmn rtghts and aIso and through other moterial which hme been prepared
jointly with nehnrk frientls
for this purpwe
a condition fur social
justice which is the
Ta the fact that anmen,s rights anil the rights of the girl
fundamental pre- .emphasise
child, are part of universal humnn rights, requira a strong commitient
requisite fur danlop-
on the part of organi*tbns and gooernments toumrd eqiil rights, equal
nwnt and Wce of
responsibilitis, equal opportunity and equal
human kinil. ,freedom. Aftu ymr-s of

While at one
!*Vi"$ twmen their rights, this oucial peiod tnkes on imporiance ni;
leuel by gknng nnrun equal shsre in atl sphera of life
there is a recognition does no! mcan they haw to shsp "r*ults,'.The
space fur problem of inequality ha-s bem onnlvseil, solutions
women in the larger soueht out, strategies worked oitt nnd funds
context of human sourced out but the htttom line remnins; tint all
datelopmmt, there are this frmzied actiaity should not lx executed tpith

equnlly .ittrces tlut nre trying to do the oery opposite. In a time when the sote atm mat aomen haue to'now' gtrove lhemsehrc,s. Ifii. is rrrrl
tle br,tader social processes are one that'take auny nther than shard, an experiment to xe how wotnen woulil cope with a
it is obvious that the struggle toatards'dewlopmtnt ad Wce, is likc fair say in social,
economic, cultural and political decision making mechanism, neither is
swimming egainst the tide. this the opportunity to turn judgmental, insteail it is time
for us to
accept that axry individwl be it man or u'ornnn, boy or girl hns a right
Tlrc issues of moironmmtal degradation, social inequity and
realignmeats of economic processrs have had their effects on women as
to lend n life with bnsic hurnnn dignity.
weII as rnen, possibly in ilifernt ways. With this in mind, un at
EQUATIONS, fugan to look mue erplicitly at thc impact of tourism
tn womtn, nnd to collaborate bth to ttule touism part qf women,s KT 54,4tu1V S*ray*fuo
Gamm,o./i,hna aatd, 6omzMr.
ito' ,Toztoiatru .' ,%yrn/,oh. rr/ ^//nlirnhoon{
Qlt r**
Nirr Rlo*

f\ ender discrimination in India today is being presented as of power, social privilege and the socialisation of gender roles in
\r-, an aberration in the inexorable drive towards tourism processes. The legitimacy for looking at gender and race
(- I development. Despite the attempts of the Govcrnment to derives from our context in India where we see variations in
lxetfiote the view that the new economic thinking is gender both the responses and experiences to the dominant (global)
sensitive, the ideological and cultural changes that are coming, i4 power struchrre we are trying to adapt to. In seeing the impact
the wake of the process of globalization are denying the space of tourism on women ancl their victimisation through
that women in India had created through their struggles and commoditisation and commercialisation, we see the variables of
throrrgh their participation in several significant mass movements. gender and race as significant not only as independent variables
The denial of this space is being proiected as the only route to acting on tourism but also as inter-related arrd being affected by
modemisation, and the prices we have to pay for modernity is tourism.
the process of structural adiustment. In many Asian counties which
embarked on these processes before us we have seen that Given the fact ihat travel has been cliffcrentially accessetl through
essentials have become unavailable, Poverty has been enhanced the ages, it is only in the 20 Century that women as travellers
and unemplt'ryme'nt has made survival a day-today stmggle for have had an impact on tourism. T'ourist behaviour expressed
sections of thc people described as under-developed, in graffiti, litter, the uncouth tourist (ethno<enteric behaviotrr) and
nrarginalised etc. Amongst these groups and in society as a whole, subiectivity and representation of women in the brochure or
in the process of globalisation we have seen women emerge as tourism advertising, all point to concepts that are applicable to
svmbols of victimhood. men alone. Women travellers described as 'well-bred' and
'respectable' fall in the category of privileged women or women
Global tourism offers us many illustrations of this victimhood. as extensions of their missionary, coloniser or executive male
Whe.re the 45's formula is the invisible export for hard currency family heads. As a result there has been very little emphasis on
hungrv power c.lites being manipulated by the irrationality of the needs of women as tourists either in terms of amenities or
market forces. International organisations, financial institutions creating destinations and attractions for them. Similarly in the
anci the travel trade have acquired a mythological stafus and our travel trade the gendered nature of employment is never
governments submit, with a sense of inevitability, to the dictates stressed. Jafari pushes the role of tourism in giving economic
of the World Tourism Organisation, PATA, ASTA, ITB etc. This opporfunities to women without the consequences of
is because the mythological stature of these key ideological gendered stres.s and change in power roles within the familv and
institutions rnanipulate consumption around exercise. This is community. He does not look at the consequences of
done throtrgh setting impossible targets to net the 558 million displacement of women from their homes and traditional
international tourists who form the market and the competition economic activity. Many have tried to justify tourism related
now lists the top ten destinalions as rvell as the top ten eamers activity as being innocent as far as !'reg.rtive impacts are concernetl,
of the tourist'dollar'. There is even a formula for being declared and have laid the blame on modemisation; however the p.rce of
a 'destination' - a country which earns 107o of its GDI' from tottrism dcvelopment is both a f<rrm of modemisation and
torr risrn. eqtrally immoderate, particularly in developing societies. The
issuc of scxual harassment is particr.rlarly scvere, given the
Tirtrrism is lcgitimised as the human need to rccreation. Whnt this sexualisetl cnvironment-escape, adrrenturc, romance, which
statcmcnt igntrrcs is thc fact that tourism has gnrwn out of rem()vc constraints in thc employt'e - totrrists relatiorrships. Tht:
gerrclereri socicties which inform all aspects r'rf tortrism <:lothes and submissive bclravior insisterl on bv <.mpllrf i.rt
clevtloprnent and activity and all these processes embody encourage the view that resptlctahle women are totrrists ruhilst
Fendcr rt'!.:tions. Our diverse and complex social structures, fallcn r,r'omen are barmaids and clranrlrr.r nraids. l{erc race also
cconomic, soci.rl, cultural, political and environmental are adds to stereotypical connotations
conditionerl by gendered relations. Tourism engages in all these
strtrchrrcs in tht' process of its change, with consequences for the
The relations that emerge fr<lm 'l'rrurism activity are an
expression of the global debate on forms of power ancl contrt'I.
rnargirr.rlised intlividuals and communities that become a part of
The fact that there is a debate indicates that the mainstrcanr
its strtrchrre. The impact of tourism on gender has only recently
discourse is being contested at the ground level. The is-srrcs tht'
been sfudied by social scientists, although the cultural debate has thrown up reflect on power relations as reflected in
construction of gender. in combination with the variable of race
race, class and gender whi<'h arc'trt'rt onlv interrelak'd t:rrt also
is only now being looked at. In the area of tourism studies this
critical issues in the tourism debate.
approach is likely to raise many new issues, as the issue of
gender and race have added insights to so many other policy 'l'ourism slrapes our identity and that of others 'l'hert'f,'rc
isstres. Tourism activity and promotion offer a very fruitful area
control of tourisrn is important. l-lnforttrnately it is nol the
for the application of the variables of gender ancl race to shldy so-called 'host' population that is tlrt' agent in st'lling national,
the negative irnoacts of Tourism in relation to the distribution including gentler, images. (lovcrnmr:nts and the torrrism retailer
are not accountable'other than to hc totrrist or tlre international
trade. Interestingly, tourism projects do not win votes and
'lbaches at Collel;,e of Vocational Studies, Delhi University and is a member ol tourism policies are rarelv debated in Parliament. Gender
the Programme Sub Committee, EQUATIONS. relations in tourism are a non-issue. In India, tourism policv ;"
in the hands of the ce'rrtral govemment and is strongly Within these societies that tourism rcdrrces to a small place reality
influenced by major lending institutions and multi-national is however varied and complex. We can see these complexities in
companies. These institutions ane primarily male and controlled the division of laborrt social constnrction ofsites, the social
bv whites. Toclay we have a woman minister of state who is not constrtretirin of tlx. other, thc social constru<:lion of lhe totrrist lntl
serrsitised kr the women and tourism debate antl rt'flt'cts thc the rrsitlt'rrt, tlr<. r.rpt.riencing, rrrrrstnrctiorr arrtl consrrmptir)rt of
whik./mak oricntation of government, lencling agencies ant'l tortrism itsclf wlrich distinguisht's the rolc of men ancl womcn;
irrtcrn.rtional bodies dealing with tourism. She has been yet we do not see solidarity on the issues of gender since not ttxr
toh-rllv coopted by the mainstream discourse. manv of these writers have looked spe<ifically at gender issues or
used a gcndered perspe.ctive. (Exception V.Kinnard and D.
ln looking at the process of commoditisation - and Hall Eds. Tourism: A gencler Anall'sis, Wiley, 1994.)
commercialisation we have to qrrestion how such relations are
constructed, how do they change over time and what All s<xittics, whethcr'host' or'guest' enrbody a changing st:l
implications do they have with regard to equality? The social and of gcnclcr Perceptions, slcreo-tvpos anti relalions .ls a part of lheir
political impressions of krurists are not neutral. They are creatcd notion of realitv; for example scx tourisnr is a part of all
or: ihe basis of a knowledge of what can be bought and sold, patriarr-hical stx'ieties brrt the enrphasis in studies orr scx tor.rristn
horv to use influence and power and what is of value and what is on colonial power domination, particrrlarly |apan in thc &rutlr
can be discarded. In this process tourism structures history and East of Asia. Its acceptabilities located in cokrnial rvomen
shapes a culhrre by reducingit to size by the use of political preferring their nren to visit foreign rather than l<r.rl prostihrtt's,
subiectivity. In the naming and framing process of krurist as thc crossing of the threshold of lirninalitv is thought to be less
aclvertising also we see a ritualistic emphasis on gentler and threatening. The impact of racism is stronger than gcn<ler
racial stereo-types of the tourists as the idle rich white population consciousness.
of rvestem Europe and the USA for whom India is programmed
as the Royal Orient, with all its feudal partiarchical In trrurism activitv paid wrrrk is closely botrnd up rvith gen<ler arrti
representations. It is now becoming increasingly important to in the glohal trnderclass that is created Asian women ar€l
hrok at such representations as expressions of sexism and racism, rcprcsente.d as traditional (not influenced by lreminism) and
ir:st as activists did when they forced Air-India to retract the "Bare therefore more suitat'le. to signify the daydreams and fantasies
hidia" postc'r featuring a bikini-clad woman to promotc Goa. encouragecl by the promotion of torrrism. (Urry, lc91). Thc
tourist brochure and the travel shows on satellite TV. push the
lVithin the totrrism clebaie Nash (1989) has lookcd at totrrism key icleological features of western society in a non-r.r'estern
activitv and the tourist product as an embodiment of inhcrent contc.xt. Thus action, power and ownership are associatccl n'ith
power relations in the privileging of American fast food, hot men and passivity, availabilitv and being owned for womcn.
shovvers and English language. De Kadt (1979) links Tburism to (Bride buving - M.O.B.'s. This selling of otherness generaliscs ancl
colonialism and North over South domination. Britton (1982) then institutionalises particular gendered perceptions on rac(',
links tourism to core domination over periphery. According to generation and class.
Selwyn (192) such controls retain under-development in Tourism
as a part of the gratification of the rich. Tourism is therefore a We see this process of commoditisation establishing itself in the
part of the process of incorporation of developing countries into scrcio-cultural field where the traditional is opposed to thc
an exploitative system which looks at gendered social processes modern, the Self to the C)ther. 'l"he Self is never the Asiarr.
but on patriarchical terms; for example, the distinction between Cohen (1983) has poinred to the legitimisation for sceing/selling
work and non-work for men and i,vomen is seen in universal traditions as the other and he has raised, along with manv others,
or natrrral terms and not as gendered. the issue of authencity to capture the changing meaning of culhrre
and the arts, within which are also located issues of gender, class
and ethnicity.

How do scrcicties deal with commoditisation in Tourism activitr'?

Men retain thc marketing functions whilst women remain irr the
sphere of production (from the working of the souvenir hacie to
the glamour industry, entertainment and prostitution.)

In thc spherc of scrcial values commoditisation is dealt with in a

similar way, through what is popularly known as the
demonstration effect, where the local women are represented as
pleasing commodities and the woman tourist is commoditised
by local men-several c.rses being reported in the press, with the
grandson of the Chief Minister f<rr Puniab being a notorious
Within the family there is a change in the traditional division of
laborrr. Women either carry the double btrrden of bread winrrer
and homemaker (what has been termed the Mother/Wllore
dichotomy), creating tensions due to male/female roles being
reversed. In rural areas women head households without access
to resources and the younger generation gets drawn into sex or
drug tourism resulting in a power shift to the yorrnger generation
but on patriarchical terms (Garhwal, Manali). In the past fr:w
months wc have seen severill reports of young men and !v()nrcn
acting as couriers of the drug mafia being apprehended by the of tourism will therefore require resolution in other mainsheam
police in India. There was also the controversy over women discourses as well. The solution lies in identifying and locating
in Garhwal posing nude for a small dollar fee for tourists since the source of gendered crimes and building a movement of
their husbands are away in the army. solidarity both within and without in the broadest way possible.

In the area of environment we see the emergence of safari Notes : Reading list
torrrism as a socially conskucted form of hegemonism where 1. Asian Women Workers Newslettcr, Vol 14, No 1, Jan 1995
women become the victims of the process of privileging nafure 2. T.Selwyn: 'Peter Pan i4 South East Asia : A view from the
over human needs. Their fuel and water needs which were met brochres' - in Tourism in South East Asia, - Ed. M tlitchkock,
through forest produce or their grazing chores have become ' V King and M.Parnell - Routledge London, 1993
onerous since the notification of sancfuaries and the zoning 3. J Urry : 'The snciology of Tourism - in Progress in Tourism,
pattems being implemented to ensure free access to the tourist. Rccreation and Hospitality Management Vol. 3, - Ed.
C.Cooper Belhaven Inndon, 1991.
We. see that in all spheres of meaning the representation of 4. J Urry : Tourism, leisure and Travel - irr Contemporary
rvomen falls within the framework of 'endenism' as either sex Srrcieties - Sage lnndon.
obiects, publicity props, domestics or as the repositories of 5. Jafar Jafari : 'Role of Ttrurism on Smio - Economic
family honor. These are all mechanisms of control. The women's transformation of developing societies' (Unpublished Master's
movement in lndia has been coming to terms with this emerging thesis) - Cornell University, 1973
problematic and the tourism debate has to come to terms with 6. M. Foucault: An tntroduction to the History of Sexuality Vol.1,
these issues. This involves decoding how gender and sexuality Penguin, 1981.
have been socially constructed at thepersonal and inter-personal 7. E. Cohen: Authenticity and Commoditisation in Tourism -
level. Annals of Tourism Research - 15:371 - 86.
8. E. Cohen:'The dynamics of commercialised arts: the Meo and
Tourism, through commoditisation, legalises the marginalisation Yen of Thailand' - Joumal of National Research Council of
of gender, since the national tourism industry is dependent on Thailand-15:1-34.
and performing a function within an intemational framework. 9. D. Nash : 'Tourism as imperialism'- in Guests and Hosts - Ed.
We can therefore conclude that economic marginality, racial V. Smith An Anthropology of Tourism, 1989.
10. E. De Kadt: Tourism: Passport to Development - O.U.P -
inequality and unequal gender relations are particularly fertile
grounds in the construction of tourism, since many promoters of
11. S. Britton : Political Economy of Tourism in the Third Wrrld -
tourism consider tourism an apt vehicle for creating opportunities
Annals of Tourism Research - 13 (3) 457 - 65,1982.
for such problems to be resolved. However Foucault considers 12. T. Selwyn: Tourism, Society and Development Community
commoditisation and commercialisation as focus of control to Developmentfoumal -27 (4): 353 - 60.
strengthen larger, hierarchical systems which aim to 13. J.Kincaid : A Small Place - Mrago London, 1988.
institutionalise racism, sexism as social class privileges rather than 14. Linda K. Richter : Gender and Race : neglected variables in
to seek salvation for the victims. Any resolution of these Ttrurism Researc.h in Change in Tourism : People, Places.
conflicts emerging in the process of the growth and expansion Processes - Ed.R. Bulter and D. Pearce - Rotrtledge, 1995.

Tburism research gazing at the gender-issue

Chnisrirr Ptuss & Mlnilrne Fnri*

Review of: Tourism - Gender Analysis. Edited by Vivan becomes completely spiritualized while generating
Kinnaird and Derek Hall. Iohn Wilev and Sons Chichester
{+ 1994
representations of the famous "other". This "other", the counterpart
within touristical interaction, might be lust as spiritualized or at
least condemned to assume the silent part of a walker-on in the
,\nnals of Tburism Research, Volume 22, Numbcr 2, 1995: Special play of 'back- staged arrthenticity". The sexcd body seems to be
issue on Cender in Tourism, Guest Editor Margaret Byrne Swain the privilege of prostitutes in tourist rereiving countries,
1995 Elsevier Science Ltd. and J. Jafari. sometimes also of their customers but this has been discovered
only very recently. f{orvever. this character - the normal case of
This character s€€ms somehow familiar, doesn't he? Oh ves, the rvhite middle class male - has a tenacious hold on life in
indeed - it is the "typical tourist" outlined by the mainstream
tourism research.
tourism research: white, middle class, male - that gces without
saying. No doubt, he is very flexible, loves to change his outfit and For a long timc mainly feminist leisrrre researchers have been
occasionally even his lifestyle. Sometimes he looks younger, like pointing out to the sextral,/gender division of labour and leisure.
an explorer or a happy family father, and sometimes he is just a Writings on women travellers, analysis of sex tourism, or recent
common holiday-maker escaping from everyday routine. feminist approach of the political economy of international
Sometimes it seems as if the unfortunate character had fallen into tourism have given evidence to the importance of applying
pieces, as if he consisted e.g. of an eye gazing significantly at a "gender" ns an erluivalerrt variable- hesidts class, ethnicity/race,
world especially designed for him. And all of a sudden he nationality or age - to shldies of leisured consumers (guests;,
working producers (hosts), and their interactiois, as well as to
analysis of the inarketing of the kansnational tourism indushy.
r\rlreitskreis Tourismus and Entwicklung, Basel (Switzerland) Obviotrsly tourism was ripe for the gender approach. The first twq
thoroughly cxplored and completed in some of the case shrdies,
e.g. the analysis of the working condiiions of r.r'omen in Comwall
(Hennessy) and in Ireland (Breachnach/ I lenry/drea/
o'[:lahcrty). fhcse sttrclics strcct'cd in giving arr interesting,
insight ()n how torrrism is bcing promotctl in areas hit trv
economic rocessirrn, arrcl how the scope for women on tlre
alreacly largely flexibilized labour market looks like today. The
gender approach leads kr a better trnderstanding of the
interlockirrgs dimcnsions of intlividrral iderrtitl' and social
relations irr a context of political economy and power. But the
conceptual fr.rmework of the prrblication lacks organisational
strength, arrd inte.r<.stirrg insil;lrts srrch as the constrrrction of
ht ritage anil its tourist infrastructurc along male-biased historv
c.rn't strffi<:ir-.ntlv he exploited for the tlreoretical rcflection.
Nevr.rthelt'ss tlris first prrlrlication ()n thc krpic of gen<il'r i:r
tourisnr ()pclrs up ne\{ rcscarch perspectives, and shows that
theorr:tical discussions of thc gender issrre foremost have to hr.
consolidater'l lvithin the tourisnr dehate.

This path is follorrr'ed up by lv{argaret tsyrne Srvairr,

anthr'opologist at tht [Jniversil)' of California (Davis, USA) antl
g,rtcst tlclilor of thc spccial issrrt- on gentlcr in totrrisnr of tlrc
rcnownc<l "Ann.rls of Tt'rutisnr Rcsearch". Ry nreans of a dctailctl
and critic.rl srrrvey of the publication of Kinnard/llall she
clcvelops clcar pt'rspcctives for gerrder analysis of tourism arrti
tht' sig,nificance of gcntlcr for the urrrlerstatrding of tourism This
cxposilion she completes with new results from feminist lcisure
research (llerrdersolr 1994), a revie'w on writings on gender in
tourism, and tr feminist critique of serial theories of tourism
(Vilola/Jokinen 1994) which outlines in a surprising antl
imaginative wav the absence of the "botly" among both the
explored tourist as well as the exploring mostly male scholars
in tourism. Swain defines gender as a "system of culturallv
constructed identities, expressed in ideologies of masculinity and
publications dedicated exclusively to in-depth analysis of gender femininity, interacting with socially structured relationships in
in totrrism are therefore most opporhrne. divisions of labour and leisure, sexuality, arrd power betwecn
women and men." From this basis Swain elaborates a conceptual
Similar in their form, both publications consist of a collection of frame for the various case sfudies presented in the volume, that
case studies elaborated mainlv - but not "only" - by women opens up multiple ways of rcading thenr. As hc'lpful schema she
researchers. Both books are completed with an introductory (and considers that gender "can be analyzed as an independent
conclusive) chapter that lines out the theoretical framework of variable influencing tourism and as a dependent variable
gender issue in tourism, and there substantial difference comes in. responding to tourism activity." Like in Kinnaird/Hall's
publication the case sfudies investigate a wide range of topics
Vivan Kinnaird and Derek Hall who both lecture Geography and with different conclusion, and some of them would requin'
f)evelopment at the University of Sunderland (U.K.) entitle the separate reviews in order kr fully recognize the significance of the
work they edit as "gender analysis"; but curiously they omit in results for the comprehension of tourism and further sfudies.
their introduction (Kinnaird/Kothari/Hall) to define their concept
and understanding of gender more precisely, and hardly refer to Nevertheless, not even the special issue of the "Annals of
the (feminist) literature on gender. Much more detailed the Tourism Research" cxplains sufficiently why tourism research
authors review some of the important theoretical concepts in seems to discover its interest in gender at this very moment. Is it
current tourism research which thev examine lvith reference to iust following - with a certain delay - the lead of the literature on
their consideration of gender and the'ir applicability to gender Bender and de'velopment? No doubt, it is a pleasure to see
specific analysis. Promisingly they start out by approaching women - finallv - ptrt in the forefront of the tourism stage; but
l3ender in tourism from a perspective of economical development this boom of special intcrest seems also somehow curiotrs. Onll'
highlighting some critical points of this debate. Leaving then the recently the "woman traveller" has been discovered as a gap in
tlimension of political economy they tum to view tourism as social the market by publishing houses and travel agencies. The
and individual relationships. Countless studies and theoretical tourism industry has for a lonp; time demonstrated hor,r' to make
refltcti<xs on the topic of tourism have struggled with the trse of the' (imagery of) women in marketing, and horv to extentl
ditTicultv toconceive this complex phenomenon with its the female role of the host as one specific form of flexibilizing
implications and its interactions ranging from transnational to women's working-forct . In the face of ctrrrent transformation antl
individrral level. That's whcre thc ge'nder approach with its restrrrcttrring of the intcrnational lorrrisnr intlustrl, lht'st'
multiplc. climensions could stimulate theory and methods. But the "qualities" will probably be very much in demand. Especialll'
erposition of Kinnaird/Kothari/Hall clearly shows that focussing from a feminist perspective this sudden increase of attenlion the
on "sender" isn't by itself the key to a revolutionary new gender issue gets also within the scientific debate of tourisnr
understanding of tourism. Important theoretical issues are more generates a need for furthc'r explanation. I
An Understanding of Tou.rism's Future

f gnor"r,." is bliss for many. But those who rule the country are further into the trap of 'frxd import' if tourism appears at the scale
paid by people not to be ignorant. Of course, when rulers get plannt'rl by the government and the tourism lobby.
L more dollars for being ignorant, they act as true fools.
The Employment Angel
In Kerala, the southem, lush green state of India, maiority of
people and those who govern them seem to be chasing dollars in
The argument, time and again, raised by the 'tourism terrorists'
somebody's pockets and they chum out schemes without
under the leadership of the rulers bank on the high rate of
analysing the real traps of tourism and the elusive dollars.
unemployment in the state which has been created by lopsided
economic policies since 7947, the year of India's Independence.
lntercstingly', the fully literate, highly "developed" state seem to be
Earlier tourist locations including Goa had proved that tourism
unaware of what really happened to the earlier pleasure being a service activity can provide less number of jobs per acre
peripheries in the world such as Thailand, Philippines, lndonesia,
of land and per lakh of rupees investment when compared to any
SriLanka and Canarese Islands. Tourism has been put on top of
other economic activity while the hidden cost of tourism are f"rr
the development dish proposed by the new Chief Minister who
more damaging than any other activity.
has been acclaimed as'sensible'according to normal quality- scale
used to rdeasure chief ministers in the largest democracy in the
world. The end result of lumping onto the magical tourism Planners and politicians have committcd themselves t() re.pe.rt
bandrvagon led by the World Tourism Organisation and the mistakes and make profit out of enforced mistakes which serve
Government of India would be accumulated waste, polluted water one or the other profit maniac. Of late, the covert non-recognitron
and ait people without self-respect ancl shocked by hidden of the marginalised maiority in the earlier phase of planned
colonialism. development has been replaced by an overt exclusion on the basis
of absence of purchasing power. Tourism planners in India are
busy violating the fundamental rights of the majority to make sure
The Hidden Tenorism that those with a f.rt purse could have sightseeing of the poor
which will msure enough profit to the kith and kin of these
All the hills, dales and backwaters of Kerala are up for sale for a sightseers.
few elusive tourist dollars lying in somebody's pocket. Those who
promise new heavens fol the Keralites through the not se sure
This attitudc has bct'ome the new mantra goveming tourism
visikrrs have taken the garb of real estate agents and the
planners. It was evidcnced by the recent statemcllt of the. Kerala
Government of Kerala, its tourism outfit, the Kerala Tourism
Tcrurism Special secretary and a senior manager of the KT'I)C.
De.velopment Corporation (KTDC) and the Central government
They told this writer that only rich tourists should come t() Kerala.
in the forefront for selling prime lands to
torrrism agencies are
But what they failed to urrclerstand or acted as if thcy don't knorv,
multinationals at a throw away price. They have no argument
is the fact that the per cent of rich in .the rvorld has been going
e\ccpt the archaic development myths and an archaic and dubious
Iancl acquisition law to legitimise their demands for land to effect
down everv da1, as proved bv statistics flowing from the rich
nations who became rich bv unlarn'ful nleans over the last 50{)
the myths to fool pe'ople who have regularly been trapped by
political clap trap dealing with progress. Recently, the Kerala
T<rurism minister said that Kerala would be made into another
Goa! No other proof is required to shorv the plans to unleash state
terrorism on the people of Kcrala through Tourism. It has been
The Global f)ouble Speak.
proved that Goa lost more than what it gained through tourism
.rnrl the Kerala minister seems to be happy with the Goa model. "The rvorlt-l is at the darvn of a ner.r, Goldon Age of travel-an age
of vovaginpl on a truly global mass scale. As the 21st cenhrrv
l-irn.l, the prime resource required fclr tourism, maintain a static unfurls, people of every class and from every countrv rvill he
suoplv which requires conversion of land from one use to another. wanclering to every part of this planet." (Time, |une 1?,19q5)
Kerala can boast of the maximum density of population among
Indian states along with its development achievcments according What thc Tinrc corresporrdernts tactically kept orrt of print is the
to western notions. Therefore, it is imperative that large areas of uniust fall out of the Golderr Age, in trtre spirit of the r,r'estern
productive land will be divcrted to provide pleasure space to a itieologv of disinformation irrrd misinforrnatirrn. Asia, Africa, Latin
tcw, arrd rnost of this land mass will be agricultural land. Kcrala Antcrica arr<l tlrt. indigr.rrous peoplc of the presentlv 'riclr
u'hich.rlready experiences sevcre food dependency willbe pushed countrics havc fallcn vit'tims of nranr'(irltlcn Agts alrnotrncetl b1'
the predecessors of Time Magazine. And they arc announcing, vet
anottrer Golden Age of destruction of the remaining worlcl of th.'
*.,\.lvocatt'and poor and marginaliscd.
was previouslv working with EQUATIONS
fourism Organisation, the Interrrational Airlinc's, the f<rurisrn
ministers and secretaricrs, and the mainstream media in India
speak the same statistical languag,e; the)'talk about trillions mixed
up bv the revenue of Airlines, Ilaihvavs, lk'tels, lransport ant'l
Allied lnclustris.

The game is intcnclcd to frrrl thc Ptrrple to obtain space: for the
leisure class, espr.*ially in the unspoilt localities of Asia, Africa and
Latin America. For legitimising the argument, tourism has been
proiected as the only development paradigm for those u.ho missed
the development bus during the last half centurv r,r'hich incltrc'lcs
'lndia. It be.came a convenient argument for the ruling elites of
India; now they can bank on yet another avenue to propose
mythical schemes and continue to remain in porver bv fooling
people with grandiose promises of devclopment.

Facilitating Invasion
Kerala, identified for intense tourism promotion, seems to be on
the way for doom through the proposed tourism boom. The nrlers
The Time correspondents went to the extmt of extreme distortion
of the state and the parrrhial brrreaucracy have been assured of
of reality by barking that'people of every class and from evcry
free mcal and five stnr holidays by thc multinational corporations
country' will roam the planet. The number of people who can
and their lrral partners as comnrission for assisting in the tourisrn
iravel has been going down even in the United States of America
drama. Master Plans have been preparecl in dozens kr make thc.
where real wages have been falling below average in many sectors
people of Kerala mere servants providing all that is needcd by thc
during the last so many years. Can the nearly 15 per cent of iobless
few who bccame rich by sucking the blood of thousands.
people and the nearly 30 per cmt of workers who get only less
than enough for survival in the USA can havel all over the planet?
Can the 70 per cent of people of India who just manage to survive
The latest addition to the many master l.larrs for trxrrism
are able to wander the earth ? Nearly 80 per cent of the people of
development in the state, the Bekal Special Tourism Area master
plan, intends to destroy more than l0 self-sufficient villages in the
the world have no income to spare for travel after meeting
Kasargocl district, the northern district of Kerala. The master plan,
essential survival needs and the percentage is increasing due to
over mechanisation of productive activities. It will be foolish to prepared by a local architect r,r'ith assistance from internatiorral
believe that The Time scribes are not aware about thee facts. But
consultants for a fee of more than Rs 60 lakhs. claims itsclf
they are paid to herald thc new Coldcn Age since it will help those eco-friendly and contains proposals for golf corrrses ancl an
exclusive airport. It has bcen ct'signt'd on the basis of tht' theory
who are all set to launch another colonial era, an era of hidden
exploitation of the remaining pristine areas by making them the
of exclusion of ordinary pcoplc which has bt<ome current in
'pleasure spaces' for the thoroughly bored and mechanical 'human lndonesia, Thailand anrl Philippines years ago as part of large
scale tourism development.
clogs' of the developed nations. Of course, the travel game played
by the Time will benefit its own sister concerns as the Time Inc
has been cross-hooked with otirer multinational profit maniacs. The land required for the llekal STA n.ill be nearly 400 hectirres
spread in nearly 10 villages on tlre Arabian sea coast lying adiacent
Another side of the 'the golden age' game get the last and self- to the Bckal ftrrt. Accortling to the master plan, the proiect u'ill be
assuring reference in the same issue of the Timc (Mukul Pandya: implemented by the Bekal Resort f)evelopmcnt Corporation in
All Signs Point East,p52-53)."..Alreadv so many tourists have been two phascs, first rvith 2120 beds would he complcted in 2001 AI)
packing into such national parks as Yellowskrne and the Grand and thc ser<rnd Fha-se with 5512 btds rvould hecome operational
C-'anvon during the summer that access has to be severely in ?011 Al), and include manv t.r'o star to super luxurv class
restrictecl, and debates have begun about banning tourists in some hotels. Thc Rs 1000 crore prrrit'ct proposes to providc direct
areas altogc.ther". The Tirne correspondent wants to hide the trudr employntent for 80fi) persons. A rrr.rssrr.e infrastnrcfure plan has
that the dcveloped world has been hungrily looking for true been drawn up for 400 hectarcs strr:tr:h lving behvcan two rivcrs
naturc and real beaulv because of the boredom of packaged tourist and sea on another side, now prrrr.itling home ancl work spact. for
products and has already destroyed its wilderness by over lakhs of peop'le. Ancl yet, the master plarr claims that there v,,oukl
consumption. However; the correspondent confesses like a bc displacement of only less than 25 house.s-
doubting Jones. "Twenty five years from nolr', will Asia face the
same crisis ? Perhaps says Perry 'people are already begining kr The master plan was subnrittr'd to lhc state tourism ministcr on
recognise that if they want to attract tourists, they must have Iulv !1,1995 ancl when contactcd on ltrlv 12, the architect rifrrst'rl
attractive destinations. Govemment will finally have the incentive to give out a copy of the plan by arguing that it is sonrcthing
to clean up their acts'. Unless, of course, they are overwhelmed by similar to state secn:t. llor+'can it he ?'l'he nrchitect has ['er.rr I'aid
the tourist tidal rvave". Even after the experience of Yellowstone, from the state coffers, from monev accrrmulafcd throul-ih tax
Crand Canyon, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines and Canaresc contributions and it is a dcvekrpment plan suhnritt<.tl to ;r
Island, the Time correspondent still has doubts about tht: impacts tlcnrrrrati<' g,overnnrt'nt. Tlrcn whv rkr thcl, wntrt t() ktr.p il .rq a
of the krurist tidal wave. clrtselv g,uarded secrct ? tt lras nrithirrg kr tl<, wit.h the rnilitart,
activity of tlrt: countr\'. Does it mean.that tourism developrnerrt
i.hr: statistical game played to proiect the elusive tourism boom is plans are mor<'- dangerous than military activities u'hich shorrld be
the sarne everywhere. The Time corre;pondents, the World kept orrt of the. r.r't' rrf the people who elertccl the grrvemment? Thr-'
natural apprehension is that there is something in the plan which Tourism project. Many criiical joumals have come out with
rs rgainst thc inte.rest of the local people and environment though rallying points to support activists opposing touristisitrg the state
thc arclritr.ct claims that the plan is for an 'eco-tourism proicct'. and manv others have planned special issues to rliscrrsq torrris.n
vvhich will come out so()n.
Peoples Reaction to lburism Promotion Brrt tlrc movement against unjust and clestnrctive tourism pnriocls
Tht mainstream rncclia with high rtrrdership in thc highlv literate has vet to reach a fruitful point in the state. Many lcrcal groups
Kt:rala has succeecled in brainr,r'ashing people to believe that therc i;rce the problems of clcfining the problem itself bccatrse of the very
is no other develcpnrent alternati\.e except totrrism. This is in tune cl'-rsiveness and secrecy maintained about the proiects until it takes
n'ith thc'arsuments of thc government, ru!ing parties, bureaucrats ofi Activists find it hard to convince people afxrut the problems
and thc tourism lobhy. Ilorvtver, the attempts to sensitise people of tourism berause of the pervasive irrfluence of mainstream
al.rrut the rc.rl implications of the new form of state terrorism rrrcdi.r u,hich regrrlarlv sing praises for torrrism as the best rvay for
throrrgh tourisln developnrcnt h.rs heerr made hy manv peopk's Fr()gn'ss. Pcctplc have develoPed a 'wait and sec' attihrele rvhich
gr()ups antl the secontl-line nrcdia which has rcrcentiv g,athercrl r;igniiv a lrigh levcl of crnsumerist culhrrc. Tlrt- first task to bc
montt'nhlnr. But a maior constraint is the lack of critical an'areness .tili.!rt'.qt.cl bv ar-tivish; seem to be brcaking of thc cltrlches of thc
cttncerning tourism issues even among the media pers()n.;. consunrnrist culhr!".' and the development myths v*.hich itstlf is ;r
herct:lt'.tn task. !l,.rvever, peoples groups ire active in r.arigus
Voices of pr(ltr.st havc heen achve in many parts of the statc rlr,rring lrx',11i111'q identiflr.' for intense torrrism promotion anrl are trving
tht last five vcars and it has bcrome more evident recently. A to ct.:!l tlre unirrst proiects in whatever manncr possibte rvhich is
rvr)rncrn's meet held reccntlv at llekal decided to oppose the Bekal .r wclctrrne develonrnent. I

Workshop on'Alternatives'
to Mainstream Tourism
Slrder vrr drn Bilri

n fune 10th anC llth EQUATIONS sponsorc'd the educating the tourists on the norms and values of the people his
Workshop on 'nlternatives' to Mainstream Tourism. It clients visit. In the last scssion of the ltrrkshop the participants
took place over the weekcnd at the Creen Hotel, Mysore rvere split up into smaller groups to discuss each persons vicw
lvith around 25 participants taking part in the hvo day discussions. on 'Alternatives' and what firhlre action should be taken. as
tourism is a dynamic activity
no set guidelines wercr created, but
The first Cay started off with a general round of introductions of ideas charted down for each to think about.
EQUATIONS, the Green lJotel, and the participants themselves.
The discussions 1;ot r,r'el! under way with Shirley Susan's Although persons from the lr{ainstream tourism industry were
(EQUATIONS, Bangalore) prescntation on the "Flistory of invitcd, thc'se were unable to come for various reasons. Their
Tourism", followc'd by R.rniii llcnry's experience gained from his rbsence was felt as they lvoulcl havu brnn ;rlrlc h'r give valuahle
tour company; Kotanr '!'rrrrrs, Madras. The aftemoon session rvas input intlr thc' discussions, ncverihcless discrrssions were raised
characterised l,y the participanls'experiences with t<rtrrism in on torrrisrn issues, the impacts of tourism, policy intervention,
general and Alternative tourism specifically. The day closed anrl 'Altc'rnatives'. The workshop provt'cl kr be fruitful for the
rvith Dennis O'Rourke's film " Carrnibal Tours", highlighting the participants, raising their lel.el of awareness on tourism issues,
guests' and hosts' reactions to the interaction of both through an and forming a neh,!'ork of like-nrindcd. This wcrkshop is the first
oq;anised tour. of .r serit's of workshnps on 'Alternatives' to Mainstream Torrrism
rvhich will be condtrcted over the next couple of years. In the
'lhe second day starterl with st*'eral pft:sentations. First w.as lrrtrrre tlrey will involve people from the mainstream, engaging
Sandra van der Bilt, student of the Netherlands Institute of with thcm to raise their level of awareness on the impacb of
Tourisnr and Transport Studies and trainee with Equations, with torrrisrn to come to a more just form of tourism, eventuallv
her paper'Tourism Policy and Consumerism ". H.M. Manjrrnath tra nsfcrrming the Mainstream.
from YAI'NA, Bangalore, followed with "Policy Perspectives".
This session, 'The Backdrop' ended with a presentation by A full report of the Workshop on 'Alternatives' to Mainstream
Charles Camara, from the University of Stockholm, working on Iourisnr and the inelividual papers are available from
his l'h D., who presented a case study of tourism in Coa. F.QUATTONS. I
'Emerging .\lternatives' was a session of discussions on several
peoples' etforts in practising some form of 'Alternatives'. Padma
Raiagopal, of Alpha Ccntarrri,Mysore, spoke ab<rut tourism as
an t:xch.lng,e of knowledgt', in the form of work in t'xchange !'/o r'cao/tpnw to tcf .roc/n eeftnru/"t A antt, o/

for, for e'xamFrlc, boartling and lodging. Alex Pr:rrera, /Ie, nule*al At. thh. ncnule,l.h.p. dllcara nc.Jo'C
cotrsultant b WoolJl.rnds Nctrvork, Sri[.anka, sp<rke ahout thtir a.t a//.Sao'io.h.ty ,ztuy'. u'tu/, rc n'ry'ty o/ tAc
efforts kr conduct tours from rvhich mr'rst of the financial br.nefits vftoe/arcal nulot,itt/ /<n' arr ity/o>otttttian, ,97*,
go to tht peoole visited. llanjit Henrv spoke about lris efforts in
uionto et/,rcwd bt, t/u. aolic,loo.ctto thaas o/, t/,o
aal/nwanrl naf ruraanti/,f o/ herfi.fh&ob'.
Stitdent ol the r-etherlanfis Institute ot'Iourism and Transporl Shrtlies and
tr,rrner with Equatiors
filthy, smelly dirt from the bottom of the moat. I have seen women
collapse^from the heat. And for this, the. govemmmt pays us

Forced relocations

Many people are being forcibly relocated to "clean up" tourist sites,
or to make way for new developments. Rangoon is now a
Making a Killing show-case for tourists, where thousands of poor people have been
shunted out of the sight of tourists to " New Towns". This carrses
great hardship for the people who receive no compensation and

from Tourism... are forced to rebuild their homes on inhospitable site and people
who would have scraped a living as day labourers or hotrsehold
servants, now find they cannot even afford the bus into town.

As Burma slowly emerges from years of isolation to become a The most notorious case has been that of the historic town of
Pagan, a popular tourist destination, famous for its hundreds of
tourist destination of the fufure it remains to be seen what tourists
ancient pagodas. ln April 1990 the 5,2fi) people who lived in
will be noticing... the chain gangs and civilian slave labourers who
Pagan among the pagodas were forced to pack their belongings
are being forced throughout the countr)' to work on proiects to
and move to a site of unsheltered baked earth 20 miles away. Most
prepare the country for tourists; or only what the regirne wants
'them villagers had lived in Pagan for scores of generations. Four people
to see - beautiful pagodas, and a population which they hold
who protested were held in jail for tour months.
firmly under their control.

Burma; the altemative guide, launched by the Burma Action Money money money...
Group, is compelling account of the development of the tourism
industry in Burma, and the effects this is having on the lives of
ordinary Burmese. It also addresses the ethics of travelling to While money from tourism may help dt:velop a country's
Burma today. economy and bring much need money to the people, it is clear
that in Burma this is not presently the case. The military controls
Whilst recognising that a boycoft is unrealistic and controversial, all aspects of the economy, including revenue from tourism.
the Burma Action Group strongly discourages tourists from going
on holiday to Burma whilst SLORC continue to deny basic human "Anyone thinking of visiting the country at this time must
rights to its people, and whilst tourists revenue fuels further recognise that they are fueling the SLORC's drive to prepare the
abuses. Burma; the altemative guide does however also contain country for tourism" says Sarah Sutcliffe, the coordinator of the
recommendations for people who do decide to go including Burma Action Group. "Tourists visiting the cotrntry will be using
advice on how to support the people of -Burma without the railways and roads built by thousands of forced lahourers and
endangering them, and how to minimise the regime's monetary will be visiting palaces ancl cultural sites fron'r which local people
gain. In some cases, tourists can play a role in opening-up the have treen forcibly relocated. 'lourists must be aware that at least
country; bringing a greater flow of information in and out, and 50 cents in every dollar spent in llurma goes directly to the
acting as "witnesses" to some of the atrocities being committed. SL.ORC. ln a country that has no external enemies, but that spends
The' regime will however be doing all they can to hide the reality 40ol' of its annual budget on the military the eqtration is clear."
from the eyes of tourists, allowing access to only a well defined
circuit of destinations while all other places remain closed.
Burma; the altemative gtridr. is available from thc Burma Acti<rn
Tourists must be fully informed before visiting Burma.
Group at the address helorv for 83.99 + 50p P&p. For more
information contact Sarah Sutcliffe M 171 3Sg 7679.
1996 has been declared by Burma's military dictatorship, the
SLORCl,as " Visit Myanmar Year", and it is in ihe drive to piepare
the countn' for the influx of visitors expected in 1995 that human Collins Studios, Collins Yard, Islirrgton Green, Londorr, Nl 2XU
rights abuses have beeh and continue to be committed. [n response Tel:(44) (0) 171 35q 7679 Fax:(M) (D 171 354 3987
to this, travel writers and editors,and tour operators have begun E-ma i I :ba gp@gn.apc.org
to debate the issue. Burma Action Group is urging them to
recognise their resposibility to inform people of the realities of
travelling to Burma and giving money to this brutal regime. l. Statc l,aw and Order Restoration Council
2. New York Times,17 /9/94

Slave Labour

Civilians anC prisoners in chain gangs are forced to work as slaves

on a huge scale throughout the country to prepare Burma's
infrastrucfure ready for tourists. Scores have died in the prcrcess.
In April 1994 orders were given to clean up Mandalay Palace, I Million

inclucling a project to dredge the moat. Alongside i Rupees I

prisoners, two thousand ordhary farmers and city folk werc used ="i- ---.-- j :.
to rvork on this giant project " We must use our hands to take this 0-1L _1?:4! l!5
Mr. t'. V Narasimha Rao was inaugurating the llth annual convention of the qomts down to half. For these reasons, the pM is right in saying
lndian Assrrciation of Tbur Operators. "Our efort shoulil fu to rnalie totnism one
ttf the major ec.rnmic actiz,ities but not the onlrl economic activit1." "you cnn,t have that India is not a tourist country.
an island oi affluence in a sea of potertrl."
At lhc same time, as a sunrisc intltrstry with its nrtrltiplicr cffcr.t
on iobs an<l ancillaries, tourisnr's potenti.rl cannot be minimise,<i.
It is next only to garments and gcms and jewellery in earning
foreign exchange at the present lcvel of arrivals. One planning
Comnrission working group proiection is that tourism corrld

Blind Spots of underwrite India's entire import bill if only the country could
rlraw as many tourists as Thailant{ does. This calls for priority

Indian Tourism attention to some of the requirements for enhancing the qualitv of
tlrt' product and making it globally conrpetitive.

'frrrc, thc PM acknowledged that tourism is important br.rt

Rnbirulro Seth nnd S Dharnnro jon on the failure af the tourism industry
lo inrlrrr'ss its prLthlents aild pressurec on the powers- thnl-\rc qrralificd thc stat.mt'nt to sav that it was not that important,
whate..,er it mea Nobody lvould dispute that basic neerJs like
health, educati.' ,rnd shelter, which would enrich the' qualit,r, of
n the custclmary vote of thanks at the [ndian Association of Totrr
life of thc peopl.' shotrld get a lower priority than tourism.
f C['u.otoo (IATO)'s closing session in New Delhi, Pradeep ()n thr: other hantl, totrrisnt development should be
L S.rnkhala, a senior functionary of the asscrciation, who is expt:ctec.l kr
provirk-. rcsourccs for frrnding the basic needs. Which onlv points
seldom given to hvpcrbole, ;rttritrutcd the'mileage in ptrblicitv :rnrl
media attention the discussions had received to the prescnce of the kl tht.cerrtral rc'ltvancc of torrrisnr which can open ltp rtrarrv
trackward areas.
Prime Mirrister at the inaugura! session. I-Ie described him as "the
hero of thc'e.ntire shorn'." But if one crrrsorily reads Narasinrha Rao's (it:rtainly; the use. of thc concerpt of "islancls of afflrrencc in a sea
sFc(rh, thc iustifi.rble conclusion is of ihe presence of an anti-hero. of povcrty " to disnriss the torrrism infrastrrrcfure is going against
the crrrnrnt economic trends. For once the tnurist is no outcast. A
The Prime Minister's conscnt to open the annual conventiorr had leisure traveller travels fnr leisure and corrld be proviCed with the
the organisers errphoric but what he said only shessecl the comforts he is willing to pay for.
limitations of Indian tourism. Thc ab*nce of political commitment
to 1611pis6, the continuing misgivings about its role as a Titday's tourist, it should be acknowletlged, is vr.rv scnsitir.e to
socio-cconomic phenomenon and thc failure of the industrv ro environment and is keen on value additions. The elderly still come
impress on the por,r'ers-thaFbe its problems and presstrres were in large numbers. The I,M himself is keen on charters
evident. supplcmcnting pilgrim facilitation. What is good for the pilgrims
should be equallv good for the leisure traveller.
In the speeches which preceded and followed the PM's address,
incluciing those of two ministers, the emphasis was very much on Surprisingly the PM was silent on the circtrmstances which
tourism's potential as a generator of resourcesiob and aftended on the worst times for Indian tourism. IIe was content
opportunities and its multiplier effect. Global kends were cited to with insisting on the obvious. There should he an emphasis on
buttress the claim that tourism is the workl's number one industrv domestic tourism. Only i0?2" of the poptrlalion travel_s for holiday.
and it will leave all othc.r activities behind. In this contcxt, Intlia India has sevcml festivals and fairs which should be made.
logged for behind, rvith less than 0.5 per cent of the international poptrlar. Clverceas scholars shorrld be given special attention.
tourist traffic. It was mentioned that if India could be the favorrrite, Thcre should he prese.ntation of India's cultural heritage and
if not the ultimate destination, it would also turn out to be the sophistication likc charterc be brorrght into pilgrim movements.
investment destination. IATO President, Subhash Goyal hacl also These are nitty gritty to anyone who enters thc'travel business and
cataloged the litany of requests facing the industry. sttPr'r flttorts to bo ru1"r.',t to those engagcd for tong in hringing
tourisls r,r'ith varied interests into the country.
Every one of them said that the very presence of the PM for the
first time at a convention of a travel body was a historical everrt. 'l-hc ['M brackctt'tl
these simple truisms rvith the observation that
But when the PM's hrrn came, hc failed to make any rcfercnce to India, unlike some other desfinations, is not a tourist countrv. I.le
the specific problems posed by Goyal, nor would he elaborate on went on to explain that India did not depend on tourism for its
the rvidely accepted larger perspective of organised tourism for a sur'":ival, as some others did. l{e ctid not name those countries.
big spurt in intemational arrivals. It is a multi-dinrensiorral
tourism product magnificent in its sweep and vastly v.-rriegated irr To sav that some other countries wholly survive on tourism
its range. Yet if in that competitive environment it has not been rlocsrr't take one anywhelq. In any event, the competing
able to pull even a million genuine visitors from the originating destination in the region like those in East Asia and South East
markets the farrlt is not ',a'ith thc procluct but with the Asia h"rve much more than tourist attractions to placr-. them among
infrastnrcture', promotion, marketing and the lack of political will tirc Asian Tigers. In fact, tourism in these countries has followed
to persuade. ihe.ir tronomic development. This is not to suggest that lndia
should wait for a similar stahrs.
Incidentally, tourism analysts nrairrt:rin that thc nurnlrcr of gcnrrint.
tourists is far less than the offici.rl figures releasetl bv thc trxrrisrn Ilvcn if the I'M rlirl ttrt givc rrrv solr trr thr. t()rtr operators. thev
ministry. For instance, it is clainred that last year 1.8 nrillion people rcmained excited that he had f<rtrnd time for thenr. It shotrld be
visited India. Take out those who came from across the border to said in all faimess to the organisers that the business sessions
nreet their relations, dorrb.ie entries of foreign visitors from Ncpal, rr:allv did get down to tackling serious issues. Manv qtrestions
short-term business travellers and the figure of genuine tourists wcrt'asked though answers were not available.
Onc of thcse' was why there has becn no study of the strcngths the south and Archana in the. north, corrsrrmer protrction was
and weaknesses of the Indian market. How come India docs not another subjcct that exerciscd the delegates who have now to
figure in either the top 20 destinations or among the top 20 accept the stringent norms laid down hv the originating countries.
earners. With finance no longer being a problem, how is it that the Thcy are required to providt all tlrat is pronrist'd nnll tur promise
infrastructure remains inadequate. Even in respect of domestic onlv what can be delivered.'l'he tour opcrators havt'their own
torrrism, the traveller does not get the same entitlement for a dcnrands kxr. Ther vehemencc with rvhich thcy advocate and the
rr.asonable tariff on the palace on wheels and similar trairrs. nuanccs thcy stressed only hcightened the reservations among key
s€gments of the industry. They followed up the demand for
L)rrnrestic tourism is the most stabilizing factor in the industry. A exporters status with. a claim that hoteliers should not directly
pr()per aviation policy with due stress on increased seirt contract with overseas parties or for that matter suomoto, claim
availability internationally and on domestic services as well as share of tht' foreign exchange tax benefits.
strengthening of airports in off-beat places is yet to be formulated.
Donrestic tourism is the most stable element and a good cushiolr
for anv shortfall in foreign arrivals. 'Ihc chief gucst in whrrse prr:scnc(' sorn(, of the
dt'mant-ls wcrc.
voiced, preftrred not to make a refercnce to them in his address.
Some rvelcome trends on thc lndian tourisrn scene have shown Still, thcy were very vocal in hailing the Prime Minister as the hero
uit. There is a greater expansion of regional airlines like NEPC irr and his presence as historic. I

> 80226 - (F21) "Violence against innocent women is a national shame more
against the unarmed helpless Dalit women to our civilisation and
l\onten and HIV/AIDS - An lnternational Resource Book by Marge culture. The women organisations must be able to publicise the
Berer with Sunanda Ray
issue through hand bills posters, cultural activities, protest
l'his book is for evcryonc who wants to know morc about demonstrations etc to win the s1'mpathy of the gender sensitivity.
HIV/AIDS and women internationally, including women, publishcd lry women org,anisation for
rvomen's organisations; women's health and reproductive l.iberation and
Devclopment, 15, PanamPet lload, Ural Karaimc'du, Villrrpuram
health activists, researchers and service providers; - 505 602, Thmil Nadu, 1994,1-8 pp.
policymakers, human rights organisations, educations,
journalists and those working in intemational development;
as wr.ll as IIIV/AIDS activists and professionals. F Aoosg" - (F2l)
Thr. first ten chapters summarise factual information and explore 'litffickirtg on Women - A Regionnl Problcm by Anita Dey
metiical and social issues and dilemmas. The next two chapters
contain personal histories, descriptions of self-help groups, 'The trafficking in women fronr Bangladesh to India and
HIV/AIDS proiects and organisations for women in each region Pakistan and thcn on to the Middle East is a phenomenon that
ancl their work in advocacy, education, prevention and services. has gainecl prominence in thc last ten ycar. A more hdpful rvav
Also contains a selection of local, national, regional and in which this topic could be approached is bv looking at it as part
international groups and organisations involved in work on the of labour agitation and to address thc i,ssue from this angle"-
isstre, their activities and resources.
PP - '21,1993, 1-2 pp.
Pultished by Pandora Press, 77-85 Fulham Palace Road,
llammersnrith, London W6 8JB, 1993, 1-383 pp. US $22.W.
> A0707* - (Fzr)
D Aootz* - (F21) Proslilutittn - Solrcititrc for Clnnge
l'/rt' .Skrrr Trnde - A Specinl Rcporl by Margot Hornblower (a) C'harts a hiskrrv ()f preiudi(.:cs .rg,:rinst prostittrtion (t)) (:hil(l
Ftx'rling on ciisparities in wealth, the collapse of communism and Prostitution is an emotivc issutt (c) 'l'he eciitor suggcsts a simpk.
incre;rsed mobiliry the traffic in flesh is a horror of exploitation r,r'av throrrpih thr. moral morass to the srrblect wlrich pr,rdrrics
tir.rt shame.s the world's conscience. strong opinions and much corrfusion (tl) l)nrstitution & thc l,arv
- The Facts (e) The Wcrrld Clrarter for Prostitrrtes' Rights, etc.
Prrl'lrslrr'ri I'V TIME, fune 21, 1993, 14-25pp.
publislrcd I'y NEW INTEITNATIONALIST, Fcbruary
t99"1, l-3r,pp.
)> Aoea8. - (Fzt)
Ittlernntittna! S.rTrnprrsirln on Traffc in Human Bcings by INTERPOL
Womcu antl'ftrurism f)etnlol,rtu,nt - Iirunsul itr f'trus Winter Issue
Details on the proceedings of the
Symposium along with the 1993 Nurnber Ten
recommendations made to the member countries to improve the
Tirrrrislrr (-orrccrn, Frochcl (irlle'gc, Rochampkrn L_.rnc, Lontlorr
exchange of information on individuals and orgarrisations, who
are knou'n or suspecte.d to be involvecl in illegal activities relating
SWl5 sI'U
to prostihrtion. Septembe'r 1988. l-ltt pp.

b Ao6Bt* - (Fzo)
Atrocilies on Dolit Commntity and Dalit Women - Mensures lo curb ,T

thcm by Prema Shantha Kumari Tlrcse nnterinls apnilablc nt EQIIATIONS in photocopies,

3 Dethi uisit
tAbour Ust In lune K T Suresh and Basavarai tlebballi visited the Ministries
By Us of Tourism and Environment & Forests. This was part of the
follow-rrp to the on-going discussions on variorrs issues.
? Annual General Bady Meeting
1995 marks the tenth vear of existence of EQUATIONS.
It was held ? Reuiew Meeting
on27 May 1995 which was later followed by a small get-together This meeting was held as an internal process within EQUATIONS
of family and friends of EQUATIONS. from 4-8 Iuly 1995. The purpose of this process was
3 Workshop on Alternatiaes to Mainstream
Tburism ? tlnited Theological College
Whilt' EQUATIONS in the last few years had ge.nerally stayed An awareness session helcl for the students tlf thc Unitcd
away from the discussions of Altematives in Tourism, and as we Theological Colle:".: at EQUATIONS. K T Suresh spoke to them
had pressures from within the community to raise such issues, about various : t's in tourism.
EQUATIONS as a response held this Workshop on Altematives to
Mainstream Tourism at Mysore from 9-12 lune 1995. tn ill there
were about 25 participants both from within India and abroad. A
report of the workshop is in this ANLefter and the paperc that
? visits
were presented at the meeting are available at EQUATIONS. Adv. Mario Pinto Alme.ida now nrcmber of EQUATIONS ftrciety
visitcd us in June. The staff of EQUATIONS discussed in a meeting
with him on the Coastal Regulation Zone about the existing
3 Wbrkshop on Sustoinoble & Equitable loopholes in the regulafions. The outcome of the meeting was the
Tourism Initiatives in Himoahal Pradesh need to determine and define the Coastal Regulation Zone.

EQUATIONS, the Spiti Ti:urism Management Society, the State Charles Camara - Ph.D student from the University of Stockholm
Council for Science, Technology & Environment - Shimla and the & Alex Perreira - Consultant to W<lodlands Network, Sri Lanka
International Centre for lntegrated Mountain Development, visited us.
Kathmandu are jointly organising the workshop in October at
Shimla. The purpose of this workshop is to bring into focus a large
number of case'studies of issues in tourism in Himachal Pradeslr
with specific reference to Spiti, Kinnaur & Dharamsala.

3 East Coast Road. (ECR) fiIm


EQUATIONS is prodr.rcing this film to frrcus on the 737 km stretch

of land from Madras to Kanyakumari. The film caphrres the use | .?nt'lon* l.ct /rhet 6*/pt,
and abuse of land on either siCe. of the new road, problerns of the
people affected in the region, the mtrshrooming of shrimp
farming, chemical factories and resorts. The film is in its final stage
readv for editing and other studio works. Earlier in ]uly the rough Dcar Sir,
shots were brotrght to EQUATIONS and six days of intense
viewing to prepare the cue-sheets, storv line etc was carrie.d or.rt. Thank vorr verv nrtrch for sending mc a copy of yonr
i\Nl,ctter \.irlrrme 3 issue 3, Janrrary, 1995. In the name of
'krrrrisrn, u'e must not and, I repcat, we must not destroy tht'
4n culhrre and character of tlre people when tourism is being
-. tr@lneesnlp forced down tl'rrough the gullets of the people. See in this
Sanclra van der Bilt, a student fnrm the Netherlands fn5f1l,rla.of Lrrnncctiolr rvhat is happening in Goa, All the rich hotcliers
Tourism and Transport Shldies complcted her traineeship v,'itlr .t11' t;-ying lo 1r,i't i,r strangleholcl over (loa, - a place which
UQUATIONS from March to ftrne to leam more about thc'cftir-t. lras lrardlv ir 1'roptrlation of l0 lakhs. Scnn, in the process,
of torrrism and EQUATIONS perspectives on these issues. 5l'r. ( o.l rvill lose its inrrocence and senst'of hospitatility. This is,
vvorked on the European Community Policy looking sperificaih, Jl,rrnrl tc happen in thc islands of the Indian Ocean as well
at the guidelines for tour operators/consumer protrrtion ancl as in Andanran & Nicobar Islands. For the sake of monev,
analysed them in relation to the lndian Tourism Policy and the wr: cannot sll6lv spread of unregulated tourism.
loopholes in it. As a result of this, "rhe presented a paper at the
Workshop on Altematives to Mainstream Tourism at Mysore to
arrive at plans/guidelines for a more sensitive form of tourism. Adr'. Gobincla Mukhoty
Sandra van der Bilt also helped in organising the workshop itself Peoplcs Union for Demcrcratic Rights
and then rnaking a comprehensive report of the workshop. She Nt'w Delhi
successfully completed her traineeship in June.