Você está na página 1de 24

Volume 5 Issue 1 A 2 lune 1997

For Private Circulation Only

t(t g-r*h-%to%?rt
years ago when EQUATIONS began the discussion on the issue of tourixn, its impacts on communities, its role as a
rcnt tool and its releaance to the improaement of the quality of life of those dependent on it - all of
cment of this was considered
to the core development debate in the mid-$ls. This was because tourism was experienced only by a few who could
to traael. The experience, Iargely, was that of the tourist. The terms of the debate therefore was improaing amenities
'lamenting how a particular area was un-discoaered.

This was also the time when the role of the State in tourism deaelopment was quite ambiguous. At one leael it became a
player in the tourism market with the setting up of the lndia Tourist Deaelopment Corporation and the aarious state Tourism
Development Corporations and at another leael it continued to dictate the terms of the growth. The late-eighties saw the
beginnings of the processes that u)e a.re so familiar with nowadays - globalisation, liberalisation and its consequences. We
also saat the first of the major foreign exchange crunches that occurred with the oil crisis, and of international aid agencies
beginning to actually - blatantly, arm-twist nation-states into a certain form of policy-orientation. Foreign exchange becomes
the cornerstone of economic imperatiaes. Yet another holy cow is created and the saga of export dependence begins.
Tourism is legitimised as one of the important sources for this new national priority, earning foreign exchange.

The consequent expansion of tourism, its scope, the number of actors, the space and the resources that it needs to attain
econotnies of scale is now beginning to impinge on the other sectors. The public sector is being told to shrink its presence in
the so-called liberalised enaironment. Big players dominate the discussion on tourism's future with no reference to the
external enaironment in which it has to exist. The role of the state in formulating a policy perspectiae, the basis of the
industry's future growth, is handed over to a select few whose stakes as players in that defined future is undeniable. Policy
is prepared for the select few while platitudes are heaped on the others who are not part of the league.

While you read this editorial, another Tourism Policy would haoe been foisted on us. Yet again, there will be conflicts since
the goaernment is, it seems, not yet ready to listen to the experience of the previous ones, from the point of rsiew of those who
are traaelled upon. lt is fine to make policy statements, but isn't a policy supposed to take an ooeroiew of the conditions
within which it has to work? ln this issue of the ANLetter, we bring to you a glimpse of those conditions within which
tourism in our country operates . lt brings to you the scope of the effect of tourism' s growth since the late-eighties. It also
brings to you the action taken by affected communities, individuals and groups who are in their ou)n ways trying to
influence the industry and its operations. This issue tries to illustrate the 'enaironmental' conditions under which the
industry and the gooernment, will need to operate because of public pressure.

And the pressure is building up as tourism encroaches into areas where there already exist claimants for land and other
resources. Whether it is the adiaasis in Nagarahole, the constal community in Kerala or the people in the Niligiris area. The
conflict of interests in terms of the prioritization of the sharing of finite resources will escalafe, unless, a rational debate on
this takes place, now. The conflict is no longer limited to those who feel that they haae been kept out of the sharing process,
but those that are in the tourism industry, who are beginning to say that they are not getting a fair share of it. To some the
un-fairness in the system is aery eaident, others traaerse a longer path on the way to this realisation.

While all state gouernments are sold on the idea of tourism and each of them adds sops to the existing ones for the tourism
industry, it closes its eyes to the fact that the industry is not the only determinant of its utell-being. Saner elements in both
the gooernment and the industry are beginning to recognise this trend, but then the full import of this crisis is still not being
accepted by the hawks in the system. Unless a dialogue emerges on the larger purpase of the development of tourism, with
other constituents, ute wiII continue to see the State and the industry mouthing the same lines. EQUATIONS belieaes that
the time for such a debate is now, and we inaite our ruders to join the debate.

K:f .Sr*ra(
The
PoIiticaI
Economy
of
SeIf-RuIe
(This note looks at tlrc conceptual attd ideolttgical frnnezuork ilrcoh,ed in the adivasi stnrg.gle, bnsed on its intTtoct nt tlrc grassroots, ond
zuill tryefls'tl€rtlrcquestionnstotolu,l tlrcadivasiopposcprojectsthatuillrehnbilitntcthenroutsidetheforest,andgnintlrcmnccess
to'modern life'.lt argues tlnt the globnlizotion process seeks to make other lnlnrchies zunste nbsorlters, nnd it is tltis unet1ual nncl
clelnnnanisittg exclnnge tlmt tlrc adivasi are resistitrg. As n corollnry, it zuill nlso explnin uhy feiu people nre ltrought abotte tlrc pooerty
Iine by globalizntio tr.)

t has been to the considerable consternation of the middle Sequential Expropriation


class, fed on the propaganda of the state, that the adivasi
refuse to'come out of the forest' and 'into the mainstream', Social systems that are based on an exploiting mode interact
despite the'generous' package for rehabilitation. The struggle with other systems only to exploit. In this interaction, the
against the World Bank funded ecodevelopment planr is only exploiting society uses the other to become the waste absorber.
one among the more visible struggles being waged by the The dominant of the two also gets the best from the dominated
adivasi2. Various reasons have been put forward, the latest society. Thus it is a doublv beneficial relationship-it gets the
being the self-interest of NGOs in keeping the adivasi best from another system, often something that it cannot do
backward. But to get a real picture of the issue, it is necessary without, at a subsidised cost, and palms off its, often toxic,
to go into the core issues of the organisation of the culture and waste.
society that dictates the pace and place of 'mainstreaming'.
As in all cases of appropriation and assimilation, the dominant
This is the latest, and most systematic, effort to totally alienate system absorbs, but only to reinforce status quo and
dre adivasi from the forest. It seeks to subvert all the exploitation. In an exploiting system, it becomes necessary for
democratic gains made by the adivasi, and reduce the space for every man to oppress another and so on down the hierarchy to
further manoeuvre. It is a highly sophisticated attempt to women, animals, plants and the inanimate. This system needs
globalize the ownership of the forests, totally exclude the ever widening circles of oppressed, for the oppression and
adivasi from their resources and turn them into waste exploitation of each subsequent stratum in the hierarchy to be
absorbers. This is to be done in a gradual process, whereby the worked off. When this circle cannot widen, oppression within
trust of the adivasi is gained, the others strengthened to the system increases to unmanageable levels and in the
takeovet and the adivasis are induced or forced to move out of resultant tension, a restructuring takes place. Hopefully, if the
the forest. This, as we shall show, is the process by which all fundamental assumption of social ordering - that some are
expropriation-not only land, but religious, cultural...- takes worth more than the others - is changed, a step towards the
place. creation of a just society is taken.

In the whole debate in which adivasi culture, external Nations, when confronted with this crisis, resorted to passing
influences and national interest are freely quoted, there remains off this aggression onto other nations - resulting in imperialism.
one major aspect which we feel should be addressed: why is it Men passed it off on to women.. Women to children... and so
that the adivasi, from whose homelands come 80% of the on. With the refusal of women to absorb the oppression in the
minerals of India, who have the richest teak and other system, a major break in this chain of oppression has been
commercially valuable biomass on their land, why is it that 80% made3.
of the adivasi live under the poverty line? Why is it there are
starvation deaths among the adivasi who sit on some of the Since religious, cultural and economic holarchiesr are
richest forests of the land? Why is it that the adivasi have no inextricably interlinked, changes in one often influences and
electricity or drinking water though all power and water is causes corresponding changes in the others. The absence of
exported from their land? any more communities - in part due to their heightened
awareness and subsequent refusal - to be subsumed into the
The answers, we believe and as we shall show, lie in their lowest rungs of the caste system is a major cause for the crisis of
systematic disempowerment and assimilation. It is not the lack the caste system now.
of resources, but the lack of control over it that has led to this.
It is only the restoration of their sovereignty that will enable the Since the dominant holarchies can pass on their residual
adivasi to control their resources, and take control over their violence, and they have forced enough surplus to bank roll
lives- others to take care of their overt violence, it has been easy to

2
label the dominated holarchies as 'savage' and barbaric when where empowerment was the explicit goal.
they fight oppression. The real dynamics are a little different.
This is because once the expropriating holarchy has penetrated
Due to the absence of any more holarchies to pass on violence, the other, it then restructures even the self-integrated one in its
the most oppressed fight amongst each other for the remains, image - for that is a precondition for exploit. The most obvious
while the dominant holarchy - which has taken the cream and is the World Bank imposing structural adjustment policies on
the lion's share - can watch with detachment and superior its borrowers.
aloofness. Expropriating holarchies do so systematically, and
with such finesse, that not only is their loot masked but they The worst for the best
are able to pose as peacemakers, sending charity and armies for
'peacekeeping'. The dominant in this transaction palm off the waste of their
system for the best of the dominated system. This is true across
The rape of Africa for centuries has resulted in the present holarchies. The best wolman of the oppressed holarchy is
violence. The dominated, since they are struggling for survival often married to the worst of the dominating one. The 'ayah' or
do not have the space - nor the requisite surplus - to take time the house maid, gives the best quality time, and often the best
off for a dispassionate analysis of the source of their years/ of her life - which should be spent with her children and
exploitation. So they take on their immediate oppressor, rather family - to wash the dishes and clean the houses of someone
than the source/ which is unapproachable both in terms of else: a very obvious waste absorption role. This is systemic, for
geography and capacity almost the entire globe is built on exploiting holarchies.

The need for'mainstreaming' The best years of a person are spent not with the family - which
most people believe they are building and working for - but in
Sequential exploitation also means sequential expropriation, for dehumanising places of work that have no space for the family.
to sustain their overconsumptive lifestyles, the exploiters must The 'system' takes the best of all, leaving no quality time for the
find ever widening areas to exploit. Using their power they thus real things we value: our families, hobbies...all have to make do
grab what the poor have. The new fad for biodiversity, herbal with the time the system does not need us-i.e. the waste time
medicine and holistic health care is no accident . Bringing isolated for the dominant holarchy.
communities into the economic system only furthers this cycle.
Those who follow the expropriating holarchy follow their
If the idea is to integrate them into the 'mainstream' then the customs-if you can't beat 'em join' em-but only in a more
question is integrate them at what levels... the lowest... slightly sophisticated waste absorption role, though that is converted
better than that... or as equals? If as equals - otherwise, if there into a status symbol. Kentucky Fried Chicken, one of the
is going to be no material change in their condition, why take cheapest foods of the United States is actually a status symbol
them through this torturous path at aII ? - then is the present for the third world elite. Perversion of the value system is seen
investment enough? here. It is seen in the social sphere of the exploited also.

No society absorbs or assimilates another holarchy as equals. In goods, it is the surplus of the dominant that is given for the
Holarchies are integrated only into areas where there is a best produce of the dominated - in the name of quality. Since
vacuum in the present system-and these vacuums are always the urban holarchy dominates the rural, the highly fertile top
in the waste absorption sectors. The poor and the soil is converted into bricks and tiles-an unequal exchange by
marginalized, in any system, have always been its waste any reckoning. The wheat that India exports as cattle feed is of
absorbers-and they always will be. Thus this integration better quality than what is given to its own citizens in the
process is to widen the circle and make hitherto independent public distribution system. So also for many other goods and
holarchies into waste absorbers of the dominant community. relationships: the best of Indian diplomats go to Washington,
Mainstreaming, contrary to popular perception, is actually a yet only the third rate US ones come to India.
process of exclusion.
The dominant are able to project their need for exploit as the
The policy of the government has been to displace and destroy. need for survival of the exploited. The Tatas, for instance, have
Even well-meaning interventions are paternalistic and feudal, a white elephant in jamshedpur - ironically the fruit of their
and do not accord basic human rights to the adivasi. The exploitation of the adivasi there. If they cannot widen the circle
interventions of organised religion are the same. The then, despite the massive influx of capital and technology
intervention of the industrial sector is, with tacit support and there, their 'flagship'Tisco will implode.
connivance of the state, to further this displacement and
forcibly incorporate the adivasi into the proletariat, often as Hence the plant at Gopalpur, Orissa, which is vital for their
slave labour. The paradigm of development chosen needs very survival. But they are able to project it as a'saviour of
these forms of exclusion and dependency. Orissa'when in reality it is the lifeline for Tisco and the rape of
the locals. Due to this portrayals, they are able to get the state:'
The intervention of the voluntary sector has eroded the social to beg them for investment and consequently get the entire
holarchy, with trade union models of organisation and state machinery to back them up with force.
leadership supplanting the traditional ones. All welfare
programs have turned the adivasi into objects of charity. It is The Economics
difficult, at this point, to evaluate the costs and benefits of
these well-meaning interventions. What they have In the economic sphere, the increasing circle encompasses
indisputably done is transfer values and modes of stratification resources and brings more 'consumers' into the 'mainstream'.
and have introduced new kinds of handicaps, even in cases Without this, the system of sequential exploitation will collapse.
3
Not for nothing is the western world dumping its the primary producers and proportionately diminish those of
environmentally toxic waste in Africa and Asia - because their the secondary and tertiary sectors. The most drastic change
marginalized refuse to absorb it, and they cannot widen the will come in the so-called service sector.
circle within their own borders. ]ust as the North uses Asia
and Africa for extraction and for toxic waste disposal, so does Endnote
India use adivasi areas.
|. We haoe useil as many documents of the state as possible
- for instance the

India's uranium comes from adivasi areas, and the radioactive laws. The eco-deoelopnent plan is quoted, since it is a document of the
waste is returned there. When exploiting holarchies have state itself, Obviously, such ilocuments by the appropfiator is not aoailable
extracted everything of value from another, they simply let the for other aspects, but other forms of documentation exist - such as the dolls
exploited take care of the waste and move on. The real cost of in the temple at Puri.
mining is borne by the adivasi. After the mines close, when 2. This note, while analyzing and situating the issues within the struggle of
they are declared 'economically unviable', it is the adivasi who the marginalizeil peoples eaerywhere, draws on the experience of the
will continue to bear the cost, while the exploiting holarchy adioasi, specially tlose at Nagarahole, Karnataka, to flesh it out. lt is not
moves on to other areas. exclusioely so - other examples are citeil where releoant. The adioasi in
Koilagu district are just about 20% of the population and in Karnatakd,
In the environmental front, the Western countries are they are about 4,25%, in relatioely isolated pockets - eoen in the
contiguous Nilgiri biosphere. Thus, this is a resistance of a minority. In
desperately looking towards Africa and Asia to dump their
other places, where there are more of them, resistance can be more intense.
toxic waste. The world bank has also recommended this sort of Self-rule, as useil here, incluiles the whole spectrurn from sooercignty to
transfer of toxic and polluting industries to the third world secession to gram swaraj uniler the Panchayat Rai Act.
because the cost of waste disposal within their boundaries will
their enterprises unviable. 3. The struggle of inilepenilent lnlarchies - such as the adioasi - is to retain
their sooereignty.. The struggle of the women, who are incorporated as
waste absorbers, is to reclaim it Women who haoe traoelled a long way:
In the manufacturing sector, for all the hue and cry about
from matriarchy to being legally, culturally anil socially subir'qateil - not
opening up trade, it is the surplus - read waste - that is dumped haoing the right to property, to haaing to die along with their husbanils, to
on the third world, and not up to date, environmentally safer not having a soul, being iess than animals, to not haoing the right to oote,
technology. The'trickle down'was always of this surplus. become priests,,.,- to slowly reclriming their rights, though glass ceilings
ilo exist. The slow process by which women arc reclaiming their
Globalization has tremendously increased the size of the basket sooereignty denanils a study of its own for it contains lessons for all
of wants . Due to this increasing want creation, and therefore holarchies.
the enlarged basket size, 'trickle down'has seriously reduced in 4. 'Holarchy' is a construct of Arthur Koestler. lt is preferred. since it is
the recent past5. Moreover, 'recycling' means that even inert 'holistic' , Koestler uses holarchy as distinct from hierarchy to denote more
waste is used, and only toxic waste is exported' The poor are democratic relationships. In this note, the emphasis is on the'holistic'
no longer just waste absorbers, as VeblenT postulated a century nature of the relationship, completely ooershadowing the equitable relations
ago, they have become toxic waste absorbers. The less part. The terms better express the systemic nature - and totality - of
dominated the holarchy, the less toxic the waste. expropiation relations belter, since terms such as North - South anil Thirtl
World hide the often aicious expropriation within themseloes, .

When the people of dominated systems wake up to this scam, 5. A note on the role of intellectuals, opinion buililers anil image crentots.
they then want to first redress the imbalance. The dominant do The reason why intellectuals and freethinkers flourish in larger holarchies
not want to do so, since they are now dependent on this - which inoariably are expropiating ones - is notaoorthy. It merits grenter
attention, though one is constrained by space. lntellectudls mawfacture
exploitation for their mere survival. It is significant that in all
the appropriate ideological rational for the expropriating holarchies. Since
the demands and struggles for secession and self-determination
these holarchies luae more surplus, they can nfford to suPport those in
in the world, all have come only from the 'under developed' non-primary sectors whose labor is solely intellectual. Therefore specialists
regions. fhis shows that the exploited people have, however and sopltisticated articulation is the natural domain of these forces.
subconsciously, realized that they are in fact subsidising their Artiuiation and practice outside the framework determined by the
rulers. They then demand secession so that they can interact dominant is termed unscientific (o1 in earlier ages, heretical) and therefore
with the dominant system as equals and not as waste absorbers. debased - neoer mind if they are the only ones to get the desired results.
This is the underlying cause of secessionist demands' These intellectuals can manufacture all sorts of justifications for exploit'
from national interest and patriotism, to 'greater good' , to 'natural order of
This subconscious feeling can actually be validated by holistic things' to 'tlioine will' , These ideological constructs, internalized, led to
psychological castration that prahibits resistance. Noam Chomsky calls it
economic analysis. Once such an analysis is made, it will be
' nnnufact uring con s en t' .
found that the'underdeveloped'who have no'tension' and other
modern diseases, who have the richest biodiversity, most mineral 6. This is also the reason that 'aiil'- be it of the official bilateral and
wealth, fresh air and pure water are actually correct in their multilateral or the NGO oariety - has shrunk. They were the canalizing of
subconscious assessment. Increasingly, even basic necessities, surplts. Those that iliil not come from surplus, i.e. the 'solidarity'
contributions, remain st their preaious leaels.
such as water, for the dominant holarchies have to be exported
from the hinterland - hence the Narmada struggle, Koel Karo. 7, The phrase'waste absorbers', and the more well known'conspicuotts
consumption', were coined by Thorstein Veblen, in his pathbreaking
will non/ come to the most pernicious aspect: the process of 'Theory of the leisure class'. It is a must read.
We
monetization. Monetization of produce only contributes to this
system. The abstraction of value into money helps consolidate
power and increases it in the hands of the haves. Lacking (This article is written by Anita Cheria and Edwin,They are based
monetization, the socially productive labour that goes into in Bangalore anil are involaed in and write on tribal issues. This is the
consumables will be recognized to be far less than its monetized first part of a seriu in which this article is being published. The next
values. This will significantly increase the economic power of part will follow in the next issue of the ANLetter.)
4
Crtz A close look at the Coastal Zone Management Plans (CZMPs)
prepared by coastal states would provide a better picture.
Even after deliberate manipulations to limit the land area under
RTG UTA'[INIG CRZ III, an average of around 50% of the coasts come under
this zone, thanks to the strict parameters for zoning. To site a

PEO L
FIF
t s)
tF
3i) lrl tl few examples: in Keralam, the total area under CRZ is 498.579
sq.kms. Of this, CRZ III is 341.825 sq.kms, CRZII,68.748 and
CIRZ 1,88.006. sq.kms.r In Karnataka it is 274.04,772.71, 15.70
and 54.98 sq. kms.2 and in Andhra Pradesh it is 3574.73,
(The recent moae by the Central Government to amenil the Coastal 2526.6, 27 .4'1. and 7121..66 sq. kms. respectively.3 CRZ II consists
Zone Regulation Notification has to be seen as an af' npt to of already developed urban areas where further development is
undermine the riglrts of the coastal communities)' comparatively impossible, economically unviable when space
and land prices are taken into account.

( I n" debate on Coastal Regulation Zone Notification has Of course tourism and other industries that require a water
I taken a new turn. For the Past two and a half years, front can use the CRZ III zone provided they get the clearance
l- there has been a tussle between coastal communities and from the MoEF. The industry makes use of political
people's groups on the one hand and the big industries on the connections and big money in getting a clearance. What
other. Certain coastal states also disagreed with the worries the industry is that even after obtaining the
notification. Their complaint is that distinctive features of their permission, it has to face the community which has exclusive
respective coasts had been overlooked' But now, taking rights there. In this era of judicial activism, the industry knows
cognizance of the situation, Central government takes the role that any written law can be very crucial. The increasing
of protecting the interests of the industry. It is evident now awareness of environment and ecology, the effort made by
that the claims about protecting and preserying the coast was people's groups to educate people on Coastal Zone Regulations
mere eyewash. are also a potential threat.
They are aware that any
Historically, coasts have been violation in this region would
considered as common bring the community, NGOs
property without anyone and peoples' groups to the war
making visible legal claims. front.
Any project - whether defence
or harbour related - had its At least two major global power
claim only within the area t generating giants have found
assigned for it. The community $ the regulation to their
along the coast and the general { disadvantage. Interestingly,
oublic used the coast without I Uottr are multinational power
worrying about ownership E giu.,ts - Enron in Mumbai,
rights. The fishing community p Maharashtra and Cogentrix in
usually believed and practised
t Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka.
a common property system. CRZ regulations play a very
Whatever land they used permanently was for small hutments' important role both in peoples' struggle and legal proceedings
The coasts were primarily their work space, free and exclusive. against these industries. A number of other violators of the
regulation were taken to court and many of them were found
The CRZ Notification of l99l brought into focus the debate on to be guilty and their constructions face demolition orders.
future use-pattern of the coast. For the first time in history,
coasts were divided into zones. Regulations were also drawn The Supreme Court in its judgment had asked the coastal states
to determine permissive and prohibitive activities, both for for strict implementation of the CRZ notification. In another
industry and community use. All these together brought landmark judgment dated l.L December L996, the Supreme
different user - rights for different grouPs on the coast. Court ordered demolition of all aquaculture/prawn farrns
within 500 Mts. of high tide line and 1000 Mts. of the HTL in
At the heart of this much debated issue lies the questior, of this Chilika lake in Orissa and Pulicat lake in Tamil Nadu
user-right. People who had drawn up the notification had respectively, Among other arguments, Coastal Zone
given exclusive settlement rights to coastal communities and Regulations played the crucial role in this judgment. At
traditional users of the coast in the CRZ III zone. The present, it is these two judgments that alarm the industrial
communities along the coast deserve this recognition since lobby. The Central government sensing the threat against the
they are the rightful inheritors of the coast. What the planners liberalisation policy took the issue into their hands. They
of the notification had overlooked, quite unwittingly, is the realise that the best way to tackle this threat would be to do
existence of other interest groups like tourism and mega away rvith the regulation itself.
industries. These industries were eligible to get clearance from
the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) for setting up It is surprising to note that a minority government - a coalition
their projects in the CRZ III zone. At the same time, of 13 parties of different political shades - have been able to
communities.have the legal right to approach a court of law conspire in circumventing even the Supreme Court judgment.
against any violations of CRZ or intrusions into their living and This essentially testifies their attitude towards the economic
occupational space by these industries. liberalisation. Narrow nolitical determinism prevents even the
5
'left'parties to critically understand who would benefit from (Amendment) Bill amends the National Highways Act of 1955
this nefarious move. and the National Highways Authority of India Act of 1988. This
bill gives the right to governments to acquire under "public
The anti-people move of this government does not stop with purpose" any land required for building, maintenance,
the attempt to amend CRZ Notification alone. The Central management or operations of a national highway or part there of.
government constituted an Aquaculture Authority in a The only legal space allowed is for disputes on compensation.
desperate move to overcome the crisis posed by the Supreme
Court judgment. The Lok Sabha passed a bill on 17.3.1997 to The new debate on CRZ notification and the move to amend the
constitute an Environmental Appellate Authority. This same has tobe looked at in this light, It is correct to attribute
authority will be merely an extension of the existing these changes to the economic liberalisation. Yet the fallout is
government bureaucrats. How authoritarian this body could more fundamental and severe. The state is becoming
be is evident in Clause 11 of the Bill that entitles only a increasingly authoritarian. It takes away given and existing
person or any association of persons likely to be directly rights from the poor. It also narrows down the space for
affected by the grant of environmental clearance as an democratic interventions.
appellant. Further in Clause 12 (1) ".....the authority shall haae
power to regulate its own proceilure including the fixing of places and Gfari Babu is coordinating the EQUATIONS programme on the
times of its enquiry and deciiling whether to sit in public or priaate". CoasD.
There is yet another ordinance issued by the President of India 1, CZMP of Kerala Page,76.
on Land Acquisition for National Highways that the Lok Sabha 2 CZMP(Zoning of coastal Karnataka) , Page 99.
passed on t8.3.7997. The National Highways Laws 3 Note on CZMPs of Andhra Pradesh, Page 14.

"Do not touch oor rights"


worn fishing communities
he fi.shing community unions and environmental National |oint Action Council Against ]oint Ventures, R.K.
groups protested unanimously against the Central Patil , Gen. Secretary NFF, Premji Bhai Khokri, Xavier Pinto
Government's move to circumvent the Supreme and Ramesh Duri of NFF. They covered Maharashtra, Goa,
Court's judgment in favour of the aquaculture industry bjr Karnataka, Kerala and southern parts of Tamil Nadu. On
amending the CRZ notification of 1991' under the the Eastern coast, the other yatra started from Diamond
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The community fears Harbour, West Bengal and covered the states of Orissa.
that any move to amend the notification will in.toto take Andhra Pradesh and the northern parts of Tamil Nadu. On
away the rights of the coastal communities. both the coasts fishing communities welcomed the yatras
and pledged their solidarity. The yatras ended at
More than an average of 60Y" of the land along the coast Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu on 4th April.
comes under CRZ III zone according to the notification. It is
on this 60% of the land that the coastal community has In the public meeting that followed, representatives from all
settlement rights. And it is in this same zone that the coastal states warned the Central Government against its
aquaculture industry, tourism and other industries want to intention to bypass the Supreme Court order by amending
set up their projects. This would inevitably bring conflicts the notification. The meeting opined that any such move
in the coast. It is this conflict the Central Government is will be met with stiff opposition.
trying to settle by amending the CRZ notification that
would deprive the rights of the fishing communities. Central and State leaders of fishing communities and
people's groups passed the resolution: "There shall not be
The sudden move to amend the CRZ notification intended any amendment of Environment (Protection) Act or the
to save the shrimp industries from the wrath of Supreme CRZ notification to suit the need of vested interests".
Court's judgment dated 11 December 1996. The judgment
categorically ordered all shrimp farms within 500 metres of The following plan of action was also agreed upon :

the high tide line along the coast and 1000 metres in the case
of Chilka Lake in Orissa and Pulicat Lake in Tamil Nadu. 7. Writ petitions will be filed in the Supreme Court if the Central
Government amenils either the Enaironment (Protectiod Act
To oppose this unholy move and negate the false or the CRZ notification.
propaganda of the coastal states that the fishermen
communities are against the notification, various coastal 2. Parliament members of all coastal states will be askeil to
communities, environment and trade unions came together
' owose if such a moae is maile in the patliament.
and decided to fight against it. Under the banner of
National Fishworkers Forum (NFF), two coastal yatras - 3. Signature campaign by way of seniling fax, telegrams, letters
Bharath Yathra - was planned along the West and East to the Prime Minister, Ministries of Environment, Agri-
coasts of India. culture anil lnilustries will be continued.

On the Western coast the yatra started from Gujarat on 25th 4. Young leailers will be motioated towards making the coastal
March under the leadership of Thomas Kocherry, Convenor, communities more informed and inooloeil in the issue

6
from the revenue-earning point of view. In order to make
tourism acceptable to its critics, it terms mainstream tourism
"ecotourism". Environmental damage from tourism stems
mainly from the type and the magnitude of tourism. It happens
when tourism makes,demands upon its ecology that far
exceeds the natural and human-made resources available. No
attempt is made to assess the capacity of an area to support
tourism.'Tourism is promoted with little regard to its impact on
the ecological and social characteristics of the area. While
pursuing short term gains, long-term consequences upon the
the local environment and people are lost sight of.

The Government of Karnataka, in its Investment Plan for the


Promotion of Tourism in Karnataka defines "ecotourism" as
watching wildlife and enjoying nature. The investment plan
and the master plan make it clear that the environmental aspect
has been ignored. The Bandipur National Park has undergone
substantial damage and it is now the turn of the Nagarahole
(Rajiv Gandhi) National Park.

In the Nagarahole National Park, the Government of Karnataka


had leased out its jungle lodges to Gateway Hotels and Getaway
Resorts Ltd., a subsidiary of the Taj group of hotels. Through the
World Bank Eco-development project, the Government will evict
the people who have been living there for generations on the
ground that there should not be any human habitat inside the
park. While the original inhabitants of the park are forced to
n the last two centuries, there has been large scale move out, the same government allows corporates to enter the
displacement of adioasis( indigenous people) due to urban forests and build hotels and welcomes tourists. This situation
priorities. [r hindsight, this displacement and the concomitant has led to a confontation between the adivasis and the
misery that it has brought to the tribal people borders on ethnocide. Government and its agencies which are trying to generate
Initially, it was the British exploiting the forests to fuel their ship- revenues through building resorts and the allied infrastructure.
building and railways projects. Then it was the tum of the Indian Fishing in troubled waters are the corporate big bulls who have
Government. With its mandate to move the country into joined hands with the Government for access into the forests to
industrialization, the Govemment systematically acquired forest establish their resorts/ hotels/ jungle lodges. This has threatened
Iands and converted these into plantations for industry and the very existence of theAdiaasls. It strikes at the very heart of the
agricultural land for its rural millions. relationship between the adivasis and their ecology. The
Government's "ecotourism" idea was only aimed at increasing
It is no coincidence that the richest forest lands are to be found the revenues. It was aware that no attempt had been to calculate
around setlements of indigenous peoples. It should also not the environmental costs. (Later, in the case that followed, the
come as a surprise that commercial exploitation of these forests courts struck down the lease agreement of the Taj group of hotels
would weigh heavily on the forest-based communities. with the Government of Karnataka. Further, the Divisional
Bench asked the Taj group to get the clearance from the Ministry
Having realized that the country's forest wealth had rapidly of Environment and Forests, Government of India.)
declined due to the insatiable appetite of forest-based industries,
the Government has now turned to "softer" forms of exploitation In the present scenario, business houses are deciding projects
like tourism. Interventions inside the forest in the name of and "development" of forests, people and their resources.
revenue and development has reached a dangerous level. Local people whose lives are really bound with their land and
habitat are never consulted. Management of resources of the
Forests simply cannot bear consequences of activities like forests are best known to people living there. Activities in such
tourism whether it is "eco-tourism" or "wildlife tourism". areas without understanding the habitat creates imbalances in
Tourism has inevitably an adverse impact upon ecological the ecological system and disrupts the relationship of
systems and leads to a scarcity of natural resources. With such reciprocity that exists between the people and their ecology.
a destructive impact in its trail, it only makes a mockery of
development. "A unique aspect of biosphere reserves is the conservation,
where practicable, of traditional land use systems,
Sensitive stretches of biosphere reserves in the world have illustrating harmonious relationships between indigenous
always attracted people and governments. There have always populations and the environment. These systems often
been attempts to cash in on the rich flora and fauna of such reflect centuries of human experience and can provide
areas. Tourism has been used for such purposes by'developi immense value in improving the productivity and
ng" delicate ecozones. In India, even so-called Protected sustainabiliy of modern land use and management practices.
Areas and National Parks are not protected. In fact, they have
areas earmarked for other purposes such as "tourism zones". Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves
Uncontrolled tourism puts entire forests under pressure. (Nature and Resources, Vol.XX No.4, Oct-Dec. 1984)
Unfortunately, the Department of Tourism views things only
7
lnter alia, several regulations were passed in the judiciary and Malpe
the parliament that boosted the struggle against intrusion of
external forces into forest areas. These are: Malpe, a coastal town on the Western Coast in Karnataka, is
about 60 kms from Mangalore city. It has a fishing harbour and
o The Supreme Court's judgment that there should not be any the St.Mary's Islands lie off the coast of Malpe. In the late
non-forest activities in forest areas. (This includes activities 1970s, the KSTDC began construction of a resort right in front
like hotels/ tourism and other commercial activities') of'Fishery Road' - the only road that goes to the harbour. The
KSTDC abandoned the construction of the resort when it fell
r The Bill on tribal self-rule was signed by the President of short of funds and decided to sell the project to private
India on 24 December 1996 as an approval for the entrepreneurs. Recently, an NRI bought the project. As a
implementation of the Bhuria Committee Report package deal, a part of the St.Mary's Island was sold to him.
emphasizing tribal self-rule and declaring tribal areas as The resort owner has so planned the construction of the resort
scheduled areas. that the way to the 'Fishery Road' is blocked. So access to the
harbour is impossible. This naturally affects the fishing
I The High Court of Karnataka has given a historic verdict in community severely since the road was the only way they
the legal battle between the Adivasis and the Taj Resort. The could go to the harbour. The fishing community has been
Government of Karnataka's action was deemed illegal and unanimous in its opposition to the resort and its union has
violative of the Forest Conservation Act,1980 and Wildlife expressed its opposition to the resort project.
(Protection) Act, 1982. This verdict gains prominence in
light of the Governrnent's plan to bring about "ecotourism" Gokarna
in the forest area in the guise of ecodevelopment and
conservation. Gokarna is a small pilgrimage centre near Karwar on the
Western Coast in Karnataka's Uttar Kannada district. Known
According to the judgment of the Divisional Bench of the High as the 'Kashi of South India', Gokarna is famed as a centre for
Court of Karnataka, the appeal is partly allowed and the Sanskrit learning. The place has some beautiful, unspoiled
appellants have been allowed by the Court to proceed with the stretches of the Western coast and includes the Om beach and
Forest Conservation Clearance from the Ministry of the Kudle beach. Unfortunately, these have become the
Environment and Forests under the Forest Conservation favourite haunts of hippies ever since they were driven out of
Act,1980. If the appellants receive the Clearance from the Goa. The people of Goa had protested vehemently against the
Ministry of Environment and Forests, a High Power Committee culture of nudism and drugs that the hippies had brought with
has to be setup in Karnataka State with representatives from them. Gokarna's pristine beaches provided a perfect altemative
police agencies and tribals/petitioners to monitor the activities. to the hippies who shifted to the Om and Kudle beaches here.
Further, till the time of obtaining the clearance from the
Ministrp thereshall be no renovation or modifications at the The locals make money selling articles to the hippies. Costs of
project site. The petitioners (Nagarahole Budakattu Hakku essential commodities have gone up. While the hippies can
Sthapana Samithi) were to be awarded Rs.5,000 by the afford it, the locals are finding it hard. However, the people of
appellants (Taj Group of Hotels). Gokarna do not seem to understand the long-term
inflow. Uptil now, there have been
consequences of the tourist
At present, the Supreme Court has permitted the Taj grouP to no five-star hotels in Gokarna but plans are afoot in the
waterproof the building. Department of Tourism to construct such hotels in the area
soon. These developments are bound to have a lasting effect on
the people of Agumbe and their habitat. There is a need to
COASTAL TOURISM understand the pros and cons of tourism in this sensitive area.

Karnataka has a coastal stretch of 325 kms which has become a (This article is written by M,G.Ramesh, Programme Co-orilinator,
focal point for tourism development . EQUATIONS.)

I
Budget L997-98

OA ?rlcorc eo ?Ceq, &a#ee The Keralam Budget for the year 1997-98 has a deficit of
7242.31 crores. According to the Keralam State Finance
Rs.

f7.r.ir* Minister E. Minister T. Sivadasa Menon, the state requires Rs.47,000 crores
' f Ch"ndrasekharan Nair spelled in the next five years to reach the national growth level. The
I out the ruling Left Democratic budget does not address the 32 lakh unemployed (official
Front Ministry's policy outlook on statistics) of the state. The budget has totally disregarded
tourism in Keralam. He stated that E !q\ investments in areas of employment generation. The
tourism promotion in the state would I government makes vociferous claims of protecting and reviving
have to contribute to the state's E public sector units (PSUs) but has set aside a paltry sum of Rs.
development and help in employment B 50 crore for the task.
generation. New areas with tourism
potential like backwater tourism, Tourism In The Budget
health tourism and eco-tourism would
be promoted. The minister said that The budget has set aside Rs.35 crores for the tourism sector in
taking into consiileration the state's special the state. Out of which, Rs. 10 crore are exclusively for the
features and limitations, the approach Bekal Tourism Project. Tourism Resorts Kerala Ltd, in
would be to set up small scale tourism association with the private sector is to take up projects at Veli,
projects and not projects that required Akkulam, Munnar and Kumarakom. The Mascot Hotel at
big investments. According to the Thiruvananthapuram and the Bolgatti Palace at Ernakulam are
minister, it was not correct to think that to be further developed. Tax on tourist vehicles from other
all hotels must be five-star, as many states will be reduced and short time permits issued. Tax on
seem to think. AC rooms with a rent of above Rs. 500 are to be increased from
10% to l5%.
The following are the minister's doctrines and plans:
Three Nation Tourism On The Anvil
The basic problem in the tourism sector is lack of infrastructure
and investments in the state. The state requires around Rs'800 The government, if we are to believe the Kerala Tourism
to 1000 crore in the next five years. The state cannot invest such Minister E Chandrasekharan Nair, already had a.round of talk
large amounts of money. The only possibility is to with the governments of Sri Lanka and Maldives. A'great
'scientifically' involve the private sector to make this possible. leap' (with apologies to Mao Tse Dong) in tourism is being
The state is backward in the hotel industry. More five-star planned. Central and state tourism representatives met at
hotels are required and there are many foreign agencies willing Maldives to discuss this proposal.
to invest. There is also a need for more three- anil two-star
hotels. Bekal - Protest Mounting Against The Proiect

r The Bekal project in Kerala requires around 800 acres of land As the tourism authorities are going ahead with the project,
(very small indeed!). The Government's approach is to protests and objections from hitherto unknown quarters are
' acquire the land, develop basic infrastructure and attract mounting. People are getting more and more aware of the
investors including foreigners. unavoidable future impact of the project. Small people's
o Another project planned is the Veli-Akkulam (itt organisations have emerged in 'panchayats' (village councils) of
Thiruvananthapuram) region. This'small' project requires Ajanoor, Chemnad, Uduma and Pallikkara that come under the
only 300 acres of land. A master plan for this is being Bekal tourism project. Organisations like Chembarikka
prepared. Samskarika Vedi, Bekal Samrakshana Karma Samiti, Uduma
Samskarika Vedi, ]illa Prathikaranna Vedi etc. are a few among
Some of the other immediate plans are: the regional organisations that have come out with strong
o Mascot Hotel: to be converted into a five-star deluxe hotel protests against the undemocratic and authoritarian attitude of
that requires Rs.7.5 crore the tourism authorities. These new regional movements are
o Hotel Samudra, Kovalam: Second phase with 12 rooms, 10 apart from the Bakel Samrashana Samithi (Bakel Protection
cottages and 2 suites. Committee) that has filed the case against the project in the
o Munnar Hill Resort: A hotel with 38 rooms and an Kerala High Court. Religious organisations like Muslim I amaith
investment of 5.82 crore (around $ 1.6m), and 8 acres of (prayers) committees have also come out openly against the
revenue land have already been identified for this. project. Local meetings take place almost every day.
o Kumarakom Industrial Village: 'Kettu vallom' (country
house-boats) accommodation facilities and water-sports are Another development is involvement of the political parties in
planned with an investment of Rs.S crores ($1.4m). the debate whose stand till now has been ambiguous. There is a
o Kaladi Cultural Complex: the Sanskrit University has given contradiction between the party leadership, on the one hand, and
one acre of land. Rs.40 lakh has been allotted. the local members and sympathisers on the other Since the local
o Besides this, Rs.520 lakh on various projects have been members have started voicing their objections to the tourism
submitted to the Central Government for. assistance. project, the leadership has been compelled to take a stand.

(This is an excerpt from the special issue on 'Kerala Vikasanam' In a recent development, all these groups protested against the
(Deaelopment in Kerala) by the ruling front leading partner CPI(M)- District Collector who has conducted a meeting to which only
owned D eshabhimani p ublication s ) political parties that supported the tourism project were invited.
I
hotels for the time being, when a star resort complex was being
set up in the National Park at Nagarahole forests. In Keralam,
the same group had yet another setback when the Kozhikode
sub-judge allowed a stay order in favour of the people. The
hotel group had built a star hotel complex in a residential area.
An AC plant and a generator diesel tank were set up within a
mere three meters of the houses. The plants will have a 325 HP
In another incident, people stormed the venue of the meeting diesel generator and a diesel tank of 35,000 litre capacity. The
organised by the tourism development authorities. luma AC plant was to work round the clock. Repeated requests
committees have warned the authorities that the move to build a from the neighboring houses fell on deaf ears. Neither did the
Tourism Facility Centre between the Bakel Fort and the fuma corporation authorities pay any attention to the requests of the
mosque will not be allowed. There are already allegations about people. It was then that house owners came together, sought
the land prices allotted for lands in different regions. The lilla legal support and filed a writ petition against the hotel. They
Prathikarana Vedi has come out with a booklet - questionnaire pleaded that once the AC plant and generator started
that discusses the claims of the tourism authorities. functioning, they would be badly affected. The vibrations of a
plant of such large dimensions, in operation, would also create
Reports aiso point to the unwanted effects of tourism. Two environmental problems. Storing 35,000 litres of diesel so close
foreign tourists were forcefully packed off by local people for to residential quarters was indeed hazardous in the extreme.
having walked along the beach semi-nude. Local people also The court accepted their plea and stayed the installation of
complain that foreign tourists have already brought sex tourism both the plants. (Ironically, it was in this incomplete hotel
into the region. In a meeting held by the Chenbarikka complex that Prime Minister Deva Gowda stayed while he
Samskarika Vedi, the activists alleged that 4kg of 'ganja' visited Kozhikode recently. The court proceedings were on at
(cannabis) had been seized from a youth who was handed over that time and the media had reported this even prior to the
to the police, but no case had been registered against him. visit. The hotel authorities had overnight prepared a special
suite for the PM even though arrangements had already been
"Do Not Allow Bekal Tourism Proiecf', Says Prof. M.K Prasad. made for his stay at the corporation guest house that is located
just opposite to the hotel).
Bekal Tourism Seminar conducted by Kerala Sasthra Sahithya
Parishad (KSSP)I at Bekal, Prof. M.K.Prasad, renowned CRZ norms - violated all over the state.
environmentalist and ex-president of KSSP spoke out strongly
against the Bekal project. He said, "Do not allow the Bekal The opposition of state governments to the CRZ notification is
Tourism Project (to come up)", adding that the project report had well known. The state governments views the CRZ regulation as
been prepared. without proper social or economical studies. a hindrance to the development of their states. Consequently,
Neither had there been an environmental impact assessment . A the states turn a blind eye towards all violations on the coast. ln
mega tourism project like this would destroy the traditional fact, the main culprit, here, is the government itself.
culhrre of the area. He asserted that the "five star tourism"
being planned was intended solely to attract foreign tourists. It Open Air Stage at Kozhikode.
was not suitable for a place like Bekal. The Bekal Tourism
Development Authority (BTDC) was formed without consulting Orders had been issued by the High Court to serve urgent notice
the elected local administrative 'panclnyats' (village council). to the district collector, city corporation secretary, Director
Professor Prasad was of the strong opinion that the BRDC Science and Technology, Director of ports and fisheries and the
should be dissolved and total rights should be given to state chief secretary on the controversial open air stage and its
'panchayats'to undertake developmental projects for the region. annexure building on Kozhikode beach by the city corporation.

KSSP is generally considered as a pro-left movement though on The overenthusiastic district collector had built an open-air
issuesit maintains its own identity. A good number of KSSP stage on the seaward side of the coastal road in the No
activists are also members of Left parties. According to local DevelopmentZone (NDZ). Wide media coverage and people's
newspaper reports, the KSSP stand is creating problems within protests against the construction were ignored. The collector
the ruling Left Front cadres. It has also become evident that there and the corporation authorities claimed that he had obtained
is no clear stand within the ruling ftont leadership on the issue of permission from the concerned authorities for the
the Bekal project. In a recent press meet at Kasaragode - the construction. They also claimed that it was only a temporary
districtwithin which Bekal is located - the ruling left Democratic construction. But once work was completed it turned out to be
Front Convenor stated that the front does not have a clear stand a permanent concrete structure with a green room, rest room
on, or understanding of, the Bekal tourism project. At the same and toilet facilities. Earlier, port authorities had warned the
time in contrast to this statement, the chief minister has corporation authorities against this construction,
approached the Chairman of the Central Planning Board, Prof.
Madhu Dandavate for financial assistance to speed up the Bekal Legal procedures were begun by two residents of Kozhikode
Project. Meanwhile, at Bekal, the people have started voicing through a public interest litigation. The petitioners argued that
their protest against the BRDC for making public announcement the state was yet to prepare a master plan for CRZ
of the developmental projects of the 'panchayats' without implementation and seek the Central government's approval.
consulting or even informing the'panchayat' governing bodies. Any construction prior to this is a violation.

Taj Group Of Hotels In Legal Tussles Goshree Project


In Karnataka, the adioasis (tribal communities) have
provisionally won the legal battle against the Taj group of The Goshree Project is related to the construction of bridges
70
from the Vypeen islands to mainland Ernakulam' Vypeen Sabarimala - the forested temple-town known for austerity
consists of a cluster of islands in the Vembanad lake in Kerala. turns into luxury pilgrimage centre.
It is a part of the backwaters of Keralam - a part of the Kerala
waterscape that is slowly disappearing. For the past four " Stones and thorns are a carpet for the feet" used to be the refrain
decades, the people of the islands had been demanding bridges of pilgrims who visit the Sabarimala shrine in Kerala barefoot.
from the islands to the mainland, Ernakulam. The government The pilgrimage is known for its austere nature and the
decided to build a series of bridges inter-connecting the islands demands that it makes upon devotees who undertake to visit
and also the mainland. Accordingly, the Goshree Island the shrine. The route consists of an arduous walk through
Development Authority (GIDA) was formed ' But the GIDA dense forest inhabited by wild animals. But the scenario in this
soon became notorious when its methods of generating funds sacred spot might soon be changing. The government sees a
for the building of the bridges came to light. The GIDA's money spinner in the pilgrim centre. The large number of
modus operandi was to reclaim land from the Vembanad lake by pilgrims had prompted the govgrnment to construct
levelling a part of the lake and selling it at exorbitant rates to highways and railway lines to the pilgrimage centre. Both
hoteliers and business enterprises. would be constructed through reserved forests and the
'peripheral area' of the Periyar tiger reserve. The second phase
GIDA planned to reclaim 950 acres of land from the lake and of the Sabarimala highway.was inaugurated by the PWD
sell the same to the tune of Rs.1.50 lakh per cent ($4286)! "The minister. This phase consists of a 4km long road that is 9mt in
GIDA tried to dupe people, endanger the Cochin port and width 51/2 mt would have a tarred surface.
sabotage Kerala's culture to PerPetrate the biggest scam
through a "levelling Khumbakonam" (scam) proving that scams The whole area already has an ugly look with a number of
are not the exclusive indulgence of the North" says |ustice concrete constructions. With the commencement of the highway,
V.R.Krishna lyer. "Every purchase of land in the vicinity of the the government is waiting anxiously for the tourists to come
proposed bridges, to build five star hotels and promote sex pouring in.
tourism, should be inquired into.", demanded Krishna lyer.
Only 30% of backwater areas in Keralam remains unlevelled The 10 million odd pilgrims visiting this centre every year
today according to environmentalist, U.K.Gopalan. already is a threat to environment, forest and rivers in the
region. Solid waste lies scattered all over the forest. Arecent
Coastal highway at Kallai study conducted by the forest department says that a large
number of pilgrims also visit the tiger reserve. Yet, there has
High on the state government's agenda is the Coastal been no move from either the forest department or the
Expressway from Kasaragode, the northernmost tip in Kerala, government to restrict the number of pilgrims into this reserve.
to Kanyakumari in the west. This single road could change the
entire coastal zoning of the state as stipulated by the CRZ Meanwhile, Sabarimala means big business not only to the
Notification. The highr,r'ay would naturally bring in its wake, government and private hoteliers but also to the'devaswom'
urbanization. This would require a reclassification of zones in board (the temple governing body) and the government
the affected areas. Rural areas that are now classified within officials. The president of Tiruvathamcore Devaswom
the CRZ III category would have to be shifted into CRZ II Employees Union in a press conference stated that half of the
which consists of urban developed areas. The pitfall of such a total income is being swindled by the board and government
change in zoning is that the community along these regions officials. Gold, watches and other valuables offered by the
would lose their customary and settlement rights that are pilgrims goes unaccounted.
protected by the notification.
Need For National Environmental Commission
A sample of what is in store is the events taking place at Kallai
in Kozhikode district. Here, the governments had begun land In a recent visit to the state, environmental advocate
acquisition procedures on a 3-km stretch of coastal land. M.C.Mehta opined that the time is ripe to set up a National
Around 384 houses and 4000 people who live in this stretch and Environmental Commission. The commission should be
eam their livelihood from the sea and coast related jobs are about 'totally autonomous' on par with that of the Election
to be displaced. This road itself would be within the No Commission. The Supreme Court had asked to constitute
DevelopmentZone (NDZ) that is, it is within 25 to 50 mts of the Environmental Courts back in 1986. This should be made
water line and at places, within the hightide line. Aroad bridge possible atleast at the regional level, Mehta said. Pollution
is also under construction even though land for the road is yet to Control Boards are now being controlled by the bureaucrats.
be acquired. Sri Mehta was speaking at a press conference at Kochi. The
Goshree Project at Kochi, leveling the backwaters and building
The government is playing a very cunning game here. It has not five star hotels is not to help the poor. Development projects
announced that this is part of the coastal highway. The Coastal should address the needs of the poor, Advocate Mehta said.
Zone Management plan prepared last year does not even
mention this highway.
(Keralam Diary is written by lIari Babu of EQUATIONS. lt is
The national highway department and port authorities are also based on media reports.)
in the dark about the particulars of this road. But the Calicut
Development Authority officials confirm . that acquisition .
'KSSP is a popular-science mooement in Keralam. The moaement
notices served pertain to the proposed coastal highway. The spearheaded the mass literacy campaign and.has been awarded
reason for keeping the plan in dark is to avoid the wrath of prestigious international aanrds like the lnternational Literacy Prize
people if the land requirements and related acquisition notices of UNESCO and the Right Liuelihooil award often called the
are served in one lot to the entire state. AIt ernstia e N ob el P rize.

11
CRIME ON THE BEACH
(The Nofth Goa tourism belt is crime-ridden. Theft, extortion
anil rape are .common on the beaches of Goa. This has been a
coflsequence of the ineffectioeness of the police anil the saturation
of Goa's decade-old charter tourism, torites Frederick Noronha)

,o(Q
r:

ilAR4l!

"No girls should feel safe! Stick to the main roads, avoid dirt tourists in the Calangute-Anjuna belt last April. A Briton was
tracks, and when in your house, make sure that all windows nabbed trying to collect Rs 3.5 million worth of cocaine posted
and doors are locked. (The police) have no idea of the amount from Colombia. Extortion cases by criminals and, if one believes
of rapes (of foreign tourists) in Goa... take care! Spread the the tourists, even by men in uniform.
word." This is from a pamphlet titled "Rape Alert",
-
displayed by Western tourists at Goa beachside restaurants. Some support for this view comes from strange quarters: the
local leader of Bal Thackeray's Shiv Sena. Local Sena village
If you're one of the 30,000 odd foreign tourists visiting Goa at leader Camilo D'Souza, some time back, wrote to chief minister
this time of the year, you might run into this notice pinned on Pratapsing Rane warning him about theft, housebreaking and
the thatched walls of the "Goodluck" beach-shack restaurant on extortion taking root in the capital of hippy-Goa. "Unidentified
the sands of Baga beach. persons posing as policemen have been collecting huge
amounts from tourists as 'baksheesh'," D'Sotza added.
Last fortnight, the Goa police took the problem of rising beach-
crime seriously, as never before. But this came after two young Goa Inspector-General of Police PRS Brar points to the speedy
Swedish women were gangraped by seven to eight men at police action on arresting suspects in the Swede gangrape case.
Anjuna, the Mecca of backpack and hippy tourists in South He dismisses the view other crime often directed against
Asia. They were returning home after a late-night beach-party. foreign tourists is growing fast. "If you wear a diamond ring
Their bike was stopped by assailants armed with sticks and and leave it on the dressing table, which police can stop it from
knives. A male companion was forced at knife-point to witness being stolen," asks Brar.
the gang-rape. All were robbed of money and possession.
But real life can be more bizarre. One year back, a group of local
But this case, which sent the local police into a tizzy, is only the boys, allegedly playing nude on the Sinquerim beach, tried to
shocking tip of a long-ignored iceberg. Crime is turning into molest a foreigner while she was fishing. Local youngsters have
the new growth-industry along parts of the North Goa beach gone on rampages against Kashmiri vendors, resettled in the
belt. It is coming in alongside prosperity brought in by the area, using any pretext to grab their goods, this correspondent
booming tourism sector there over the past decade. was told by reliable quarters.

Everyone seems to think the Western tourist's affluence is out Statistics recently blew the lid to indicate that something was
for grabs. Literally. Constable Digambar Naik was weeks ago going drastically wrong. Figures revealed that in the 7995-96
suspended over the theft of 500 pound sterling from the tourist season, over two dozen foreign tourists had died in Goa,
baggage of two Britons at Goa's airport. Last month, Panaji in a spell of under six months. Nearly 13 had died of overdoses
police nabbed two Gujaratis for stealing the belongings of of narcotics or liquor.
foreigners travelling to Goa by bus.
"Leave aside the tourists, even fisherfolk in Calangute, who
Many crimes go unreported. But recorded crimes indicate the once slept soundly on the shore, are afraid of moving about in
range: An Andhra-Goa gang busted while looting foreign their own land," says village parish priest Fr. ]ose Dias. "This is

72
frustration. There's no money any longer in tourism (in Goa,
compared to the past few years)", reasons fude Miranda, whose Gospal
family runsa pay-phone booth and stores at Baga, frequented
by foreign tourists. Clearly, the downswing some see
overtaking Goa's decade-old charter tourism sector is breeding
desperation. Besides, too many businesses have opened up,
bringing in more to fight over the Pie.

In one case, for instance, tourist-taxi operators beat up a


Kashmiri vendor because they felt he was undercutting them.
Some bus tour-operators have recently complained that their for obvious reasons. Local medical practitioner Dr.Jawaharlal
passengers are being coerced into eating at certain restaurants. Henriques concurs: "In other areas, the Police presence is
In the Calangute police station, this correspondent met an reassuring. In Anjuna, it seems to be just the opposite."
European woman tourist complaining that the lodge owner was
compelling her to stay on longer than she wished, threatening "I want to spend my holiday in peace, not going to courts,"
to hold back her possessions otherwise. says Danish TV-2 journalist Frants Pandal, explaining why few
complaints are made to the police. He says the police are not
There are other hints to show that it's no longer just business as widely trusted, and foreign tourists believe some have resorted
usual: On January 7, a 33-year-old Briton was raped at Anjuna to "planting" of narcotics to extort sums of $500. Pandal's
by two unidentified persons, including her taxi driver. The friend, Danish musician Frank E. got almost killed. He woke
rapists stole her purse too. Each of the half-dozen North Goa up a week back to find six to seven persons holding a knife to
coastal villages which attract the bulk of the foreign visitors are his throat at Badem-Anjuna. Just then, some of his friends
distinct. Sinquerim, dominated by up-market tourists, doesn't turned up, making the robbers flee, says Pandal, a Goa regular
often report such crime. Tight security ensures that even since 1959 who is having second thoughts on coming back.
journalists entering a luxury hotel on a two-wheeler might be
halted to face questions. Goa's Tourist Police are ill-equipped. "They are only there to
shoo away the hawkers," complains Roland Martins. His
At the other end - both geographically and otherwise - is citizens' group, the JGB critical of Goa's tourism policy for a
Anjuna-Vagator. Here, the three-decades old hippy-tourist decade, sees "strong hints" of political patronage to the crime.
monopoly is slowly but surely giving way to a commercialised
circuit, throwing up a potent mix. Big business and the state Ms. Zuma Suzama of Croatia and and Steinhaus Ralf of
government want to replace the low-budget tourists around Frankfurt says tourists "talk a lot" about crime on the beach.
with big-spenders. But villagers say they gain most from those But other foreign tourists don't think much of the problem.
who depend on the simple life of their rustic economy. "Most people we met are satisfied. They are here because they
like Goa," said a woman, declining to mention her name, who
Baga and Calangute, former fishing villages sandwiched in the is part of a former Christian Ashram that now runs a library for
midst of this belt, face crime directed against tourists and tourists in Anjuna.
related problems. Calangute villagers complain of local
protection rackets, links between politicians and dubious Teddy Nunes feels otherwise. "The growing crime is a recent
organisations whose activities verge on the semi-legal, and trend. It will definitely affect tourism," says this educationist
land-grabs by builders in an area where tourism has sparked an whose family runs a mini-supermarket at the lively former
uncontrolled building boom. hippy-haunt of Anjuna. Behind him are posters seeking
information about a missing Swiss tourist, and announcing the
Some argue though that the crime along the beach belt is not all departure of an overland bus leaving Goa for Europe.
that new. Police officials dismissively say some foreign tourists
report thefts of belongings to claim insurance back home. But ]ohn Lobo, who runs a popular "shack", concurs. He feels that
Goa Speaker Tomazinho Cardozo calls for firm governmental Goa's image as a licentious place has been so widely
action "otherwise the tourists will feel insecure". He recalls propagated that foreign women tourists walking alone face a
how in his coastal constituency at Ximer-Candolim, some serious threat of being molested. "Many cases go unreported,"
young boys raped a tourist, some years ago,.but they were not says he.
brought to book. IG-P Brar retorts that it's hard to follow up
such crime too. For instance, one Danish girl was raped. Police Add Shiv Sena's Camilo D'Souza: "People come here for
offered to pay for her passage stay in Goa, but she opted not to sunbathing. They don't come to give you (some perverse
get involved in hdia's time-consuming legal system. He warns pleasure). If you want that, go to Baina (the sleazy and distant
the same could happen in the latest Swedish case. redJight quarter of Goa.)

But Rosy Fernandes, who rents accommodation to foreign But one beach-belt constable commented: "They're (leading
tourists, has another story to tell. Two Frenchmen there were licentious lives) all the time... then some complain of rape.
robbed twice. In one case, the elderly womenfolk were too Police who effected the arrests. won't even get monetary
afraid to intervene. Another time, the tourists woke up in the rewards, but just a favourable comment in their service
morning to find a part of their roof missing, along with records." It is anyone's guess, whether such attitudes will take
cameras, radios and even their shoes. crime-solvers far.

"Foreign tourists have been harassed a lot. Both by thieves and (Frederick Noronha is a Goa-based freelance journalist who writes
by the police," says another Anjuna villager, seeking anonymity about tourism.)

73
A Report on
Tourism in Himachal Pradesh
Development Institute), theoretically and practically, explained
('Sadprayas'which means "an attempt to search out the truth" is the impact of tourism on environment, water, forests and land.
a mooement in Himachal Pradesh that questions the consequences With particular respect to Kulu, he said that a number of environ-
of tourism in the state. The following is a report of a workshop mental problems had cropped up in Kulu because of tourism.
helil by Sadprayas on tourism in Kulu, Himachal Pradesh, in He also said that there had been an increase in the income of
lanuary,'1997, sent to EQUATIONS by LaI Chand Dhissa.) people as a result of tourism but was not able to say which
section of the people had actually gained from tourism in Kulu.

n our country, corruption, unbalanced development, Shri Chandrasen Thakur did justice to his topic - the relation-
exploitation, cheating, nepotism, redtapism and state ship between tourism and the host region and community. He
terrorism have given birth to communal hatred, casteist and defined "Sadprayas" and showed the difference between the
regional separatism and disillusionment. " Sad-prayas", which Eastern and Western definitions of tourism. He described the
means, 'an attempt to search out the truth', is a movement in impact of tourism on host region and community in a poetic
Himachal Pradesh and will go on for a long time into the fashion. With examples, he proved that current tourisrn
future. Our work is to look for the truth, find it and bring this development has done nothing other than exploiting people.
truth to our fellow beings. Because, today, those whom we had He exhorted the youth of Kulu to fight the adverse impact of
elected as representatives, whom we had trusted and from tourism and not to shy away from such problems.
whom we had so much of expectations, have themselves
become the object of our questions. Prof. Rabindra Kaushal, while speaking on the subject
"Tourism-Boon or Bane?", made a distinction between two
ln these three days, other than the youth and the veteran different viewpoints, the Eastern and the Western. He said it
freedom fighters, historian Chandrashekhar Bebas, Dr.Kumar, was not only tourism but other models of development also
Dr.Ram, Dr.Badaula (G.B.Pant Environment and DeveloPment which had harmed the local people. He said there was need to
Institute, Shamshi), Chandrasen Thakur, Prof .V.K.Ahluwalia, beware of this kind of exploitation. Questions were raised and
Dr. Y.C Faykay, Sadhavi Maanasi Chaitanya ji, Ravindra Kaushalji successfully answered them.
Kaushal, Mr.Nirat Ram Verma, Harinarayan Malhotra and
others participated. In these three days, tourism and many Sadhvi Maanasi Chaitanyaji of Ekaantaashram, Kulu, described
other related questions were discussed and on the final day, in detail the impact of tourism on professionals. She called
Shri. Rai, State Health Minister, Himachal Pradesh, presided today's TV 'dangerous'. She spoke of mental and physical
over the concluding of the workshop. In these three days, a pollution, Questions were raised and discussions followed.
programme and policy were determined and the following
main issues emerged. The three-day workshop made it clear that the present model of
tourism is not acceptable. This consumerist, five-star tourism
Speaking on tourism and health, Dr.Faykay described how in had not led to any kind of development. On the contrary, it had
Thailand, Laos and other nations, tourisrn had spread AIDS led to the growth of a wrong kind of culture, deforestation, the
and other diseases. Besides this, pollution related diseases and raising of concrete jungles, drinking water scarcity, and to a
the spread of tuberculosis were discussed. The participants also shortage of electricity, wood and fuel. Commodities in local
raised many questions. markets had begun to cost more.

Shri Lal Chand Dhissa spoke on how tourism was related to Tourism had brought with it unwanted developments like
drugs and narcotic substances. He described how with the prostitution, gambling and exploitation of locals especially of
growth of tourism and especially the coming of foreign tourists, women. The three-day discussion also made it clear that the
particularly in Himachal Pradesh and in Kulu, drugs like smack development of tourism had only exploited the local people. In
had come into circulation. With the help and guidance of the fact, more than 90% of the people who have benefited
foreigners, local people had begun growing cannabis, economically from tourism belong to places outside Kulu.
marijuana and opium and had started to trade illegally in these. Whether it is the hotel industry, employment, taxi or tour
Many questions were asked. A good discussion followed. operation, local people have a very low level of participation.

Prof. Ahluwalia spoke impressively on the impact of tourism In these three days, some important decisions were taken which
on youth and students. In explaining the impact of tourism on were as follows:
the youth and students, he gave an example of ]apan. He spoke
of prostitution and flesh trade and warned India, especially the Of all the known paths to development, tourism is one of the
backward regions of India like Kulu. He said the development most dangerous and insidious ways. Therefore, it was decided
of tourism would only lead to social evils and not many that:
benefits wouldfollow. Questions were raised and answers
were found. (l) AII actiaities related to tourism including formulation,
implementation and eaaluation of programmes must be done
Dr. Kuniyal (of the G.B.Pant Himalayan Environment and after consulting and with the participation of the local people.

74
(2) Alienation of property \and) must take place with the assent of to a number of reasons, it materialised only on 10 |anuary, 1.997.
local people. Such sale deeils must cleafly lay down b) the The Department of Sports and Youth Affairs has helped only
reasons for sale of the land and (b) the reasons for purchase of the marginally in the holding of this workshop.
Iand.
We received full support from the people in the workshop. We
(3) Atleast 25% of the reoenues obtained from the tourism inilustry tried to contact many others in the Government. Some who said
must be allotted to the host region and its people. they would attend the workshop, finally did not come at all. In
case of others, we were told that the concerned person was not
(4) lJnplanned anil unorganised tourism hsd led to seaeral adoerse available. Sometimes, the staff did not allow us to even speak
consequences in the social, cultural, economic, moral, mental to the person. Despite the District administration, Kulu being
and enaironmental fields. Of these, the most important are, the informed much in advance about the workshop, no help, co-
production of drugs and narcotic substances, trade anil operation or support was extended throughout the duration of
consumerism, pollution(mental, moral and geogtaphical), AIDS, the workshop. We had never imagined such indifference from
distortion of culture, prostitution, gambling and other forms of the administration of a small place like Kulu. When we went to
exploitation. Dhalpur, the work-place of the Kulu Tourism Department, we
came to know that the District Tourism Development Officer
(5) Tourism deoelopment may Pose a threat to the seatity of the (DTDO) was on leave. In Manali, instead of the person in
nation. charge, someone else spoke to us, who said that all the relevant
papers and files should be sent to Manali. These papers were
(6) Tourism deaelopment has reiuaenated a culture 0f sent by Sadprayas to Manali and were received there. On the
neocolonialism. Therefore, h) a national tourism policy is needed 12th of January,1997, the Tourism Department was to speak on
and (b) tourism should be planned and regulated. tourism and government policy, plans and facilities but no one
came. This is one example of the way the Tourism Department
This three-day workshop also revealed the attitude of the goes back on its words, and tries to shirk from its
ministers and officials towards the masses' It was marked by a responsibilities.
sense of detachment between the two' The ministers and
officials were arrogant and rude to the people'
The Of the government machinery, the maximum support, help,
administration and the tourism department of Kulu has not encouragement and co-operation came from the G'B.Pant
kept its promises. It has not honoured its commitments. Himalayan Environmental and Development Institute,
Shamshi. We appreciate their concern for people.
It is always the case that those who seek to find and establish
the truth do not get encouragement or co-operation from (This is the report of a workshop on tourism in Himachal Pradesh
others. This is what happened with Sadprayas too. This organised by 'Sadprayasl It was translated from Hindi into
workshop was to have taken place in September 1996 but due English by Renuka Phadnis.)

Agumbe - The Rain will stop soon !

(The proposed construction of a resort in Agumbe accompanied by the A resort is already under construction within the forest area
paraphernalia of mass tourism is threatening theflora andfauna of this near Agumbe and further'development' of the place will only
aerilant town in Karnatakn's Western Ghats, writes M.G.Ramesh.) serve to ruin the flora and fauna of this town in the rainforests.

I gumbe is a small town, with a population of about a A couple of years back,2 acres of land in Agumbe close to the
-f1. thousand people, nestling in the rain-forests of the forest area was bought by a businessman. The resort that this
picturesque Western Ghats which consist of a chain of hills businessman has proposed envisages independent cottages, a
running parallel to the coast in Karnataka in South India. bar, a restaurant, a board room, a conference room, a children's
Agumbe is called 'the Cherrapunjee of the South'because of the park and a golf club. All these are to be squeezed into the 2-acre
heavy and continuous rainfall that the place receives area. Any expansion beyond this area will constitute an offence
throughout the year. The rainfall in Agumbe is around 8,000 since there is forest area on three sides of the project and
mm per annum. The forests around this town are home to panchayat (village) land on the fourth side. A number of people
tigers, wild boars, stags, barking deer and Saurs' Some of these have opposed this project because it is bound to set off a chain
animals are endangered species. The birds found here include of ecological and social problems for the people of Agumbe.
the peacock, hornbills and rocket-tailed drongoes. Agumbe
happens to be the 'last resort' of the endangered Lion Tailed Another group of people who set up the "Nesara
Macaque in Karnataka. The forests have some rare vegetation Trust"("Nesara" means nature), to grow orchids in Agumbe
and include trees of ebony, 'dhooma' and 'balige'. Some rare have turned to real estate business and are now thinking of
species of orchids are also found here. constructing a resort in the area. People protested against the
building of the resort and it was at this juncture that the
The Department of Tourism of the Government of India has Supreme Court verdict in the Nagarahole case was announced.
identified Agumbe as one of the 'Thrust Areas for Special
Tourism Development' under the Tourism Policy of Karnataka. ContinuedonpageL7 )
L5
TVTN C+IILDI{TN ART NOI SPARTD

1 f igh-profite sex workers in the city have gone hi-tech to


T-f outwit police. Soliciting customers on the streets is
I L passd and pagers keep them posted about the
rende7vous even as overworked policemen scan parks, bus
stands and elsewhere in an effort to curb the menace.

The constables who raided a brothel in the city recently found


to their surprise that the women they arrested were carrying
little gadgets which were beeping messages.

Prostitution is going strong in Bangalore. The city is still a Some school girls belonging to affluent families join the trade
major tourist destination and this gives scope for organised to make some pocket money or "just for fun". For those from
gangs to thrive. According to the Assistant Commissioner of the poorer families, however, it is another way of
Police and in-charge Deputy Commissioner (crime), supplementing their family incomes.
Mr.Y.S.Bhat, immoral trafficking in the city is a flourishing
business. During 1996, 430 cases were registered compared to A doctor who treats child prostitutes in a city slum inhabited
510 the previous year. Fifty per cent of them were members of by a particular community confirms this. According to him in
gangs whose contact operated from phone booths and hotels. most cases it was the children's mothers who were already in
About 85 cases have been booked till this year. the business who forced them into prostitution.

In a bid to arrest the menace, says an official, a women's squ.ad The proliferation of child prostitution has been attributed to
has also been formed. Its purpose is to nab sophisticated many factors. Men, it is claimed, prefer virgins to keep AIDS
callgirls who go around in pricey cars and vans. Some of them at bay and this is said to have given a major boost to child
are so modern that they have given uP Pagers after the prostitution.
introduction of cellular phones in the city. Communications is
the key to business, they would say. Some believe that they would be able to cure themselves of
sexually-transmitted diseases if they have sex with girls below
Child prostifution, according to police reports, is not unheard 16, as a social worker put it.
of in the city. There are no official records to prove this though.
As a senior police official put it, brothel owners have made Some time a9o, a Calcutta Metropolitan Court ordered age
their "wards" aware of the danger of revealing their real age. verification of minors. Quoting a survey conducted by the
Well-tutored girls still in their early teens would not even Central Social Welfare Board, an NGO official says in six big
blink while saving that they are "well above 18". Says the cities in India, nearly 30 per cent of sex workers are below 20.
police official, "'llhere is no proof of age. So we are left with no
alternative but to book them for trafficking". If they are booked The reported growth of child prostitution, experts feel, is a
under child category they will be sent to remand homes and reflection of a world-wide phenomenon. It is true of many
will have to face problems yet again. Asian countries as well.

The parks in the city are the favourite haunts of chitd According to a United Nations report issued last year by the
prostitutes. This is giving notoriety to Ulsoor Lake Park, Human Rights Investigator for Child Prostitution, one million
Cubbon Park and a portion of Lalbagh. Operators pick up children are involved in the flesh trade in Asia working in
students and send the children to their clients. Girls in school conditions indistinguishable from slavery.
uniforms are found taking a stroll with men, says an elderly
person who visits the park for a walk daily. Cases are difficult It is not that there is a lack of remedial measures or policies.
to be filed as the girls who are nabbed insist that their The Prevention of Immoral Trafficking Act (PITA) for instance,
companions are either their guardians or friends. But, child seeks to hold the brothel owner, who in most cases pushes
rapists have been brought to book. children into prostitution.
L6
Some Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are also
involved in the rescue and rehabilitation of girls below 18,
forced into prostitution.

The NGOs have demanded strong legislative measures against


child molesters. Areas where child trafficking is thriving need
to be identified, they have said. According to them, more
voluntary organisations and NGOs should be involved in
counselling.

The NGOs have suggested that they be given the opportunity


to help the child prostitutes confined in remand homes. They
insist that the government has a big role to play in taking
measures against prostitution and initiate stePs to rehabilitate
sex workers. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child,
1990, defines child prostitution as "sexual exploitation of a
Many nations have earned foreign exchange with the help of a child below the age of 18 for remuneration in cash or kind". It
tourism industry which depends on exploitation of women and includes the rights to protection, survival development and
children. The laws relating to child abuse are not enforced participation. From this year, April 4 is being observed as the
strictly in these countries. "No Child Prostitution Day".
Besides, globalisation and liberalisation processes have given a
It was on April 3, a few years ago, that a paedophile, 7}-year-
boost to child prostitution. Disintegration of families and
traditional and religious practices are also equally responsible old Freddy Peats, a foreign national, was arrested by the Goa
for the menace. police. The Freddy Peats case gave indication that an intema-
tional sex crime syndicate is active in the country. Reports
India is one country which is unable to enforce the laws say there are five lakh paedophiles world-wide.
against prostitution. About five lakh children are involved in
the prostitution business in the country. Child prostitution is on the rise in India, Sri Lanka and other
countries. The UNICEF Progress of Nations Report of 1995
There are about a million girls involved in the trade in the says there are around five lakh child prostitutes in India, amount-
continent and many more in Latin America.
ing to 25 per cent of the two million child prostitutes world-wide.

A document prepared by Equations, an NGO, says child


prostitution has turned the child into a commodity which can According to Equations, an NGO based in Bangalore, there
be sold, purchased and hired. are two million prostitutes in India. A UNICEF report says
that system4tic trafficking from rural areas is the reason why
a question of poverty but rather one of values -
It is no longer there are so many children in the flesh trade.
and in particular, the values of consumerism. Can't these
children - orphaned, abandoned, exploited - be treated any In Inclia, the loopholes in the law help child abusers get away.
better? A brothel owner can be sentenced to seven years in jail for
forcing children below 16 years into prostitution, according to
"Eoen chililren are not spared." by K;Narasimhan in The
NGO sources.
14/04/97.
Source : The Hindu, 14n April, 1997

P Continuedfrom page L5 hotel was languishing for want of tourists so where was the
need for more resorts? If people come streaming into this self-
The court had said that the Taj Group of hotels could not build sustaining town, vehicles along with pollution are bound to
the jungle lodge within the Nagarahole National Park in follow. Natural resources will be put to uses that are of no
Karnataka at the cost of the livelihood of the tribals who had benefit to Agumbe's ecology or or its people. The issue in
been living there for generations. This was a boost to the Agumbe is not of allowing or not allowing a resort to come up
people of Agumbe. A writ petition was filed by an individual there but one that is related to the people's survival. The
challenging the construction of the resort in the Agumbe impact of tourism is multi-faceted. In Agumbe, inspite of
forests. However, this case was dismissed on the ground that people's resistance to these developments, the powers-that-be
the land on which the resort u/as to be constructed did not seem bent on going about their way. Decisions about their town
constitute forest land. This was a big blow to the local people are being taken by people outside it. Agumbe's people need to
in Agumbe. know what changes are taking place in their town and to the
right to accept or reject these. When things might affect the
At present, the Zilla Parishath Secretary has stalled the rainforests the people live in, Agumbe's people have to protest.
construction of the resort. However, this could be revoked any Otherwise, the rains may stop soon.
time. The people of Agumbe feel one resort could very well
lead the way to the construction of many more. In any case, a (This article is written by M.G.Ramesh, Programme Co-orilinator,
KSTDC (Karnataka State Tourism Development Corporation) EQUATTONS.)

17
About, Us o K. T. Suresh and Hari Babu attended a workshop titled
Unfolding the Budget Document organised by DISHA at
Ahmedabad, in November, to understand how to decode a
government-budget document. Other important topics
discussed were the demand on grants by various ministries,
he EQUATIONS team hss been inuolved in a number of especially with reference to areas like tourism, fisheries and
actiuities over the last six months. There have been workhops, forests in which EQUATIONS is involved. The Finance
campaigns and training programmes connected to different Commission Report, the budget manual, the budget
programmes that EQUATIONS is involved in Kerala, Tamilnadu, proposals and DISHA s experience of the budget analysis
Karnataka and Goa. Also, a number of publications haae been added exercise were the issues discussed.
to the documentation section of EQUATIONS. Here are the details:
o A Workshop on Desertification fssues in Tamilnadu.was
Workshops organised by the Thmilnadu Environment Council,Dindigul
at Madras on 20 December 1996. Shirley Susan participated
o Dhanaraj Keezhara and Shirley Susan attended the in this Workshop.
Consultation on Child Ttafficking and Child Prostitution
in South Asia organised by End Child Prostitution in Asian o A meeting was organised by the National Council of
Tourism (ECPAT) and the Young Men's Christian Churches in India (NCCI) and UIRM to jointly initiate a
Association(YMcA) on 25 - 26luly,7996in New Delhi. National Campaign for the Abolition of Child Prostitution
on 10 January L997 in Goa. Shirley Susan represented
r In Ernakulam, Kerala, a Workshop on Coastal Zones: A EQUAIIONS' concerns at this meeting.
Situational Analysisorganised by the EQUATIONS Action
Study Circle, Ernakulam was held. This was the second o A workshop on Tkmilnadu Coastal losues, co-organised by
such workshop. The first workshop on coastal zones had the Coastal Action Network and EQUATIONS was held at
been held in Novembet, 1995 at Kozhikode, Kerala for a Chengalpatbu, Thmilnadu from 10-12 February 1997. Shirley
comprehensive study of the Coastal Regulation Zones Susan presented her paper A Brief Look at Tourism in
(CRZ). The Ernakulam workshop c6ncluded with Tamilnadu. K.T.Suresh spoke about the problems of the
identifying strategies for the Kerala coast and chalking out Karnataka coast with special reference to Dakshina
tasks and responsibilities for the EQUATIONS team. A Kannada and the ecological issues that have arisen with the
dossier on CRZ violations along the Keralam coast, growth of mega-industries. Hari Babu shared his
prepared by EQUATIONS, was presented. experience of the Kerala Coastal Zone Regulation and the
relationship of this with the lives of the fishing communities
o A Workshop qr lluman Experience and Sustainable living along the coast. Fishing community organisations
Strategies was organised by the Department of Geography, resolved to take up tourism and the growing urbanisation
University of Madras at Madras from 2L- 23 November along the coast on their agenda. The future course of action
1996. Hari Babu chaired the session on Coastal Tourism. was also planned to strengthen the struggle against Sterlite
Shirley Susan presented a paper on'Tourism in Thmilnadu' Industries, Tuticorin and the film city project at Karaikkal.
with special emphasis on the coastal region. Other
important issues like coastal ecology, coastal zone o M.G.Ramesh and Shirley Susan attended a workshop on
regulations and the impact of aquaculture were discussed. Violation of lfuman Rights in Childrcn Worldwide
organised by the South Indian Cell for Human Rights
. South Asian Workshop and Symposium on Fisheries and Education and Monitoring (SICHREM) Bangalore on the 5-7
Coastal Area Management, a four nation meet, was March 1997.
conducted by International Collective in Support of
Fishworkers (ICSF), Madras from 26 September to I October I Shirley Susan and M.G.Sreekala attended a meeting on
1996. Hari Babu participated in the workshop. The meet Tiafficking and Prostitution: Changing Trends in South
deliberated on the institutional, legal and policy Asia organised by VIMOCHANA on 21 March 1997 at
dimensions of fisheries and coastal area management. Bangalore.

o A Workshop on Seriously Polluting Industries-Focus on o Shirley Susan and S.Padmaja on behalf of EQUATIONS
Chlofine. the Killer Chemical:The fndustry4 Pollution, its participated in a workshop on Gender and the Economy
Effects and Solutiont was organised by GREENPEACE at organised by VISTHAR on24-25 March 1997.
Madras, on 25-26 November 7996. Shirley Susan
participated in this Workshop. r A seminar on Aquaculture, Coastal Zone Regulations was
organised by PREPARE of Tamil Nadu. EQUATIONS was
r On 17 - 18 August,L996, M.G.Ramesh and Hari Babu attended invited and Hari Babu was in charge of the session on CM.
a meeting, at Nandikur, near Mangalore, Karnataka,
addressed by Maneka Gandhi and Prof. Nanjundaswamy. o Meeting on Tamil Nadu Coastal Management Plan on 4-5
This meeting was part of the anti-Cogentrix movement. September 1996 at Chennai. K.T.Suresh, Shirley Susan and
Hari Babu attended the meet. Hari Babu presented a paper-
o M.G.Ramesh of EQUATIONS presented a paper, "Tourism APreliminary Study on Malabar Coastal Region.
in Kodagu-A Sustainable Industry?" at a workshop titled
Kodagu - A Model for Sustainable Development in DOCUMENTATION
Kodagu, Karnataka, which was organised by the Centre for o Additions to the documentation section have also been
Environmental Education, (CEE), Bangalore. made in the form of books, rcports, journals and articles in

L8
response to the new areas that EQUATIONS has been CAMPAIGNS
focussing upon. (A list of the added material is on Page
number 22.) Slides have been made by the EQUATIONS o EQUATIONS participated in the Coastal Jatha (a
team on the people's protests in the Taj-Nagarahole issue. procession) organised by Kerala Swathandra Matsya
Thozhilali Federation (Independent Fish Workers
Federation) to educate fishing communities living along the
Publications: coasts of Keralam about the CRZ Notification and their
rights.(For details, please see the article 'CRZ-Regulating
r Dossier on Tourism-Issues in Thmilnadu People's Lives' by Hari Babu.) The' jatha's aim was also to
counter the claim of the Kerala State government that the
This dossier provides an overall look into Tamilnadu and its fishing community was against the CRZ notification. The
tourism activities. It debates on the emerging conflicts with 'jatha'began on 3 November and ended on 25 November at
regard to tourism and its infrastructural needs, socio- the Thiruvananthapuram Secretariat with a demonstration
cultural aspects, economics and the politics of tourism by the fishing community. Hari Babu represented
development. EQUATIONS in the' j atha' from Kasargod through Kannur,
Kozhikode and Malappuram in Kerala. Dhanaraj Keezhara
o Nilgiris-A Lost Paradise of EQUATIONS accompanied it from Trichur, Ernakulam,
through Alappuzha and Kollam to Thiruvananthapuram
This dossier is a compilation of newsclippings on the also in Kerala. EQUATIONS documented the CRZ
Nilgiris documented in EQUATIONS over the past few violations along the coast which was published as a dossier.
years. It shows the indiscriminate exploitation of resources A copy of the dossier in Malayalam was presented at the
that has resulted from the growth of tourism in the Nilgiris. workshop along with a photo-documentation of the coastal
It attemps to initiate a debate on the future of the Nilgiris. zone violations.

o Dossier on CRZ Issues (Malayalam and English) o The National Jatha - the 'Bharat Yatra'- was planned in the
wake of the Central Government's move to amend the CRZ
The Malayalam dossier is a compilation of coastal violations notification. Hari Babu represented EQUATIONS at the
in the coastal districts of Keralam. It also contains vital planning stage of the 'yatra' at Delhi by National
statistics of the coastal districts, area, coastal panchayats, Fishworkers Forum (NFF) and took charge of its
population etc. The English dossier has details of the three organisation in Karnataka. Our relationship with fish.ing
northern coastal districts. It has sections on Kovalam, the community organisations of Karnataka was put to good use
costal tourism centre and its neighbourhood. The dossier for this. The Yatra reached Karnataka on the 30th of March
also deals with the Goshree project of the Vypin islands at and received a rousing welcome at Karwar and Mangalore.
Kochi. The dossier has original photographs of violations. The jatha concluded at Nagapattanam in Tamil Nadu on 4
April. Earlier, in Delhi, Hari Babu had called for a meeting
o Recent Threats to Raiiv Gandhi National Park in among NGO groups to bring attention to the issue of coastal
Nagarahole, Karnataka, India zones and the problems faced by coastal communities in the
This dossier prepared by Susan Mathews, advocate for the littoral states. The meeting was jointly called by
legal battle between the adivasi and the Taj group of hotels, EQUATIONS, the Coastal Action Network(CAN), and the
and EQUATIONS, contains details of the Taj-Nagarahole Indian Social Institute (ISf, Delhi. It was attended by 15
struggle in Karnataka. It has details on the Taj Resort, the prominent groups and future action plans were chalked out.
World Bank Eco-Development project and news
o Regional Grassroots Tlaining Programmes were conducted
EQUATIONS also publishes EQ-News Feature as a service to by Hari Babu on CRZ on collaboration with the Malabar
the media. It is intended to stimulate debate and may be Coastal Institute for Training Research and Action
freely reproduced, in whole or in part, with (MCITRA), Kozhikode, Kerala. While the CRZ regulations
acknowledgement. These are available free to newspapers were being much debated at high levels, people along the
and journalists. For more information, contact: coast were ignorant about the regulations arid their rights.
To tackle this issue EQUATIONS planned joint grassroots
EQUATTONS programme with MCITRA. In the four northern districts of
l98,2nd Cross, Church Road Keralam, about 25 such programmes were arranged. Hari
New Thippasandra Babu was the resource person for this.
Bangalore 560 075 INDIA
Phone: 080-528 2313/529 2905
Fax : 080-528 2313 / 528 2627 Attn: 20
E-mail : ADMlN@equation.ilban.ernet.in (About Us is written by Renuka Phadnis, Programme Associate,
(Publications), EQUATIONS.)

ry$' ggry

19
Some Thoughts on
Tourism and Cultare
(In the following article, Dn Rajan Gurukkal questions the entry of
tourism in an area alien to it. He does not make a case against tourism
only because it may influence the local culture. His fear is that
tourism, for instance, as in Sabarimala, Kerala, threatens to break the
delicate balance within a perfectly self-sufficient lifestyle that is
naturally in equilibrium with its ecology.)

his is not an article on the subject of tourism and culture


but my observations, a few random thoughts on it. I
have been thinking, "What happens to a local culture
when tourism grows in a place?" The answer, I feel, is simple.
One inevitable consequence is that the culture of that place
decays.

I do not mean to say that every culture is something sacred


that should be conserved and preserved for posterity. Culture
is not a definite term. It has different meanings in different
contexts. Take for instance, "Indian culture" or " Kerala
culture". These do mean something but they mean different
things to different people. When I say "culture", I mean it as
expressing a pattern of social existence. That is, culture tha
exists within a certain ecological system. I feel, culture is the
aggregate of the pattern of social behaviour and practices that
one can see in a given set of ecological conditions of human
existence. Any discussion on culture, therefore, has to
necessarily be linked to its ecology. 'Ecotypes', 'ecozones'and
'ecosystems'become central in such discussions. The question of a community's pattern of existence, the way it recognises
of the cultural consequences of tourism, a capitalist industry, is itself and forms a perspective from which it recognises others.
thus very much related to ecology. This pattern, this identity that lies in the culture of the people of
any ecosystem, is linked to their very mode of existence. This
While speaking of culture, tourism becomes crucial. This is identity is the sum total of their means of subsistence. It is this
because tourist zones are ecologically sensitive zones. The that gets disrupted when culture undergoes change. The
tourism industry has as its habitat or its context, ecologically question is not one of change in culture. The question is of
sensitive zones like rain forests, wetlands, mountain valleys survival and the resistance, to change, which is such an
and mountain tops and the coastal tracts. These are the places important part of survival.
where one can see "ecosystem people" - people whose modes
of existence are natural and ecologically sustdinable. People in Today, in Kerala, a grave situation exists in the evergreen
such places do not seParate themselves from nature. Instead, forests of the Sabarimala ecosystem. Sabarimala is a part of the
they relate to all living beings in their environment. Their Vallakadavu range belonging to the Periyar Tiger Reserve. In
culture is conditioned by this world view - a bio-centric one. such a forested area, an urban complex can only be developed
According to this perspective, the biosphere and the human in a low altitude terrain with slopes. We cannot build huge
habitat are closely related and keep interacting with each other. concrete structures on/ say, undulating terrain like hills. So,
wherever hill stations are built as tourist centres, it is the low
One has only to make a list of cultures to observe that all these altitude evergreen patches that suffer. This is exactly what has
exist in ecologically sensitive zones. My question is, "What happened in Sabarimala, where a portion of the forests,
happens to such cultures when tourism grows there?" Tourism, christened "Rudravanam", is about to be destroyed. Here, 100
here, constitutes a new lifestyle, a wasteful lifestyle. It acres of low altitude evergreen forests are to be cleared to make
constitutes a new, material culture that is a microcosm of the way for the construction of five huge construction structures
urban culture- Wherever tourism grows, whether in the each to accommodate 5,000 people. One can imagine the
wetlands, the mountain tops or the evergreen forests, monstrosity of the set-up. About 2000 vehicles are to be
urbanisation follows it. The moment tourism arises in any provided parking space below the buildings. The forest
ecology, urban culture makes itself felt. This affects local department has given a clearance to the project because it
culture. If the local culture undergoes a serious, traumatic claims that the scheme will not seriously affect the forest eco-
change, because of tourism, the existence of the community is system as there would be no clear felling of trees in the area .
under threat. What I am saying is that, culture is an expression Only the undergrowth would be removed and the fully grown
20
trees would be kept intact. To the planners the area would still sustainable nature of the pattern of subsistence in the life of the
look like a beautiful forest, even without the low level shrubs, people living along the coast. This has been so because the
grass and creepers. pattern has evolved over centuries. They have been living this
way without any problems with their environment. It is such a
The idea is that these buildings will make the pilgrimage to means of subsistence, one that is integrated with its ecology,
Sabarimala easier. People need no longer get exhausted which is disrupted when tourism intervenes. The local people
climbing up the hills. They can now go to Rudravanam and and the ecosystem tend to get degraded. The same happens to
relax there. After a shower, they can go at a leisurely pace to the implanted lifestyle.
the Sabarimala shrine for 'darshan' (worship) and return - all
without sweat. This route will attract more pilgrims to It is not just one area that gets adversely affected. The entire
Sabarimala and make it a prosperous centre of tourism. In the balance is upset. The coastal scenario is so integrated that a
second phase of development, there might be a ropeway from major rupture at one point affects the whole coastal region. In
the roof of one of the buildings to the temple! This way, one Kerala, we have very limited marshes and swamps along a very
can bypass the strenuous 'Pathinettampadi' which makes the weak line of mangroves and rock series. All these are inter-
route to the'darshan'so difficult. After all, these are comforts related. If one particular component is affected, it tells upon
that urban people are used to. And they expect similar the very existence of the other components. It triggers off a
conditions wherever they go. A pilgrimage lasts only for a few total collapse. Different economies, evolved unevenly, that still
days but typical urban facilities are expected where people can live on in these ecotypes, are affected. It is this that I am
still stay comfortably. It is precisely because of such worried about when I say I am anxious about the degradation
developments that the culture of a place gets adversely or disappearance of a culture. I am not concerned with the
affected. If urban facilities are simply transplanted on to an disappearance of culture in a romantic way. I am not saying
alien area, then the nafural, environmentally-sustainable mode that culture should be preserved as a museum piece - that is a
of existence of the people living there gets disrupted. A capitalist perspective, one which envisages the marketing of
perfectly sustainable mode of living unnecessarily gets objects for gratification. I am not speaking at all of
supplanted by an ecologically harmful one. In Sabarimala, the transforming (reducing) culture to an object of gratification. I
people depend on the evergreen forests to sustain their wild- am not bothered about whether a culture is able to gratify
food economy. This will get disrupted by the introduction of people or not. The question is of conserving an ecologically
the urban complex. sustainable mode of human existence. When tourism enters
along with its material culture, functions, practices and
Similar is the case with other tourism zones. Take for instance, infrastructure, the economy-ecology symbiosis gets disrupted.
the coastal tract. For example, the coast of Kerala which is This leads to the tragic destruction of the communities on the
protected either by weak mangroves or by rock series. If huge one hand and the ecological system on the other. Communities,
buildings are made on the rock series or the mangroves, it will along with their community practices, community wisdom and
certainly affect the ecosystem. The rock series which now their culture - which is but a sum total of all these, disappear.
guard against sea-erosion, will cease to be an effective barrier In the process, cultural diversity, like biodiversity, gets fatally
against powerful sea waves. This will affect the nearby affected.
agricultural regions. The immediate interior will be inundated
by sand. In the case of mangroves, it is well-known that these (This article was written by Dn Rajan Gurukkal, Director, School
act as barriers against sea-erosion. One can see the ecologically of Social Sciences, Kottayam, Kerala.)

.il-,,.Y:,n

fl
.IIEEP,
l-iii :l::l::.

sti'ii: :# :i.i::lr,;
.'

ii:il iiitii!.|
liX,

; i1t: ,l

tif"4ffi*fi#"{jii*#lri}!j:*,.i,Sqi{ftifiiit*riii*}d1:{.tf1$,,Ffii,rj,lRlr;ir, ii!drtli{q#dwXmffi&*',Ang&W*g$rr,.#i
;tii
21
23. Environment and Wildlife - The Parisar annual Lecture
1992; Bittu Sahgal
-80443
Books 24. The Coastal Regulation Zone Notification in Goa; Goa
Foundation
01. An Introduction to Tiavel and Tourism; P N Seth & -80444
Sushma Seth Bhat
-
80370 25. Landmark ludgments ion Enviionmental Protection; M I
Anthony 80445
02. Culture Shock: a Guide to Customs and Etiquette - -
India; Gitanjali Kolanad
-8,0371 26. Understanding The Nilgiris; C P R Environmental
Education Centre
03. Tourism and the Environment: A sustainable -80446
relationship?; C Hunter & H Green
- 80373 Articles
04. Tourism and Politics: policy, power and places; C M Hall 01. Blue White and Green - A perspective on Tourism
-8,0374 Development in Sindhudurg; Aruna Bagchee;
Department of Tourism, Govt.of Maharashtra. 401310
05. Coastal Zone Managemeng T Beatley et al
- B 0378
(Spages)
-
06. GATS and Tourism - Agreeing on Trade and Tourism; 02. Discussion Paper; reality or rhetoric/ Ecotourism and
wTo rural reconstruction in South Africa; Eddie Koch;
-80385
UNRISD. (58 pages)
47. The Law relating to Protection of Coastal Areas; P B -401315
Sahasranaman 80387
- 03. Emerging mass tourism in the South- Reflections in the
social opportunities and the costs of national and
08. Unsuitable for Ladies-an anthology of women travellers; regional tourism in developing countries; by Krishna B
Jane Robinson 80396
- Ghimire;1996- A01319
09. Ancient Futures - learning from Ladakh; H Norberg- 04. Tourism in Kodagu - A sustainable industry?;
Hodge EQUATIONS ; 199 6.- A 01321 (Tpages)
-80397
10. Environmental Guidelines for Coastal tourisur
05. Challenges to shaping tourism in developing countries
Development in Sri Lanka 80411
through the reorganisation of world trade under the
-
shelter of the World Trade Organisation - preliminary
11. Tourism Management - a global perspective; ed. by G S
analysis; |org Seifert and Uwe Kleinert-A01329 (Spages)
Batra and A S Chawla 804f5
-
(This list was compiled by M.G.Sreekala, Programme Associate in-
t2. Dynamics of Modern Tourism; Ratandeep Singh 80415
- charge of the EQUATIONS Documentation Cell).

13. Infrastructure of Tourism in India; Ratandeep Singh


80416 hefollowing is the text of a Resolution passed by ISLAN
- UST / MALAYAHA MAKKAL MARUUAZHV U MAN MM,
t4. Development of Tourism and Tfavel Industry; P Dhar E NITGIRIS AND EQUATIONS, BANGALORE.
B,0417
-

15. Tourist India: Hospitality Services; Ratandeep Singh


B04r9 Valedictory function of 'ECO-Tourism
- (17.05.1997)
t6. Structural adjustment and Employment Policy-issues
and experiences; ].Toye We demand that Tourism should be regularised taking into
-80425 consiileration the socio, economic and cultural heritage of the
people of Nilgiris.
17. Ethical, Legal and Regulatory aspects of Tourism
Business; S S Malik 80428
- Toufism deuelopment has adversely affected the Enafuonment
18. Tourism management and marketing; the business of Ecology in the Nilgiris. We therefore demanil that no more
travel agency operations; A K Bhatia tourism centres be developed in the Niligiris district.
-8,0429
79. Adventure Tourism; SS Malik 80430 We appeal that all the income generateil through Tourism be
- used for the deoelopment works in the Nilgiris district.
20. Tourism Principles and Practices; Chris Cooper BM34
- We observe with grave concern that the cost of all basic goods
anil sercices steep during Holiday season in Nilgiris due to
21. Trading Places : Tourism as Trade; Tourism Concern
heavy inflow of the Tourists. This affects the local people. We
80441
- therefore demand the Government officials and district
administration to curb the dual price hike duting the seasons.
22. The ECPAT story; Ron O'Grady
-80442
22
being discussed thus. While other activities in the Nilgiris like
A[re RNArive Exh ibirion felling, poaching of animals and timber had received attention
in the past, tourism in Ooty was being addressed only now.
ON Ooty is part of the Nilgiris which is a sensitive biosphere
region. There is a close relationship between environment and
Tounism nnd EruviRoNmENr tourism and both affect each other. He said that it was not
possible to safeguard the environment and simultaneously,
Oory expand tourism. There is a contradiction between the two
which the government had to address.

Mr. A. Rangarajan, General Secretary, Tamilnadu Green


Movement and a freelance journalist said that it was high time
an end was brought to conventional methods of tourism
n "Alternative Exhibition on Tourism and promotion. There was a need for a renewed agenda for action
Environment" was held in Ooty from 13-20 March among NGO groups since one could not be complacent about
t997. It was jointly organised by the Island Trust, tourism issues in Ooty. He felt "the exhibition wakes you up".
Kotagiri, the Malayaha Makkal Maruvazhvu Manram
(MMMM), Kotagiri and EQUATIONS, Bangalore. The Dr. N. K. Perumal, Director, Rural Development Organisation, said
exhibition was inaugurated by Dr.Jeevanantham, President, that the information presented in the exhibition had to be conveyed
Tamilnadu Green Movement. A discussion was held on to the government officials. He said that hill-stations were called
tourism and environment in Ooty. The panelists were "assets" and viewed as "engines of the economy." However, it had to
Dr.Jeevanantham, Mr.R.R.Sivalingam, Chairman, Island Trust, be understood that "tourism destroys tourism", he said. The Master
Kotagiri, Dr.N.K.Perumal, Director, Rural Development Plan for Ooty had been drawn up entirely by govemment officials
Organisation, Mr.A.Rangarajan, General Secretary, Tamilnadu without consulting people or NGOs.
Green Movement, Mr.M.Kumaravelu, Project Officer, C.P.R.
Environment Centre, Mr.Alphonse Raj, Executive Secretary, Mr.K.T.Suresh, Co-ordinator, EQUATIONS, Bangalore said that
Island Trust, Mr.Venkatachalapathy, Mr.N.Krishnamurthy and he was speaking on behalf of "people who are travelled upon."
Mr.K.T.Suresh, Co-ordinator, EQUATIONS, Bangalore. People who travel must take into consideration their impact on
the lives of the people in places that they visit. The
The exhibits on display were concerned with tourism, government's scheme of forming special tourism areas (STAs)
environment, health and herbal medicines. The material had created "large scale human zoos", he felt. These zones
included handmade posters (painted earlier by local youth at a negated the identities of people by forcing individuals to
poster workshop organised by EQUATIONS), printed posters, conform oneself to a zone. An individual is compelled to
photographs of old, colonial Ooty and the new Ooty. A series contribute to and remain within a zone or belong to nowhere.
of photographs that had been documented by the EQUATIONS He thought this trend of "zoning" people was a threat to the
team were part of the exhibition. There were also graphs and plurality of identities that exist among our people. There was a
statistics on the ecological changes in the Nilgiris Plateau, the need for policy-makers to understand this. Unfortunately,
Coimbatore Plains, the Sigur Plateau and the Wynad Plateau. tourism policies were being formulated by people who travel
Artefacts of the Todas, Irulas, the Nilgiri tribes, were also on and not by those who "were being travelled upon."
display.
On the concluding day, a resolution was passed by the Island
A number of views on the subject emerged after the discussion. Trust/Malayaha Makkal Maruvazhvu Manram, the Nilgiris
Dr.Jeevanantham, President, Tamilnadu Green Movement, said and EQUATIONS, Bangalore. The resolution demanded that
that tourism in Ooty had to be made sustainable and Ooty's tourism in the Nilgiris should be regularised taking into
residents must be ready to fight for this objective. The people consideration the socio-economic and cultural heritage of the
of Ooty had to be cautioned against the ill-effects of tourism in people of the Nilgiris. It said that tourism had adversely
Ooty. In the environmental field, legislation regulating affected the ecology/environment of the Nilgiris. Therefore, it
environmental activities had been made possible because of the was demanded that no more tourist centres be developed in the
awareness among people of such issues. Similarly, an Nilgiris district. The resolution appealed that the income
awareness of tourism related matters had to be brought among generated from tourism be used for development work in the
the people. He felt that there was a belief among people that Nilgiris district. It further said that the cost of all basic goods
tourism was the solution to economic problems. But this wrong and services rise steeply during the holiday season in the
notion had to be dispelled Nilgiris due to the heavy inflow of tourists. It demanded of the
district administration, steps to curb the dual price hike during
He further said that tourists visited places and left them but the season.
seldom thought of the consequences of their visits on the lives
of the people in a tourist destination. To illustrate this, he gave The Valedictory function of the Exhibition was presided over by
the example of the Nilgiri Todas - a unique group whose Dr. Samraj, soil scientist. Dr. Vanitha Kumari of Bharathiar
lifestyle is disappearing because of the impact of tourism. He University was Chief Guest. Others who spoke included
felt that students and youth of the Nilgiris region had to be Dr. C. Maheshwaran, Dr. Kanikkaraj, Dr. K. Padmanabhan,
informed of tourism issues. He described the exhibition as "an Mr. R. K. Ramachandran and Mrs. Puveneswari Packianathan.
eye-opener".
The "Alternative Exhibition on Tourism and Environment" was
Mr.R.R.Sivalingam, Chairman, Island Trust, Kotagiri said that it reported in the press and the electronic media. More than 1,500
was for the first time that the subject of tourism ir-r Ooty was people attended the exhibition during the week it was held.

23
WHERE IS TOURISM HEADED? Confusing signposts outside a privately-owned lodge near the Mudumalai Sanctuary in Tamilnadu

Publishcd by Equitable Tourism Optiom (EQUATIONS), 198, ll Cros Church Road (Behind Old KEB Office). New Thippasndra, Bangalore - 560 075, INDIA Phones: 52823.13/SZg2gOs
Fax 5282313, Cable: EQUATIONS Bangalore 560 075, Dsign & Layout by Dhmanj Kezhara and Typesetting by Verba Network Seruicen 139, 8th Main, l2th Crosg Malleswaram,
Bangalore 560 003 Phone: 33,15692 Printed by Supriya Printers, Bangalore.