Pushing to the Front

Pushing to the Front, by Orison Swett Marden

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[Frontispiece: Orison Swett Marden]

Pushing to the Front BY ORISON SWETT MARDEN

"The world makes way for the determined man."

PUBLISHED BY The Success Company's Branch Offices PETERSBURG, N.Y. ---- TOLEDO ---- DANVILLE



FOREWORD This revised and greatly enlarged edition of "Pushing to the Front" is the outg rowth of an almost world-wide demand for an extension of the idea which made the original small volume such an ambition-arousing, energizing, inspiring force. It is doubtful whether any other book, outside of the Bible, has been the turni ng-point in more lives. It has sent thousands of youths, with renewed determination, back to school or college, back to all sorts of vocations which they had abandoned in moments of d iscouragement. It has kept scores of business men from failure after they had gi ven up all hope. It has helped multitudes of poor boys and girls to pay their way through colleg e who had never thought a liberal education possible. The author has received thousands of letters from people in nearly all parts of the world telling how the book has aroused their ambition, changed their ideals and aims, and has spurred them to the successful undertaking of what they befor e had thought impossible. The book has been translated into many foreign languages. In Japan and several other countries it is used extensively in the public schools. Distinguished educ ators in many parts of the world have recommended its use in schools as a civili zation-builder. Crowned heads, presidents of republics, distinguished members of the British an d other parliaments, members of the United States Supreme Court, noted authors, scholars, and eminent people in many parts of the world, have eulogized this boo k and have thanked the author for giving it to the world. This volume is full of the most fascinating romances of achievement under diffi culties, of obscure beginnings and triumphant endings, of stirring stories of st ruggles and triumphs. It gives inspiring stories of men and women who have broug ht great things to pass. It gives numerous examples of the triumph of mediocrity , showing how those of ordinary ability have succeeded by the use of ordinary me ans. It shows how invalids and cripples even have triumphed by perseverance and will over seemingly insuperable difficulties. The book tells how men and women have seized common occasions and made them gre at; it tells of those of average ability who have succeeded by the use of ordina ry means, by dint of indomitable will and inflexible purpose. It tells how pover ty and hardship have rocked the cradle of the giants of the race. The book point s out that most people do not utilize a large part of their effort because their mental attitude does not correspond with their endeavor, so that although worki ng for one thing, they are really expecting something else; and it is what we ex pect that we tend to get. No man can become prosperous while he really expects or half expects to remain

poor, for holding the poverty thought, keeping in touch with poverty-producing c onditions, discourages prosperity. Before a man can lift himself he must lift his thoughts. When we shall have lea rned to master our thought habits, to keep our minds open to the great divine in flow of life force, we shall have learned the truths of human endowment, human p ossibility. The book points out the fact that what is called success may be failure; that w hen men love money so much that they sacrifice their friendships, their families , their home life, sacrifice position, honor, health, everything for the dollar, their life is a failure, although they may have accumulated money. It shows how men have become rich at the price of their ideals, their character, at the cost of everything noblest, best, and truest in life. It preaches the larger doctrin e of equality; the equality of will and purpose which paves a clear path even to the Presidential chair for a Lincoln or a Garfield, for any one who will pay th e price of study and struggle. Men who feel themselves badly handicapped, crippl ed by their lack of early education, will find in these pages great encouragemen t to broaden their horizon, and will get a practical, helpful, sensible educatio n in their odd moments and half-holidays. Dr. Marden, in "Pushing to the Front," shows that the average of the leaders ar e not above the average of ability. They are ordinary people, but of extraordina ry persistence and perseverance. It is a storehouse of noble incentive, a treasu ry of precious sayings. There is inspiration and encouragement and helpfulness o n every page. It teaches the doctrine that no limits can be placed on one's care er if he has once learned the alphabet and has push; that there are no barriers that can say to aspiring talent, "Thus far, and no farther." Encouragement is it s keynote; it aims to arouse to honorable exertion those who are drifting withou t aim, to awaken dormant ambitions in those who have grown discouraged in the st ruggle for success. THE PUBLISHERS.



ILLUSTRATIONS Orison Swett Marden . . . . . . . . . . Frontispiece House in which Abraham Lincoln was born Ulysses S. Grant William Ewart Gladstone John Wanamaker Jane Addams Thomas Alva Edison Henry Ward Beecher Lincoln studying by the firelight Marshall Field Joseph Jefferson [Transcriber's note: Jefferson was a prominent actor during th e latter half of the 1800's.] Theodore Roosevelt Helen Keller William McKinley Julia Ward Howe Mark Twain

PUSHING TO THE FRONT CHAPTER I THE MAN AND THE OPPORTUNITY No man is born into this world whose work is not born with him.--LOWELL. Things don't turn up in this world until somebody turns them up.--GARFIELD. Vigilance in watching opportunity; tact and daring in seizing upon opportunity; force and persistence in crowding opportunity to its utmost of possible achieve ment--these are the martial virtues which must command success.--AUSTIN PHELPS.

"I will find a way or make one." There never was a day that did not bring its own opportunity for doing good tha t never could have been done before, and never can be again.--W. H. BURLEIGH. "Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute; What you can do, or dream you can, begin it." "If we succeed, what will the world say?" asked Captain Berry in delight, when Nelson had explained his carefully formed plan before the battle of the Nile. "There is no if in the case," replied Nelson. "That we shall succeed is certain . Who may live to tell the tale is a very different question." Then, as his capt ains rose from the council to go to their respective ships, he added: "Before th is time to-morrow I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey." His quick eye and daring spirit saw an opportunity of glorious victory where others saw o nly probable defeat. "Is it POSSIBLE to cross the path?" asked Napoleon of the engineers who had bee n sent to explore the dreaded pass of St. Bernard. "Perhaps," was the hesitating reply, "it is within the limits of possibility." "FORWARD THEN," said the Little Corporal, without heeding their account of appa rently insurmountable difficulties. England and Austria laughed in scorn at the idea of transporting across the Alps, where "no wheel had ever rolled, or by any possibility could roll," an army of sixty thousand men, with ponderous artiller y, tons of cannon balls and baggage, and all the bulky munitions of war. But the besieged Massena was starving in Genoa, and the victorious Austrians thundered at the gates of Nice, and Napoleon was not the man to fail his former comrades i n their hour of peril. When this "impossible" deed was accomplished, some saw that it might have been done long before. Others excused themselves from encountering such gigantic obst acles by calling them insuperable. Many a commander had possessed the necessary supplies, tools, and rugged soldiers, but lacked the grit and resolution of Bona parte, who did not shrink from mere difficulties, however great, but out of his very need made and mastered his opportunity. Grant at New Orleans had just been seriously injured by a fall from his horse, when he received orders to take command at Chattanooga, so sorely beset by the C onfederates that its surrender seemed only a question of a few days; for the hil ls around were all aglow by night with the camp-fires of the enemy, and supplies had been cut off. Though in great pain, he immediately gave directions for his removal to the new scene of action. On transports up the Mississippi, the Ohio, and one of its tributaries; on a li tter borne by horses for many miles through the wilderness; and into the city at last on the shoulders of four men, he was taken to Chattanooga. Things assumed a different aspect immediately. A master had arrived who was equal to the situat ion. The army felt the grip of his power. Before he could mount his horse he ord ered an advance, and although the enemy contested the ground inch by inch, the s urrounding hills were soon held by Union soldiers. Were these things the result of chance, or were they compelled by the indominab le determination of the injured General? Did things adjust themselves when Horatius with two companions held ninety thou sand Tuscans at bay until the bridge across the Tiber had been destroyed?--when Leonidas at Thermopylae checked the mighty march of Xerxes?--when Themistocles,

off the coast of Greece, shattered the Persian's Armada?--when Caesar, finding h is army hard pressed, seized spear and buckler, fought while he reorganized his men, and snatched victory from defeat?--when Winkelried gathered to his heart a sheaf of Austrian spears, thus opening a path through which his comrades pressed to freedom?--when for years Napoleon did not lose a single battle in which he w as personally engaged?--when Wellington fought in many climes without ever being conquered?--when Ney, on a hundred fields, changed apparent disaster into brill iant triumph?--when Perry left the disabled Lawrence, rowed to the Niagara, and silenced the British guns?--when Sheridan arrived from Winchester just as the Un ion retreat was becoming a rout, and turned the tide by riding along the line?-when Sherman, though sorely pressed, signaled his men to hold the fort, and they , knowing that their leader was coming, held it? History furnishes thousands of examples of men who have seized occasions to acc omplish results deemed impossible by those less resolute. Prompt decision and wh ole-souled action sweep the world before them. True, there has been but one Napoleon; but, on the other hand, the Alps that op pose the progress of the average American youth are not as high or dangerous as the summits crossed by the great Corsican. Don't wait for extraordinary opportunities. Seize common occasions and make the m great. On the morning of September 6, 1838, a young woman in the Longstone Lighthouse, between England and Scotland, was awakened by shrieks of agony rising above the roar of wind and wave. A storm of unwonted fury was raging, and her parents cou ld not hear the cries; but a telescope showed nine human beings clinging to the windlass of a wrecked vessel whose bow was hanging on the rocks half a mile away . "We can do nothing," said William Darling, the light-keeper. "Ah, yes, we must go to the rescue," exclaimed his daughter, pleading tearfully with both father and mother, until the former replied: "Very well, Grace, I will let you persuade me, though it is against my better judgment." Like a feather in a whirlwind the little boat was tossed on the tumultuous sea, but, borne on the blast that swep t the cruel surge, the shrieks of those shipwrecked sailors seemed to change her weak sinews into cords of steel. Strength hitherto unsuspected came from somewh ere, and the heroic girl pulled one oar in even time with her father. At length the nine were safely on board. "God bless you; but ye're a bonny English lass," said one poor fellow, as he looked wonderingly upon this marvelous girl, who tha t day had done a deed which added more to England's glory than the exploits of m any of her monarchs. "If you will let me try, I think I can make something that will do," said a boy who had been employed as a scullion at the mansion of Signer Faliero, as the st ory is told by George Cary Eggleston. A large company had been invited to a banq uet, and just before the hour the confectioner, who had been making a large orna ment for the table, sent word that he had spoiled the piece. "You!" exclaimed th e head servant, in astonishment; "and who are you?" "I am Antonio Canova, the gr andson of Pisano, the stone-cutter," replied the pale-faced little fellow. "And pray, what can you do?" asked the major-domo. "I can make you something th at will do for the middle of the table, if you'll let me try." The servant was a t his wits' end, so he told Antonio to go ahead and see what he could do. Callin g for some butter, the scullion quickly molded a large crouching lion, which the admiring major-domo placed upon the table. Dinner was announced, and many of the most noted merchants, princes, and noblem en of Venice were ushered into the dining-room. Among them were skilled critics of art work. When their eyes fell upon the butter lion, they forgot the purpose for which they had come in their wonder at such a work of genius. They looked at

the lion long and carefully, and asked Signer Faliero what great sculptor had b een persuaded to waste his skill upon such a temporary material. Faliero could n ot tell; so he asked the head servant, who brought Antonio before the company. When the distinguished guests learned that the lion had been made in a short ti me by a scullion, the dinner was turned into a feast in his honor. The rich host declared that he would pay the boy's expenses under the best masters, and he ke pt his word. Antonio was not spoiled by his good fortune, but remained at heart the same simple, earnest, faithful boy who had tried so hard to become a good st one-cutter in the shop of Pisano. Some may not have heard how the boy Antonio to ok advantage of this first great opportunity; but all know of Canova, one of the greatest sculptors of all time. Weak men wait for opportunities, strong men make them. "The best men," says E. H. Chapin, "are not those who have waited for chances b ut who have taken them; besieged the chance; conquered the chance; and made chan ce the servitor." There may not be one chance in a million that you will ever receive unusual aid ; but opportunities are often presented which you can improve to good advantage, if you will only act. The lack of opportunity is ever the excuse of a weak, vacillating mind. Opportu nities! Every life is full of them. Every lesson in school or college is an oppo rtunity. Every examination is a chance in life. Every patient is an opportunity. Every newspaper article is an opportunity. Every client is an opportunity. Ever y sermon is an opportunity. Every business transaction is an opportunity,--an op portunity to be polite,--an opportunity to be manly,--an opportunity to be hones t,--an opportunity to make friends. Every proof of confidence in you is a great opportunity. Every responsibility thrust upon your strength and your honor is pr iceless. Existence is the privilege of effort, and when that privilege is met li ke a man, opportunities to succeed along the line of your aptitude will come fas ter than you can use them. If a slave like Fred Douglass, who did not even own h is body, can elevate himself into an orator, editor, statesman, what ought the p oorest white boy to do, who is rich in opportunities compared with Douglass? It is the idle man, not the great worker, who is always complaining that he has no time or opportunity. Some young men will make more out of the odds and ends of opportunities which many carelessly throw away than other will get out of a w hole life-time. Like bees, they extract honey from every flower. Every person th ey meet, every circumstance of the day, adds something to their store of useful knowledge or personal power. "There is nobody whom Fortune does not visit once in his life," says a cardinal ; "but when she finds he is not ready to receive her, she goes in at the door an d out at the window." Cornelius Vanderbilt saw his opportunity in the steamboat, and determined to id entify himself with steam navigation. To the surprise of all his friends, he aba ndoned his prosperous business and took command of one of the first steamboats l aunched, at a salary of one thousand dollars a year. Livingston and Fulton had a cquired the sole right to navigate New York waters by steam, but Vanderbilt thou ght the law unconstitutional, and defied it until it was repealed. He soon becam e a steamboat owner. When the government was paying a large subsidy for carrying the European mails, he offered to carry them free and give better service. His offer was accepted, and in this way he soon built up an enormous freight and pas senger traffic. Foreseeing the great future of railroads in a country like ours, he plunged int

o railroad enterprises with all his might, laying the foundation for the vast Va nderbilt system of to-day. Young Philip Armour joined the long caravan of Forty-Niners, and crossed the "G reat American Desert" with all his possessions in a prairie schooner drawn by mu les. Hard work and steady gains carefully saved in the mines enabled him to star t, six years later, in the grain and warehouse business in Milwaukee. In nine ye ars he made five hundred thousand dollars. But he saw his great opportunity in G rant's order, "On to Richmond." One morning in 1864 he knocked at the door of Pl ankinton, partner in his venture as a pork packer. "I am going to take the next train to New York," said he, "to sell pork 'short.' Grant and Sherman have the r ebellion by the throat, and pork will go down to twelve dollars a barrel." This was his opportunity. He went to New York and offered pork in large quantities at forty dollars per barrel. It was eagerly taken. The shrewd Wall Street speculat ors laughed at the young Westerner, and told him pork would go to sixty dollars, for the war was not nearly over. Mr. Armour, however, kept on selling, Grant co ntinued to advance. Richmond fell, pork fell with it to twelve dollars a barrel, and Mr. Armour cleared two millions of dollars. John D. Rockefeller saw his opportunity in petroleum. He could see a large popu lation in this country with very poor lights. Petroleum was plentiful, but the r efining process was so crude that the product was inferior, and not wholly safe. Here was Rockefeller's chance. Taking into partnership Samuel Andrews, the port er in a machine shop where both men had worked, he started a single barrel "stil l" in 1870, using an improved process discovered by his partner. They made a sup erior grade of oil and prospered rapidly. They admitted a third partner, Mr. Fla gler, but Andrews soon became dissatisfied. "What will you take for your interes t?" asked Rockefeller. Andrews wrote carelessly on a piece of paper, "One millio n dollars." Within twenty-four hours Mr. Rockefeller handed him the amount, sayi ng, "Cheaper at one million than ten." In twenty years the business of the littl e refinery, scarcely worth one thousand dollars for building and apparatus, had grown into the Standard Oil Trust, capitalized at ninety millions of dollars, wi th stock quoted at 170, giving a market value of one hundred and fifty millions. These are illustrations of seizing opportunity for the purpose of making money. But fortunately there is a new generation of electricians, of engineers, of sch olars, of artists, of authors, and of poets, who find opportunities, thick as th istles, for doing something nobler than merely amassing riches. Wealth is not an end to strive for, but an opportunity; not the climax of a man's career, but an incident. Mrs. Elizabeth Fry, a Quaker lady, saw her opportunity in the prisons of Englan d. From three hundred to four hundred half-naked women, as late as 1813, would o ften be huddled in a single ward of Newgate, London, awaiting trial. They had ne ither beds nor bedding, but women, old and young, and little girls, slept in fil th and rags on the floor. No one seemed to care for them, and the Government mer ely furnished food to keep them alive. Mrs. Fry visited Newgate, calmed the howl ing mob, and told them she wished to establish a school for the young women and the girls, and asked them to select a schoolmistress from their own number. They were amazed, but chose a young woman who had been committed for stealing a watc h. In three months these "wild beasts," as they were sometimes called, became ha rmless and kind. The reform spread until the Government legalized the system, an d good women throughout Great Britain became interested in the work of educating and clothing these outcasts. Fourscore years have passed, and her plan has been adopted throughout the civilized world. A boy in England had been run over by a car, and the bright blood spurted from a severed artery. No one seemed to know what to do until another boy, Astley Coo per, took his handkerchief and stopped the bleeding by pressure above the wound. The praise which he received for thus saving the boy's life encouraging him to

The great surgeon is away. sways back and fort h until friction and the resistance of the air bring it to rest. and he said to him. however irreg ular in shape." Are you prepared for a great opportunity? "Hawthorne dined one day with Longfellow. but Newton was the first to realize that they fall to the earth by the same law which holds the planets in their courses and preve nts the momentum of all the atoms in the universe from hurling them wildly back .' Longfellow wondered t hat the legend did not strike the fancy of Hawthorne." says Arnold. Life and death hang in the balance. saw in the regularity of those oscillations the useful principle of the pendulum. He and it are face to face. they are the sole remaining visi ble evidences of certain stages in the invariable process of star manufacture. not to trea t the subject in prose till Longfellow had seen what he could do with it in vers e.'" Open eyes will discover opportunities everywhere. he is suddenly confronted with his first criti cal operation. He experimented with the straw of his cell. Time is pressing.become a surgeon. Everybody had noticed the overflow when a solid is immersed in a vessel filled with water. was separated from her lover. open hearts will nev er want for worthy objects upon which to bestow their gifts. a nd only found him dying in a hospital when both were old. when moved. There was not a sailor in Europe who had not wondered what might lie beyond the Western Ocean. after long waiting. Longfellow seized his opportunity and gave to the world 'Evangeline. Fields. will you let me have it for a poem?' To this Hawthorne consented. but when Archimedes observed the fact.--the legend of a girl who. 'I have been trying to persuade Hawthorne to write a story based upon a legend of Acadia. moreover. and passed her life in waiting and seeking for him. His opportunity confronts him. Innumerable apples had fallen from trees. but it remained for Columbus to steer boldly out into an unknown sea and discover a new world. but Laplace saw that. and still current there. often hitting heedless men on the hea d as if to set them thinking. as he watched a lamp left swinging by accident in the cathedral at Pisa. Everybody knew how steadily a suspended weight. he is the one of all others who is wanted. and regarded t hem merely as curious exceptions to the supposed law of planetary formation. open ears will never fail to detect the cries of those who are perishing for assistance. Is he equal to the emergency? Can he fill the great surgeon's pl ace. although no one had made use of his knowledge that the body displace s its exact bulk of liquid. or the E xile of the Acadians. and patient study and experiment. After dinner the friend said. a nd from their mute testimony he added a valuable chapter to the scientific histo ry of Creation. with him from Salem." said James T. and promised. E ven the iron doors of a prison were not enough to shut him out from research. and do his work? If he can. Shall he confess his igno rance and inability. "when. 'If yo u have really made up your mind not to use it for a story. the foremost of his day. "and brought a friend. or step into fame and fortune? It is for him to say. open hands will nev er lack for noble work to do. yet no one cons idered this information of the slightest practical importance. "The time comes to the young surgeon. he perceived therein an easy method of finding the cubical contents of objects. For ages astronomers had been familiar with the rings of Saturn. instead of being exceptions. and learned valuable lessons about the relative strength of tubes and rods of equal diameters. in the dispersion of the Acadians. but the boy Galil eo.

"Opportuni ty.' again shouted Captain Herndon. frugal. I cou ld not keep my position. when shown.to chaos. 'I wi ll try. went down. Avenues greater in number. to the edu cated youth." Captain Herndon appreciated the value of the opportunity he had neglected when it was beyond his reach. abundant as air and water." said a shipmaster. told thousands of years ago by Solomon: "Seest thou a man diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings. where there was one." says a Latin author." This proverb is well il lustrated by the career of the industrious Franklin. such was the heavy roll of the sea. not Jupiter himself can catch her again. for he stood before five ki ngs and dined with two. easier of access than ever before e xisted. "behind she is bald. proved that lightning is but one manifestation of a resistless yet controllable force. 'I am in a sinking condition. the sluggish. cannot be overtaken.' his vessel. simply because they improved opportunities common to the whole human race. these men are considered great. and once gone." replied the sculptor. "What is its name?" asked a visitor in a studio. A little while ago there were only three or four professi ons--now there are fifty. if suffered to escape. the sea rolling high. 'Will you not lay by me until morning?' replied Captain Herndon. Like many others. o ne whose face was concealed by hair. energetic and able mechanic. wider in extent. Read the story of any successful m an and mark its moral. and the purpos eless too often see no meaning in the happiest occasions." "Opportunity has hair in front. The night was closing in. 'Lay by me till morning. 'Had you not better send your passengers on board directly?' I asked." "Why has he wings on his feet?" "Because he is soon go ne. The captain and crew and most of the passengers found a grave in the deep. there are a hundre d now." But what is the best opportunity to him who cannot or will not use it? "It was my lot. He who improves an opportunity sows a seed which will yield fruit in opportunit y for himself and others. "Why is its face hidden?" "Because men seldom know hi m when he comes to them. but. but I hailed the cr ippled steamer and asked if they needed help. In an hour and a hal f after he said. Every one who has labored honestly in the past has aid ed to place knowledge and comfort within the reach of a constantly increasing nu mber. but at night. to the office boy and to the clerk--avenues through which they can reap greater successes than ever before within the reach of these classes in the history of the world. you may hold her. "to fall in with the ill-fated steamer Cent ral America. with its living freight. among many gods. Lightning had dazzled the eyes. but the discharges of Heaven's artillery were seen and heard only by the eye and ear of terror until Franklin. "I tried to lay by him. And of trades. and thunder had jarred the ears of men since th e days of Adam. but of what avail was the bitterness of his self-reproa ch when his last moments came? How many lives were sacrificed to his unintellige nt hopefulness and indecision! Like him the feeble. by a simpl e experiment.' cri ed Captain Herndon.' I answered 'but had you not better send your passengers on board now?' 'Lay by me till morning. stand open to the sober. and which had wings on its feet. until too late they le . if y ou seize her by the forelock. in the vain attempt to call their attention to the all-pervading and tremendous energy of electricity. and I never saw the steamer again.

The brakeman laughed and said: "There's no hurry. "They have three hands apiece. he had disappeared. they think that if they had only gone yesterday they would have obtained the situation. The passengers liked him. but it was too late. and crying. The express is due." As boys. "Oh." One evening there was a heavy snowstorm. "Oh. smilingly." "All right.accommodation train." and occasionally tipple d. they were late for school. "Oh. and his train was delayed. He "took the world easy. and afterwards to an asylum. for he was eager t o please and always ready to answer questions. . too. and an express was due in a few minutes upon the same track." said Joe.arn the old lesson that the mill can never grind with the water which has passed . Joe complai ned of extra duties because of the storm. in such a good-natured way that the friend would think he had over-estimat ed the danger: "Thank you. Don't you worry. swinging an empty lantern in front of an imaginary t rain. or know how to make it some other time than now. that I had! Oh. moved leisurely down the track. and a little behindhand. Wait till I get my overcoat. that I had not!" is the silent cry of many a man who would give life itself for the opportunity to go back and retrieve some long-pas t error. But he did not realize the full r esponsibility of his position. but the conductor and engineer of the train were both vigilant and anxious. The engine had blown out i ts cylinder head. and there is no sadder sound in that sad place than the unceasing moan. They remember plenty of chances to make money. But the brakeman did not go at once. Then he slowly gras ped the lantern and. was exceedingly popu lar with all the railroad men. that I had!" or "Oh. or they can probably get one to-morrow. and ordered Joe back with a red light. Soon he became quite jolly. He stopped to put on his overcoat. Joe Stoker. Gough. Then he r an for the curve." The conductor answered gravely. Then he took another sip from the flat bottle to keep the cold out. Joe. and un punctual in their home duties. T he conductor hurried to the rear car. Such people are always a little too late or a little too early in everything th ey attempt. Between two stations the train came to a quick halt. w hen responsibility claims them. and now. "a right hand. The conductor then hurried forward to the eng ine. but perceive no opportunity in the present. That is the way the habit is acquired. he would give one of his brightest smiles. that I had!" He was taken home. They cannot seize their opportunity . that I had!" of th e unfortunate brakeman. whose criminal indulgence brought disaster to many lives . but the next day he was found in a barn. they see how to improve themselves or help others in the future. a left hand. He had not gone ten paces before he heard the puffing of the express. Later on. and if any one remonstrated. and r eply. whistling." said John B. and the shrieks of the mangled passenge rs mingled with the hissing escape of steam. I'm all right. delirious. and slyly sipped occasional draughts f rom a flat bottle. In a horrible minute the engine of the ex press had telescoped the standing train. rear brakeman on the ---. "Don't stop a minute. when they asked for Joe.

or fame. and duty points the way. in war and in peace. We can not help it. how can you sit with folded hands. persistent endeavor we find our highest go od. with human nature so constit uted that often a pleasant word or a trifling assistance may stem the tide of di saster for some fellow man. There is no proportion between spaces of time in importance nor in value. with our own faculties so arranged that in honest." CHAPTER II WANTED--A MAN . as all leaders of men. Nor shrink aside to 'scape the specter fear. Accidental circumstances are nothin g except to men who have been trained to take advantage of them." The trouble with us is that we are ever looking for a princely chance of acquir ing riches." With the world full of work that needs to be done. then." says Arnold. and their leader paused for Divine help. Young men and women. Make it. why stand ye here all the day idle? Was the land all occup ied before you were born? Has the earth ceased to yield its increase? Are the se ats all taken? the positions all filled? the chances all gone? Are the resources of your country fully developed? Are the secrets of nature all mastered? Is the re no way in which you can utilize these passing moments to improve yourself or benefit others? Is the competition of modern existence so fierce that you must b e content simply to gain an honest living? Have you received the gift of life in this progressive age. But bravely bear thee onward to the goal. have made their chances of s uccess. knowl edge without study. taken at the flood. all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miser ies." "'Tis never offered twice. merely that you may increase by one the sum total of purely anim al existence? Born in an age and country in which knowledge and opportunity abound as never b efore. "There is a tide in the affairs of men. wherein all the experience of the past is garnered for yo ur inspiration. as Napoleon made his in a hundred "impossible" situations. leads on to fortune. and with countless noble examples to encourage us to dare and to do. the Lord said. earnest."There are moments. and riches by credit. "is simply an occasion which sums up and brings to a result previous training. seize. unthought-of five minutes may contain the event of a life. Golden opportunities are nothing to laziness. And we must take the current when it serves. the hour When fortune smiles. Which. Or lose our ventures. Don't wait for your opportunity. We are dazzled by what Emerson calls the "shallow Americanism" of the day. And t his all-important moment--who can tell when it will be upon us?" "What we call a turning-point. asking God's aid in work for which He has already given you the necessary faculties and strength? Even when the Chosen People supposed their progress checked by the Red Sea. "Wherefore criest thou unto me? Speak unto the c hildren of Israel. We are expecting mastery without apprenticeship.--make it as the shepherd-boy Ferguson made his when he calculated the distances of the stars with a handful of glass beads on a string. each mo ment brings us to the threshold of some new opportunity. A stray. or worth. Omitted. Nor pause. Make it as George Stephenson made his when he mastered the ru les of mathematics with a bit of chalk on the grimy sides of the coal wagons in the mines. "which are worth more than years. but industry makes the com monest chances golden. Make it. or clear his path to success." says Dean Alford. though p leasure beckon from her bower. that they go forward. M ake it.

a man who has the courage of his convictions. who will not allow the over-development of one faculty to stunt or paralyze his other facult ies. education and culture. nothing easier.--it is you. who does not take half views of things. and also of the crying need of good men. Wanted. or mutilate his manhood. it is each one of us! ." Over the door of every profession. a man of courage who is not a coward in any part of his nature. Wanted. every-day life. though he is dominated by a mighty purpose. a man who is well balanced." The world wants a man who is educated all over. when a crowd collected around him. to hate all vilene ss. if one wills it. no stunted ascetic." All the world cries. whose brain is cultured. whose eyes are alert. in his occupation. Wanted. Wanted. will not permit one great faculty to dwarf. every calling. . a man who will not lose his individuality in a crowd. if one knows not how to will it. discipline and drill. and sought in vain. men: Not systems fit and wise. and. the servant of a tender conscience. who has learned to love all beauty. and scour in vain. Wanted. warp. who does not let a college education spoil him for practical. cripple. who is not afraid to say "No. but whose pas sions are trained to heed a strong will. Not faiths with rigid eyes. and one who regards his good name as a priceless treasure. Not even the potent pen. "Hear me. a man who prefers substance to show. microscopic. sensitive. Not wealth in mountain piles. true." though all the world say "Yes. who is not cursed with some little defect o f weakness which cripples his usefulness and neutralizes his powers.--ALEXANDRE DUMAS. is a suff icient indication. . a man who. whose nerves are brought to the ir acutest sensibility. and not one-sided in his development. This man. O men". . Wanted." Wanted. whose heart is tende r. is full of life and fire. not pygmies. Where is the man who will save us? We want a man! Don't lo ok so far for this man. who considers it a low estimate o f his occupation to value it merely as a means of getting a living. Want ed. men. a man who is symmetrical. a man who mixes common sense with his th eories."Wanted. A thousand pulpits vacant in a single religious denomination. incisive." Wanted. You have him at hand. a thousand preach ers standing idle in the market place. broad. Wanted. he said scornfully: "I called f or men. In the market place he once cried aloud. in one direction at least. who has not sent all the energies of his being into one narrow specialty and allowed al l the other branches of his life to wither and die. a ma n who sees self-development. a man who is larger than his calling. while a thousand church committees scour the land for men to fill those same vacant pulpits. of the largeness of the opportunit ies of the age. the world h as a standing advertisement: "Wanted--A Man. magnanimous. Not power with gracious smiles. keen. whose ha nds are deft. charac ter and manhood. Diogenes sought with a lantern at noontide in ancient Athens for a perfectly ho nest man. a man "who. it is I. and to respect others as himself. How to constitute one's self a man? Nothing harder. every occupation. whether of nature or of art. a man who is broad.

" Montaigne says our work is not to train a soul by itself alone. in his celebrated essay on education. is he rich? i s he committed? is he well-meaning? has he this or that faculty? is he of the mo vement? is he of the establishment? but is he anybody? does he stand for somethi ng? He must be good of his kind. The audience could not hear and call ed "Louder. a lawyer. it is true he will be neither a soldier. their common vocation is the profession of humanity. not. That is all that Talleyrand. and for some time none that follows comes up to its mark. independent. robust. and whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man can not be badly pre pared to fill any of those offices that have a relation to him. helpless instead of self-supporting. but after a while the whole sea is there and . and there is an inherent protest or contempt for preventable de ficiency. yet it is almost impossible to find just the right man in almost any department of life. Nature. short doctor of divinity in a large Baptist convention stood on a ste p and said he thanked God he was a Baptist. nor a body by i tself alone. then recedes. To endure the strain of our concentrated civilization." some one said. To live is the profession I would teach him. the pulpit. sickly instead of robust. cheerful man." he replied. turned out into the world saplings instead of stalwart oaks. but to train a man." But there is something higher than being a Bapt ist. Talleyrand's question is ever the main one. leaning instead of erect. I can succeed in nothin g. When I have done w ith him. Let hi m first be a man. says. and yet everywhere we see the advertisement: "Wanted--A Man. one wave reaches up the beach far higher than any previous one. ailing man can not develop the vigor and strength of cha racter which is possible to a healthy. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases . if I do not succeed in that. men being equal. animated with the bounding spiri ts of overflowing health? It is a sad sight to see thousands of students graduated every year from our gr and institutions whose object is to make stalwart. he will be always found in his place. too. demands that man be ever at the top of his condition. As Emerson says. I must make myself a man. or the bar. What more glorious than a magnificent manhood. As we stand upon the seashore while the tide is coming in." A little. "I can't. Natur e has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our destination con cerning society. " Rousseau. self-supporting men. One great need for the world to-day is for men and women who are good animals. Although there are millions out of e mployment. a demand that man shall come up to the h ighest standard. the coming man and woman must have good bodies and an excess of animal spirits. It matters littl e to me whether my pupil be designed for the army. A peevish. "To be a Bap tist is as high as one can get. and that is being a man." "Get up higher. weak instead of strong. and never a finished man!" The character sympathizes with and unconsciously takes on the nature of the bod y. "memory-glands " instead of brainy men. There is an inheren t love in the human mind for wholeness.The whole world is looking for such a man. snarling. nor a divine. all that the commo n sense of mankind asks. "So many promising you ths. "According to the order o f nature. When Garfield as a boy was asked what he meant to be he answered: "First of all .

Such wood can be turned into a mast. . What constitutes a state? Not high-raised battlement or labored mound. Men whom the spoil s of office cannot buy. what though a man could cover a continent with his title-deeds. His sensibility will not be deadened or blunted by violation of Nature's laws. for his famous portrait of a perfect woman which en chanted the world. with a heart that might be turned inside out and disclose no stain of dishonor? To have done no man a wrong. With powers as far above dull brutes endued In forest. He will be a man raised to the highest power. But it must become timber first. with a face that never turns pale at the accuser's voice. Men who possess opinions and a will. with nothing between your desire and its gratification but the in visible law of rectitude. there a forehead and there a nose. A time like this demands Strong minds. Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride.beyond it. Not starred and spangled courts. Apelles hunted over Greece for many years. here a grace and there a turn of beauty. true fait h and ready hands: Men whom the lust of office does not kill. and will respond to the most delicate touches of Natu re. and in private thinking. showing that Nature has not lost her ideal. the sapling child is developed into hardy menta l. he would. Thick wa ll or moated gate. rich navies ride. If the youth should start out with the fixed determination that every statement he makes shall be the exact truth.--this is to be a man. great hearts. or an ocean with his commerce. compared with conscious rectitud e. can be fashioned into a piano or an exquisite carving. All the ages have been trying to p roduce a perfect model. His whole charact er will be impressionable. Not bays an d broad-armed ports.-. dare maintain. to have put your signature to no paper to which the purest angel in heaven might not have been a n attesting witness. getting here an eye. brake. unseduced. many in one. laughing at the storm. studying the fairest points of beaut iful women. sturdy trees. experience. Time and patience develop the sapling into the tree. but the strength and the v irtues of other types of men. So the coming man will be a composite. Men who can stand before a demagogue And scorn his treach erous flatteries without winking. God give us men. and ever master of himself. So through di scipline. within arm's length of what is not your own. Only one complete man has yet evolved. And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain. come to have almost unl imited credit and the confidence of everybody who knows him. physical man-timber. or den. if he should hold his reputatio n as a priceless treasure. equipoised. that every promise he makes shall be redeeme d to the letter. WILLIAM JONES. like George Peabody. Man is the only great thing in the universe.Men who their duties kno w. moral. Tough timber must come from well grown. Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned. feel that the eyes of the world are upon him that he must not deviate a hair's breadth from the truth and right. No: men. not the follies. with a bosom that n ever throbs with fear of exposure. What are palaces and equipages. and after a while even the av erage man will overtop the highest wave of manhood yet given to the world. and knowing. if he should take su ch a stand at the outset. As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude. The best of us ar e but prophesies of what is to come. Tall men sun-crowned. But know their rights. education. who live above the fog I n public duty. The first requisite of all education and discipline should be man-timber. high-minded men. to walk and live. So now and then there comes a man head and shoulders above his fello w men. Men who have honor-men who will not lie. that every appointment shall be kept with the strictest faithfu lness and with full regard for other men's time. He w ill be a self-centered. ANON. He will a bsorb into himself not the weakness. Where. Prevent the long-aimed blo w.

"my father is Groom of the Chambers. G. "we are i n the midst of plenty.'" she added. they also." said a pretty little girl at a children's party in Denmark. if I could be one of them!" thought a little boy peeping through the crack of the door. and I know how to prevent hunger. and make the elbows quite pointed. and early adversity is often a blessi ng. using that term in its broadest sense. There can be no doubt that the captains of industry to-day. and the fields." said the deaf boy. The Hottentots subsist a long time on nothing but a little gum. It is not every calamity that is a curse. are men who began life as poor boys. Poverty is the sixth sense. tie a ligature around their bodies.--J. .--SETH LOW. by permission of the cook for whom he had been turning the spit. This sketch is adapted from a story by a poor Danish cobbler's son." Years afterwards when the children of the party had become men and women." chimed in the daughter of an editor.--GERMAN PROVERB. which is a very high office. He ha d become the great sculptor Thorwaldsen. B ut no. another who se name did not keep him from becoming famous. a hayrick will make an excellent bed. "There is no fear of my starving. His first book was written in the workhouse. Cannot I do so. luscious south wi nd which lulls them to lotus dreams. "I am a child of the court. my papa says. and his name ended in "sen.--OUIDA. "my papa can put your papa and ever ybody's papa into the newspaper. and the loftiest and strongest trees spring heavenward among the rocks. who was thought capable of nothing bet ter than making shoes as a pauper. filled with all kinds of beautiful and val uable objects. his parents had not even a penny to spare. 'Tis a common proof. Poverty is very terrible. turnips. "can never be anything at all. We must put our arms akimbo. HOLLAND. too? The hedges furnish blackberries and nu ts. it is the soft.--SHARPE. That lowliness is young ambition's ladder! SHAKESPEARE. "Can y our papa do that?" "Yes.CHAPTER III BOYS WITH NO CHANCE In the blackest soils grow the fairest flowers. and sometimes kills the very soul within us." "But my papa can buy a hundred dollars' worth of bonbons. Surmounted difficulties not only teach. when hungry. but hearten us in our future struggl es. once the very boy who thought it so gre at a privilege to peep at them through a crack in the door as they played." "Oh. so as to keep these 'sen' people at a great distance." The poor deaf boy with a drunken father. and give them away to children. but it i s the north wind that lashes men into Vikings. some of them went to see a splendid house. Kitto. for he can do as he likes with the paper. There they met the owner. And those whose names end with 'sen." angrily exclaimed the daughter of the rich merchant Petersen. became one of the greatest Biblical scholars in the world. All sorts of people are afraid of him. begging to be taken from the poorhouse and allowed to struggle for an education.--Hans Christian Andersen. father.

What was to be done? Into the marble block before him Creon had put his head. no!" said Pericles." Cleone was questioned. to be now my friend. at whose shrine I have daily laid my offerings. but there was no answer. "this woman knows the sculptor. At his side was Aspasia. "O Aphrodit e!" she prayed. rising. high enthroned child of Zeus." The indignant crowd interrupted him and cried. I am the culprit. but she will not tell his name. the hands of a slave. When the law was enacted he was engaged upon a group for whic h he hoped some day to receive the commendation of Phidias. The display took place in the Agora. but her lips remained closed. It is dark. the friend of my brother!" Then to her brother she said: "O Creon. he had prayed for f resh inspiration. and I am the minister of the law. and with closed lips. felt the blow as deeply as her brother.Creon was a Greek slave. and he wor shiped it with rapt adoration." "As I live. The works of the great masters were there. was dragged into th e Agora. "Who is the sculptor of this group?" None could tell. Beauty was his god. then! Can it be the work of a slave?" Amid great commotion a beautiful maiden with disarranged dress. "the law is imperat ive. a nswering his prayers.--a group that Apollo himself must have chiseled. and guarded and attended by his sister. but to my side bring the youth. from day to day. "Then. the gods will be friend us. forgive and save the maid! She is my sister. and even the praise of Pericles. Not to the dungeon. and a law was in force that under penalty of death no one should espouse a rt except freemen. his devoted sister. that Apollo. Socrates. Aspasia placed the crown . to the dungeon with the slave." As he spoke a youth with flowing hair. "A mystery. It was after the repulse of the great Persian inv ader. Cleone." said Pericles. "Behold that group! Apo llo decides by it that there is something higher in Greece than an unjust law. all the gods seemed to have d eserted him. She was informed of the penalty of her c onduct. it is her devotion to art that will i mmortalize her. disheveled hair . my patron. Continue your work. but was silent. The group is the work of my hands. and other renowned men stood near him. new skill. the greatest sculpto r living." but he was also a slave of the Genius of Art. But one group. my queen. "immortal Aphrodite. rushed forward. On his knees. but now. If Athens lives in the memory and affections of men. Phidias. "To the dungeon. exciting at the same time no little envy among rival artists. and flinging himself befor e him exclaimed: "O Pericles. his life. a determined expression in her eyes. He believed." And there. his soul. as a writer tells the story in Kate Field's "Washingto n. but with black eyes that beam ed with the flashing light of genius. Sophocles. we ar e sure of it.--now. in the presence of the assembled multitude." cried the officers. day and night ." To the cellar Creon went. T he highest purpose of law should be the development of the beautiful. he proceeded with his glorious but dangerous task. Take the maid to the dungeon. "This woman. had directed his hand and had breathed into the figures th e life that seemed to animate them. far more beautiful th an the rest.--challenged univer sal attention. but I will furnish light and food. go to the cellar beneath our house. my goddess. h is heart. Pericles presided. gratefully and proudly. emaciated. About this time all Greece was invited to Athens to behold an exhibit of works of art. Heralds repeated the ques tion.

Wilson determined never to lose an opportunity for self-culture or self-adv ancement. His quaint appearance led many to think he was an escaped apprentice. amid universal plaudits. Horace. The latter had no id ea that a country greenhorn could set type for the Polyglot Testament on which h . He retained but fifteen dollars and gave the rest to his father. and served an apprenticeship of eleven years. Let me give you an order on the store. every occasion was a great occasion. For days Horace wandered up and down the streets. with tow-colored hair. I never spent the sum of one dollar for pleasure. she tenderly kissed Creon's affectionate and devot ed sister." He was at the door at five o'cloc k Monday morning. and asked the foreman for a job at seven. Dress up a little. He was nea rly twenty-one. . He managed to read a thousand good books before he was twenty-one--w hat a lesson for boys on a farm! When he left the farm he started on foot for Na tick. over one hundred miles distant. and fo r whom he had camped out many a night to guard the sheep from wolves. M." Mr. He we nt through Boston that he might see Bunker Hill monument and other historical la ndmarks. and replied: "Y ou see Mr. just as the sun was rising. or war. which brought me eighty-four dollars. rode on a canal boat to Albany. descended the Hudson in a barge. "I was born in poverty." He had spent but six dollars for personal expenses in seven months. He seized them as tho ugh they were gold and would not let one pass until he had wrung from it every p ossibility. Mass. He ground every circumstance of his life into material for success. The whole trip cost him but one dollar and six cents. and cut m ill-logs." Horace Greeley looked down on hi s clothes as if he had never before noticed how seedy they were. although tall and gawky. a yoke of oxen and six sheep. His journey of s ix hundred miles had cost him but five dollars. 1831. and at the same t ime. With hi m. In Greece. I went into the woods. and I want to help him all I c an. Before eight years had passed. "Want sat by my crad le. he made hi s great speech against slavery. on the brow of Creon. . I rose in the morning before daylight and worked hard till after dark. No other country ever did so much to encourage and inspire struggling meri t. he resolved to seek his fortune in New York City. and received the magnificent sum of six dollars for the month's work! Each of t hese dollars looked as large to me as the moon looks to-night. "Don't go about the town any longer in that outlandish rig. counting every penny from the time I w as born till I was twenty-one years of age. and reached New York. in the Massachusetts Legislature. He found board over a saloon at two dollars and a half a week. that men might k now that the way to honor is open to all." said Vice-President Henry Wilson. Few men knew so well the value of spare moments. I lef t my home at ten years of age. Sterret of the Erie "Ga zette" for substitute work. In a year he was the head of a debating club at Natick. wealth and immortality were the sure reward of the man who could distinguish himself in art. I know what it is to travel weary mi les and ask my fellow men to give me leave to toil. Slinging h is bundle of clothes on a stick over his shoulder. I know what it is to ask a mother for bread when she has none to give.. In the first month aft er I was twenty-one years of age. literature. and. rec eiving a month's schooling each year. and. Sterrett. who was born a slave. drove a team. Twelve years l ater he stood shoulder to shoulder with the polished Sumner in Congress. to learn the cobbler's trade. August 18. which she held in her hands. with whom he had moved from Vermont to Western Pennsylvania.of olives. my father is on a new place. a pale face and whining voice. The Athenians erected a statue to Aesop. but "no" was the invariable reply. at the end of eleven years of hard wo rk. going into scores of buildings and asking if they wanted "a ha nd". he walked sixty miles through the woods to Buffalo. One Sunday at his boarding-place he heard that pri nters were wanted at "West's Printing-office. and was to receive one hundred and thirty-five from Judge J. .

fresh and c risp. One of the first things to attract the attention on entering George W. such as "Kane's Arctic Expedition. and th e "Herald" was started on May 6. His next venture was "The New York Tr ibune. and the paper entered upon a career of remark able prosperity. and of the "Pennsylvanian" a little later. but recommended two young printers. and there. 1835. It was a paper whose editor. a lways tried to be right. Greatly to the surpri . He doubled the subscription price. the host turned t o one of the waiters and asked him to explain the picture. It was an up-hill job. to the astonishment of everybody. doing all the work except the printing." When the proprietor came in." price one cent. giving the news." which reached the then fabulous circulation of ninety thousand. as all its predecessors were party organs. Neither labor nor expense was spared in o btaining prompt and reliable information on every topic of general interest. but how could a poor boy working for $2. He founded the "New Y orker. Steadily the young man struggled towards his ideal. he objected to the new-comer and told the fo reman to let him go when his first day's work was done. In 1835 he asked Horace Greeley to join him in starting a new daily paper. lowered the advertising rates. but said: "Fix up a case for him and we'll see if he can do anyt hing.elp was needed. To start it he borrowed a thousand dollars and printed f ive thousand copies of the first number. he had great determination and indomitable energy. He began with six hundred subscribers. which was the key-note of the suc cess of a boy who started with "no chance": "Nihil sine labore. of t he "Globe" in 1832. He always refused to lower the wages of his employees even when e very other establishment in Philadelphia was doing so.00 a week ever hope to own such a great paper? However. a thing then unknown in America. W hen Harrison was nominated for President in 1840. who had saved a few hundred dollars by hard labor and strict economy for fourteen years. and often much more thoroughly and far more promptly. and increased the list to eleven thousan d in six weeks. from an ever-widening area. whatever his mistakes. with a cash capital to pay expenses for t en days. Childs' private office in Philadelphia was this motto. But on this p aper at a penny per copy he made no money. Bennet hired a small cellar in Wall Street. who formed partnership with Bennett. a discussion arose in r egard to the meaning of a painting representing some scene in the mythology or h istory of Greece. and there seemed no end to his industry. He made "great hits" in some of the works he pub lished. In ten years he was a partner in a small printing-office. he began business as a publisher." It was his earl y ambition to own the "Philadelphia Ledger" and the great building in which it w as published." Greeley declined. That night Horace showed a proof of the largest and most correct day's work that had then been done. began the work of making a really great daily newspap er. until his paper was famous for giving the curr ent history of the world as fully and quickly as any competitor. Greeley started "The Log-Cabin . but its completion was finally marked by the opening at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street of the most complete newspaper establishment t hen known. nearly a century and a half ago. furnished it with a chair a nd a desk composed of a plank supported by two barrels. and as soon as he had saved a few hundred dollars as a clerk in a bookstore." the best weekly paper in the United States. the profits sometimes amounting to over four hundred thousand d ollars a year. In spite of the fact that the "Ledger" was losing money every day. and was only know n as a clever writer for the press. Seeing that the discussion was growing warm. his friends could not dissuade him from buying it. and in 1864 the dreams of his boyhood fou nd fulfilment. the "New York Herald." He had a keen sense of what would pl ease the public. James Gordon Bennett had made a failure of his "New York Courier" in 1825. At a banquet in Lyons. The demand for the "Tribune" grew faster than new machinery coul d be obtained to print it. It was difficult to give them all away. but it was not profitable.

The w hole of the money not expended for us at market was twopence a week for each man . now and then. copied regiment. "In what school have you studied. R. even. "has found the best opportunities for mental improvement in his intervals of leisure while tending 'sap-bush." replied the young servant: "but the school in which I studied longest and learne d most is the school of adversity. alas! a great sum to me. T he edge of my berth. At night you had only to feed the kettles an d keep up the fires." said he. Monseigneur. "Many a farmer's son. "I have studied in many schools. perfected the e ssential principles of the Spencerian system of penmanship. addressin g the waiter with great respect. a youth to find any excuse for its non-performance?" Humphrey Davy had but a slender chance to acquire great scientific knowledge. blazing bright before the sugar-house. my knaps ack was my bookcase. To buy a pen or a sheet of p aper I was compelled to forego some portion of my food. a barefoot boy with no chance. after all absolutely necessary expenses. all Europe soon rang with the fame of the w ritings of the greatest genius of his age and country. Jean Jacques Rousseau. or that of the guard-bed. y et he had true mettle in him.' Such. and to have obtained a better and more enduring knowledge of its events and horr ors and of the actors in that great national tragedy than I have received from a . and cri ed like a child. ink. in winter it was rarely that I could get any evening light but that of the fire. read every book in it. the most beautiful e xposition of graphic art. in the hours o f their freedom from all control. Spencer. although then but a poor waiter. "under such circumstances could encounter and overcome this task. kettles. or paper. whistling. and that. laughing. and began to study. and bottles co ntribute to his success." Well had he profited by poverty's lessons. P. I passed many a delightful night in reading. f or. too. During the day we would always lay in a good stock of 'fat-pine. but so hungry as to be ha rdly able to endure life. so plain and convincing that it at once settled the dispute." But Cobbett made even his poverty and hard circumstances serve his all-absorbin g passion for knowledge and success. when he ran away to Lond law papers for eight or nine months." says Thurlow Weed. "I learned grammar when I was a private soldier on the pay of sixpence a day. of that. and only my turn. Monsieur?" asked one of the guests. which I had des tined for the purpose of a red herring in the morning. when I pulled off my clothes at night. a bit of board lying on my lap was my writing-table. for want of other material. I had no money to purchas e candles or oil. I buried my head in the miserable sheet and rug. at any rate. for pen. library at years William Cobbett had followed the plow. The smooth sand beach of Lake Erie constituted the foolscap on which. as he experimented and studied in the attic of the apot hecary-store where he worked. the sap having been gathered and the wood cut before dark. "If I. can there be in the whole worl d. and well I may! that upon one occasion I had. and I had great health and great exercise. and I had to rea d and write amidst the talking.' by the light o f which. the servant gave a clear concise account of the whole subject . I had no moment of time that I could call my own. and then enlisted in an infantry During his first year of soldier life he subscribed to a circulating Chatham. singing. I found that I had lost my half-penny. made shift to have a half-penny in reserve. That farthing was. was my own experience. I remember. was my seat to study in.se of the company. though in a state of hal f starvation. Think not lightly of the farthing I had to giv e. I remember in this way to have a history of the French Revolution. and th e task did not demand anything like a year of my life. I was as tall as I am now. and he made even old pans. For eight on. and bawling of at least half a score of the most thoughtless of men. is there.

He became eminent as the "Learned Blacksmith. which he sent to Boston. and in straightene d circumstances. for reading useful b ooks. when his son came home late at night and told of his successful examination. June 19. go down to the library and get some books. father?" asked Theodore Parker one August afte rnoon. headache. 10 hours' forging. and thus prepare myself for a final examination. 9 lines Polish. and think of it thirty years from now." He mastered 18 languages and 32 dialects. 60 lines Hebrew. Mark my words. and so got the money to buy that coveted Latin dictionary. but she won the admiration of the world for her wondrous power of song. how happy I was in being able to borrow the books of a Mr.--"M onday. but he felt that he must have it. and presented hims elf for a candidate for admission. and had reviewed his lessons again and again as he followed the plow or worked at other tasks. I remember. 11 hours' forging. in .ll subsequent reading." Elihu Burritt 's father died when he was sixteen. Tuesday. after a two-mile tramp through the snow. where he was graduated with h onor. "was when I had first gai ned the full meaning of the first fifteen lines of Homer's Iliad. and read of what wonderful mechanism God gave you in your hand." says Dr. walked through the dust ten miles to Harvard College. All his odd moments had been hoarded. "Well done. not an inch above you. Sum ner. I shal l study at home. and Wendell Phillips. 11 hours' forging. my feet swaddled in remnants of rag carpet. so on summer mornings he rose long before the sun and picked bushel aft er bushel of berries. "Let me say in regard to your adverse worldly circumstances. for it was a busy time. Chase. Theodore.' 64 pages Fren ch. combined with rare w omanly grace." He did this. "No outfit.--mightiest in the church an d state. shoeless. You will find that those who are then the millionaires of this country. got money to study for two years at Harvard. Edward Everett said of the manner in which th is boy with no chance acquired great learning: "It is enough to make one who has good opportunities for education hang his head in shame. and Elihu was apprenticed to a blacksmith in his native village of New Britain." and for his nobl e work in the service of humanity. which he borrowed. too. my boy!" said the millwright.--are now on a level with you. One book he could not borrow. who are the great philanthropists of the country. "that you are on a level now with those who are finally to succeed . He had to work at the forge for ten or twelve hours a day." "May I have a holiday to-morrow. Garrison. are such entries as these. Theodore rose very early the next m orning." The barefoot Christine Nilsson in remote Sweden had little chance. whither he went some ten years later to enjoy its library privileges. 8 lines Syriac. and. 10 lines Bo hemian. 15 names of stars. Conn. Talmage to young men. Keyes." said Elihu Burritt. 30 Danish. 40 pages Cuvier's 'Theory of the Earth. June 18. June 20 . but he had managed to go three months each winter . In a diary kept at Worcester. who are the orators of the count ry. 25 lines Hebrew. "I am not going to stay there. his influence for good was fel t in the hearts of all his countrymen. also. by teaching school as he grew o lder. He had been unable to attend school regularly since he was eight years old. it was a pleasure for him to recall his e arly struggles and triumphs among the rocks and bushes of Lexington. at odd times. which will give me a diploma. Horace Mann. no capital to start with? Young man. "but." said Theodore. who are the strong merchants of the countr y. father. I cannot afford to keep you there!" "True. The poor Lexington millwright looked in surprise at his youngest son. when. he would solve mentally diff icult problems in arithmetic. who are the poets of the country. "The proudest moment of my life. as the trusted friend and adviser of Seward. but while blowing the bellows. Years after. and granted the request. Wednesday. but he saw from the boy's earnest face that he had no ordin ary object in view.

One day. John G. There followed a serie s of unearthly odors and unnatural complications. churches. and aristocracy. he started to prosecute his work more earnestly in Baltimore. and called down upon his head the wrath of the entire community. Wendell Phillips said of him. After forty-nine days of imprisonment he was set free. The conductor. "He was imprisoned for his opinion when he was twenty-four. he said he had always been a total abstai ner and singularly moderate in everything but work." Read the declaration of this poor young man with "no chance." and had carried the entire edition home on hi s back from the printing-office. was so touched at the news that. Benjamin Lundy. Edison passed through one dramatic situation after another--always mastering it --until he attained at an early age the scientific throne of the world. made an impression on Garrison never t o be forgotten. and had fitted up a small itine rant laboratory. with no money. He was n o ordinary young man. twenty miles. With William Lloyd Garrison. What nonsense for two uneducated and unknown youths who met in a cheap boarding -house in Boston to array themselves against an institution whose roots were emb edded in the very constitution of our country. or influence. every month." in the very first issue: "I will be as harsh as truth. Hill. and they were thoroughly in e arnest. statesmen. without distinction of creed or p olitics! What chance had they against the prejudices and sentiment of a nation? But these young men were fired by a lofty purpose. A young man can't set out in life with much less chance than when he sta rts his "daily" for a living." ask some doctor to take you into t you have read about. in your eye. and which was upheld by scholars. Equipped? W the God of the whole universe coul A newsboy is not a very promising candidate for success or honors in any line o f life." In Boston. friends. being too poor to furnish the money himself. the poorest young man is equipped as only d afford to equip him. had already started in Ohio a paper called "The Genius of Universal Liberty. as uncomprom . wealth. New York seems to have been prolific in enterprising newsboys. In the first issue of his paper. He was arrested and sent to jail. He had already begun to dabble in chemistry. and the young man whose mother was too poor to send him to schoo l. in your ear. Gar rison started the "Liberator. and in the process of the scientist's expulsion added a resounding box upon the ear. and then he dissecting-room and illustrate to you what in commit the blasphemy of saying you have no hy. Daniel Manning who was President Cleveland's first campaign manager and afterwa rds Secretary of the Treasury. Garrison urged an immediate emancipation. of vessel-l oads of unfortunates torn from home and family and sent to Southern ports. So did Thurlow Weed.your foot. started out as a newsboy with apparently the worl d against him. One of them. When rec ently asked the secret of his success. as he was performing some occult experiment. he wrote to Henry Cl ay. He had walked four h undred miles on his way to Tennessee to increase his subscription list. The sight of the slave-pens along the principal streets. who had suffere d long and patiently. He had confronted a nation in the bloom of his youth. the train rounded a curve. in a little upstairs room. begging him to release Garrison by paying the fine. Thomas Alva Edison was then about fifteen years of a ge. the h eartrending scenes at the auction blocks. Whittier. Yet the man who more than any other is responsible for the industrial regeneration of this continent started in life as a newsboy on the Grand Trunk Railway. a noble friend in the North. so did David B. and the bottle of sulphuric acid broke. and never aga capital to start with. resolved to devote his life to secure the freedom of these poor wretches. although she early taught him to hate oppression. promptly ejected the youthful devotee.

" had set the world to thinking. when the first par oxysm of grief is passed. and printing in this "obscure hole. I will not equivocate. after thirty-five years of untiring. a young lawyer of great promise. t he earth should have yawned and swallowed him up. The Vigilance Associatio n of South Carolina offered a reward of fifteen hundred dollars for the arrest a nd prosecution of any one detected circulating the "Liberator. He was soon sent out in a gig as a comm ercial traveler. by President Lincoln. died in London. with Qui ncy and Adams. Hayne. A clergyman named Lovejo y was killed by a mob in Illinois for espousing the cause. with the world against him! Hon. Now. W hen the war was ended. even in far California. on soil consecrated by the prayers of the Puritans and the blood of patriots." Cobden could no longer see the poor man' . Robert Y. Bright in great grief." What audacity for a young m an. that s ome one had sent him a copy of the "Liberator. At fifteen he en tered his uncle's store in London as a clerk. and. Garrison was invited as the nation's guest. He was sent to a boarding-school. I will not excuse. He called upon John Bright to enlist his aid in fighting the terrible "Corn-Law s" which were taking bread from the poor and giving it to the rich. for his wife was lying dead in the house." said Richard Cobden. I w ill not retreat a single inch. sleeping. to see the s tars and stripes unfurled once more above Fort Sumter. power. and allowed to write home only once in three months. that a mere spectator. an emancipated slave deli vered the address of welcome." The whole nation was wrought to fever heat. no longer chattels in appre ciation presented Garrison with a beautiful wreath of flowers. and must be suppressed. "When I heard the gentleman lay down the principles which plac e the murderers of Lovejoy at Alton side by side with Otis and Hancock. the slanderer of the dead. another powerful friend of the oppressed. hal f starved. I am in earnest." The Governors of one or two States set a price on the editor's head. "I thought those pictured lips would have broken into voice to rebuke the recre ant American. His father had died leaving nine children almost penniless. The legislature of Georgia offered a reward of five thousand dollars for his arrest and conviction. wrote to Otis. The boy earned his living by watching a neighbor's sheep. "There are thousands of homes in England at this moment. eating. mothers. He found Mr. Otis replied that he had found a poor young man printing " this insignificant sheet in an obscure hole. an d culture of Massachusetts arrayed itself against the "Abolitionists" so outrage ously. Between the Northern pioneers and Southern chivalry the struggle was long and f ierce. Garrison and his coadjutors were denounced everywhere." But this poor young man. and in the old "Cradle of American Liberty" the wealth. The drama culminated in the shock of civil war. of South Carolina. and his two daughters. asked to be lifte d upon the high platform. He learned French by rising early and studying while his companions slept. and I will be heard. his only auxiliary a negro boy." and asked him to ascertain the n ame of the publisher. For the sentiments that he has uttered. and children are dying of hunger. where he was abused. pointing to their portraits on the walls. I would advise you to come with me. and we will never rest until the Corn-Laws are repealed. "where wives. mayor of Boston." said Wendell Phillips. but had no chance to attend school until he was ten years old. About this time Richard Cobden. while defending his p rinting-press. heroic conflict .ising as justice. his supporters a few persons of all colors and little influence. and replied in such a speech as was never before heard in Faneuil Hall.

"The time will come when you will hear me. A customer became interested in the boy. the "mill-boy of the slashes." The time did come. an added shilling. and he threw his whole soul into this great reform. until h e stood a master. Over a stable in London lived a poor boy named Michael Faraday." said he." When Sir Humphry Davy was asked what was his greatest discovery." "What has been done can be done again. "He is the greatest experimental philosopher the world has ever seen. who became Prime Minister of Egypt four thousand years before . "I am not a slave.--a question between the working millions and the aristocracy." said the boy with no chance. but the great Quaker heart of this resolute youth was touched with pity for the millions of England's and I reland's poor. Henry Clay. He watche d eagerly every movement of Davy. I am not a captive. and a servant handed him a written invitatio n to call upon the great lecturer the next morning. John Bright was more pow erful than all the nobility of England. his eyes caught the article on electricity. aided by the Irish famine.--secured the r epeal of the law in 1846. Bright said: "There is not in Great Britain a poor man's home that has not a bigger. starving under the Corn-Laws. and a few simple articles. and it was not long before this poor boy with no chance wa s invited to lecture before the great philosophical society. During the frightful famine. he develop ed his safety-lamp and experimented with dangerous explosives. who become Lord Beaconsfield. and he could not re st until he had read it. Except p ossibly Cobden. up through the middle classes. and became the won der of the age in science. When binding the Encyclopa edia Britannica. and that of Daniel. Michael studied a nd experimented. Disraeli. an old pan." They formed the "Anti-Corn-Law League. but he remembered the example of Joseph. a ch eaper loaf. Mr. which cut off two millions of Ireland's population in a year. he replied "Michael Faraday. Tyndall said of him. who was Prime Minister to the greatest despot of the world five centuries before the birth of Christ. He was appointed professor at the Royal Academy of Woolwich. better.--for it was hunger that at last ate through those stone walls of protection. England's great Prime Minister. up through the upper classes. It is a pantr y question." But he used every spare moment to study without a teache . One nig ht. and cheaper loaf through Richard Cobd en's labors. he simply said. who carried new spapers about the streets to loan to customers for a penny apiece. just as Michael was about to retire. hissed down in the House of Commons. He procured a glass vial. He summoned courage to w rite the great scientist and sent the notes he had taken of his lecture. Rebuffed. and took him to hear Sir Humphry Davy lecture on chemistry. In the morning he called as requested. "for men of all parties are united upon it. his mighty eloquence. and began to experiment. too. as with a glass mask over his face. Michael could scarcely trust his eyes as he read the note. no other man did so much to give the laborer a shorter day. where he was drilled o nly in the "three R's." Jewish blo od flowed in his veins and everything seemed against him. "This is not a par ty question. ridiculed. The whole aristocracy trembled before hi s invincible logic. and by energy I can overcome greater obstacles. self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social pow er. not long after. He pushed his way up through the low er classes. and in those days the do ors of the higher schools were closed to such as he. and his commanding character. Sir Humphry Davy's carr iage stopped at his humble lodging." John Bright himself was the son of a poor working man. and the bo y with no chance but a determined will swayed the scepter of England for a quart er of a century. scorned.s bread stopped at the Custom-House and taxed for the benefit of the landlord an d farmer. and was en gaged to clean instruments and take them to and from the lecture-room." was one of seven children of a widow too poor to send him to any but a common country school. He was appren ticed for seven years to a bookbinder and bookseller." which.

studying it. Charlotte Cushman resolved to place herself in the front rank as an actress. and of the rings and satellites of Saturn. because it took a longer time to hea t at the forge. all the terrors of the Inquisition could not keep this feeble man of threescore years and ten from muttering to himself. but he managed to get time to make engines of clay. The boy with no ch ance. See Kepler struggling with poverty and hardship. who had played the oboe for his meals. cleaning it. had with his own hands made the tel escope through which he discovered facts unknown to the best-equipped astronomer s of his day. he kept constantly at w ork. and so force men to look below my skin. When he had become famous as a great inventor of improveme nts in engines. those who had loafed and played called him lucky. "The Forge. Imagine the surprise of the Royal Society of England when the poor unknown Hers chel sent in the report of his discovery of the star Georgium Sidus. with only a cow and a horse for an audience. and making ex periments in engines." When thrown into prison. with his father for fireman. through a telescope made with his own hands. He could neither read nor write. the celebrated blacksmith arti st of England! He was very poor. his books burned in public by order of the state. and that the squares of the times of revolutio n of the planets above the sun are proportioned to the cubes by their mean dista nces from the sun. He devoted his lei sure hours for five years to that wonderful production. and he could thus have many spare minutes to study the precious book. For seventeen years he works calmly upon the demonstration of the great principles that planets revolve in ellipses. became one of the greatest of American orators and statesmen. "When I found that I was black. and himself exiled by public clamor. when his parents compelled him to go to a medical school? Yet while Venice slept. he stood in th e tower of St. its orbit a nd rate of motion. which he propped up against the chimney. At seventee n he had charge of an engine. but the engine was his teacher. his library locked up by the Jesuits. While the other hands were playing games or loafing in liquor shops during the holidays. Even when totally blind. The star actress was unable to perform. George had to watch cows for a neighbor. Mark's Cathedral and discovered the satellites of Jupiter and the phases of Venus. He would walk eighteen miles to Manchester and back after a hard day's work to buy a shilling's worth of artist's materials. even in such characters as Rosalind and Queen K atherine. but he often rose at three o'clock to copy book s he could not buy." How slender seemed the chance of James Sharples. with the sun at one focus. Without a charm of face or figure. so great was his eagerness for scientific research that he p roved by a straws in his cell that a hollow tube is relatively much stronger tha n a solid rod of the same size." said Alexandre Dumas. and Miss Cushman. What chance had Galileo to win renown in physics or astronomy.r. He would ask fo r the heaviest work in the blacksmith shop. When compelled on bended knee to publicly renounce his heretical doctrine that the earth moves ar ound the sun. with hemlock sticks for pipes. The boy who had learned to speak in a barn. He was a great miser of spare mom ents and used every one as though he might never see another. t hat a line connecting the center of the earth with the center of the sun passes over equal spaces in equal times. her understu . This boy with no chance became one of the world's greatest as tronomers. He had ground two hundred specula before he could get one perfect." copies of w hich are to be seen in many a home. and in after years he was a king among self-made men. "I resolved to live as i f I were white. "Yet it does move. George Stephenson was one of eight children whose parents were so poor that all lived in a single room. George was taking his machine to pieces. and he a faithful student.

But Cornelius Vanderbilt was not the boy to give up. She was so anxious to give them an e ducation that she sent them to school by turns. He fulfilled his contract by night so that he mig ht run his ferry-boat between New York and Brooklyn by day. before the twenty-seventh day o f the month.dy. another a physician. and unknown before. but quietly said. friendless. The poor mother educated her boys as best she could. Lord Eldon might well have pleaded "no chance" when a boy. and became the sta ndard type for all the magnificent ships since constructed by the firm. When Eldon was leaving the chamber the Solicitor tapped him on the shoulder and said. and so on had far the largest patronage of any boatman in the harbor. and plant with corn. but on h is way home it struck a sunken wreck and sank just as he reached shallow water. when he would tie a wet towel about his head to enable h im to keep awake and to study. and one of the greatest lawyers of his age . a Northern girl. was worth thirty thousand dollars at thirty-five. He wished to buy a boat . wrought many odd inventions wi th brain and jack-knife. harrow. But no. hard. no ticed that each boy came to school only one day out of three. the voluminous "Coke upon Littleton" amo ng others. During the War of 1812 he was awarded the Government contract to carry provisions to the military stations near the metropolis. and the third a cle rgyman. The new Testament and the speller were Cornelius Vanderbilt's only books at sch ool. He rose at four o'clock in the morning and copied law books which he borrowed. He often worked all night." The boy with "no chanc e" became Lord Chancellor of England. Before the appointed time the work w as done. To discourage him from following the sea. He at once began again. your bread and butter's cut for life. and was bound to make his way in the world. and came to America as a cabin boy. That night she held her audience with such grasp of intellec t and iron will that it forgot the absence of mere dimpled feminine grace. yet he was bound not to give up. incurable disease. his mother told hi m if he would plow. stony land. ten acres of rough. and cipher a little. On his seventeenth birthday he bought the boat. her reputation was made. The boy who gave his parents all his day earnings and had half of what he got a t night. when the curtain fell upon her first p erformance at the London theater. when physicians told her she had a terrible. He was so eager to study that sometimes he would keep it up until his brain refused to work. but had no money. The teacher. What a lesson for boys who plead "no chance" as an excuse for wasted liv es! Sam Cunard. but he learned to read. Altho ugh poor. the whittling Scotch lad of Glasgow." A poor colored woman in a log-cabin in the South had three boys. she would lend him the amount he wished. who wished to increase their facilities for carryin g foreign mails. but could affo rd only one pair of trousers for the three. and well done. write. and when he died. at an advanced age. His first year's practice brought him but nine sh illings. One be came a professor in a Southern college. "Young man. and that all wore the same pantaloons. His great ambition was to get on and succeed . took her place. the worst on his father's far m. "I have learned to live with my trouble. he had grit and determination. she flinched not a pa rticle. he left to his thirteen children one of the largest fortunes in America. Stephen Girard had "no chance. In after years. for he was too poor to go to school or even to buy books. an d in three years saved three thousand dollars. but they brought neither honor nor profit until he was consulted by Burns & McIvor. The model of a steamship which Sam whittled out for them was ca refully copied for the first vessel of the great Cunard Line." He left his home in France when ten years old.

he had to climb as far as the dista nce which the latter must ascend if he would become President of the United Stat es. his public spirit at times of national need. and in a few years we find him chopping wood and til ling the little clearing in the forest. At sixteen he gladl . His good fortune consisted simply of untiring perseverance and a right heart. His abnormal love of money cannot be commended. and willingness to risk his life to save strangers sick with the deadly yellow fever. for he had no teacher. and in that capacity showed great executi ve ability. Y. but cannot buy. teaching himself arithmetic and grammar in the evening by the light of the fireplace. But somehow. and he was pledged before his birth to pay his master's debts. It was a boy born in a log-cabin. Midas like. Henry E. felling trees on the little claim. He next worked in a clothing store at an advance of twenty-five cents a week. He was sent to Europe to lecture. and then in the night. He saw his mother but two or three times. Behold this long. are traits of character well worthy of imitation. he would study with all his might. He fled from slavery at twenty-one. P. or teacher. the well-known actor. in the backwoods of Ohio. Every spare hour is spent in studying the books he has borrowed. build ing his homely log-cabin. and acquired nothing by luck. and then no limits could be placed to his career. he managed to learn the alphabet from scraps of paper and paten t medicine almanacs. that he would no t undertake. and worked as a stevedore in New York and New Bedford. without schooling. and made so favorable an im pression that he was made agent of the Anti-Slavery Society of Massachusetts. or books. and wondering if she will be able to keep the wolf from her little ones. and the rules of the plantation forbade slaves to learn to read and write. for he did not own his ow n body. to help his mother. from struggling upward to honor and fame as a sculptor. who won the admiration of mankind by his homely practical wisdom while President during our Civil War. went North. without floor or windows. T. Barnum rode a horse for ten cents a day. awkward youth. Dixey. From this he went up and up un til he became one of the greatest living merchants. unnotice d by his master. he walked forty-four miles to proc ure the precious volumes. however hard and disagreeable. He had no chance to study. returning in time to go into the f ield at dawn. but his thoroughness in all he did. and afterwards conducted the "New Era" in Washington. who gave him $750. Edmonia Lewi s. with which he purchased his freedom. and became one of the wealthiest merchants of Philadelphia. He was appointed PostmasterGeneral by President Harrison in 1889. The boy grows. he turned to gold everything he touched.. He edited a paper in Ro chester. and worked in a boo kstore for one dollar and twenty-five cents a week. He put to shame thousands of white boys. To reach the starting-point of the poorest white boy. a poor widow is holding a boy e ighteen months old. began his career upon the stage in the hu mble part of the hind legs of a cow. or o rdinary opportunities. At Nantucket he was given an opportunity to speak at an anti-slavery meeting. For severa l years he was Marshal of the District of Columbia. In his eagerness to kn ow the contents of Blackstone's Commentaries. Wh ile traveling from place to place to lecture. N. Fred Douglass started in life with less than nothing. In another log-cabin. Prejudice against her race and sex did not deter the colored girl. There was no work. lank. and read one hundred pages while returning. Abraham Li ncoln inherited no opportunities. and won the friendship of several Englishmen. when she wo uld walk twelve miles to be with him an hour.at any cost. John Wanamaker walked four miles to Philadelphia every day. and who emancipated four million s laves.

The inspirat ion of such an example is worth more to the young men of America than all the we alth of the Astors. save upon the mercy of God and their own energies. Our city civilizatio n is always in a process of decay. the Vanderbilts. When he retur ned the next term he had but a sixpence in his pocket. CHAPTER IV THE COUNTRY BOY The Napoleonic wars so drained the flower of French manhood that even to-day th e physical stature of the average Frenchman is nearly half an inch below what it was at the beginning of Napoleon's reign. the drift of country youth to the cit y which has an indescribable fascination for him. and li ght of a carpenter at one dollar and six cents a week. where in two years he is graduated with h onors. The country seems tame and common . and would. It matters not whether the b oy is born in a log-cabin or in a mansion. neither men nor demons can keep him down. the finest physical and me ntal fiber in the world. ne ed despair. however poor. and the Goulds. emasculating inf luences of the city. Garfield became President of the United States. The country in America to-day is constantly paying a similar tribute to the cit y in the sacrifice of its best blood. and when he returned to school he boarded himself at an expense of thirty-one cents a week. "The little gray cabin appears to be the birthplace of all your great men. When the term closed. and this he put into the contribution box at church the next day. he had paid all expenses and had three doll ars over. until the superior virility. Among the world's greatest heroes and benefactors are many others whose cradles were rocked by want in lowly cottages. no boy. in a few generations. devitalized stream of city life. He engaged board. with the privilege of wor king at night and on Saturdays all the time he could spare." sai d an English author who had been looking over a book of biographies of eminent A mericans. washing. One of our great men says that one of the most unfortunate phases of modern civ ilization is the drift away from the farm. T wenty-seven years from the time he applied for a chance to ring the bell at Hira m College. It would soon become so foul and degenerate as to threaten the physical and mora l health of city dwellers. His vivid imagination clothes it with Arabian Nights possibilities and joys. Soon we find him in Williams College. James A." In the spring he had forty-eight dollars. Soon he applies for a chan ce to sweep floors and ring the bell of an academy. fuel. The following winter he taught school at twelve dollars a month and "b oard around. and who buffeted the billows of fate wit hout dependence. His first term at Geauga Seminary cost him but seventeen dollars. its best brain. With five chances on each hand and one unwavering aim. for which he received one dollar and two cents. become emasc ulated and effeminate were it not for the pure. crystal stream of country youth flowing steadily into and purifying the muddy. to pay his way while studyin g there. if he is dominated by a resolute purp ose and upholds himself. He reaches the State Senate at twenty-six and Congress at thirty-three. This great stream of superb country manhood. He had arrived on a Saturday and planed fifty-one boards that day.y accepts a chance to drive mules on a canal towpath. which is e ver flowing cityward. stamina and sturdy qualities e ntirely disappear in two or three generations of city life. There is bread and success for every youth under the American flag w ho has energy and ability to seize his opportunity. is rapidly deteriorated by the softening.

sky-scrapers and asphalt pavements does not generate character-building material. physical and mental stamina reach their maximum in those who live close to the soil. the miracle of the growing crops are every moment registering their mighty potencies in his con stitution. are. the h ills. He can not know the worth of the country and how to appre ciate the glory of its disadvantages and opportunities until he has seen the sha m and shallowness of the city. ha s greater courage. the stamina. the mountains. with pleasure. that imparts solidit y. when brought to the city. We are under the perpetual influence of the suggestion of our surroundings. The city-bred youth sees and hears almost nothing that is natural. and this calls out his ingenuity and inventiveness. strength and power. with power. so the timber in country boys and girls. He has not become weakened and softened b y the superficial ornamental. it certainly comes from very near it. the solidity and t he reliability of country-bred men and that of those in the city. ener .place after his first dream of the city. re liable. he begins to deteriorate. His muscles are harder. th e skin may be a little fairer. virility. The moment a man becomes artificia l in his living. as a rule. the pure air and sunshine. T here seems to be a close connection between robust character and the soil. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qua lity. courage and all the qualities which make for manhood and womanhood. all of wh ich will help to make him a giant when he comes to compete with the city-bred yo uth. forcefulness. The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. Much of what we call the best society in our cities is often in an advanced pro cess of decay. What comes from the artificial conditions of the city is weakening. How can a man b uild up a solid. the thought a little mo re supple. more moral stamina. The very granite hills. The average country-bred youth has a better foundation for success-building. robustness and vigor. is often overcarved and adorned at the cost of strength. aside from the faces and forms of human beings. And there is a reason for all this. He sees hardly anything that God made. enduring. the valleys. In other words. the grit which c haracterize men who do great things in this world. substantial. The sturdy. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-br ed. but it is not so healthy. substantial character when his eyes and ears bring him only sig hts and sounds of artificial things? A vast sea of business blocks. There is a very apprecia ble difference between the physical stamina. the brooks. forced to think for himself. If power is not absorbed from the soil. He develops be tter all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. the brawn. Nearly everything that confronts him from morning till night is a rtificial. It is not natural f or human beings to live far from the soil. mountains and valleys. To him it is synonymous with opportunit y. It is Mother Earth and country life t hat give vitality. City people rarely live really normal lives. The whole tendency of life in big cities is toward deterioration. What we get from the country is solid. the brain vigor. takes on artificial conditions. One of the greatest boons that can ever come to a human being is to be born on a farm and reared in the country. We are largely copies of our environment. but less vigorous. vigorous. as do the natural objects in the country. to so ften. He can not rid himself of its fascination until he tastes its emptiness. putting iron into his blood and stamina into his character. country bred. Just as sculpture was once carried to such an extreme that pillars and beams we re often so weakened by the extravagant carvings as to threaten the safety of th e structure. decorative influences of city life. stamina. his flesh firmer. man-made. The muscles may be a little more delicate but they are softer. hardy qualities.

in the midst of newspapers and libraries. it is true. softening. He has been forced to do a great variety of work and this has developed corresponding m ental qualities. the cumulative force.vating. his min d is perpetually drawn away from his subject. the rocks which we despised. The country youth. He gets more exercise. as a r ule. Such a multiplicity of objects appeals to him that he is often superficial. and will oft en read the best literature without absorbing any of it. the stamina. strong success qu . he is not so rapid in his movements. His reading is comparatively superficial. If the wagon or plow breaks down it must be repaired on the spot. The fact is that there is such a diversity of attractions and distractions. but. books and periodicals is one reason why the coun try boy makes the most of good books and articles. of temptation and amusement in the city. he reads them with much better results. he nce. the country boy is constantly developing his muscular system. the chores which we hated as boys. we have found were the very things which educated us. having very lit tle diversion after supper. These exciting. He must make the implements and toys which he can not afford to buy or procure. who. Hi s health is better. he lacks depth. There is a miracle going on in every growing blade of grass and flower. wh ere perpetual creation is going on in such a vast multitude of forms. This training develops instinctive courage. He glances through m any papers. but he is better balanced generally. the one unwavering life aim. while the city youth. H e can not open his eyes without seeing a more magnificent painting than a Raphae l or a Michael Angelo could have created in a lifetime. to deny himself and turn a deaf ear to the appeals of his associates and tie himself down to self-improvement w hile those around him are having a good time. And this magnificent pan orama is changing every instant. The city youth has too many things to divert his attention. constantly calling upon the youth's sel f-reliance and inventiveness. which a re developed in the simple life of the soil. his thought action is slower and he does n ot have as much polish. sees so many books that in most instances he cares very little for them. His even ings are much more broken up than those of the country boy. The drudgery of the farm. more time to think and to reflect. Nor do city-bred youths stor e up anything like the reserve power. a superb manual training school. he is not so superficial as the city boy. adjust and repair all sorts of machin ery and farm utensils. He must run. The dearth of great libraries. Is it n ot wonderful to watch the chemical processes in nature's laboratory. His ingenuity and inventiveness are constantly exercised. The country boy does not read as many books as the city boy. and he lacks continuity of thought and application. which developed our power and made us practical. His perceptions are not so quick. is in the midst of a perpetual miracle. magazines and periodicals and gives no real thought to any. often reading them over and o ver again. can read continuously for an entire evening on one s ubject. It is hard for the city-bred youth to resist the multiplicity of allur ements and pleasures that bid for his attention. nature's kindergarten. which we oft en see so marked in the young man from the country. mixing and flinging out to the world the gorgeous colorings and marvelous perfumes of the r ose and wild flower! No city youth was ever in such a marvelous kindergarten. The farm is a great gymnasium. tempting conditions of city life are not conducive t o generating the great master purpose. often without the proper tools. that unless a youth is made of unusual stu ff he will yield to the persuasion of the moment and follow the line of least re sistance. on the other hand. diverting. For one thing.

This marvelous reserve power which he stores up in the country will come out i n the successful banker. that he heads the banks. his flesh firmer. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qu ality. for example! How she packs the concent rated sunshine and delicious juices into the cans that she makes as she goes alo ng. an d his outdoor work tends to build up a robust constitution. Miracles i nnumerable in grass and flower and fruit are performed right before our eyes. washed-out city youth. This is one of the reasons why he usually develops better all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. in the sunset. when they have really never seen the marvelous pict ures painted by the Divine Artist and spread in the landscape. what wonderful mysteries. should be in s uch demand when he comes to the city? Is it any wonder that he is always in evid ence in great emergencies and crises? Just stand a stamina-filled. and this call s out his ingenuity and makes him self-reliant and strong. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-bred. Think of the difference between what a Ruskin sees in a landscape and the impression conveyed to his brain. Is it any wonder that the country-bred boy is nearly always the leader. mow ing. and makes him a resourceful man. lawyer. and what is seen by the ordinary mind. breathed in great inspirations through constant muscular effort. in the glory of flowers and plant life. merchant. His muscles ar e harder. make things. and yet what marvels of skill. de liciousness and beauty? What interrogation points. soft. with no noise of factories. what miracles of coloring are spread everywhere in nature. What a perpetual inspiration. It has been found tha t the use of tools in our manual training schools develops the brain. whichever way he turns! Where does all this tremendous .alities. He is constantly bottling up forces. or business man. should take such pre-eminence. the great mercantile houses? It is this peculiar. confronting us on every hand! We see them almo st every day of our lives and they become so common that they make no impression upon us. what marvels of beauty. the ordinary person who has little or no imagination and whose esthetic faculties h ave scarcely been developed! We are immersed in a wilderness of mysteries and marvelous beauties. right at their very doors. stamina-less. Plowing. what wit-sharpeners are ev er before the farmer boy. self-reliant country boy beside a pale. he is forced to think for himself. People s ave money for years in order to go to Europe to visit the great art centers and see the famous masterpieces. not a sound is heard. this superior stamina and mental caliber. storing up energy in his brain and m uscles which later may be powerful factors in shaping the nation's destiny or wh ich may furnish backbone to keep the ship of state from floundering on the rocks . hoeing. statesman. no hammering of tins! The miracles are wrought in a silent laboratory. cans exactly the right size. Is it any wonder that the boy so trained in self-reliance. The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. he is always using tools. The life-giving oxyg en. strengthen s the deficient faculties and brings out latent powers. indescribable something . There is a peculiar quality of superiority which comes from dealing with realit ies that we do not find in the superficial city conditions. The farm-reared boy is i n the best manual training school in the world and is constantly forced to plan things. leakage or evapora tion. develops in the country boy much greater lung power than is developed in the city youth. Ho w marvelous is Nature's growing of fruit. so superbly equipped with physical and mental stamina. It is human nature to exaggerate the value of things beyond our reach. without a particle of waste. everything he does on the farm gives him vigor and strength. that makes the stuff that rises to t he top in all vocations.

mor e life on every hand! Wherever he goes he treads on chemical forces which produc e greater marvels than are described in the Arabian Nights. the brook s. the beauty. But we are now beginning to see that man has made a botch of farming only because he looked upon it as a sort of humdrum occupation. who is tempted to turn night into day. and yet.increase of corn. modify a nd change the flavor of fruits and vegetables to our liking! Think what it must mean to be a magician in the whole vegetable kingdom. flavors. the mountains. Burbank says that the tim e will come when man will be able to do almost anything he wishes in the vegetab le kingdom. away from the distracting influence and enervating excitement of city life. the hills. The science of agriculture is fast becoming appreciated and is more and more re garded as a high and noble calling. life. The history of most great men shows that there is a disadvantage in having too . the valleys. purposeless li fe. and that i gnorant men have been getting an indifferent living from their farms simply beca use they did not know how to mix brains with the soil. and even to vary the size. species! Almost anything is p ossible when one knows enough and has heart and sympathy enough to enter into pa rtnership with the great creative force in nature. the sunsets. Then again. wisely and sympa thetically. He is not inculcated with snobbish ideas. fruit and vegetables come from? There seems to be no l oss to the soil. what a marvelous growth in everything! Life. that the size of all fruits and vegetables and flo wers is just a matter of sufficient understanding. the growing animals on th e farm. as a means provided by nature for living-getting for those who were not good fo r much else. changing colors. simplicity and honesty. that it requires fine-grained sympathetic talent. as contrasted with the cramped. to enlarge. We are commencing to real ize that it takes a high order of ability and education to bring out the fullest possibilities of the soil. wheat. refreshing sleep. The country youth does not learn to judge people by the false standards of wealth a nd social standing. plea sure seeking. While the city youth is wasting his precious energy capital in late hours. the perfume of flowers. to live an artificial. And what healt h there is in it all! How hearty and natural he is in comparison with the city b oy. to be able to co-operate with that divine creative force. The trees. like L uther Burbank. and often dissipation. Everything in the great farm kindergarten teaches him sincerity. a dignified profession. But the searchlight of science h as revealed in it possibilities hitherto undreamed of. ar tificial life in the city! Everything in the country tends to set the boy thinki ng. The very temptation in the city to turn night into day is of itself health-unde rmining. and the brilliant boy was sent to college or to the city to make a career for himself. We are now finding that agriculture is as great a science as astronomy. Farming was considered by many people as a sort of degrading occupa tion desirable only for those who lacked the brains and education to go into a p rofession or some of the more refined callings. and that Nature will give us almost anything when we know enough to treat her intelligently. the country youth is storing up power and v itality. Mr. Think of what it mea ns to go into partnership with the Creator in bringing out larger. he is being recharged with physical force by natural. The time was when the boy who gave no signs of genius or unusual ability was co nsigned to the farm. to call out his dormant powers and develop his latent forces. stamina-dissipating and character-weakening. and al most any flavor in any fruit. will be able to produce at will any shade or color he wishes. perfumes. are all mysteries that set him thinking and to wondering at the creative processes which are working on every hand. the delicious freedom of it all. grander produ cts from the soil.

all opportunities to him . who ever rose to such eminence? Imagine a boy of to-day. to know the history of his country? Whence came that passion to devour the dry statutes of Indiana. Where in all the annals of history is there another record of one born of such poor parentage and reared in such a wretched environment.many advantages. and where those born in the lowest stations attain the highest positions? The world is all gates. one moment opportune. From Opportunity's extended h and. would he have had that insatiable hunge r which prompted him to walk twenty miles in order to borrow Blackstone's "Comme ntaries" and to read one hundred pages on the way home? [Illustration: House in which Abraham Lincoln was born] What was there in that rude frontier forest. his ch aracter would probably have been soft and flabby in comparison with what it was. One space when fate goes tiding with the stream. "There are no longer any good chances for young men. and at th e prow To seize the passing moment. And ready for the passing instant's boon To tip in favor the uncertain beam. where this poor boy scarcely ever saw any one who knew anything of books. What is opportunity to a man who can't use it? An unfecundated egg. of only a small fraction of which he could get even a superficial knowledge. there is no likelihood that Lincol n would ever have become the powerful man he was. brought up in an atmosphere of books. to rouse his ambition and to stimulate h im to self-education? Whence came that yearning to know the history of men and w omen who had made a nation. When the great clock of destiny strikes Now! MARY A. so hungry for an education that he would walk nine miles a day to attend a rude frontier school in a log cabin! What would th e city boys of to-day. Who can tell what the consequences would have been had Lincoln been born in New York and educated at Harvard? If he had been reared in the midst of great libra ries. One day. or one noon. in balance 'twixt Too Late.--DISRAELI. the prod of necessity spurri ng him on. big with fate. One rift through which s ublime fulfillments gleam. happy he who. thin k of a youth who would do what Lincoln did to overcome his handicap? CHAPTER V OPPORTUNITIES WHERE YOU ARE To each man's life there comes a time supreme. One freighted hour. "There is always room at the top. Ah. where newsboys go to Congress. knowing how to wait. TOWNSEND. self-unfoldment? If he had been born and educated in luxury. one morning." complained a youthful law student to Daniel Webster.--GEORGE ELIOT. in a land where thousands of poor boys become rich men. which the w aves of time wash away into non-entity." replied the great statesman and jurist. no opportunities. One Once. Had he not felt that imperious "must" calling him. No chance. to serve his country with no selfish ambition? Had his father been rich and well -educated instead of a poor man who could neither read nor write and who was gen erally of a shiftless and roving disposition. Knows also how to watch and work and stand On Life's broad deck alert. one night. who do not want to walk even a few blocks to school. whence would have come the motive which led him to struggle for selfdevelopment. as a young girl would devour a l ove story? Whence came that all-absorbing ambition to be somebody in the world. The secret of success in life is for a man to be ready for his opportunity when it comes. Too Soon.

" "All you have to do is to go and search until you find them. but thinks he can do better somewhere else. that with a handful he could buy a province." "How shall I know when I have found the . in possibilities all about us. like Bunyan's Pilgrim in the dungeon of Giant Despair's castle. Only a short time after. or near at hand. Aft er arriving in San Francisco. and anxiously asked him where he could find a mine of diamonds." A Baltimore lady lost a valuable diamond bracelet at a ball. gardens of flowers. She cut old.who will use them. from which he could get a grand view of the beautiful country stretching away to the sea. One evening a priest of Buddha visited him. and was no long er a rich man. east. "But where shall I go?" asked the poor farmer. and with a m ine of diamonds he could purchase a kingdom. During all her poverty she was worth . but did not know it. and with that all wealth van ishes. He decided to go into the coal-oil busines s. Early the next morning he woke the priest who had been the cause of his u nhappiness." said the priest. "I want to be rich and place my children on thrones. and supposed it was stolen from the pocket of her cloak. We depend too much u pon outside assistance. P rofessor Agassiz once told the Harvard students of a farmer who owned a farm of hundreds of acres of unprofitable woods and rocks. to ge t money to pay his passage to other mines. pondering how to get money to buy food. The richest gold and silver mine in Nevada was sold by the owner for $42. The old priest told that a drop of sunlight the size of his thumb was worth mor e than large mines of copper. orchards of fruit. and concluded to sell out and get into a more profitable business. In our large Eastern cities it has been found that at least ninety-four o ut of every hundred found their first fortune at home. which the farmer had previously ignorantly tried to d rain off. silver. when lo! in the lining of the she discovered the diamond bracelet. and engaged in his new business two hundred mile s away. But. sitting before the fire. It is a sorry day for a young man who can not see any opportunities where he is. "We look too high For things close by. that steps up an cloak $3500 Many of us who think we are poor are rich in opportunities. that with one of them he could bu y many farms like his. the man who bought his farm discovered upon it a great flood of coal-oil. only to find that the mines from which the pebbles had been gathered had been taken up by other prospectors and sold to the government. south. and after they had thrown most of the pebbles away . and in m eeting common every-day wants. He h ad a wife and children. Ali Hafed listened. They hastened back to Brazil. or gold. ragged cloak to make a hood. He sold his farm for $200. he studied coal measures and coal-oil deposits. He was contented and happy. and took along a handful of translucent pebbles to play checkers with on the voyage. and how the first beams of sunlight condensed on the earth's surface into di amonds. they discovered that they were diamonds. and. "Wha t do you want of diamonds?" asked the astonished priest. He had been touched with discontent. an extensive farm. He had plenty of money and everything th at heart could wish. if we could only se e them. fields of grain. Hundreds of years ago there lived near the shore of the river Indus a Persian b y the name of Ali Hafed. and experimented for a long t ime. "Go anywhere. north. Years afterward she washed the of the Peabody Institute. explained to him how the world was ma de. and miles of forest. where he thought he could get rich. who had the key of deliverance all the time with him but had forgotten i t. in faculties worth more than diamond brac elets. or west. we fail to rely wholly upon the ability to advance all that is good for us wh ich has been given to the weakest as well as the strongest. Some Brazilian shepherds organized a party to go to California to dig gold. He lived in a cottage on the river bank. worn-out.

Over the mountains of Arabia. left his family with a neighbor. When his money was all gone and starvation stared him in the face. Remember that four things come not back: the spo ken word." answered the priest. but it would be of no use to humanity. "but rather iron in the hands of its workers. he would have been one of the richest men in the world. Opportunities? They are all around us. and t housands of others had. Wilson. New openings are as easy to find as ever to those who do their best. and pleased with its brilliant hues took it into the ho use. slag. The old priest of Buddha who had filled Ali Hafed with the fatal discontent cal led one day upon the new owner of the farm. the past life. It is one of the paradoxes of civilization that the more opportunities are util ized. Scarcely a boy or g irl will read these lines but has much better opportunity to win success than Ga rfield. iron filings. But to succeed you must be prepared to seize and improve the opportunity when it comes. "nor is that a diamond. Forces of nature plead to be used in the service of man. The patent office at Washington is full of wonde . that is not capable of an improvement in which the re may be a fortune. scarcely an article of household furniture. Frances Willard. Find it. "Here's a diamond! here's a diamond!" he shouted in great excitement. and behold. and competition has so greatly increased. because the standard has advanced so much . instead of going abroad in search for wealth. as lightning for ages tried to attract his attention to the gre at force of electricity. although it is not so easy as formerly to obta in great distinction in the old lines. The man who bought his farm was a cont ented man. Lincoln. he noticed a flash of light from the white sands of the brook . fill it. and did not believe in going a way from home to hunt for diamonds or success. "Has Ali Hafed returned?" "No. so some men will get a fortune out of the commonest and meanest things.place?" "When you find a river running over white sands between high mountain r anges." said Emerson. a kitchen utensil. the more new ones are thereby created. An invention to m ake smoke go the wrong way in a chimney might be a very ingenious thing. and men have got to hamme r out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows. as scraps of lea ther. He picked up a pebble. through Palestine and Egypt. That is but a stone. ashamed of his folly and of his rags." They went into the ga rden and stirred up the white sand with their fingers. As the bee gets honey from the same flower from which the spider gets poison. but found no diamonds. Harriet Beecher Stowe. in those white sands you will find diamonds. cotton waste. and the neglected opportunity. The discontented man sold the farm for what he could get." Thousands of men have made fortunes out of trifles which others pass by. He had no sooner entered the room th an his eye caught that flash of light from the stone. First find out what the world needs and then supply the want. You have your own special place and work. from which others get only poverty and f ailure. he wander ed for years. other diamond s more beautiful than the first gleamed out of it. who made the most of his surroundings." said the farmer. and forgot all about it. and went to search for the covete d treasure. Franklin. While his camel was drinking in t he garden one day. There is scarcely a thing which contributes to the welfare and comfort o f humanity. an ar ticle of clothing or of food. which would do his drudgery and leave him to develop th e God-given powers within him. Had Ali Hafed been content to remain at home. So the famous diamond beds of Golconda were discovered. put it on the shelf near the fireplace. poor Ali Hafed thr ew himself into the tide and was drowned. and dug in his own garden. the sped arrow. "The world is no longer clay. There is power lying latent everywhere waiting fo r the observant eye to discover it. took the money he had at interest. for the entire farm abounded in the ri chest of gems.

Charles the First his Cromwell. I t then first dawned upon him that he could be a hero in Virginia. when he put out his shingle.. began his great fortune by making toy wagons in a horse s hed. began his career in the loft of an old barn. "I will make a metallic lacing hook. and became rich. which some unskilful workman had cut. and wants me to give him employm ent at the Royal Institution--what can I do?" "Do? put him to washing bottles. who was the son of a blacksmith. but who could not affo rd to get another pair. while the father has been working on u seless inventions. said to himself.rful devices of ingenious mechanism. A. and made a fortune. unti l he sold enough to hire a loft. No doubt many artists had noticed the fine quality of the mar ble. John Harrison. The first model dry-dock was made in an attic." He was then so poor that he had to borrow a sickle to cut grass in front of his hired tenement. T. but in his first case he showed that he had a wonderful power of oratory. Parts of the fir st steamboat ever run in America were set up in the vestry of a church in Philad elphia by Fitch. He s tudied law for six weeks. but not one in hundreds is of use to the in ventor or to the world. lost eighty-seven cents. with his daughter's help. invented clippers.. An observing barber in Newark. thought he could make an improvement on s hears for cutting hair. Davy consulted a friend on the matter. McCormick began to make his famous reaper in a grist-mill. Stewart. he has been attending my lectures. A man who was suffering terribly wit h toothache felt sure there must be some way of filling teeth which would preven t their aching and he invented the method of gold filling for teeth. Farquhar made umbrellas in his sitting-room. in buying buttons and thread which shoppers did not call for. as a boy. and thrown away. and he failed a s a merchant. Ericsso n began the construction of the screw propellers in a bathroom. He became a very rich man. Mass. Finding the method slow and laborious. The great things of the world have not been done by men of large means. If this be treason. From the time the Stamp Act was passed and Henry was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesse s. wh ich can be riveted into the leather. Patrick Henry was called a lazy boy. he rose steadily until he became one of the brilliant orato rs of America. if he refuses he is good for n . and never though t he could be a hero among the corn and tobacco and saddlebags of Virginia. People thought he would f ail. and George the Third--may profit by their exampl e. The cotton-gin w as first manufactured in a log cabin. make the most of it. "Here is a letter from a young man na med Faraday. But Michael Angelo still sa w an angel in the ruin. and so prospered. the great inventor of the m arine chronometer. And yet how many families have been impoverished. J. He was always dreaming of some far-off greatness. wrote. Clark. which were prophetic of his power and courage: "Caesar had his Brutus. when his ca pital was one dollar and a half. a good-for-nothing farmer. Edison began his experiments in a baggage car o n the Grand Trunk Railroad when a newsboy." The great natural philosopher. N. A Maine man was call ed in from the hayfield to wash clothes for his invalid wife. In one of his first speeches upon this resolution he uttered thes e words. he invent ed the washing machine. and ha ve struggled for years amid want and woe. hacked. the founder of Clark Universit y of Worcester. to Humphry Davy. and he had introduced his famous resolution against the unjust taxation of th e American colonies. asking for employment at the Royal Instituti on. when a young man. Michael Angelo found a piece of discarded Carrara marble among waste rubbish be side a street in Florence. and regretted that it should have been spoiled. An observing man. He had never reali zed what it was to wash before. the eyelets of whose shoes pulled out. i f he is good for anything he will do it directly. the young David. Faraday. After that he made it a rule never to buy anything which the publ ic did not want. spoiled . and with his chisel and mallet he called out from it one of the finest pieces of statuary in Italy.

Ediso n. are not known to the world. by seizing common occasions and making the m great. which were closed to them only a few years ago. You will find that millions have the same wants. out o f which to carve a Madonna. perpetual hymn? HARR IET WINSLOW.othing. all around thee lying Offers up its low." He became the wonder of his age in science. thus forever sighing. she became more famous than a princess. and produced a masterpiece from a log of common firewood. he must eat." Never before were there such grand openings. education. leaving the visi on of his life unrealized. "America is another name for opportunities. The safest business is always connected with man's prime necessities. There is a legend of an artist who long sought for a piece of sandalwood. when they really lie hi dden in the common logs that we burn. to distinguish herself. Eternity itself cannot restore the loss struck from the minute. living on those barren lighthouse rocks alone with her aged parents? But while h er brothers and sisters. She did not wander away into dreamy di stance for fame and fortune. Especially is this true for girls and young women. can make a fortune. and culture. and Thompson." But the boy who could experiment in the attic of an apothecary shop wit h an old pan and glass vials during every moment he could snatch from his work s aw an opportunity in washing bottles. . If you want to get rich. Our whole history appears like a last effort of divine Providence in behalf of the human race. and a nam e which will never perish from the earth. Hundreds of occupations and professions. unattained and dim. This poor girl did not need to go to London to see the nobility. or contribute in any way to their well-being. who moved to the cities to win wealth and fame. are now inviting them to enter. Wh ile the beautiful. He must have clothing and dwelling. What chance had the young girl. while another close beside him snatches from th e same circumstances and privileges opportunities for achieving grand results. But we can all of us make our lives sublime. or paint immortal pictures like an Angelo or a Raphael. such chances. but did her best where duty had placed her. Tyndall said of this boy with no chance. "The golden opportunity Is never offered twice. For the far-off. Grace Darling. A new era is dawning for them. such opportunities. He obeyed.--ANCIENT POET. CHAPTER VI POSSIBILITIES IN SPARE MOMENTS Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time. study yourself and your own wants. when in a dream he was bidden to carve his Madonna fr om a block of oak wood which was destined for the fire. supply any demand of comfort. Many of us lose great opportunities in life by waiting to find sandalwood for our carvings. seize then the hour When Fortun e smiles and Duty points the way." Why thus longing. for that is the stuff life is m ade of. improve any methods which men use. Right at home she had won fame which the regal heirs might envy. He wants co mforts. which led to a professorship at the Royal Academy at Woolwich. Faraday. "He is the greates t experimental philosopher the world has ever seen.--FRANKLIN. Opportunities? They are everywhere. Any man wh o can supply a great want of humanity. they came to the lighthouse to see her. He was about to give up in despair. facilities of all kinds for pleasure. We can not all of us perhaps make great discoveries like Newton. One man goes through life without seeing c hances for doing anything great.

are thus saved." The man seemed surprised. "has been and will be by that plodding. persevering process of a ccretion which builds the ant-heap--particle by particle. "A dollar and a half! Why." said the clerk. two golden hours. "One dollar." replied Franklin. Mr. Franklin." said Franklin coolly." The man silently laid the money on the counter. and then i nquired: "Is Mr." and chasms of waiting fo r unpunctual persons. thousands of dollars' yearly. half hours. each set with six ty diamond minutes. achieves results which astonish those who have not mastere d this most valuable secret. found in a brown study after listening to one of Burke's speeches in Parliament. fa ct by fact. "he is very busy in the pr ess-room. your clerk asked me only a dollar just now. for they are gone forever." said a brother.--the hours perish and are laid to our charge. when we were at play." persisted the man. I wasted time. "All that I have accomplished. "but then I remember. in the United States Mint at Philadelphi a. "and I could better have taken that price then than a dollar and a half now. Time-wasters are everywhere. So every successful man has a kind of network to catch "the raspings and parings of existence. I want to see him. took his book." said Elihu Bu rritt. patient. come now. And if ever I was actuated by ambition.--INSCRIPTI ON ON A DIAL AT OXFORD." was the answer." was the prompt rejoinder. there is a wooden lattice-work which is taken up when the floor is swept. its highest and warmest aspi ration reached no further than the hope to set before the young men of my countr y an example in employing those invaluable fragments of time called moments. The proprietor was call ed. tell me your lowest price for this book." echoed the lounger. at will. He who hoards and turns to account all odd minutes. expect to. those leavings of days and wee bits of hours" which most people s weep into the waste of life. "O ne dollar. gaps "between times. On the floor of the gold-working room. but. "and I could have better afforded to take a dollar than to leave my w ork.Periunt et imputantur." replied the clerk. and the fine particles of gold-dust. Believe me when I tell you that thrift of time will repay you in after life wit h a usury of profit beyond your most sanguine dreams." "Well. thought by thought." said Franklin. unexpected holidays. "can't you take less than that?" "One dollar is the price." "True.--HORACE MAN N. "What is the price of that book?" at length asked a man who had been dawdling f or an hour in the front store of Benjamin Franklin's newspaper establishment. he was alwa . Lost! Somewhere between sunrise and sunset. into either wealth or wisdom. wishing to end a parley of his own seeking. "One doll ar and a quarter! Why.--SHAKESPEARE." "One dollar and a half.--GLADSTONE. and left the sto re. Franklin in?" "Yes. No reward is offered. you offered it yoursel f for a dollar and a quarter." "Yes. The would-be purchaser looked over the books on sale a while longer. he d emanded: "Well. and that waste of it will make you dwindle alike in intellectual and moral stature beyond your darkest rec koning. or hope to accomplish. and the stranger asked: "What is the lowest. having received a salutary lesson from a master in the art of transmuting ti me. that you can take for that book?" "One dollar and a quarter. and now doth time waste me." "I have been wondering how Ned contrived to monopolize all the talents of the f amily.

to save the precious moments from oblivion? What a rebuke is such a life to the thousands of young men and women who throw away whole months and even years of that which the "Grand Old Man" hoarded up even to the smalles t fragments! Many a great man has snatched his reputation from odd bits of time which others. Longfellow translated the "Inferno" by snatches of t en minutes a day. S ecretary of the Lord Protector. Though she has done s o much. physician. but if we failed to accep t those that were brought yesterday and the day before. what should we of common abili ties not resort to. She has glorified the commonplace as few other women have done. found time to read scientific books. "Time is all I require. and had to write his sublime poetry whenever he could snatch a few minutes from a busy life. But wha t monuments have been built up by poor boys with no chance. the power of ceaseless industry to perform miracles! Alexander von Humboldt's days were so occupied with his business that he had to ." in the midst of p ressing household cares. he devoted all his leisure to experiments. throw away. The author of "Paradise Lost" was a teacher. At one time he wrote to a friend. too. lost health by temperance and medicine. "Uncle Tom's Cabin. stat esman. judge. when her child ren were in bed and whenever she could get a spare minute. In Dante's time nearly every literary man in Italy was a hard-working merchant. if we do not use them. lost knowledge by study. there's no time to do anything now. Madame de Genlis. Oh. Wisely was it said that lost wealth may be regained by industry and economy. Hugh Miller. who wonder at their failure to get on. we become less and less able to turn them to account." Oh.ys at work. until the ability to appreciate and utilize them i s exhausted. Marion Harland has accomplished wonders. Each successive morning new gifts are brought. days. John Stuart Mill did much of his be st work as a writer while a clerk in the East India House. and she has been able to do this by ec onomizing the minutes to shape her novels and newspaper articles. Harriet Beecher Stowe. if impr oved. composed severa l of her charming volumes while waiting for the princess to whom she gave her da ily lessons. While Michael Faraday was employed binding books. it's only five minutes or ten minutes till mealtime. wrote her great masterpiece. but l ost time is gone forever. and write the lessons learned from the blocks of stone he handled. Secretary of the Commonwealth. might have insured your success. Beecher read Froude's "England" a little each day while he had to wait for dinner. when companion of the future Queen of France. persisting for years unt il the work was done. yet to the improvement of his spare moments the world owes some of its greates t discoveries. If a genius like Gladstone carried through life a little book in his pocket les t an unexpected spare moment slip from his grasp. they are borne silently away." is one of the commonest expressions heard in the family. Galileo was a surgeon . while working hard as a stone-mason. but. or soldier. out of broken fragme nts of time which many of us throw away! The very hours you have wasted. "Oh. bringing priceless gifts from an unseen hand. never to return. that I could purchase at a cheap rate some of our modern gentlemen's spare hours--na y. yet all her life has been subject to interruptions which would have disc ouraged most women from attempting anything outside their regular family duties. Burns wrote many of his most beautiful poems while working on a far m." The days come to us like friends in disguise. while waiting for his coffee to boil.

When a child. Haw thorne's notebook shows that he never let a chance thought or circumstance escap e him. He wrote some of his best productions on shipboard. has made--an unknown man a famous one. Franklin was a tireless worker. Cicero said: "What others give to p . Southey. the celebrated shoemaker of Vermont. as one man saves a fortune by small economies which ot hers disdain to practise. It took Professor Owen ten years to arrange and classify the specimens in Comparative Anatomy. "fills up a man's time much more completely and leaves him less his own master. John Hunter. Sir Joh n Lubbock's fame rests on his prehistoric studies. One hour a day withdrawn from frivolous pursuits and profitably employed would enable any man of ordinary capacity to master a complete science. a useless man a benefactor to his race. then. seldom idle for a minute. which Hunter's indust ry had collected. An hour a day might make--nay. It would earn enou gh to pay for two daily and two weekly papers." Some boys will pick up a good education in the odds and ends of time which othe rs carelessly throw away. Many of the greatest men of history earned their fame outside of their regular occupations in odd bits of time which most people squander. or eighteen large volumes in a year. while others were a sleep. he b ecame impatient of his father's long grace at table. resolved to devote one hour a day to study. the study. only his heart must be in it. In an hour a day a boy or girl could read twenty pages th oughtfully--over seven thousand pages. An h our a day might make all the difference between bare existence and useful." What a lesson there is in Raphael's brief thirty-seven years to those who plead "no time" as an excuse for wasted lives! Great men have ever been misers of moments. and also gained an enviable reputation in other departme nts of knowledge." says Burke. Tennyson. and save time. and Dickens signed a remonstrance against organ-grinders who disturbed their work. He became one of the most noted mathematician s in the United States. thrown away by youn g men and women in the restless desire for fun and diversion! Every young man should have a hobby to occupy his leisure hours. Spenser made his rep utation in his spare time while Secretary to the Lord Deputy of Ireland. two leading magazines. and occupation that a hobby confers will broaden character and transform the home. six hours a day that are. An Italian scholar put over his door the inscription: "Whoever tarri es here must join in my labors. on the average. and at lea st a dozen good books. It might be in line with his work or other wise. One hour a day would in ten years make an ignorant man a well-informed man. over twenty-four thousand in number. the mighty possibilities of two--four--yes. What a record for a boy who began his studies while working as a carpenter! John Q. research. something usef ul to which he can turn with delight. such as his "Improvement of Navigation" and "Smo ky Chimneys. "He has nothing to prevent him but too much idleness. Frost. Adams complained bitterly when robbed of his time by those who had no r ight to it. If one chooses wisely. What young man is too busy to get an hour a day for se lf-improvement? Charles C. He crowded his meals and sleep into as sm all compass as possible so that he might gain time for study. and asked him if he could n ot say grace over a whole cask once for all. happy living.pursue his scientific labors in the night or early morning. prosecuted outside of his bus y banking-hours. than any sort of employment whatsoever. like Napoleon. Consider." Carlyle. allowed himself but four hours of sleep. I have observed. Browning. wrote a hundred volumes. which.

He educated hims elf and did much of his best work during his spare moments." Lord Bacon's fame springs from the work of his leisure hours while Chancellor of England. even to mental and bodily rest. As Fenelon says. Matthew Hale wrote his "Contemp lations" while traveling on his circuit as judge. Idleness rusts the nerves and makes the muscles creak. Sir Humphry Davy achieved emine nce in spare moments in an attic of an apothecary's shop. Do not brood over the past. and had to swim a shore. During an interview with a great monarch. Caesar said: "Under my tent in the fiercest struggle of war I have always found time to think of many other things.ublic shows and entertainments. law. Dr. God never gives but one moment at a time. Lincoln studied law during his spare hours while surveying. and literature. The man is yet unborn who rightly measures and fully r ealizes the value of an hour. President Quincy never went to bed until he had laid his plans for the next day . Mozart would not allow a mome nt to slip by unimproved. Pope would often rise in the night to write out thoughts that would not come during the busy day. but seize the instant and get y our lesson from the hour. Darwin composed most of his works by writing his thoughts on scraps of paper wherever he happened to be. and w ould sometimes write two whole nights and a day without intermission. Somerville learned botany and ast ronomy and wrote books while her neighbors were gossiping and idling. and learned the com mon branches unaided while tending store. In factories for making cloth a single broken thread ruins a whole web. Mrs. Mason Good translated "Lucretius" while riding to visit his patients in Lon don. Dr. The present time is the raw material out of which we make whatever we will. went into an adjoining room and wrote down a thoug ht for his "Faust. Dr. Watt learned chemistry and mathematics while w orking at his trade of a mathematical instrument-maker. in order to meet the expenses of his mother's funeral. it is t raced back to the girl who made the blunder and the loss is deducted from her wa . but he carried with him the manuscript of his "Commentaries. Grot e wrote his matchless "History of Greece" during the hours of leisure snatched f rom his duties as a banker. or dream of the future. Dr. Johnson wrote "Rasselas" in the evenings of a single week. Work has system." He was once shipwrecked. I give to t he study of philosophy. He wrote h is famous "Requiem" on his death-bed. At eighty she published "Molecular and Microscopical Science. nay. Lord Brougham could not bear to lose a moment. yet he was so systematic that he always seemed to have more leisure than many who did not accomplish a tithe of what he did. lazi ness has none. He learned arithmeti c during the night shifts when he was an engineer. Burney learned Italian and French on horseback." The worst of a lost hour is not so much in the wasted time as in the wasted pow er. Dalton's industry was the passion of his life. He would not stop his work long enough to sleep. He achieved distinction in politics." lest it should be forgotten. He made and recorded over two hu ndred thousand meteorological observations. Henry Kirke White learne d Greek while walking to and from the lawyer's office where he was studying. science. George Stephenson seized the moments as though they were gold. and does not give a second until he withdraws the first." upon which he was at work when the ship went down. Goe the suddenly excused himself.

We should not be stingy or mean with it. for all your future lives in it. There is scarcely one in good health who reads these lines but can be assured that if he will he may. as elsewhere. "Of the five thousand persons--students. But where does he eat his lunch at noon? Where does he go when he leaves his boarding-hous e at night? What does he do after supper? Where does he spend his Sundays and ho lidays? The way he uses his spare moments reveals his character. a perpetual witness of our folly. Most of those who climb upward to honor and fame devote their evenings to study or work or the society of those who can help and improve them. From $700 to $1. the inflexib le purpose. There is a deep significance in the lines of Whittier:-This day we fashion Destiny. and happy. as there are to-day--at this hour and this moment. honored. But history shows us that the men who have led in the van of human progress have been. It seems a great hardship. but we should not throw away an hour any more than we would throw away a dollar-bill.--directly connected with Harvard Unive rsity. and never be fore was there so many avenues of resource open to the strong will. But who shall pay for the broken threads in life's great web? We cannot thr ow back and forth an empty shuttle. "five hundred are students entirely or almost entirel y dependent upon their own resources. "by the cultivation of every ta lent. Beware how you kill ti me. The great major ity of youths who go to the bad are ruined after supper. self-made. "And it is left for each. or it may be a golden thread which will add to its beauty and luster. indeed. "There are some men that make much more. Each evening is a crisis in the career o f a young man. and scorning sensual pleasure. We cannot stop t he shuttle or pull out the unfortunate thread which stretches across the fabric. The average boy of to-day who wishes to obtain a liberal education has a better chance by a hundredfold than had Daniel Webster or James A." writes a graduate.--branches of emplo yment that pay well at Harvard. self-educated. threads of some kind follow every movement a s we weave the web of our fate." says Edward Everett. It mea ns the waste of opportunities which will never come back. Waste of time mea ns waste of energy. defying temptation. the will can usually make the way. by redeem ing time." CHAPTER VII HOW POOR BOYS AND GIRLS GO TO COLLEGE "Can I afford to go to college?" asks many an American youth who has hardly a d ollar to his name and who knows that a college course means years of sacrifice a nd struggle. to make himself use ful.ges. as a rule. Here. for half of them make an income above the average allowance of boys in small er colleges. waste of vitality. by watching with an eagle's eye for every chance of improvement. No one is anxious about a young man while he is busy in useful work. our web of Fate we spin. They are not a poverty-stricken lot.000 are by no means exceptional yearly earnings of a student who is capable of doing newspaper work or tutoring. howev er. A classmate of the writer entered coll . It may be a shoddy thread of wasted hours or los t opportunities that will mar the fabric and mortify the workman forever. for a young man with an ambition to do somet hing in the world to be compelled to pay his own way through school and college by hard work. waste of character in dissipation. Garfield. Time is money. This day for all hereafte r choose we holiness or sin.

as desirable that one should have t o work his own way entirely. they earn from five to ten dollars a week. he proceeded to Sche nectady. and added to his original fund of fifty dollars by taking the freshman essay prize of twenty-five dollars.000. The ways of earning money are various." . in one year. after the firs t year. but helped to support his aged parents. later. Two young men made twelve hun dred dollars apiece. worked his way through an academy. by which they earn two and on e-half to three and one-half dollars a week. As a freshman he had a hard struggle.ege with about twenty-five dollars. but only a few can obtain such position s. preach in small towns. "He made his money by advertising schemes and other publishing ventures. as the tax upon strength and time is likely to be s uch as to interfere with scholarship and to undermine health. the junior United States Senator from Indiana. One of his classmates. he returned to work in the harvest fields and broke the wheat-cutting records of t he county. they add other employments. not only paid his way through coll ege. earning twelve dollars a week. At Chicago University many hundreds of plucky young men are working their way. and arranged with a professor of Union College to pay for his tuition b y working. Albert J. on the whole. A representative American college president recently said: "I regard it as. to the construction o f iron bridges of his own design. so as to take their degrees. He had shaped his course and worked to it. and amassed a fortune. Accordingly. A few find evening work in the city library. noon and night. He serv ed as steward of a college club. Some dozen or more teach night school. and receive twenty cents an hour. the expense of his bread-and-milk diet never exceeding fifty cents a week. He rented a small room. Some solicit advertisements. by the savings of two years' work as a farm laborer. Several are tutors. After graduation. Some a ttend to lawns in summer and furnaces in winter. however. and copying done after study hours. He is now living comfortably in Cambridge. a distinct advantage that a student should have to pay his own way in part as a condition of obtaining a college education. The divinity students. When summer came. which served for study and home. Scores carry daily papers. When he returned to college he began to be recognized as an exceptio nal man. however. which were none too low. and. I do not regard it. living in Springfield. The president of his class at Columbia University recently earned the money to pay for his course by selling agricultural implements. depending upon the opportunities for work . the foundation being self-reliance and integ rity. Beveridge. by having several of each to ca re for. Several teach in the public schools in the daytime. A few months after graduation he married. It gives a reality and vi gor to one's work which is less likely to be obtained by those who are carried t hrough college. but. This only whetted his appetite for knowledge. and do their university work in the afternoons and evenings. relying wholly on himself for success. and the student's ability and adaptability. he prospered and in his last ten months of undergraduate work he cleared above his college expenses. as this does not pay expenses. New York. and he determined to a dvance. He carried his books with him morning. A few serve in the university postoff ice. upward of $ 3. His life was a success. writing. and studied pe rsistently. entered col lege with no other capital than fifty dollars loaned to him by a friend. and money earned by tutoring. He believed that he could afford a college training and he got it. in this way." A son of poor parents. he turned his attention to civil engineering. Many are waiters at clubs and restaurants. He procured many valuable patents. One student is a member of a city orchestra. In his junior year. To be a correspondent of city dail y papers is the most coveted occupation.

and is a young man of s olid character and distinguished attainments. he ranked well in his classes." He would do any honest work that would bring cash. is of great importance both to the individual and the nation.. the average expense per year is three hundr ed and four dollars. and o ne year as assistant superintendent in the Essex County Truant School. None of his fellow-students did more to secure an e ducation. H. Chicago. doing many kinds of work.. Cox of Philadelphia worked his way through Kimball Academy. and entered Dartmouth College with just money enough to p ay the first necessary expenses. N. Statistics of expense. All these and many more from the ranks of the bright and well-trained young men who have been graduated from the colleges and universities of the country in re cent years believed--sincerely. There are many who get along o n an expenditure of from one hundred and fifty dollars to two hundred dollars pe r year. Isaac J. There was no hone st work within the limits of his ability that he would not undertake to pay his way. Gaius B. H. He served summers as waiter in a White Mountain hotel. while the maximum expense rises in but few instances above one thousand dollars. finally becoming hea d-waiter. The question of whether or not they could afford i t does not appear to have occasioned much hesitancy on their part. whose funds are small and opportunities fe w. He worked in gardens and as a janitor for some time.. A lowly beginning is no bar to a g reat career. than his classmate who is the son of a millionai re. It is evident that they did not for one instant think that they could not afford to go to col lege. where means are limited and ti me short. attention and energy to any work that would bri ng remuneration. Encourag ement and useful hints are offered by the experience of many bright young people who have worked their way to diplomas worthily bestowed. and will often take higher ran k in school. while fourteen as well-known Eastern institutions give an average expense of four hundred and forty-four dollars. in a list of forty-five representative colleges and universities. five hundred and twenty-nine d ollars. doggedly believed--that a college training was s omething that they must have. it was found that. For four years Richard Weil was noted as the great prize winner of Columbia Col lege.. that the republic will depend on most for good citizenship and brains in the future. and through Dartmouth College. eighteen well-known Western colleges and universities have a general average expense of t wo hundred and forty-two dollars per year. pushed a rolling chair at the Columbian Exposition. For example. Frost. Littleton. During his course he taught six terms as principal of a high school. Frost was graduated at the Brattleboro. the average maximum expense. N . The problem of securing a good education.--and every cent of this money as well as every hour not spent in sleep throughout the four years of his college course was devoted to getting his education. at Lawren ce. having a student populat ion of somewhat over forty thousand. and the opportunities for self-help. High School. Meriden. and in after life. Mass. The boy who works his way through college may have a hard time of i t. and canvassed for a publishin g house one summer in Maine. was port er one season at Oak Hill House. In an investigation conducted to ascertain exact figures and facts which a poor boy must meet in working his way through college. th e great average class of our country.Circumstances have rarely favored great men. but he will learn how to work his way in life. In Western and Southern colleges the averages are lower. Like Mr. It is the son and daughter of the farmer. at some of the best . Vt. In some of the smaller colleges the minimum expense per year is from sev enty-five dollars to one hundred and ten dollars. taught distr ict schools six terms. and for "turning his time. the mechanic and the operative.

" stude nts getting employment in the library or laboratories can earn about one-fourth of their expenses. these will be. shorthand. sale of books. a few get through on less than two hundred and fifty dollars a year. It has also five hundred and twelve state tuition scholarships. Brown University has over a hundred tuition scholarships and a loan fund. Wesleyan University remits tuition wholly or in part to two-thirds of its under -graduates. large beneficiary and loan funds. laboratory charges. newspaper corr espondence. has one hund red tuition scholarships for other students of good character. has some free rooms. and a few wholly. two hundred and forty-two dollars in free scholar ships and fellowships. Loan funds are available. for freshmen. Many students support themselves in part by waiting on table.. fifty dollars to seventy-five dollar s a year: "no limits placed on habits or social privileges of recipients. requires s tudiousness and economy in the case of assisted students. etc. "Beneficiaries must be frugal in habits. t otal abstainers. thirty-five per cent of the whole undergraduate body earning money. Cornell University gives free tuition and free rooms to seniors and juniors of good standing in their studies and of good habits. no free rooms. and stand ing." Many students are self -supporting. The ave rage expenditure per year. The average yearly expenditure per student is five hundred dollars. is four hu ndred and fifty dollars. yearly expenditure (exclusive of clothes . students have chances to ear n money at tutoring. three hundred and fifty-eight dollars to one thousand and thirty-five dollars. and stationery. Dartmouth has some three hundred scholarships. The yearly expenditure is three hundred and twenty-five dollars. railway fares. typewriters. The average yearly expenditure is five hundred dollars. distributed or loa ned in sums of forty dollars to two hundred and fifty dollars to needy and promi sing under-graduates. etc. clerks. newspaper work. The University of Pennsylvania in a recent year gave three hundred and fifteen students forty-three thousand. won by success in competitive ex amination. No money loaned. some students earning money as stenographers. table-waiting. often remits room rent in return for services about the college buildings. washing. three hundred dollars to four hundred dollars. sixty dollars to f our hundred dollars apiece. membership in societies. requirements. A great many students w ho know how to get on in a great city work their way through Columbia. Harvard has about two hundred and seventy-five scholarships. economy and total abstinence. etc. Many students support themselves in part. Five hundred dollars a y ear will defray all necessary expenses. . makes loans at low rates. s ubscriptions and service). the average expenditu re is about four hundred dollars. for the college year. habits. agencies for laundries. Many students earn mon ey in various ways. canvassers. It has thirty-six two-year sc holarships (two hundred dollars). freshmen (usually) barred. Bowdoin has nearly a hundred scholarships. no requirements except good standing. reporters. The cost at Columbia University averages five hundred and forty-seven dollars. by shorthand. the lowest being three hundred and eighty-seven dollars. those above fifty dollars condit ioned on class rank. and maintain good standing and conduct. private t utors. some rooms at nominal rent. books. and singers. exclusive of clothes. care of buildings. work of one sort or another to be had by needy students.known Eastern institutions are full of interest: Amherst makes a free gift of the tuition to prospective ministers. a faculty employment committee.

" where she keeps a number of women busy ma king women's wrappers and children's dresses. etc." "It is my opinion. every student reduces her college expenses by a hundred dollars or a hun dred and fifty. Others get room and board in the homes of professors by giving. however. Some lighten their expen ses by waiting on tables in boarding-houses. it is confined there to a few cottages. worked as a chambermaid on a lake steamer last year and hurried aw ay this year to do the same. Another girl. president of Mount Holyoke Colle ge. One young woman. Because it is especially difficult to obtain good serv ants in this inland town. in the families of the faculty. There is a splendid chance for girls at some of the soundest and best known gir ls' colleges in the United States. It is her aim to earn one hundred dollars. summer work in libraries and offices. Barnard and Radcliffe. executing commiss ions. At city colleges. woman's dean of the college. like the last two mentioned. There are not many opportunities at Mount Holyoke to e arn large amounts of money. by doing what work they can find. and newspaper work. books. sewing." says Dr. Some of our most worthy graduates have done this. It has no foothold at Bryn Mawr. or at the most. who is especially brave and in good earnest. and in various little ways such as putting up lunches. A number of girls in Barnard are. As far as I know. The number of girls in the University of Michigan who are paying their own way is large. from the lower East Side. two or three hours a day. in case of worthy students.Yale is pretty well off now for fellowships and prizes. remits all but forty do llars of term bills. "that. Woolley. at least in part. Mosher. car fares. She has paid all the expenses of h er education in this way. if a girl with average intelligence and energy wishes a college educa tion. now. typewriting or stenography. about six hundred dollars. New York. and in general it is more difficult for a girl to pay any large part of her expenses through her own efforts and carry on her college work at t he same time. however. Smith and Vassar. A few take care of children. the girls who have earned money to pa y their way through college. three hours of service about the house. many such students earning money for themselves. With thi s sum. . "Do any of your students work their way through?" was asked of a Bryn Mawr auth ority. a Russian Jewess. because the lists are always full of experienced teachers. paying for their clothes. "have earned the money by teaching. in return for thirty.. or a t the affiliated colleges. runs a little "sweat shop. who can be engaged by the hour. board and lodging cost more than in the country.--was formerly in use at Wellesley. It is not unusual for students to come here for two years and go away for a time." The system of compulsory domestic service obtaining now at Mount Holyoke--where by. and a chance to pay for room and board by giving service. have accomplished it by tutoring. but pin-money may be acquired in many little ways by a girl of ingenuity. Some of them earn pin-money while in college by tut oring. there are a few people who are glad to give the colleg e girls such employment. she can obtain it. typewriting. fifty minutes a day of light household labor. thus paying for their board. regular in attendance and studi ous. she will pay th e coming year's expenses. One student has done particularly well as agent for a firm that makes c ollege caps and gowns. Tutoring in Barnard is seldom av ailable for the undergraduates. in order to earn money to complete the co urse. average yearly expenditure . Eliza M. daily. taking care of rooms. Typewriting is one of the favorite re sources. "Most of them." said Miss Mary E.

while the average expenditure of the students does not exceed two hundre d dollars per annum. the college fees are five dollars a year. Those who 'tutor' receive a dollar . for example. another. and some of the girls paint and make fancy articles. Of course.--to a certain extent. in Poughke epsie. I know a sed. to be sold. This amount includes positively everything. Yet if the total cost is less in the West. are between four hundred and five hundred and fifty dollars. No boy or girl in America to-day who has good health. Then. too. and by a judicious display of attr active samples she is easily tempted to enlarge her supply. Some of them write for the newspa pers and magazines. board and a room can be had for twelve dollars a month. Former President Tucker of Dartmouth says: "The student who works his way may d . and at the same time to keep up in all the studies. tutoring. But to earn all of one's way in a college year. that state now sends more students to college than al l of New England. the opportunities for self-help are correspondingly more in the East. The lowest entire e xpenses of a year. etc. in nearly every college. and most of the denominational colleges demand fees even lower than were cust omary in New England half a century ago. and is not often done. a dollar and a half. too. which they sell here. and sometimes a very good one receives two dollars and a half. yes. Yet several are able to pay half their way. Every youn g man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college edu cation is out of the question. girl who has a sign on the door of her room. and others by 'tutoring'.--'Dresses pres a good deal of money. and general refurnisher to students with gene rous allowances." was the reply. The reign of the shirt-waist has been a boon to many. is almost impossible." A similar question put to a Vassar student brought the following response: "Why. evenings and S "There are other girls who are agents for two of the great manufacturers of cho colate creams. Partly by reason of the cheapness of a college education in Ohio. In mo st of the state universities tuition is free. or send to the stores in New York. for the well-dressed gir l was never known to have enough pretty ones."Some. by dis tributing the mail. repairer. a lesson. Orders for gymnasium suits and swimming suits mean good profits . In Ohio. on the other hand. Beside these standard employments. and who are willing And so this girl makes a large sum of money. good morals and good grit need despair of getting a college education unless there are extremely unusual reasons against the undertaking. there are a great many girls who manage to pay most of their expense s.'--and she earns y girls here who are to pay well for it. there are many wealth always having something like that done. teaching in evening schools occasionally off ers a good opportunity for steady eking out of means. furnish help to many a girl who wishes to help herself. and by selling stationery." Typewriting. assistance rendered in library or laboratory or office. Yes. In many colleges there is opportunity for a girl with taste and cunning fingers to act as a dressmaker. Two girls may pay part of their expe nses by taking charge of the library. and still others have pupils in music. West of the Alleghanies a college education is accessible to all classes. too. aturdays. the state university has abolished all tuition fee s. "The girl that plays the piano for the exercises in the gymnasium is paid for t hat. In Kansas. "but not many. any girl who is at all deft in the art of sewing can make a shirt-waist without a profess ional knowledge of cutting and fitting..

On th e other side was my hope of obtaining an education. "That was the turning-point in my life. to get my preparation for college. My money wou ld not last longer than that. I determined to go to college. In one side was the certainty of one hu ndred and twenty dollars a year. furnishes a good example. I had saved about eighty dollars from my store-keeping. Poverty under mos t of the conditions in which we find it in colleges is a spur. on the Island. and the sons of poor men." The opportunities of to-day are tenfold what they were half a century ago. I think. because I had made up my mind that I wanted to get a better educati on. But my mind was made up. at Charlottetown. It was a start in the world. I have seen the s ons of rich men lead in scholarship. and to earn some money. Form er President Schurman of Cornell says of his early life: "At the age of thirteen I left home. young men of to-day! Thirty dollars a year for working from seven in the morning until ten at night! But I was glad to get the place. I have always support ed myself. Dartmouth College . I began to attend the village high school. I merely wanted to get in to a village. The greater part of its patronage is from p oor men. I had small hope of winning it. My sala ry was doubled. my preparation had been so hasty and incomplete.--Summerside. and to me. and there was the possibility of failure in the end. Think of that. or he may be seriously handicapped both by his necess ities and the time he is obliged to bestow on outside matters. He pointe d out the difficulties in the way of my going to college. and offered to double my pay if I would stay in the store. I went to a larger store in the same town. and then I gave it up. and for the next forty weeks I studied harder than I ever had before or have since. "I did not know how I was going to do this. I recited in Latin. and during all the years of my boyhood I never received a penny that I did not earn myself. and that was all the money I had in the world. I would not turn back. he tried to dissuade me from it. I hadn't definite plans as to my future.--a village of about one thousand inhabitants. I knew that it involved hard work and self-denial. a poor boy who had never possessed such a sum in his life. Remember what one hundred and twenty dollars meant on Prince Edward Isl and. against the wishes of my employer. "When I told my employer of my plan. "From the time I began working in the store until to-day. although I think that I should have made a successful store keeper. I had only one year to do it in. that a larger percentage of Dartmouth men have risen to distinction than those of almost any other American college. Greek. and the prospect of promotion as fast as I dese rved it. Without examining the statistics. and the little village was like a city to my country eyes. and algebra. "With my capital of eighty dollars. It seems litt . "The scholarship I had won amounted to only sixty dollars a year. "I kept this place for two years. At the end of my first year. I was getting on swimmingly. except that it must be by my own ef forts. but stood first of all the competitors on the Island. "My father got me a place in the nearest town. I need not say that I do not regret that early decision. I found that I had not only won the scholarship f rom my county. For my first year's work I was to receive thirty doll ars and my board. I should say.o it with ease and profit. all on the same day. where I was to receive sixty dollars a year and my board. But when the result was announced. At the end of the year I entered the competitive examination for a scholarship in Prince of Wales College. from facts that have fa llen under my observation.

of course. in London. after nearly thirty years. room.50 per week. he was placed at the head of the great univer sity. then a Doctor of Philosophy. greatly to the surprise of the others. Beside s this I spent $10. Two years later. received $70 for a scholarship.50. Aft erward.50. and decided that he had found in it his l ife-work. when th e president's chair became vacant. and then went to Acadia College i n Nova Scotia to complete his course.57 for voluntary subsc riptions. Mr. recei ved from the college a scholarship of $60. including. of a traveling fellowship with two thousand dollars a year. including board.. Dr. and earned half board. Schurman became deeply interested in the study of philosophy. that the winning of it was the greatest success I ever have had. I waited on table at a $4 boarding-house all of my sophomore year. borrowed $70. Schurma n became dean of the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell. $23. President White. he taught a country school for a year. he was ca lled to Dalhousie University. At the end of his course in Germany. Schurman. and. He lived on his scholarship and what he could earn by keeping books for one of the town storekee pers. A way was opened for him. I earned $37. but I can say now. received a scholarship of $70. at Halifax. were $478. "During the next summer I earned $100. $10. and an additional gift of $20. etc. to mo st persons. The young student in Acadia was ambitious to continue his stud ies in England. which squared my accounts for the year. but with this difference: that firs t success was essential. . Schurman's fellow-students in Acadia says that he was remarkable chi efly for taking every prize to which he was eligible.45 for clothing. "In my junior year I engaged a nice furnished room at $60 per year. when a chair of philosophy was established at Cornell. In his senior year. excepting $40 due on tuition. through the offer of the Hibbard Soci ety. which I agr eed to pay for by work about the house. The expenses of the sophomore year were $394. Mr.le enough. The expenses for the year. spending less than one hundred dollars during the entire college year. if it had been necessary.42 in my pocket. al so earned full board waiting upon table. would seem immeasurably greater. he lea rned of a scholarship in the University of London offered for competition by the students of Canadian colleges. I earned during the yea r.20. $55 fro m gifts. in competition with the brightest students in the larger Cana dian colleges. During the three years in the University of London. My current expenses during my freshman year were $4.76. During the year I earned $60. Soon afterward. and borrowed $150. the full value of board. borrow ed $190. At that time he was only thirty-eight years of age. returned to Acadia College to become a teacher there. who had once met the bri lliant young Canadian. The scholarship paid five hundred dollars a year for three years. Nova Scotia. $8. which. retaining my old room at $1 pe r week. and tuition. $87. A well-known graduate of Amherst college gives the following figures. One of Mr. The others I could have done without. In 1886. which to the boy who earnestly wants to go to college are of the most pertinent interest: "I entered college with $8.55 for books. with all of which I just covered expenses. in 1892. without it I could not have gone on. I have had other rewards. The honor men of the great English Universities like Oxford and Cambridge were among the competitors. $15 for railroad fares. and saw in this offer his opportunity. called him to that position. He tried the examination and won the prize. He was eager to go to Germany to study under the great leaders of phil osophic thought." For two years young Schurman attended Prince of Wales College. By clerical work. and gifts amounting t o $12. but the poor country boy from Prince Edward Island was again s uccessful.24 for sundries.

It is said that unearned money does not enrich. often gets the place when a man with many untrai ned or half-trained talents loses it. It seemed as if they left untried no avenue for e arning money. that is wanted. the man who can do a thing s uperbly well. bicycle agents .708." CHAPTER VIII YOUR OPPORTUNITY CONFRONTS YOU--WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? Never before was the opportunity of the educated man so great as to-day. The money that a student earns for his own education does enrich his life. Tutoring. and painters. "Wanted--a man. and old almanacs. if the po or deaf boy Kitto. superbly trained. drummers. secured a scholarship of $70. Every young man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college education is out of the question.157. but who are only half educated. but who are well educated. newspaper work. under the American f lag. etc . bound out until he was twenty-one for only a yoke of oxen an d six sheep. the whole world is hunting for a man who can do things. who made shoes in an alms-house. posters on barns. But having secured a good position as teacher f or the coming year. At the door of every vocation is a sign out.. I was permitted to give my note for the amount I could not r aise."During the following summer I earned $40. $40. The expenses of the senior year. of which (counting scholars hips as earnings) I earned $1. on a plantation where it was almost a crim e to teach a slave to read. $496. An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest. On all sides we see men with small minds. could manage from scraps of paper." Twenty-five of the young men graduated at Yale not long ago paid their way enti rely throughout their courses. "no man can take it away from him." says Franklin. and so was enabled to graduate without financial embarrassment. receive d a gift of $35. earned by clerical work. "The total expense for the course was about $1. the trained man. if the slave Frederick Douglass. A large number come from the farms of the West. and positions as clerks were we ll-occupied fields. Many of them c ome from the country and from factory towns. under the same conditions as the previous year. enhanced one hund redfold by superior training. where is the boy or girl to-day. Never before was there such a demand for the trained man. borrowed $40. Many of these students are paying for their education by money earn ed by their own hands. Never was ignorance placed at such a disad . Everywhere it is the educated. tutoring. took a prize of $25. I waited on tab le all the year. It is true gol d. In a certain district in Boston there are ten thousand students. Throughout the senior year I retaine d the same room. If Henry Wilson. a trained thinker who can do whatever he undertakes a lit tle better than it has ever before been done. could become the greatest Bi blical scholar of his age. who cannot get a fair education and escape the many disadvantages of ignora nce? "If a man empties his purse into his head. and received full board. could manage to read a thousand good books before his time had expi red. founders.64 were necessarily heavi er than these of previous years. A on e-talent man. machinists. the man whose natural ability has been enlarged. pushing ah ead of those who have greater capabilities. copying. working early and late on a farm with scarcely any opportuniti es to go to school. to learn the alphabet and lift himself to eminence." No m atter how many millions are out of employment. and mail carriers were numbered among the twenty-five.

vigorous character to resist their temptation. the soul's wings are weighted down with gold. that is indicated in the very structure in his brain. their yearnings for something higher will gradually die and be r eplaced by material. to coin his ability into dollars. so insidious. and ennoble its recipient is a cu rse instead of a blessing. inoculating thei r ambition with its vicious virus. after a few years. so numerous. the fatal germ will spread through their whole natures. Never before was such pressure brought to bear on the trained youth to sell his brains. will tempt you on every hand. even when the cal l in one to do something which bears little relation to money-making speaks very loudly. as to-da y. their fair college vi sion will fade. but many of them will very quickly catch the money con tagion. the trained young man or w oman answer it? The dollar stands out so strongly in all the undertakings of life that the idea l is often lowered or lost. "How much can I get for my picture?" "How much ro yalty for my book?" "How much can I get out of my specialty. is measured largely by h ow many dollars it will bring. that it takes a strong. so overwhel ming that it often drowns the still small voice which bids one follow the call t hat runs in his blood. for nothing else is more fatal to the development of the higher. perhaps. to prostitute his education. which the graduate needs to be cautioned agains t more than the money madness which has seized the American people. my profession.vantage as to-day. on his entrance into practical life were never before so great and so numerous as to-d ay. and. There is nothing else. so also the dangers and temptations which beset him were never before so gre at. so astounding. Wealth with us multiplies a man's power so tremendously that everything gravita tes toward it. While the opportunities awaiting the educated man. money-making germ. art. The commercial spirit tends to drag everything down to its dead. that day on which is born in him the selfish. How will the graduate. the dollar-mark will swing info your vision. selfish ideals. to face for the first time the practical world. what he stands for. All education which does not elevate. A liberal education only renders a rascal more dishon est. . finer instincts and nobler desires. refine. which nearly everybody worships in some form or other. with their diplomas. Tens of thousands of young people just out of school and college stand tiptoe o n the threshold of active life. the college graduate. so entrancing. which so often warps and wrenches the who le nature out of its legitimate orbit. The most unfortunate day in a youth's career is that one on which his ideals be gin to grow dim and his high standards begin to drop. Educated rascality is infinitely more of a menace to societ y than ignorant rascality. the colleges. A man's genius. The song of the money-siren to-day is so persistent. go out from the schools. T he money-god. the artistic suffers. Every year. full of h ope and big with promise. It is the subtle menace which threatens to poison the graduate's ambition. sordid. thousands of young men and young women graduate full of ambition an d hope. sordid level. and the unive rsities. my b usiness?" "How can I make the most money?" or "How can I get rich?" is the great interrogation of the century. The commercial prizes held up to him are so dazzling. full of expectancy. more dangerous. Whichever way you turn. with high ideals and glorious visions.

and tha t is to be a millionaire of brains. your manhood. You hold the chisel and mallet--your ability. American-Indian graduates. stand s untouched before you. When you plunge into the swim of things. "A keen and sure sense of honor." says Ex-President Eliot. your educa tion--in your hands. who are so transformed by the inspiring. uplifting i nfluences of the schools and colleges which are educating them that they are sca rcely recognizable by their own tribes when they return home. of Harvard Universit y. The educated man ought to be able to do something better. something higher than merely to put money in his purse. The shock you will receive in dropping from the at mosphere of high ideals and beautiful promise in which you have lived for four y ears to that of a very practical. the woman in you. no title will ever mean quite so much. this thing that stamps the gentleman. Whatever degrees you carry from school or college. cold. of gra ce and beauty. their fine manners. the Indian blanket replaces their modern dres s. to withstand all temptations. After you graduate and go out into the world. A libe ral education greatly increases a man's obligations. What a contrast that high and noble thing which the college diploma stands for presents to that which many owners of the diploma stand for a quarter of a centu ry later! It is often difficult to recognize any relationship between the two. There is coupled with it a responsibility which you can not shirk without paying the penalty in a shriveled . lower your ideals. their impro ved language. Your future. whatever distinction you may acquire in your career. They become Indian s again. fortunate graduate. a millionaire of character--a gentleman. whose education counts for anything ought to b e able to resist the shock. "is the finest result of college life. who are actuated only by sordid. and it lives in yo ur ideal.You will need to be constantly on your guard to resist the attack of this germ. The influences that will surround you when you leave college or your special tr aining school will be as potent to drag you down as those that cause the young I ndian to revert to barbarism. as you stand tiptoe on the threshold of active life? Will you smite the block and shatter it into an unshapely or hideous piece. Shall it be angel or devil? What are your ideals. very quickly begin to change under the deteriorating influences operating upon them when they leav e college. Then dies the man. There is something in the block for you. powerful influences will be opera tive in your life. as that of gentleman. tending to deteriorate your standards. like a great block of pure white marble. and they gradually drift back into their former barbarism. of culture. of helpfulness to one's fellows. a statue which will tell the unborn generations the story of a no ble life? Great advantages bring great responsibilities. selfish aims. misses the best thing that a college education can impart. will ever be qui te so noble. or will you call out a statue of usefulness. and general culture." The graduate who has not acquired thi s keen and sure sense of honor. you will be constantly thrown into con tact with those of lower ideals. unless you are made of superior stuff. They soon begin to shed their polish. But the graduate whose training. There is something infinitely better than to be a millionaire of money. and encoarsen you generally. Money-making can not compare with man-making. sordid materiality will be a severe test to your character. You can not divorce them.

vigor. to de moralize. uplifting force in his community. uses it t o demoralize. The educated man has gotten a glimpse of power. What shall we think of a man who has been endowed with godlike gifts. in his business. much is expected. that he will not disgrace his alma mater which has given him his superior chance in life and opened wide for h im the door of opportunity. having once faced the light and felt its power. whatever it may be. an inspiration to those who have n ot had his priceless chance. than for a man who has not had a liberal education. If you have the ability and have been given superior opportunities. not to grovel. It is more of a disgrace for a college graduate to grovel. to help to emancipate them from ignorance and drudgery. the possible glory of life. and he is expected to look up. it simply m eans that you have a great commission to do something out of the ordinary for yo ur fellows. low practises. but what sha ll we do with the educated rascal who uses his trained mind and all his gifts to ruin the very people who look up to him as a guide? "The greatest thing you can do is to be what you ought to be. trained man people should be able to say of him as Lincoln said of Walt Whitman. Society has a right to look to the collegian to be a refining. will be an artist and not an artisan. instead of using his education to lift his fellow men. of grander things. instead of as a beacon to guide them into port? We imprison the burglar for breaking into our houses and stealing. who has not had similar advantages. who employs his talents in the book he writes. th at he will not be a slave of the dollar or stoop to a greedy. what shall we think of this man. . who. the higher half. If the torch of learning has been put in your hand. Your education means an in creased obligation to live your life up to the level of your gift. who has ability to ameliora te the hard conditions of his fellows. will not turn his back on it. who uses his light as a decoy to lure his fellows on the r ocks and reefs. grasping career: t hat he will be free from the sordidness which often characterizes the rich ignor amus. The world has a right to expect that wherever there is an e ducated." The world has a right to expect that the graduate. to aspire. to debauch. your superior opportunity. its significance is that yo u should light up the way for the less fortunate. "There goes a man. to stoop to mean. to drag them down. Your superior training has given you a glimpse of the higher life. you have no right to suppress it. to mislead. It has a right to expect that a man who has learned how to use skilfully the tools of life. that he will illustrate in his perso nality. cramping influence of avarice. because the other half. in the picture he paints. Your duty is to deliver your message to the world with all the man liness." A great man has said that no man will be content to live a half life when he ha s once discovered it is a half life. it is justified in expecting that he will raise the standard of intelligence in his community. and a narrow field of usefulnes s. a warped conscience. a special message for humanity. than it is for one who has not had glimpses of higher things. th at he will not stop growing. who has h ad the inestimable advantage of a liberal education. wi ll haunt him. not down. a stunted mentality. We cannot help feeling that it is worse for a man to go wrong who has had all t he benefits of a liberal education. so superbly equipped. because where much is give n. and force you possess.soul. It has a right to expect that he will not be a victim of the narrowing. so divinely endowed. his finer culture. If you have received a message which carries freedom for people enslaved by ign orance and bigotry.

slipshod work. the man who has discovered only a small part of himself. we lose o ur earlier vision. A liberal education ought to broaden a man's mind so that he will be able to keep his eye always on the model. Only what you can use of your education will benefit you or the world. as an insult. less culti vated minds. constitutes the only education worthy of the name. bickerings. who are loaded down with knowle dge that they have never been able to utilize. of a higher grade. You should be able to demonstrate that the man with a diploma has learned to use the tools of life skilfully. finer type of man hood. The trouble with most of us is that we do not keep our eyes on the model. don't watch your hands. Be sure that you possess yo ur knowledge. has learned how to focus his faculties so that he can bring the whole man to his task. and discords which destroy much of the efficiency of narrower. "An artistic success. uninfluenced by the thousand and one petty annoyances. the worst. sordid prudence. that can be tr anslated into power. that your knowledge does not possess you. The knowledge that can be utilized. criticizing their work." applied either to character or to work are bad mot toes for an educated man. Low ideals." "Fairly good. a stuffed memory d oes not make an educated man. Knowledge is power only when it can be made available." The mission of the trained man is to show the world a higher. will only m ake you more conspicuous as a failure. discredit his teachers. prostitute your edu cation by the practise of low-down. we often read this comment." While an education should develop all that is highest and best in a man. "Keep your eye on the model. half-hearted endeavors ." is the injunction of a gr eat master as he walks up and down among his pupils. sordid methods. should have no place in your program.Never lose sight of your college vision. it should als o make him a practical man. The mere possession of a diploma will only hold you up to ridicule. than from the man who lacks early training. The graduate ought to be able to rise above these things so that he can use all his brain power and energy and fling the weight of his entire being into work t hat is worth while. y our high ideals into dollars. Say to yourself. It is a disgrace for a man with a liberal education to botch his work. not a financial failure. "If the highest thing in me will not bring success. Do not permit yourself to be influence d by the maxims of a low. to make available for working pur . cannot. but a financial failure. aimless. misunderstan dings. Regard the very suggestion that you shall coin your education. After the withdrawal of a play that has been only a short time on the stage. The great question which confronts you in the practical world is "What can you do with what you know?" Can you transmute your knowledge into power? Your abilit y to read your Latin diploma is not a test of true education. if you cannot bring your education to a f ocus and utilize it in a practical way. The world has a right to expect better results from the work of the educated ma n. and better quality. that you lower your standards. and not a part of himself. practical. which will be dinned into your ears w herever you go. There ar e thousands of college-bred men in this country. the perfect ideal of his work. "Pretty good. systemless. something finer. dishonor the institution which has given him his chance to be a superior man. surely the lowest. demorali ze his ideals.

because he has disc in the knowledge that one has n mind. for fear he would never get it back. of your possibilit ies. literature. have more faith overed himself. grandest thing possible to you. that they are not ed ucated. by having to confess. The college man ought to be a superb figure anywhere. If the rosebud should try to retain all of its sweetness and beauty locked within its petals and refuse to gi . The graduate should regard his education as a sacred trust.poses. it is some thing infinitely more sacred. of greater value than all these. and that is your aroused ambition. at the cost of mental and moral penury. their narrow outlook on life. magnanimously. or out of life. does it at his peril. your resolution to be a little more of a man. which should make you aspire instead of grovel--look up. but royally. There is no situation in life in which the beneficent influence of a well-assim ilated education will not make itself felt. languages. the spirit of your alma mater. to play a manly part in life. m eanly. a liberal education makes a man feel a little surer of himself. their sordid ideals. so you should transmut e your knowledge into practical wisdom. and self-confidence is the lever that move s the world. into working capital. this is the embodiment of the college spirit. not alone for his advancement. is the uplift. encouragement. As a matter of fact. inspiration. that one has discovered hi s possibilities. The way to get the most out of ourselves. To try to keep it would be as foolish as for the farme r to hoard his seed corn in a bin instead of giving it to the earth. to do the greatest. which you have absorbed from your teachers. There is also great satisfaction ot neglected the unfoldment and expansion of his mpressionable years of youth go by unimproved. to our fellows. making a sponge of one's brain. The consciousness of bein g well educated should put one at ease in any society. that he has not let the i But the best thing you carry from your alma mater is not what you there prized most. The superbly trained man can go through the world with his head up and f eel conscious that he is not likely to play the ignoramus in any company. As the silkworm transmutes the mulberry leaf into satin. He should look upon it as a power to be used. The knowledge that one's mentality has been broadened out by college training. if you have made the most of your chan ce. This will mean infinitely m ore to you than all you have learned from books or lectures. by the poverty of their l anguage. or for his own selfish ends. The most precious thing of all. your discovery of yourself. in himself. or be mortified or pained by ignorance of matters which every well-informed person is supposed to know. In other words. not only adds wonderfully to one's happiness. The man who withholds the giving of himself to the world. is not to try to sell ourselves for the highest possible price but to give ourselves. but also increase s one's self-confidence immeasurably. On every hand we see men of good ability who feel crippled all thei r lives and are often mortified. but for the betterment of all mankind. not your knowledge of the sciences. it is that which should make you reach up as wel l as on. of your powers. things are so arranged in this world that no one can use his divine gift for himself alone an d get the best out of it. and transmuting every bit of knowledge into power. from your associations. however. art. This assurance of knowledge multiplies self-confidence and giv es infinite satisfaction. not stingily. instead of dow n. think a little more of himself. There is a great difference between absorbing knowledge.

in a cl you will not need houses or lands or s Never before did an opportunity to render such great service to mankind confron t the educated youth as confronts you to-day. whatever your vocation. an unsullied reputation. who is always looking out for the main chanc e. Put beauty into your life. The graduate should show the world that he has something in him too sacred to b e tampered with. your good name. who gropes along in mediocrity. It is only by flinging them out to the world that t heir fullest development is possible.ve it out. as thousands of graduates do. Whatever you do. Then tocks or bonds to testify to a rich life. be atrophied in your efforts to make a living. was asked to make a speech at the unveiling o f his great statue of George Peabody. but failed as a man. In these cases Nature seems to have triumphed by direct interp osition. for power or positio n. your good n ame. You have not learned the best lesson from your school or college if you have no t discovered the secret of making life a glory instead of a sordid grind. in the everlasting scramble for the dollar. who lives a shiftless. There is hardly a poet. do not allow all that is finest within you. strangled. and strangles the very faculties he would develop. or man of science mentioned in the history of the human intellect. your friendships. is to be born with a bia s to some pursuit. never sell your divine heritage. "That is my speech. for a mess of pottage. h is superior advantages for himself. he simply pointed to the statue and said. and does not lift up his head and show that he has made the most of his great privileges disgraces the institution that gav e him his chance. the crowning fortune of a man." a sacred something that briber y cannot touch. we impoverish our own lives. it would be lost. my young friend. stifle our better natures. that influence cannot buy. only shrivels. artist." So conduct yourself that your life shall own eulogy.--EMERSON. your aspiring instincts. carry ean record. your high ideals and noble purposes to be suffoca ted. falsehood. be larger than your vocation. never let it be said of you that you succeeded in your vocation. to have insisted on her darlings having their rights. How your greatest wealth with you. something marked "not for sale. The college man who is cursed with commonness. selfish life. in London. let your success tell to the ever much money you may accumulate. Whether you make money or lose it. guardi ans. philosopher. When y ou leave your alma mater. even flight from home and occasional vagabondism . The man who tries to keep his education. Do not. or teachers. Let it be its world the story of a noble career. in our efforts to sell ourselves for selfi sh ends or for the most dollars. The trouble with most of us is that. sacrifi ce your social instincts. which finds him in employment and happiness. whose genius was not opposed by parents. and encouraged di sobedience. When William Story. You should so conduct yourself that e very one will see that there is something in you that would repel as an insult t he very suggestion that you could be bought or bribed. the sculptor. do not let your esthetic faculties. secrecy. or influenced to stoop to anything low or questionable. need no eulogy in words. WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? CHAPTER IX ROUND BOYS IN SQUARE HOLES The high prize of life.

"I am sure I can be useful. No matter by what difficulties surrounded." says Emerson. of s quare boys forced into round holes. and oppressed because they did not fit. WHIPPLE. "James Watt. or whatever your own pet calling is unt il you have wasted years of a precious life. too. laughing at the ear nestness of his clerk. he may. "Rue it as he may. I must not stay. "that is what is wrong. simply because they were out of their places." "Science." said his grandm other. sir. "do take a book and employ yourself usefully. I see a hand you c annot see." "Art." pleaded a young man whom a merchant was about to discharge for his bluntness. Which says. and though you may pull it around by artif icial advice and unnatural education. an d you have held alternately in the steam. and compel it to point to the star which p resides over poetry. don't put me away. "You are good for nothing as a salesman. I cannot sell. Do you know what you have been doing all this tim e? Why. Which beckons me away. rather than the world should lose what it cost her so much pains to produce." "But I can make myself usefu l somehow." "Nor do I. "How? Tell me how. the teapot lid. repent it as he often does. he is strong on the track. often look back with a sigh and think how much better off he would be had he pursued some other occupation. I know I cannot sell. stupid. this occupation is the only one which he will pursue with interest an d pleasure. any more than you can see the North Star in the magnetic needle. are you not ashamed to waste your time in this disgraceful manner?" The world has certainly gained much through the old lady's failure to tell Jame s how he could employ his time to better advantage! "But I'm good for something." or "Business". law. "Only don't put me away. "Like a boat on a river . I never saw such an idle young fellow as you are." "I do n't know.. where his aptitude for figures soon showed itself. "every boy runs against obstructions on every side but one. the needle fli es back to its own star. On that side all obstruction is taken away. You cannot look into a cradle and read the secret message traced by a divine ha nd and wrapped up in that bit of clay. P." said the principal. No man can be ideally successful until he has found his place. or fickle. of b oys compelled to pore over dry theological books when the voice within continual ly cried "Law. medicine. God has loaded the needle of that young life so it will point to the star of its own destiny." Only a Dickens can write the history of "Boy Slavery. and in a few years he became not only chief cashier in the large store. when once free. art." He was placed in the counti ng-house." Civilization will mark its highest tide when every man has chosen his proper wo rk. Now. I hear a voice you cannot hear. collecting together the little drops f ormed by the condensation of the steam on the surface of the china and the silve r." "Medicine." of boys whose aspiration s and longings have been silenced forever by ignorant parents. but he will stick to his favorite pursuit nevertheless. "the man of genius is drawn by an irresistible impulse to the occupation for which he was c reated. and he finds himself poor and neglected.-E. and y ou have busied yourself in examining and." persisted the young man." said the merchant. Like a locomo tive." says Robert Waters." said the youth. of boys persecute d as lazy. no matter how unpromising the prospect. For the last half-hour you have not spoken a single word. but weak anywhere else. first a saucer and then a spoon." said his employer. of boys tortured be . you have taken off and replaced. yet. TICKELL. Try me a t something besides selling." "I know that. I don't know. and taken off again. but an eminent accountant. When his efforts fail to procure means of subsistence. and he sweeps serenely over a deepening channel into an infinite sea. sir. like Burns. "I know I can.

he would hide his Euclid and Archimedes and stealthily work out abstruse problems. and even punished him for coveri ng the walls and furniture with sketches. She breaks the pattern at every birth. John Jacob Astor's father wished his r as a butcher. but how keen his glance. but in secret he produced his first play. This boy. as Christ said to his mother. and Guido. The magic c ombination is never used but once. and on the walls of the Sistine Chapel. Pascal's father determined that his son should teach the dead languages. The father of Joshua Reynolds rebuked his son for drawing pictures. but the fire burning in his breast was kindled by the Divine Artist. enlarging knowledge of the vast and minute alike. was thought good for nothing. Claude Lorraine. but the instinct of commercial enterprise future merchant. He was only eighteen when he discovered the principle of pendulum in a lamp left swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. "You are trying to make that boy ough. the auth or. that he ventured. pennil ess. One is en son to be his successo was too strong in the Nature never duplicates men. and the the the The parents of Michael Angelo had declared that no son of theirs should ever fo llow the discreditable profession of an artist." said Emerson. "The Robbers. and against which every fiber of their being was uttering perpetual protest. His f ather hated the fine arts and imprisoned him. but his own death placed Frederick on the throne at the age of twenty-eight. The irksomeness of his prison-like school so gal led him. He invented both microscope and telescope. in the marble of his Moses. ma de Prussia one of the greatest nations of Europe. Molière. the painter. and wrote o n one: "Done by Joshua out of pure idleness. It is often a narrow selfishness in a father which leads reproduction of himself. because he loved art and music. but th e voice of mathematics drowned every other call. into the inhospitable world of letters. and would not let him rest until he had immortali zed himself in the architecture of St. him to wish his son a another you. He even contemplated killing his s on. A kind lady aided him. Turner was intended for a barber in Maiden Lane. who. was sent to a mu sic school. and soon he . Frederick the Great was terribly abused becau se he had a passion for art and music and did not care for military drill. the famous painter of Aurora." Yet this "idle boy" became one of the founders of the Royal Academy. when turning his powerful wing against the clear blue sky! Ignorant parents compelled the boy Arkwright to become a barber's apprentice." the first performance of which he had to witness in disguise.cause they were not enthusiastic in employments which they loathed. haunting the boy until he laid aside his grammar for Euclid. Peter's. to an upholsterer. but when compelled to study anatomy physiology. so he must needs say "han ds off" even to his parents. how steady and true his curves. and his longing for authorship so allured him. How stupid and clumsy is the blinking eagle at perch. Schiller was sent to study surgery in the military school at Stuttgart. "Wist ye not that I m ust be about my Father's business?" Galileo was set apart for a physician. b ut Nature had locked up in his brain a cunning device destined to bless humanity and to do the drudgery of millions of England's poor. but became the greatest landsc ape-painter of modern times. was apprenticed to a pastry-cook.

The boy wandered unobserved to the o rgan in a chapel. of poor doctors and lawyers for the same reason! The country is full of men who are out of place. in the town where his regiment was quartered. in the hope of more rapid promo tion. but makes himself after he is graduated. "Robinson Crusoe. The physician Handel wished his son to become a lawyer. ruined. out of cur iosity. medicine. a factory m anager." said Mr. with failure imminent. joined the army. and an author of several indiffer ent books. Daniel Defoe had been a trader. an acquaintance. invited Erskine to sit near him. when his son told of having nearly fitted himself f or college. out at elbows. She haunts him and drives him until all his faculties give their consent and he falls into his proper niche. Chase." It was m any years before Jonathan escaped from the shop. It has been well said that if God should commission two angels. a commissioner's accountant. he will not fill any to the satisfaction of himself or o thers. Handel to let his son follow his bent. A. and wondered who could possibly combine so much me lody with so much evident unfamiliarity with the instrument. The duke happ ened to hear the performance. and believed he could excel them. and then. But the boy got an old spinet and practiced on it se cretly in a hayloft. too. The pres iding judge. Erskine spent four years in the navy. before he wrote his masterpiece. insisted that his creditor sho uld take the shop as the only means of securing the money. prai sed his performance. to work his way up to the posit ion of a man of great influence as a United States Senator from Rhode Island. a merchant. and persuaded Dr. and said that the pleaders at the bar were among the most eminent lawyers of Great Britain. of our American college graduates to study law! How many young men becom e poor clergymen by trying to imitate their fathers who were good ones. and so tried to discour age his fondness for music. attended a court. and th eology are the only desirable professions. out in the cold. yet this is no more incongruous than the popular idea that law. failed in five different professions before he found his place. he took his son with him. through the accident of having lent mone y to a friend. Not less true is it that he who feels that God has given him a particular work to do can be happy only when earnestly engaged in its performan ce. A parent might just as well decide that the magnetic needle will point to Venus or Jupiter without trying it. prepares himself in school. out of cre dit. The latter. The best thing his teachers ha . and the other to rule an empire." The fact is. When the doctor visited a brother in the service of the Duk e of Weisenfelds. Happy the youth who finds the place which his dreams have pictured! If he do es not fill that place. out of courage. T. Erski ne took their measure as they spoke. "thou shalt go down to the machine-shop on Monday morning. What a ridiculous exhibition a great truck-horse would make on the race-track. out of office. "disappointed. out of money. and the duke." Wilson. instead of blaming him for disturbing the organ. nearly every college graduate who succeeds in the true sense of the word. Stewart studied for the ministry. for fifty-two pe r cent. The boy was brought before him. before he drifted into his proper calling as a merchant. a secretary. and became a teacher. as to decide what profession his so n shall adopt. and soon had a private concert under full blast. they could not be induced to e xchange callings. "Jonathan. an envoy.produced the two splendid dramas which made him immortal. a soldier. he one day. After serving more than two years. Nature never lets a man rest until he has found his place. How ridiculous. one to sweep a street crossing. the ornithologist. soured. He at onc e began the study of law. in which he eventually soon stood alone as the greates t forensic orator of his country.

No o ne need doubt that the world has use for him. With a firm choice and earnest work. yet he practiced it so faithfully that it helped hi m to authorship. Each knocks at the portals of the mind. before we reach our teens. The moment his fins feel the water. Fidelity to the work or everyday duties at hand. If you fail after doing your level best. Molière found that he was not adapted to the work of a lawyer. while before they be at the air and earth in vain. poetry. Grant] We must not jump to the conclusion that because a man has not succeeded in what he has really tried to do with all his might. Lo ok at a fish floundering on the sand as though he would tear himself to pieces. ourselves. The moment he is beyond the college walls he ceas es to use books and helps which do not feed him. and this every one can do. The great majority of boys and girls. and do not condemn them be . Let duty be the guiding-star. a hindrance instead of a help. for which he was well fitted. eve n when given all the latitude and longitude heart could desire. Very few of us. be a carpenter. Cowper failed as a lawyer. a conscientious statesman. and success will surely be the crown. His business is to do the best he can wherever his lot may be cast. or why the labor that naturally falls to one's lot should not be done well. True success lies in acting well y our part. a responsible soldier. [Illustration: Ulysses S. the latter. a young man or woman cannot help but succeed. So no one should be disappointed because he was not end owed with tremendous gifts in the cradle. show great genius or even remarkable talent for any line of work or study. Better be a first-rate hod-carrier than a s econd-rate anything. But look again: a huge wave breaks higher up the beach and covers the unfortunat e creature. one should choose cautiously along the line of his best adaptability and opportunity. or an irresistibl e genius for ruling men. be a physician. he cannot succeed at anything. Garfield would not have become President if he had not previously been a zealou s teacher. demanding a wonderf ul aptitude for some definite line of work. and darts l ike a flash through the waves. to the full measure of one's ability and industry. but it was very cross to them while t hey were struggling through discouragement and misinterpretation. b ut he left a great name in literature. examine the work attempted. Voltaire and Petrarch abandoned the law. and seizes upon those that do. or if it be weak or faint. after they have become very successful. will eventually b ring most of us into the right niches at the proper time. but it is not there. He was so timid that he could not plead a case. But if there be no instinct. but he wrote some of our finest poems.ve taught him is how to study. His fins mean something now. Cromwell was a farmer until forty years old. Neither Lincoln nor Grant started as a baby with a precocity for the White House. The world has been very kind to many who were once known as dunces or blockhead s. Samuel Smiles was trained to a profession which was not to his taste. and a genuine feeling of respo nsibility to our parents or employers. and see if it really be in the line of your bent or power of achievement. That is no reas on why the duty at hand should be put off. Give every boy and girl a fair chance and reasonable encouragement. and our God. What career? What shall my life's work be? If instinct and heart ask for carpentry. if for medicine. the former choosing philosophy. he is himself again. and advance at every honorable opportunity in the direction towards which the inward monitor points. find it very dif ficult before their fifteenth or even before their twentieth year to decide what to do for a living.

cause of even a large degree of downright stupidity; for many so-called good-for -nothing boys, blockheads, numskulls, dullards, or dunces, were only boys out of their places, round boys forced into square holes. Wellington was considered a dunce by his mother. At Eton he was called dull, id le, slow, and was about the last boy in school of whom anything was expected. He showed no talent, and had no desire to enter the army. His industry and perseve rance were his only redeeming characteristics in the eyes of his parents and tea chers. But at forty-six he had defeated the greatest general living, except hims elf. Goldsmith was the laughing-stock of his schoolmasters. He was graduated "Wooden Spoon," a college name for a dunce. He tried to enter a class in surgery, but w as rejected. He was driven to literature. Goldsmith found himself totally unfit for the duties of a physician; but who else could have written the "Vicar of Wak efield" or the "Deserted Village"? Dr. Johnson found him very poor and about to be arrested for debt. He made Goldsmith give him the manuscript of the "Vicar of Wakefield," sold it to the publishers, and paid the debt. This manuscript made its author famous. Robert Clive bore the name of "dunce" and "reprobate" at school, but at thirtytwo, with three thousand men, he defeated fifty thousand at Plassey and laid the foundation of the British Empire in India. Sir Walter Scott was called a blockh ead by his teacher. When Byron happened to get ahead of his class, the master wo uld say: "Now, Jordie, let me see how soon you will be at the foot again." Young Linnaeus was called by his teachers almost a blockhead. Not finding him f it for the church, his parents sent him to college to study medicine. But the si lent teacher within, greater and wiser than all others, led him to the fields; a nd neither sickness, misfortune, nor poverty could drive him from the study of b otany, the choice of his heart, and he became the greatest botanist of his age. Richard B. Sheridan's mother tried in vain to teach him the most elementary stu dies. The mother's death aroused slumbering talents, as has happened in hundreds of cases, and he became one of the most brilliant men of his age. Samuel Drew was one of the dullest and most listless boys in his neighborhood, yet after an accident by which he nearly lost his life, and after the death of h is brother, he became so studious and industrious that he could not bear to lose a moment. He read at every meal, using all the time he could get for self-impro vement. He said that Paine's "Age of Reason" made him an author, for it was by h is attempt to refute its arguments that he was first known as a strong, vigorous writer. It has been well said that no man ever made an ill figure who understood his ow n talents, nor a good one who mistook them. CHAPTER X WHAT CAREER? Brutes find out where their talents lie; A bear will not attempt to fly, A foun dered horse will oft debate Before he tries a five-barred gate. A dog by instinc t turns aside Who sees the ditch too deep and wide. But man we find the only cre ature Who, led by folly, combats nature; Who, when she loudly cries--Forbear! Wi th obstinacy fixes there; And where his genius least inclines, Absurdly bends hi s whole designs. SWIFT. The crowning fortune of a man is to be born to some pursuit which finds him in employment and happiness, whether it be to make baskets, or broadswords, or cana

ls, or statues, or songs.--EMERSON. Whatever you are by nature, keep to it; never desert your line of talent. Be wh at nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and you will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Every man has got a Fort," said Artemus Ward. "It's some men's fort to do one thing, and some other men's fort to do another, while there is numeris shiftless critters goin' round loose whose fort is not to do nothin'. "Twice I've endevered to do things which they wasn't my Fort. The first time wa s when I undertook to lick a owdashus cuss who cut a hole in my tent and krawld threw. Sez I, 'My jentle sir, go out, or I shall fall onto you putty hevy.' Sez he, 'Wade in, Old Wax Figgers,' whereupon I went for him, but he cawt me powerfu l on the hed and knockt me threw the tent into a cow pastur. He pursood the atta ck and flung me into a mud puddle. As I aroze and rung out my drencht garmints, I concluded fitin was n't my fort. "I'le now rize the curtain upon seen 2nd. It is rarely seldum that I seek conso lation in the Flowin Bole. But in a certain town in Injianny in the Faul of 18-, my orgin grinder got sick with the fever and died. I never felt so ashamed in my life, and I thought I'd hist in a few swallers of suthin strengthnin. Konsequ ents was, I histed so much I didn't zackly know whereabouts I was. I turned my l ivin' wild beasts of Pray loose into the streets, and split all my wax-works. "I then Bet I cood play hoss. So I hitched myself to a kanawl bote, there bein' two other hosses behind and anuther ahead of me. But the hosses bein' onused to such a arrangemunt, begun to kick and squeal and rair up. Konsequents was, I wa s kicked vilently in the stummuck and back, and presently, I found myself in the kanawl with the other hosses, kikin and yellin like a tribe of Cusscaroorus sav ajis. I was rescood, and as I was bein carried to the tavern on a hemlock bored I sed in a feeble voice, 'Boys, playin' hoss isn't my Fort.' "Moral: Never don't do nothin' which isn't your Fort, for ef you do you'll find yourself splashin' round in the kanawl, figuratively speakin." The following advertisement, which appeared day after day in a Western paper, d id not bring a single reply:-"Wanted.--Situation by a Practical Printer, who is competent to take charge of any department in a printing and publishing house. Would accept a professorship in any of the academies. Has no objection to teach ornamental painting and penma nship, geometry, trigonometry, and many other sciences. Has had some experience as a lay preacher. Would have no objection to form a small class of young ladies and gentlemen to instruct them in the higher branches. To a dentist or chiropod ist he would be invaluable; or he would cheerfully accept a position as bass or tenor singer in a choir." At length there appeared this addition to the notice:-"P. S. Will accept an offer to saw and split wood at less than the usual rates. " This secured a situation at once, and the advertisement was seen no more. Your talent is your call. Your legitimate destiny speaks in your character. If you have found your place, your occupation has the consent of every faculty of y our being. If possible, choose that occupation which focuses the largest amount of your ex perience and tastes. You will then not only have a congenial vocation, but also will utilize largely your skill and business knowledge, which is your true capit

al. Follow your bent. You cannot long fight successfully against your aspirations. Parents, friends, or misfortune may stifle and suppress the longings of the hear t, by compelling you to perform unwelcome tasks; but, like a volcano, the inner fire will burst the crusts which confine it and will pour forth its pent-up geni us in eloquence, in song, in art, or in some favorite industry. Beware of "a tal ent which you cannot hope to practice in perfection." Nature hates all botched a nd half-finished work, and will pronounce her curse upon it. Better be the Napoleon of bootblacks, or the Alexander of chimney-sweeps, let u s say with Matthew Arnold, than a shallow-brained attorney who, like necessity, knows no law. Half the world seems to have found uncongenial occupation, as though the human race had been shaken up together and exchanged places in the operation. A servan t girl is trying to teach, and a natural teacher is tending store. Good farmers are murdering the law, while Choates and Websters are running down farms, each t ortured by the consciousness of unfulfilled destiny. Boys are pining in factorie s who should be wrestling with Greek and Latin, and hundreds are chafing beneath unnatural loads in college who should be on the farm or before the mast. Artist s are spreading "daubs" on canvas who should be whitewashing board fences. Behin d counters stand clerks who hate the yard-stick and neglect their work to dream of other occupations. A good shoemaker writes a few verses for the village paper , his friends call him a poet, and the last, with which he is familiar, is aband oned for the pen, which he uses awkwardly. Other shoemakers are cobbling in Cong ress, while statesmen are pounding shoe-lasts. Laymen are murdering sermons whil e Beechers and Whitefields are failing as merchants, and people are wondering wh at can be the cause of empty pews. A boy who is always making something with too ls is railroaded through the university and started on the road to inferiority i n one of the "three honorable professions." Real surgeons are handling the meatsaw and cleaver, while butchers are amputating human limbs. How fortunate that-"There's a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will." "He that hath a trade," says Franklin, "hath an estate; and he that hath a call ing hath a place of profit and honor. A plowman on his legs is higher than a gen tleman on his knees." A man's business does more to make him than anything else. It hardens his muscl es, strengthens his body, quickens his blood, sharpens his mind, corrects his ju dgment, wakes up his inventive genius, puts his wits to work, starts him on the race of life, arouses his ambition, makes him feel that he is a man and must fil l a man's shoes, do a man's work, bear a man's part in life, and show himself a man in that part. No man feels himself a man who is not doing a man's business. A man without employment is not a man. He does not prove by his works that he is a man. A hundred and fifty pounds of bone and muscle do not make a man. A good cranium full of brains is not a man. The bone and muscle and brain must know how to do a man's work, think a man's thoughts, mark out a man's path, and bear a m an's weight of character and duty before they constitute a man. Go-at-it-iveness is the first requisite for success. Stick-to-it-iveness is the second. Under ordinary circumstances, and with practical common sense to guide him, one who has these requisites will not fail. Don't wait for a higher position or a larger salary. Enlarge the position you a lready occupy; put originality of method into it. Fill it as it never was filled before. Be more prompt, more energetic, more thorough, more polite than your pr edecessor or fellow workmen. Study your business, devise new modes of operation, be able to give your employer points. The art lies not in giving satisfaction m

erely, not in simply filling your place, but in doing better than was expected, in surprising your employer; and the reward will be a better place and a larger salary. When out of work, take the first respectable job that offers, heeding not the d isproportion between your faculties and your task. If you put your manhood into your labor, you will soon be given something better to do. This question of a right aim in life has become exceedingly perplexing in our c omplicated age. It is not a difficult problem to solve when one is the son of a Zulu or the daughter of a Bedouin. The condition of the savage hardly admits of but one choice; but as one rises higher in the scale of civilization and creeps nearer to the great centers of activity, the difficulty of a correct decision in creases with its importance. In proportion as one is hard pressed in competition is it of the sternest necessity for him to choose the right aim, so as to be ab le to throw the whole of his energy and enthusiasm into the struggle for success . The dissipation of strength or hope is fatal to prosperity even in the most at tractive field. Gladstone says there is a limit to the work that can be got out of a human body , or a human brain, and he is a wise man who wastes no energy on pursuits for wh ich he is not fitted. "Blessed is he who has found his work," says Carlyle. "Let him ask no other ble ssedness. He has a work--a life purpose; he has found it, and will follow it." In choosing an occupation, do not ask yourself how you can make the most money or gain the most notoriety, but choose that work which will call out all your po wers and develop your manhood into the greatest strength and symmetry. Not money , not notoriety, not fame even, but power is what you want. Manhood is greater t han wealth, grander than fame. Character is greater than any career. Each facult y must be educated, and any deficiency in its training will appear in whatever y ou do. The hand must be educated to be graceful, steady, and strong. The eye mus t be educated to be alert, discriminating, and microscopic. The heart must be ed ucated to be tender, sympathetic, and true. The memory must be drilled for years in accuracy, retention, and comprehensiveness. The world does not demand that y ou be a lawyer, minister, doctor, farmer, scientist, or merchant; it does not di ctate what you shall do, but it does require that you be a master in whatever yo u undertake. If you are a master in your line, the world will applaud you and al l doors will fly open to you. But it condemns all botches, abortions, and failur es. "Whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man," says Rousseau, "cann ot be badly prepared to fill any of those offices that have relation to him. It matters little to me whether my pupils be designed for the army, the pulpit, or the bar. Nature has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our d estination concerning society. To live is the profession I would teach him. When I have done with him, it is true he will be neither a soldier, a lawyer, nor a divine. Let him first be a man. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases; he will be always found in his place." In the great race of life common sense has the right of way. Wealth, a diploma, a pedigree, talent, genius, without tact and common sense, cut but a small figu re. The incapables and the impracticables, though loaded with diplomas and degre es, are left behind. Not what do you know, or who are you, but what are you, wha t can you do, is the interrogation of the century. George Herbert has well said: "What we are is much more to us than what we do." An aim that carries in it the least element of doubt as to its justice or honor or right should be abandoned at once. The art of dishing up the wrong so as to

make it look and taste like the right has never been more extensively cultivated than in our day. It is a curious fact that reason will, on pressure, overcome a man's instinct of right. An eminent scientist has said that a man could soon re ason himself out of the instinct of decency if he would only take pains and work hard enough. So when a doubtful but attractive future is placed before one, the re is a great temptation to juggle with the wrong until it seems the right. Yet any aim that is immoral carries in itself the germ of certain failure, in the re al sense of the word--failure that is physical and spiritual. There is no doubt that every person has a special adaptation for his own peculi ar part in life. A very few--geniuses, we call them--have this marked in an unus ual degree, and very early in life. Madame de Staël was engrossed in political philosophy at an age when other girls are dressing dolls. Mozart, when but four years old, played the clavichord and c omposed minuets and other pieces still extant. The little Chalmers, with solemn air and earnest gestures, would preach often from a stool in the nursery. Goethe wrote tragedies at twelve, and Grotius published an able philosophical work bef ore he was fifteen. Pope "lisped in numbers." Chatterton wrote good poems at ele ven, and Cowley published a volume of poetry in his sixteenth year. Thomas Lawre nce and Benjamin West drew likenesses almost as soon as they could walk. Liszt p layed in public at twelve. Canova made models in clay while a mere child. Bacon exposed the defects of Aristotle's philosophy when but sixteen. Napoleon was at the head of armies when throwing snowballs at Brienne. All these showed their bent while young, and followed it in active life. But pr ecocity is not common, and, except in rare cases, we must discover the bias in o ur natures, and not wait for the proclivity to make itself manifest. When found, it is worth more to us than a vein of gold. "I do not forbid you to preach," said a Bishop to a young clergyman, "but natur e does." Lowell said: "It is the vain endeavor to make ourselves what we are not that ha s strewn history with so many broken purposes, and lives left in the rough." You have not found your place until all your faculties are roused, and your who le nature consents and approves of the work you are doing; not until you are so enthusiastic in it that you take it to bed with you. You may be forced to drudge at uncongenial toil for a time, but emancipate yourself as soon as possible. Ca rey, the "Consecrated Cobbler," before he went as a missionary said: "My busines s is to preach the gospel. I cobble shoes to pay expenses." If your vocation be only a humble one, elevate it with more manhood than others put into it. Put into it brains and heart and energy and economy. Broaden it by originality of methods. Extend it by enterprise and industry. Study it as you w ould a profession. Learn everything that is to be known about it. Concentrate yo ur faculties upon it, for the greatest achievements are reserved for the man of single aim, in whom no rival powers divide the empire of the soul. Better adorn your own than seek another's place. Go to the bottom of your business if you would climb to the top. Nothing is sma ll which concerns your business. Master every detail. This was the secret of A. T. Stewart's and of John Jacob Astor's great success. They knew everything about their business. As love is the only excuse for marriage, and the only thing which will carry on e safely through the troubles and vexations of married life, so love for an occu pation is the only thing which will carry one safely and surely through the trou bles which overwhelm ninety-five out of every one hundred who choose the life of

a merchant, and very many in every other career. A famous Englishman said to his nephew, "Don't choose medicine, for we have nev er had a murderer in our family, and the chances are that in your ignorance you may kill a patient; as to the law, no prudent man is willing to risk his life or his fortune to a young lawyer, who has not only no experience, but is generally too conceited to know the risks he incurs for his client, who alone is the lose r; therefore, as the mistakes of a clergyman in doctrine or advice to his parish ioners cannot be clearly determined in this world, I advise you by all means to enter the church." "I felt that I was in the world to do something, and thought I must," said Whit tier, thus giving the secret of his great power. It is the man who must enter la w, literature, medicine, the ministry, or any other of the overstocked professio ns, who will succeed. His certain call, that is his love for it, and his fidelit y to it, are the imperious factors of his career. If a man enters a profession s imply because his grandfather made a great name in it, or his mother wants him t o, with no love or adaptability for it, it were far better for him to be a motor -man on an electric car at a dollar and seventy-five cents a day. In the humbler work his intelligence may make him a leader; in the other career he might do as much harm as a bowlder rolled from its place upon a railroad track, a menace to the next express. Only a few years ago marriage was the only "sphere" open to girls, and the sing le woman had to face the disapproval of her friends. Lessing said: "The woman wh o thinks is like a man who puts on rouge, ridiculous." Not many years have elaps ed since the ambitious woman who ventured to study or write would keep a bit of embroidery at hand to throw over her book or manuscript when callers entered. Dr . Gregory said to his daughters: "If you happen to have any learning, keep it a profound secret from the men, who generally look with a jealous and malignant ey e on a woman of great parts and a cultivated understanding." Women who wrote boo ks in those days would deny the charge as though a public disgrace. All this has changed, and what a change it is! As Frances Willard said, the gre atest discovery of the century is the discovery of woman. We have emancipated he r, and are opening countless opportunities for our girls outside of marriage. Fo rmerly only a boy could choose a career; now his sister can do the same. This fr eedom is one of the greatest glories of the twentieth century. But with freedom comes responsibility, and under these changed conditions every girl should have a definite aim. Dr. Hall says that the world has urgent need of "girls who are mother's right h and; girls who can cuddle the little ones next best to mamma, and smooth out the tangles in the domestic skein when thing's get twisted; girls whom father takes comfort in for something better than beauty, and the big brothers are proud of for something that outranks the ability to dance or shine in society. Next, we w ant girls of sense,--girls who have a standard of their own, regardless of conve ntionalities, and are independent enough to live up to it; girls who simply won' t wear a trailing dress on the street to gather up microbes and all sorts of def ilement; girls who don't wear a high hat to the theater, or lacerate their feet and endanger their health with high heels and corsets; girls who will wear what is pretty and becoming and snap their fingers at the dictates of fashion when fa shion is horrid and silly. And we want good girls,--girls who are sweet, right s traight out from the heart to the lips; innocent and pure and simple girls, with less knowledge of sin and duplicity and evil-doing at twenty than the pert litt le schoolgirl of ten has all too often. And we want careful girls and prudent gi rls, who think enough of the generous father who toils to maintain them in comfo rt, and of the gentle mother who denies herself much that they may have so many pretty things, to count the cost and draw the line between the essentials and no n-essentials; girls who strive to save and not to spend; girls who are unselfish

and eager to be a joy and a comfort in the home rather than an expense and a us eless burden. We want girls with hearts,--girls who are full of tenderness and s ympathy, with tears that flow for other people's ills, and smiles that light out ward their own beautiful thoughts. We have lots of clever girls, and brilliant g irls, and witty girls. Give us a consignment of jolly girls, warm-hearted and im pulsive girls; kind and entertaining to their own folks, and with little desire to shine in the garish world. With a few such girls scattered around, life would freshen up for all of us, as the weather does under the spell of summer showers ." "They talk about a woman's sphere, As though it had a limit; There's not a plac e in earth or heaven, There's not a task to mankind given, There's not a blessin g or a woe, There's not a whisper, Yes or No, There's not a life, or death, or b irth, That has a feather's weight of worth, Without a woman in it." "Do that which is assigned you," says Emerson, "and you cannot hope too much or dare too much. There is at this moment for you an utterance brave and grand as that of the colossal chisel of Phidias, or trowel of the Egyptians, or the pen o f Moses or Dante, but different from all these." "The best way for a young man to begin, who is without friends or influence," s aid Russell Sage, "is, first, by getting a position; second, keeping his mouth s hut; third, observing; fourth, being faithful; fifth, making his employer think he would be lost in a fog without him; and sixth, being polite." "Close application, integrity, attention to details, discreet advertising," are given as the four steps to success by John Wanamaker, whose motto is, "Do the n ext thing." Whatever you do in life, be greater than your calling. Most people look upon an occupation or calling as a mere expedient for earning a living. What a mean, na rrow view to take of what was intended for the great school of life, the great m an developer, the character-builder; that which should broaden, deepen, heighten , and round out into symmetry, harmony, and beauty all the God-given faculties w ithin us! How we shrink from the task and evade the lessons which were intended for the unfolding of life's great possibilities into usefulness and power, as th e sun unfolds into beauty and fragrance the petals of the flower! I am glad to think I am not bound to make the world go round; But only to disco ver and to do, With cheerful heart, the work that God appoints. JEAN INGELOW. "'What shall I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever! 'This did full many who yet sleep all unknown,'-- Oh, never, never! Think'st thou, perchance, that they remain unknown Whom thou know'st not? By angel trumps in heaven their praise is blown, Divine their lot." CHAPTER XI CHOOSING A VOCATION Be what nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and yo u will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Many a man pays for his success with a slice of his constitution." No man struggles perpetually and victoriously against his own character; and on e of the first principles of success in life is so to regulate our career as rat her to turn our physical constitution and natural inclinations to good account t han to endeavor to counteract the one or oppose the other.--BULWER.

He that hath a trade hath an estate.--FRANKLIN. Nature fits all her children with something to do.--LOWELL. As occupations and professions have a powerful influence upon the length of hum an life, the youth should first ascertain whether the vocation he thinks of choo sing is a healthy one. Statesmen, judges, and clergymen are noted for their long evity. They are not swept into the great business vortex, where the friction and raspings of sharp competition whittle life away at a fearful rate. Astronomers, who contemplate vast systems, moving through enormous distances, are exceptiona lly long lived,--as Herschel and Humboldt. Philosophers, scientists, and mathema ticians, as Galileo, Bacon, Newton, Euler, Dalton, in fact, those who have dwelt upon the exact sciences, seem to have escaped many of the ills from which human ity suffers. Great students of natural history have also, as a rule, lived long and happy lives. Of fourteen members of a noted historical society in England, w ho died in 1870, two were over ninety, five over eighty, and two over seventy. The occupation of the mind has a great influence upon the health of the body. There is no employment so dangerous and destructive to life but plenty of human beings can be found to engage in it. Of all the instances that can be given of recklessness of life, there is none which exceeds that of the workmen employed i n what is called dry-pointing--the grinding of needles and of table forks. The f ine steel dust which they breathe brings on a painful disease, of which they are almost sure to die before they are forty. Yet not only are men tempted by high wages to engage in this employment, but they resist to the utmost all contrivanc es devised for diminishing the danger, through fear that such things would cause more workmen to offer themselves and thus lower wages. Many physicians have inv estigated the effects of work in the numerous match factories in France upon the health of the employees, and all agree that rapid destruction of the teeth, dec ay or necrosis of the jawbone, bronchitis, and other diseases result. We will probably find more old men on farms than elsewhere. There are many reas ons why farmers should live longer than persons residing in cities or than those engaged in other occupations. Aside from the purer air, the outdoor exercise, b oth conducive to a good appetite and sound sleep, which comparatively few in cit ies enjoy, they are free from the friction, harassing cares, anxieties, and the keen competition incident to city life. On the other hand, there are some great drawbacks and some enemies to longevity, even on the farm. Man does not live by bread alone. The mind is by far the greatest factor in maintaining the body in a healthy condition. The social life of the city, the great opportunities afforde d the mind for feeding upon libraries and lectures, great sermons, and constant association with other minds, the great variety of amusements compensate largely for the loss of many of the advantages of farm life. In spite of the great temp erance and immunity from things which corrode, whittle, and rasp away life in th e cities, farmers in many places do not live so long as scientists and some othe r professional men. There is no doubt that aspiration and success tend to prolong life. Prosperity tends to longevity, if we do not wear life away or burn it out in the feverish p ursuit of wealth. Thomas W. Higginson made a list of thirty of the most noted pr eachers of the last century, and found that their average length of life was six ty-nine years. Among miners in some sections over six hundred out of a thousand die from consu mption. In the prisons of Europe, where the fatal effects of bad air and filth a re shown, over sixty-one per cent. of the deaths are from tuberculosis. In Bavar ian monasteries, fifty per cent. of those who enter in good health die of consum ption, and in the Prussian prisons it is almost the same. The effect of bad air, filth, and bad food is shown by the fact that the death-rate among these classe

ro bustness and vigor. In this way they have been enabled to astonish the world by their mental achievements. in the book. o ne hundred and three farmers die of pulmonary tuberculosis. animal dust ranking next. forcing or straining it. or systematically employed inc urs perpetual risk. He who is not regularly. In large cities in Europe the percentage i s often still greater. mental. Ohio . when it begins to lose its elasticity and freshness. and should never be overworked. on the average. three hundred and one dry-goods dealers. but also to cause injurious reactions on every other faculty and func tion. is five times that of the general popul ation of the same age. and moral well-being. Of one thousand deaths from all causes. Some men of ten do a vast amount of literary work in entirely different lines during their s pare hours. and three have catarrh and partial dea fness. one hundred and eigh t fishermen. and vegetable d ust third. Benoysten and Lombard into occupations or trades where workers must inhale dust. from an exhausted. as most great thinkers know. cleanliness. or in the essay. allowing rest to some while giving healthy exercise to others. five have to wear trusses. There is danger in a calling which requires great expenditure of vitality at lo ng. says that "of the five thousand soldiers in that institution fully eighty per cent. jaded brain. over one-fifth of all the deaths of per sons over twenty are from this cause. there will be the same lack of tonicity and strength in the brain product. especially in youth. "Of the thirty-two all-round athletes in a New York club not long ago. We cannot expect nerve. Athletes who over-develop the muscular system do so at the expense of the physical. tends not only t o ruin it. Patten. and four hundred and sixty-one composit ors. one hundred and twenty-one gardeners. and freedom from co rroding dust and poisonous gases are of the greatest importance. Brain-workers cannot do good. in the speech. A man who would sell a year of his life for any amount of money would be considered insane. sooner or late r--usually later. It is a law of nature that the overd evelopment of any function or faculty. According to a long series of investigations by Drs.s. The continual u . four or five are lop-shouldered. sunlight.--nearly one-half. w hich is very largely a matter of skill in exercising alternate sets of faculties . are suffering from heart disease in one form or another. one hundred and twenty-two fa rm laborers. Vigorous thought must come from a fresh brain. In New York City. In choosing an occupation. two hundred and nine tailors. pure air." Man's faculties and functions are so interrelated that whatever affects one aff ects all. The men who accomplish the most brain-work. "three are dead of consumption. thir ty. unfortunately--learn to give rest to one set of faculties and use another. or even forty years of our lives. one hundred and sixty-seven grocers." said a physician. it appears that mineral d ust is the most detrimental to health. as interest begins to flag and a sense of weariness comes. The whole future of a man is often rui ned by over-straining the brain in school. and yet we deliberately choose occupations and vocations which statistics and physi cians tell us will be practically sure to cut off from five to twenty-five. irregular intervals. between the ages of twenty and forty." Dr. effective work in one line many hours a day. due to the forced physical exertions of the campaigns. The brain is one of the last orga ns of the body to reach maturity (at about the age of twenty-eight). chief surgeon at the National Soldiers' Home at Dayton. and are seemingly perfectly indifferent to our fate. When the brain is weary. snap. Cessation of brain activity does not necessarily constitute brain rest. sprightliness and elasticity.

to work at night when Nature intended you to sleep. and another at Florence in Italian. useful. or architects with rotten stone. or contractors to construct buildings with imperfect materials. Some kinds of business not e ven a J. but that so much has been taken out of their mouths." [Illustration: William Ewart Gladstone] All occupations that enervate. blunted his finer sensibilities. Do not confuse covetousness with benevolen ce. that shortens the l ives of many workers. cramped his intellect. If possible avoid occupations which compel you to wo rk in a cramped position. or the phosphorus. "If we induce painters to work in fading colors. or destroy body or soul should be avoi ded. or nervous exhaustion. If there is any doubt on this poi nt. Aside from the right and w rong of the thing. and character is greater than any career. overtops all titles. or in making a sc rew in a watch factory. take the responsibility. for familiarity with a bad business will make it seem go od. There are families that hav e "clutched success and kept it through generations from the simple fact of a sp lendid physical organization handed down from one generation to another. which will give you a chance for self-impr ovement and promotion. and which you will wear at only one ball." not yourself. L et "somebody. You may not make quite so much money. which will elevate you. we are f orcing our Michael Angelos to carve in snow. As a rule. No set of brain cells can possibly set free more brain force in the combustion o f thought than is stored up in them. and manhood is above all riches. Is the work you compel others to do useful to yourself and to society? If you employ a seams tress to make four or five or six beautiful flounces for your ball dress. narrow occupation just becaus e there was money in it. know it to be. nor cheat yourself into thinking that all the finery you can wear is so much put into the hungry mouths of those beneath you. in some mean. The moment we compel those we employ to do work that demoralizes them or does n ot tend to elevate or lift them. we are forcing them into service worse than use less. The tired brain must have rest. it is injurious to the health to work seven days in the week. Select a clean. Don't try to justify yourself on the ground that somebody must do this kind of work. abandon it at once. What would Gladst one have accomplished with a weak. of the cramped condition of the body which creates deformi ty.se of one set of faculties by an ambitious worker will soon bring him to grief. It is what those who stand shi vering on the street. forming a line to see you step out of your carriage. but you will be mor e of a man. physical vigor is the condition of a great career. They do not care if a man spends the whole of his life upon the head of a pin. or piles up argu ment on argument in English for hours in Parliament. or even softening of the brain is liable to follow. Many a man has dwarfed his manhood. Choose an occupation which will develop you. or where you must work at night and on Sundays. brain fever. yo u are employing your money selfishly. These fine dresses do not mean that so much has been put into their mo uths. Our manufacturing interests too often give little thought to the employed. or to sleep in the daytime when she intended you to work. the article to be made is generally the only object considered. Pierpont Morgan could make respectable. crushed his aspirati on. Choose a business that has expansiveness in it." Ruskin says that the tendency of the age is to expend its genius in perishable art. as if it were a triumph to burn its thoughts away in bonfires. the dust. flounc es which will only clothe yourself. paralyze. A little later he converses at ease with Bismarck in German. or talks fluent French in Paris. puny physique? He addresses an audience at Co rfu in Greek. honorable occupation. . the arsenic that destroys the health. They take no notice of the occupations that ruin.

deceit. simply because they are "honorable professions"! These men might have been respectable farmers or merchants. and all disagreeable things."Study yourself. to be started on the road of a proper career while young. To succeed. but are "nobodies" in such vocations. When his strength is exhausted he will float down the stream. we do half work. lose confidence in ourselves. How it shortens the road to success to make a wise choice of one's occupation e arly. thorns. This negative process of eliminating the doubtful chances is often the only way of attaining to the positive conclusion. rowing against the current. as a rule." Dr." We can often find out by hard knoc ks and repeated failures what we can not do before what we can do. while his higher self atrophies ? . as cunning. for a "soft job" which el iminates drudgery. Styles himself poet . Don't choose it because others have made fortu nes in it. and one which can be learned with very little effort. Don't choose it because it is considered the "proper thing" and a "ge nteel" business. full of hope. botched work. is failure in life so frequ ently to be traced as to a mistaken calling. those who are out of their places.--he cobbles. or broth er is in it. they must be in harmony with his purpose. which develop long-headedness only. perhaps. and enthusiasm is vigorous. How many men have been made ridiculous for life by choosing law or medicine or theology. the whole tone of life is demoralized and lowered because we are out of place. our will power and enthusiasm become d emoralized. Don't choose a business because you inherit it. A large portion of Paris cabmen are unsuccessful students in theo logy and other professions and also unfrocked priests. "Tompkins forsakes his last and awl For literary squabbles. but of our weakness. When we try to do that for which we are unfitted we are not working along the l ine of our strength. and enrich life! Those who fail are. "and most of all. and con clude that we are dunces because we cannot accomplish what others do. note well wherein kind nat ure meant you to excel. He is working against his nature. A man can not succeed when his whole nature is entering i ts perpetual protest against his occupation. Unsuccessful students with a smatteri ng of everything are raised as much above their original condition as if they we re successful. Has a young man a right to choose an occupation which will only call into play his lower and inferior qualities. or uncle. letting all his nobler qua lities shrivel and die? Has he a right to select a vocation that will develop on ly the beast within him instead of the man? which will call out the bulldog qual ities only. the qualities which overreach and grasp. and that unfits them for the c onditions of life to which they were born. hardships. deepen." Don't choose a profession or occupation because your father. They are very bad cabmen. his vocation must have the consent of all his faculties. Matthews says that "to no other cause. The mania for a "genteel" occupation. or because parents or friends want you to follow it. that every blow we strike helps to br oaden. wh ile the animal spirits are high. The very glory of the profession which they thought would make them shining lights simply renders more conspicuous their incapacity. to feel that every step we take. A man out of his place is but half a man. ruins many a youth. Thousands of youths receive an education that fits them for a profession which they have not the means or inclination to follow. but his trade Remains the same. his very nature is perverted." says Longfellow. the qualities which get and never give. that every day's work we do.

where even small effort will count for more in the race than t he greatest effort--and a life of drudgery--in the wrong direction? A man is sel dom unsuccessful. and c haracter is greater than any occupation or profession. Power and constant growth toward a higher life are the great end of human exist ence. Let nothing tempt you or swerve you a hair 's breadth from your aim. an occupa tion that will enlarge and expand your manhood and make you a better citizen. and this is everything." said Garfield. they will give thee back soon enough. and round out into symmetr y. It gives credit a nd moral support in a thousand ways. or fixity of purpose. stick to it with all the tenacity you can muster. unhappy. we are succeeding best for ourselves when we are succeedin g best for others. and you will win. never look backward. character-builder. I beseech you. We a re doing the most for ourselves and for others when we are in a position which c alls into play in the highest possible way the greatest number of our best facul ties. and that you shall be a king in your line. The world does not dictate what you shall do. harmony. This determin ation. has a great moral bearing upon our success. not position. a better man. Can anything be more important to human beings than a start in life in the right direction. There is no grander sight th an that of a young man or woman in the right place struggling with might and mai n to make the most of the stuff at command. determined that not a faculty or pow er shall run to waste. The time will come when there will be institutions for determining the natural bent of the boy and girl. and beauty. i f you are constantly haunted with the idea that you could succeed better in some thing else. shake your purpose . deepen. in other words. and determination the conviction and assurance of success. People always believe in a man with a fixed purpose. Such institutions would help boys and girls to start in their proper careers early in life." Choose an occupati on that is refining and elevating. Even if we take for gr anted what is not true.The best way to choose an occupation is to ask yourself the question. the great man-developer. Great tenacity of purpose is the only thing that will carry you over the hard places which appear in every career to ultimate triumph. or vicious when he is in his place. that every youth will sooner or later discover the line of his greatest strength so that he may get his living by his strong points rath er than by his weak ones. After once choosing your occupation. grit. an occupation that you will be proud of. but power is what we want. Not money. and liable at any time to make a change. for it leads others to feel confidence in us. They carry in the ir very pluck. or to fai l. all the God-given faculties within you. Your calling should be the great school of life. You will never succeed while smarting under the drudgery of your occupation. that which should broaden." We can do the most possible for oursel ves when we are in a position where we can do the most possible for others. and an early choice shortens the way. the discovery is often made so late in life that great success is practically impossible. and place me to the best possible advantage for all the peo ple?" The Norwegian precept is a good one: "Give thyself wholly to thy fellow-me n. an o ccupation that will give you time for self-culture and self-elevation. . but it does demand that you do so mething. help him to find where his greate st strength lies and how to use it to the best advantage. however. "Do not. Everybody knows that determined men are not likely to fail. Do not let the thorns which appear i n every vocation. "be content to enter on any business th at does not require and compel constant intellectual growth. or temporary despondency or disappointment. "What wou ld my government do with me if it were to consider scientifically my qualificati ons and adaptations. where men of large experience and close observation wi ll study the natural inclination of the youth. and will help him twice as quickly as one who is loosely or indifferen tly attached to his vocation.

"The endeavor to obtain the upper hand of those with whom we have to deal . versatility. but which they can not practice with satisfaction or profit! The habit of desultoriness. a science or two whose elements they have not qu ite acquired. Their courage oozes out just before they become expert. which in these days of stern competition are unscrupulously resorted to. How many of us h ave acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because not carried quite to the point of skill? How many people "almost know a language or two. let your manhood overtop your position. to make good bargains. enter a doubtful vocation. and the thousand petty artif ices. In attempting to gain a knowle dge of half a hundred subjects it has mastered none. will mol d you. fashion you. your occupation. Be master of your calling in all its details. shape you. " said Thoreau. an art or two partially mastered." Choose upward. A man must work hard and st udy hard to counteract the narrowing. hardening tendency of his occupation. generous young men come out of college with high hopes and lofty aims. intelligent men? Or have they become mere appendages of their profession. t end to narrow the sphere and to lessen the strength of the intellect. That mechanic is a failur e who starts out to build an engine. Nothing is small which concerns your business. and of no use to it? Don't think you will be the great exception . Universality is the ignis fatuus which has deluded to ruin many a promising mind. If we go into a factory where the mariner's compass is made we c an see the needles before they are magnetized. study the men in the vocation you think of adopting. liberal. more than balances any li ttle skill gained in one vocation which might possibly be of use later. your title. And to party gave up what was meant for mankind. and in a few years re turn to college commencement so changed that they are scarcely recognized. hard. the delicacy of the moral sense. Many a person misses being a great man by splitting into two middling ones.-Burke. "The jack-of-all-trades. born for the universe. if their efforts had all been expended in one direction. narrowed his mind. "Constant engagement in traffic and barter has no elevating influence. How fr equently do we see bright. but stops jus t short of the point of proficiency in his acquisition and so fails again.But whatever you do be greater than your calling. and shift s into some other occupation where perhaps he will almost succeed. Beware of that frequently fatal gift. In this he has none. avaricious. we ask. which has been acquired by allowing yourself to abandon a half-finished work. noble features have become contracted and narrowed. Thousands of men who have been failures in life have done drudgery enough in ha lf a dozen different occupations to have enabled them to reach great success. The man has becom e grasping. will seize you as in a vise. f rom the very law of association and habit. In sp ite of all your determination and will power to the contrary. mean. the higgling and scheming. they will point in any direction. living in a rut with no standing in the community." s ays one of the foremost manufacturers of this country." They stop just this side of s uccess." "The measure of a man's learning will be the amount of his voluntary ignorance. your occupation. and stamp its inevitable impress upon you. The o nce broad." which th ey can neither write nor speak. ." says Ly ndall. and. Said Goldsmith. Does it ele vate those who follow it? Are they broad. at th e same time. but does not quite accomplish it. stingy. Is it possible. your wealth. that a few y ears could so change a magnanimous and generous youth? Go to the bottom if you would get to the top. The w orld is full of people who are "almost a success. open-hearted. and can enter a questionable vocation without becoming a creature of it. "had a chance in my gener ation.

the great an d insignificant. and everything to business. things wer e so cheap." Not many things indifferently. and a banker. and heart. . and it makes no difference whether our dissipations are coarse or fine. I am sure you would not wish t hat. and a manufacturer. The nearer I got to England. Does well. May hope to achieve it before life be done." "I hope. in speaking of himself and his four brothers. two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before.' On Thursday I started.--EMERSON. young man. and you may be the great brewer of London. A harvest of barren regrets. and are true to the pole ever after. and then death or victory. One great trader came there. and soul. all to the highest work of which you are capable." says Swift. S o man never points steadily in any direction until he has been polarized by a gr eat master purpose.--FOWELL BUXTON. But be a brewer . As soon as I got to Manchester. and you will soon be in the Gazette. your energy. angels could do no more. and he refu sed to show me his patterns. the cheaper goods were." Who does the best his circumstance allows. This was on a Tuesday. . 'I will go to England. The one prudence in life is concentration. and body. wherever he goes." said Nathan Mayer Rothschi ld. "Whoever can make two ears of corn. Give your life. The longer I live. acts nobly. Somehow I offended him.But when they have been applied to the magnet and received its peculiar power. and did us a favor if he sold us goods. "that your children are not too fond of money and bu siness to the exclusion of more important things. "would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. who had the market to himself: he was quite the great man." he added. and a merchant. YOUNG. PAUL." CHAPTER XII CONCENTRATED ENERGY This one thing I do. the one evil is dissipation. and that is." "I am sure I would wish that. is energy--invincible determination--a purpose once formed. I said to my father. and sends us home to add one stroke of faithful work. Everythin g is good which takes away one plaything and delusion more." said Rothschild. is the demand of the ho . and but one. Only reaps from th e hopes which around him he sows." said a listener.--ST. . "s tick to your brewery. "There was not enough room for us all in Frankfort. But he who seeks all things. "I dealt in English goods. "I wish them to give mind. your enthusiasm." "'What must I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever. I laid out all my money. not to be true to the best one knows. The man who seeks one thing in life. OWEN MEREDITH. the more deeply am I convinced that that which makes the dif ference between one man and another--between the weak and powerful. and I made a good profit. addressing a young brewer. but one thing supremely. that is the way to be hap py. from that moment they point to the north. Canon Farrar said." "Stick to one business. "There is only one real failure in life poss ible.

concentrated age. by continually falling. and I am determined to dig early and late all my life. he is a benefactor to the race. Would an intelligent man dig up a whole continent to find its veins of silver and gold? The man who is forever looking about to see what he c an find never finds anything. "but as I grew older. the very mo tions of a person. They carry themselves with an air of conscious self-respect and self-content. whereas the strongest. there is no happy conjunction of circumstances that will arrange th em into an imposing structure.ur. Success is jealous ." The man who knows one thing. explains the language of flowers. if we go out into life with no well-defined idea of our future work. but they labor at haphazard. They do not grasp circumstances and change them into opportunities. by dispersing hi s over many. he will say: "I ha rdly know yet for what I am best adapted. If he raises the best turnips by reason of concentrating all his energy to that end. and lighten more. cannot hope t o succeed. It matters not how rich the materials we have gleaned from the years of our s tudy and toil in youth. The hasty torrent rushes over it wit h hideous uproar and leaves no trace behind. and poetry composed on any subj ect. silver." was the sign of a man in London who was not very successful at any of thes e lines of work. carpets beaten. and is recognized as such. If you ask one of them to state his aim and purpose in life. but I am a thorough believer in genuin e hard work. He who scatters his efforts in this intense.--they are forever th rowing back and forth an empty shuttle." says Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward. I fancy that I can select. bores its passage through the hardest rock." said a shrew d preacher. but in the amount of intelligent work. and the real web of life is never woven. "is th e power of possessing distinct aims." "When I was young I used to think it was thunder that killed men. If we look for nothing in particular. We find what we seek with all our heart. which a shabby alpaca cannot hide. With ability en ough. define and alter when he or she begins to live for a reason. in a crowded street. and give it magnificent proportions. "a public scribe. the front part will run forward and the other ba ckward. and reminds one of Monsieur Kenard. we find just that and no more. nor a bonnet of silk enhance. receives the crown he merits." I say most emphatically.--the warp and woof of success. the busy. M any of those who fail most ignominiously do enough to achieve grand success. no. So I resolved to thu nder less. even if it only be the art of raising turnips. building up with one hand only to tear down with the o ther. They h ave no faculty of turning honest defeats into telling victories. "by concentrating his powers on a single object. and I know I shall come across something--either gold. but it is the only one that carries honey awa y. "What a immense power over the life." says Carlyle. Such is the progress of him who divides his purpose. the look. of Paris. and time in abundance. may fail to accomplish anything. or at least iron. The voice." It is said that the wind never blows fair for that sailor who knows not to what port he is bound. The bee is not the o nly insect that visits the flower." The great difference between those who succeed and those who fail does not cons ist in the amount of work done by each. messages taken. "Goods removed. and sells fried potatoe s. "The weakest living creature. blessed women who supp ort themselves. If a salamander be cut in two. The drop. n or even sickness nor exhaustion quite drag out. I found it was lightning. can accomplish something. who digests accounts. the dress. and can do it better than anybody else.

"My own in vention. I have mixed much in politics. to sit with your Livy be fore you and hear the geese cackling that saved the Capitol. ch oosing to be a tolerable Jack-of-all-trades rather than to be an unrivaled speci alist. "is to read so heartily t hat dinner-time comes two hours before you expected it." wrote Joseph Gurney to his s on. would never have served me as it has. safe. and to be so intimate ly present at the actions you are reading of. such as it is. but for the habit of commonplace." said Edward Bulwer Lyt ton. to reading and writing? N ot more than three hours a day. No one can pursue a worthy object steadily and persistently with all the powers of his mind. Melt a cha rge of shot into a bullet. and in play. and yet make his life a failure. if he do too much to-day. "Scatteration" is the curse of American business life . toiling. But then. but had no ideas to express in any one of them." When asked on another occasion the secre t of his success. not always that . I have given my whole attention to what I . "Many persons seeing me so much engaged in active life. but you can shoot it through an oak board. looking at Hannibal's weather-beaten face and admiring the splendor of his single eye. "I go at what I am about. drudging attention. and it can be fired through the bodies of four men. but most of them can't carry it into their amusements. in work. that when anybody knocks at the do or it will take you two or three seconds to determine whether you are in your ow n study or on the plains of Lombardy. which was not till I had left college and was actually in the world. The answer is t his--'I contrive to do so much by never doing too much at a time." "The one serviceable. I have devoted to study. have said to me. certain. when Parliament is sitting. men of s ingle and intense purpose." "Be a whole man at everything. humble. he said: "I never put one hand to anything on which I could th row my whole self. "as if there was nothing else in the world for the time being. remunerative. one unwavering aim. I have traveled m uch and I have seen much. during these three hours. who could converse in twenty-four languages." Don't dally with your purpose. and he will be obliged to do too little to-morrow. I can most truthfully assure you. A man to get t hrough work well must not overwork himself. patien t. "a whole man at study. attainable quality in every study and pursuit is the quality of attention. I may perhaps say that I have gone throug h as large a course of general reading as most men of my time." Many a man fails to become a great man by splitting into several small ones. the re action of fatigue will come. some upon subjects requiring much special research." said Charles Kingsley. who have struck sledgeha mmer blows in one place until they have accomplished their purpose. "and as much about the world as if I had never been a student. I have published somewhere about sixt y volumes. That's the secret of all hard-working men. and in addition to all this. as a general rule. since I began really and earnestly to study. and heaping them into bushels. And what time do you think. F ocus the rays of the sun in winter. and in the various busi ness of life." said Charles Dickens.of scattered energies. and to see with you r own eyes the Carthaginian sutlers gathering up the rings of the Roman knights after the battle of Cannae." said Sydney Smith. Now. and. 'When do you get time to write all your books? How on earth do you contrive to do so much work?' I shall surprise you by the answer I made. You can't throw a tallow candle t hrough the side of a tent. daily. The giants of the race have been men of concentration. Too many are like Douglas Jerrold's friend. or imagination. "The only valuable kind of study. The successf ul men of to-day are men of one overmastering idea. and you can kindle a fire with ease. or.

Finally. but never did it. Coleridge possessed marvelous powers of mind. His Lordship was. but to the day of his death they remained simply resolutions and plans. Mr. With an immense procession passing up Broadway. it helps me to think what I am to write about. " wrote Charles Lamb to a friend. sit down. and. with no change of featur es and without his paying the slightest attention to the visitor. Offended by a pungent article. "Coleridge is dead. and free your mind." As Adams suggests. and bands playing lustily. after about twenty minutes of the most impassioned abuse ever poured out in an editor 's office. Lord Brougham. in propor tion as he has confined his powers to one particular channel. Don't go. and abruptly turned to walk out of th e room. sat scribbling away at a two-for ty rate. sir. and merited the applause of scientific men for his inves tigations in science. with his head close down to his paper. he lived in an atmosphere of mental dissipation which consumed his energy. T he irate visitor then began using his tongue. the angry man became disgusted. He was always just going to do something. Then. like Canning. and write an editorial for the "New Yo rk Tribune" which would be quoted far and wide. the Lord Cha ncellorship of England. it wil l do you good. rose from his c hair." With all his magnificent abilities he left no perm anent mark on history or literature. had too many talents. Besides. "Yes. "Lord Brougham was at his chateau at Cannes when the dague rreotype process first came into vogue. exhausted his stamina. He was "everythin g by turns and nothing long. He was shown into a little seven-by-nine sanctum. He was not a man of great education or culture. and slapping the gentleman familiarly on his shoulder. where Greeley. Greeley continued to write. the streets lined with people. use the top of his hat for a desk. Greeley quickly looked up. "struck me much like a steam-engine in tro users. for the first time. Greeley. He studied and examin ed each object as eagerly as though he would never have a chance to see it again . "and is said to have left behind him above for ty thousand treatises on metaphysics and divinity--not one of them complete!" Every great man has become great. and actually outlived his own fame. He was continually forming plans and resol utions. asked to keep . The very modes of thought of the time in which he lived were reflec ted from his works." said Sydney Smith. a gentleman called at the "Tribune" office and i nquired for the editor. in a pleasant tone of voice said: "Don't go. thou gh as a lawyer he gained the most splendid prize of his profession. Meantime Mr. Miss Martineau says. yet his life on the whole was a failure. "Daniel Webster. and this habit of close observation enabled him to develop his work with marve lous detail. without once looking up from his paper. friend. T. with no regard for the rules of pr opriety. sit down. good breeding. He lived in dreams and died in reverie. every successful man has succeeded. except in hi s power of observation." One unwavering aim has ever characterized successful men.'" S. Page after page was dashed off in the most impetuous style. An artist undertook to take a view of th e chateau with a group of guests on the balcony. or reason. what do you want?" said the editor quickly. Horace Greeley would sit upon the steps of the Astor House.was about.--you will feel better for it. Hogarth would rivet his attention upon a face and study it until it was photogr aphed upon his memory. when he could reproduce it at will. and his life was in many respects a miserable failure. but he had no definite purp ose. The angry man began by asking if this was Mr.

and he promised that he would not stir. But it is at rest. It glides from Mahomet to Moses: Beginning with the laws that keep The planets in their radiant courses. It is ever the unwavering p ursuit of a single aim that wins. "all such study is vain. It slips from politics to puns. owing to his want of steadfastness.--he moved. but a las. and temptations. sed multum"--not many things. he will generally navigate to that point without capsizing. and with his energy his enthusiasm. Praed says:-His talk is like a stream which runs With rapid change from rocks to roses. and so. As a rule. could we but concentrate it upon the piston-rod of a steam-engine. Mathews says that the man who scatters himself upon many objects soon loses his energy. It is speci al training that is wanted. If you can get a child learning to walk to fix his eyes on any object. then work for it. slender edge of a razor or an ax. but much. was Coke's motto. disappointments." continued Miss Martineau. but distract his attention a nd down he goes. "There is something. it is comparatively valueless." said Cecil of Walter Raleigh.perfectly still for five seconds. But. the keen. M." says Waters. rive ting every faculty upon one unwavering aim. in the light of science . what the heart longs for the head and the hands may attain. there will be forever a blur where Lord Brougham should have been. learn all you can about it. "What can you do?" is the great question. and courage which enables one to bear up under all trials. Dr. In all great successes we can trace the power of concentration. that opens the way for the bulk that follows. It is the almost invisible point of a needle. who cuts his way through obstacles and achieves brilliant success. are as certain and fixed as the tides of the sea. this very man should h ave been the central figure. In the p icture of our century. The young man seeking a position to-day is not asked what college he came from or who his ancestors were. While we sh ould shun that narrow devotion to one idea which prevents the harmonious develop ment of our powers. "very typical in this. How many lives are blur s for want of concentration and steadfastness of purpose!" Fowell Buxton attributed his success to ordinary means and extraordinary applic ation. in explanatio n of the latter's success. and being a whole man to one thing at a time. The curr ents of knowledge. Chemists tell us that there is power enough in a single acre of grass to drive all the mills and steam-cars in the world. as taken from the life by history. have an object. Without point or edge t he bulk would be useless. It is the man of one line of work. Form a plan . which is like the conduct of the woman who bought at auction a brass door-plate with the name of Thompson on it. the sharp-edged man . of wealth. we should avoid on the other hand the extreme versatility of one of whom W. And ending with some prece pt deep For skinning eels or shoeing horses. . Most of the men at the head of great firms and great enterprises have been promoted step by step from the bottom. "Never study on speculation. The consequence was that there was a blur where Lord Brougham sh ould have been. and you will be sure to succeed. of success. "I know that he can toil terribly. perseverance in the pursuit of an un dertaking in spite of every difficulty. "Non multa. What I mean by studying on speculation is that aimless learning of things because they may be useful some day.

and other hands gave it enduring form in ma rble. but fo r a century. He is not the greatest p ainter who crowds the greatest number of ideas upon a single canvas. but the needle. design has marked the course of every golden thread. and makes all the subordinate figures. He is the genuine artist who makes the greatest va riety express the greatest unity. there is one grand central purpo se. whatever it may be. but flies straight to the mark. The magnetic needle does not point to all the lights in the heavens to see which it likes be st. no meteors which dazzle. a heavy frost fell upon the city.--SHAKESPEARE. and shades point to that c enter and find expression there. but his idea was saved. money. the meteor beckons." . Every leaf. and with a finger that never errs in sunshine or in storm. of time. Words. The arrow shot from the bow does not wander around to see what it can hit on its way. for all practical purposes of man stationary. the stars twinkle to it. When his clay mo del was nearly done. He knew that if the water in the interstices of the clay should freeze. who develops the leading idea in the central f igure. it is plain that the truth. true to its instinct. CHAPTER XIII THE TRIUMPHS OF ENTHUSIASM. the North Star. has a purpose stamped upon it which unmist akably points to the crowning summit of all creation--man. no matter how v ersatile in endowments or how broad in culture. A g eneral purpose is not enough. every atom even. all things else are comparatively easy to give away. Let us beware of losing our enthusiasm. but we must aim at what we would hit. points steadily to the No rth Star. The sun dazzles. but never guide. lights. alone. Wholly engrossed by the subject before me. every crystal. but when a man makes a gift of his daily life and practise. "I do not know how it is with others when speaking on an important question. and str ive to retain our admiration for all that would ennoble. moves with stately sweep on its circuit of more than 25. the beautiful lines would be dist orted. In nature we see no waste of energy. has taken possession of him. and where they will find fit expression. in which all the subordinate powers of the soul are brought to a focus. and our interest in all that would enrich and beautify our life. or of surrounding objects. So all along the path of life other luminaries will beckon to lead us from our cherished aim--from the course of truth and duty. not only for a day.thinking it might be useful some day!" Definiteness of aim is characteristic of all true art. In the Galérie des Beaux Arts in Paris is a beautiful statue conceived by a sculp tor who was so poor that he lived and worked in a small garret. nothin g left to chance. Since the shuttle of creation shot for the first time through chaos. distant beyond human comprehension." s aid Henry Clay.000 years.--PHILLIPS BROOKS. but let no moons w hich shine with borrowed light. giving all the figures equal prominence.--LOWELL. So he wrapped his bedclothes around the clay image. In the morning he was found dead. I lose all sense of personal i dentity. Young men are often told to aim high. The labor we delight in physics pain. "but on such occasions I seem to be unconscious of the external world. while all the other stars must course with untiring tread around their great centers through all the ages. turn t he needle of our purpose from the North Star of its hope. for. and try to win its affections. The only conclusive evidence of a man's sincerity is that he gives himself for a principle. So in every well-balanced life. every fl ower. They all attract it. Let us ever glory in something.

I pursued it everywhere. They did they knew not what. His characters haunted him day and night." Gladstone said that what is really desired is to light up the spirit that is wi thin a boy. Gerster. In some sense and in some degree.--when I was dressing. All great works of art have been produced when the artist was intoxicated with the passion for beauty and form which would not let him rest until his thought w as expressed in marble or on canvas. spirit-driven by the plots and characters in his stori es which would not let him sleep or rest until he had committed them to paper. who . privations." Enthusiasm gives the otherwise dry an d uninteresting subject or occupation a new meaning. "Well. They conquered Asia and Africa and Spain on barley. The victories of the Arabs after Mahomet. in some effectual degree. As the young lover has finer sense and more acute vision and sees in the object of his affections a hundred virtues and charms invisible to all other eyes. " replied Mozart. there is in every boy the material of good work in the world. in every boy. "but I never asked a nything about it. taken twenty-one standards. but in those who are s tolid. so I did. and when he came out he looked as h aggard as a murderer. when I was doing my hair." says Emerson. is an example. The women fough t like men and conquered the Roman men." said the boy. reached by running up three octaves from low D."A bank never becomes very successful. or who seem to be dull. how shall I begin?" as ked a youth of twelve who had played with great skill on the piano. h orsed on an idea. Dickens says h e was haunted. and even in those who are dull. " is the triumph of some enthusiasm." "Every great and commanding moment in the annals of the world." said the Austrians in consternation. In fifteen days Napoleon. Her enthusiasm almost hypnotized her auditors. The Caliph Oma r's walking-stick struck more terror into those who saw it than another man's sw ord." said the great composer. miserably fed." It was enthusiasm that enabled Napoleon to make a campaign in two weeks that wo uld have taken another a year to accomplish. They were miserably equipped. possessed. in his firs t Italian campaign. not only in those who are brilliant. an unknown Hungarian. The naked Derar. "These Frenchmen are not men. "Pooh. When one has the spirit of a composer. from a small and mean beginning. not only in those who are quick. the dulness will day by day clear away and vanish completely und er the influence of the good will." "But you began when you were younger than I a m. but they were temperance troops. "until it gets a president who takes it to bed with him." said Malibran when a critic expressed h is admiration of her D in alt. they fly." says a noted financier. I should like to compose something. and at last I found it on the toe of a shoe that I wa s putting on. he writes because he ca n't help it. In less than a week she had become popular and independent. fifty- . There was neither brandy nor flesh needed to feed them. hardships. If they have only the good will. "you must wait. "Yes. made fame and fortune sure the first night she a ppeared in opera. I've worked hard enough for it. in a few years. was found an overmatch for a troop of cavalry. "Herr Capellmeister. had gained six victories. so a man permeated with enthusiasm has his power of perception heightened and his v ision magnified until he sees beauty and charms others cannot discern which comp ensate for drudgery. and all the powers of heart and mind she possessed were enthusiasti cally devoted to self-improvement. O n one sketch he shut himself up for a month. " I've been chasing it for a month. established a larger empire t han that of Rome. and even persecution. Her soul was smitten with a passion for growth. pooh.

Indifference never leads armies that conquer. Oh! what a great work each one could perform in thi s world if he only knew his power! But. and first heaved the tremendous bar of the printing-press. There is no doing anything with him. man does not realiz e his strength until he has once run away with himself. he was so delicate as a child that he was a constant sour ce of anxiety to his parents. in Temple Bar. until world after world swept before his vision. n or breathes sublime music." The simple. His rare ski ll is shown in the palaces of Hampton Court and Kensington. "If you can impress people with the conviction that you feel what you say. you find noble monuments of the genius of a man who never received instruction from an ar chitect. "There are important cases. It fixed the mariner's trembling nee dle upon its axis. Reader. Her zeal c arried everything before it." said Salvini. He is a perfect ignora mus. H. Although he lived so long. And above all. and turned the mystic leaves upon which Milton and Shakespeare inscribed t heir burning thoughts. "in which the difference betwe en half a heart and a whole heart makes just the difference between signal defea t and a splendid victory. Drury Lane Theater. wrought the statue of Memnon and hung the brazen gates of Thebes. and built churches and colleges at Oxford. who lived more than ninety years. as Charles Bell says of the hand. He built fifty-five churches in the city and thirty-six halls." said Nelson at an important crisis. nor rears impress ive architecture. study. He changed Greenwich palace into a sailor's retreat. "Underneath is laid the builder of this church and city. if you seek his monument. study. like a bitted horse. look around!" Turn where you will in London. "want of frigat es would be found written on my heart. and had conquere d Piedmont. study! All the genius in the world will not help you along with any art. never models statues that live. the Royal Exchange. He worked thirty-five years upon his mas ter-piece. It opened the tubes for Galileo." But his soldiers followed their "Litt le Corporal" with an enthusiasm which knew no defeat or disaster. Horace Greeley said that the best product of labor is the high-minded workman w ith an enthusiasm for his work." says A. and it reefed the high topsail that rustled over Columbus in the morning breezes of the Bahamas. "I would give my skin for the architect's design of the Louvre. not for himself. nor moves the soul with poetry. Enthusiasm." . Paul's Cathedral. sent a thrill of enthusiasm through th e whole French army such as neither king nor statesmen could produce. unless you become a hard student. Paul's Cathedral in London. K. but those in autho rity would not adopt his splendid idea. His great enthusiasm alone seemed to give strength to his body. It has taken me years to master a single part. nor the world with heroic phil anthropies. but for the public good.five pieces of cannon. Boyd. "The best method is obtained by earnestness. and was exceedingly healthy in later life. her consecrated ban ner. and the great Monument. and her belief in her great mission. St. innocent Maid of Orleans with her sacred sword. they will pardon many sh ortcomings. He al so planned for the rebuilding of London after the great fire. nor harnesses the forces of nature. when in Paris to get ideas for the restoration of St." said he. Christopher Wren. had captured fifteen thousand prisoners. and poised the axe of the dauntless woodman as he opened the paths of civiliza tion." "Should I die this minute. After this astonishing avalanche a discomfited Austrian general said: "This you ng commander knows nothing whatever about the art of war. It has held the sword with which freedom has fought her battles .

There is a "go. His sympathies are quick as an electric flash.' he continued. 'and yet I wish f or once in my life to hear some really good music." that he might not leave the work until it was finished. It is so beautiful. 'here is f eeling. Enthusiasm is the being awake." "He throws himself into the occasion." "When he comes into a room. with his whole heart.' said Beethoven. has finally extended until what used to be the peculiar str ength of a few great minds has now become characteristic of the leading nations.' "'Let us go in. that is peculiar to our American temperament and life. into t he very ideal presence whence these works have originated.' said a second voice. You do not find this in tropical countries. Oh. Hark! how well it is played!' "In the midst of the finale there was a break. whatever it may be. Mole. what would I not give to go to the concert at Cologne!' 'Ah! my sist er. 'what should we go in for?' 'I will play to her. a furore. as he opened the door and saw a young man sitting by a table. it is the tingling of every fiber of one's being to do the work that one's heart desires. full of joy. and she will understand it. It did not exist fifty years ago. every man feels as if he had taken a tonic and had a new lease of life. who had visi ted every quarter of the world and talked with all kinds of men. and a young girl leaning sorrowfully upon an old-fashion . Pardon me. Enthusiasm made Victor Hugo lock up hi s clothes while writing "Notre Dame." writes the biographer of Beethoven. " said the second. "He makes the best of everything. had written upon a slip of paper the name of the most a greeable companion he had ever met." said Madame de Staël to M. But the influence of the United States and of Australia. "He is an eager. whereas I utter what I know to be unreal and untrue as if I did be lieve it in my very soul." Enthusiasm is that secret and harmonious spirit which hovers over the productio n of genius. speaking of his own most che rished acquaintance. The papers were examined and all were found to contain the name of a prominent lawyer in Melbou rne. and a sobbing voice cried: 'I ca nnot play any more. throwing the reader of a book. vivid fellow.--genius. "If it were not for respect for human opinions. But it is of no use. it is utterly beyond my power to do it j ustice." said the third.' replied my companion in an excited tone.--understanding! I will play to her. if a person is to succeed. almost a fanaticism for one's ideals or call ing. The three were traveling correspondents of great English journals." said a man when asked the reason for his selection. "I would not open my window to see the Bay of Naples for the first time. "One moonlight evening in winter. bubbling over with spirits. It could not be found then even on the London Exchange." a zeal. or the spectator of a statue. "we were walking through a narrow street of Bonn. 'what sound is that? It is from my Sonata in F. 'Hush!' exclaimed the great composer. mending shoes. where. after he. 'why create regrets when there is no remedy? We can sc arcely pay our rent. Australia. mean dwelling.' 'You are right. while I would go five hundred leagues to talk with a man of genius whom I had not seen . he must be on the jump with all the ardor of his being.' said the first speaker. 'Go in!' I remonstrated. with two companions. suddenly pausing before a little. The great actor Garrick well illustrated it when asked by an unsuc cessful preacher the secret of his power over audiences: "You speak of eternal v erities and what you know to be true as if you hardly believed what you were say ing yourself. in praise of the man of his choice.

' said the shoemaker. as he rose and turned towar d the door.' said he. that I may w rite out that sonata while I can yet remember it. Then he played a sad and infinitely lovely movement. not the love of liberty nor the spur of ambition could induce him to forego his plain preaching in public places. stammering as he saw that the girl was blind. sank. as if lost in thought. 'Yes. which crept gently over t he instrument. 'Farewell to you. did I hear him play better than to that blind girl and her brother. 'Then you are Beethoven!' burst from the young people in delighted recognitio n. You wish to hear--that is. and give the young lady som e lessons. Even the ol d instrument seemed inspired. I used to hear a lady prac ticing near us. Then came a swift agitated ending--a breathles s. trembling movement. while there. 'Oh. not the need of a poor family dependent upon him. and then draped them. "'Wonderful man!' said the shoemaker in a low tone.' We did return in haste. si nce you frequent no concerts?' "'We lived at Bruhl for two years. during all the years I knew him. 'but our piano is so wretched.ed piano. He has been called the only distinguished man who lived and died without an enemy or detractor.--'only once more!' "'I will improvise a sonata to the moonlight. and his modest. as he rose to go. I am a musician. and n ot until long past the dawn of day did he rise from his table with the full scor e of the Moonlight Sonata in his hand. 'You will come again?' asked the host and hostess in a breath. you would like--t hat is--shall I play for you?' "'Thank you. his practice. elfin passage in triple time--a sort of grotesque interlude. I--I also ov erheard something of what you said. This was followed by a wild. nearly ruining his health. like th e dance of fairies upon the lawn.' he said. until. and vag ue impulsive terror. He drew his figures in skeleton. then. and his glory. but the player paused. hurrying. The young man and woman sat as if entranced by the magical. He made every tool he used in sculpture. like the calm flow of moonlight over the earth. chisels. Raphael's enthusiasm inspired every artist in Italy. which carried us away on its rustling wings.' said Beethoven hurriedly. and skin successively. 'I had not perceived before. gazing thoughtfully upo n the liquid stars shining so softly out of the depths of a cloudless winter sky . suddenly. and I walked to and fro outside to listen to her. and left us al l in emotion and wonder. but not the separation from his poor blind daughter M ary. 'how. During the summer evenings her windows were generally open.' they added. Again and again poor Bunyan m ight have had his liberty. He had so forg .' he added. added muscles. 'who and what are you?' "'Listen!' replied the master. 'I will come again. and we have no music. such as files. fat. the flame of the single candle wavered. Never. play to us once more. sweet sounds that flowed out upon the air in rhythmical swell and cade nce. and uncertainty. which he said was like pulling the flesh from his bones. In p ainting he prepared all his own colors. admitting a flood of brilliant moonl ight. charming m anners disarmed envy and jealousy. flickered. but thi s course determined his style.' "'No music!' exclaimed the composer.' "Beethoven seated himself at the piano. and pincers. descriptive of flight." Michael Angelo studied anatomy twelve years. Farewell!' Then to me he added: 'Let us make haste back. and would not let servants or students e ven mix them. and he played the opening bars of the Sonata in F. a nd went out. does the young lady--I--I entr eat your pardon. yes. Then you play by ear? But where do you hear the music. and. The shutters were thrown open. 'I heard music and was tempted to enter.

She knew but two words of the English language--London and Gilbert." says Charles Kingsley." wrote Disraeli." How much the world owes to the enthusiasm of Dante! Tennyson wrote his first volume at eighteen. The unusual crowd drew the family to the window. collecting material for his history. "Pe ople smile at the enthusiasm of youth." At last she came to the s treet on which Gilbert lived in prosperity. until he gave to the world the best history upon this subject ever writte n. but also the love of his master's fair daughter. but by repeating the fir st she obtained passage in a vessel to the great metropolis. an d plundered the family cat for bristles to make his brushes. he returned home and bu rned one shaving after another while he studied the precious prize. but the devoted girl determined to follow him. despise d Bedford tinker to write his immortal allegory with such fascination that a who le world has read it. "The most beautiful works of all art were done in youth. perhaps unconscious tha t it is partly their own fault that they ever lost it. his fortune. and took to his arms a nd home his far-come princess with her solitary fond word.--no defile that has no outlet. The most irresistible charm of youth is its bubbling enthusiasm. Gilbert Becket. while among the Dakota Indians. It is the enthusiasm of youth which cuts the Gordian knot age cannot untie. and believes that mankind has been waiting all th ese centuries for him to come and be the liberator of truth and energy and beaut y. While a student at Harvard he determined to write the history of the French and English in North America. under God. where he not only gained the confidence of his ma ster. Only thoughts that breathe in words that burn can kindle the spark slumbering i n the heart of another. "that enthusiasm which they themselves secretly look back to with a sigh. his all to this one great object." says Dr. lest he learn the gamut? He stole midnight intervi ews with a dumb spinet in a secret attic. It was the enthusiasm of conviction which enabled this poor. for want of a candle churlishly denied.--it forgets that there is such a thing as failure in the world. "The world's i nterests are. Youth sees no darkness ahead. Nor was he dishearten ed when these copies were taken from him. It was the youth Hercules that performed the Twelve Labors. Rare consecration to a great enterprise is found in the work of the late Franci s Parkman. Although he had. "Almost everything that is great has been done by youth. or t o forbid him going to school. when Gilbert himself saw and recognized her. ruined his health and could not use his eyes more than five minutes at a time for fift y years. After Lincoln had walked six miles to borrow a grammar. Of what use was it to forbid the boy Handel to touch a musical instrument. was taken prisoner and became a slave in t he palace of a Saracen prince. an English Crusader. Trumbull. By and by he escaped and returned to England." says Ruskin. and then she went f rom street to street pronouncing the other--"Gilbert. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the high purpose formed in his youth. and at nineteen gained a medal at Cambridge. ignorant. in the hands of the young.otten his early education that his wife had to teach him again to read and write . With a steadiness and devotion seldom equal ed he gave his life. The boy Bach copied whole books of stu dies by moonlight. The painter West began in a garret. Enthusiastic youth .

faces the sun. yet his cotton-gin opened a g reat industrial future for the Southern States. but that old man was Homer. Never before has t he young man. Dandolo. Gladstone was in Parliament in early manhood. and thirty when he graduated from Yale. the Doge of Venice. and the respect paid to white hairs is reverence to a h eart fervent. Byron and Raphael died at thirty-seven. Keats died at twenty-five. yet he made the world fee l his character. it shadows all behind it. Some of Longfellow's. Cicero said well that men are like wine: age sours the bad and improves the good. Defoe was fifty-eight when he published "Robinson Crusoe. who is driven by his enthusiasm. Johnson's best work. adapting the p rinciple of the pendulum to clocks. won battles at ninety-four. in spite of the torpid influence of an enfeebled body. Luther was a triumphant reformer at twenty-five. Galileo was nearly seven ty when he wrote on the laws of motion. Shelley at twenty-nine. Whitefield and Wesley b egan their great revival as students at Oxford. and had taken three prizes at the Academy and gained the title of Master before he was twenty. Wise old Montaigne w as shrewd in his gray-beard wisdom and loving life. rolled the chivalry of Eur ope upon the ranks of Islam. The heart rules youth. Grant was one of the most famous generals in history at forty-two. Burke wa s thirty-five before he obtained a seat in Parliament. even in the midst of his fit s of gout and colic. What a power was Bismarck at eig hty! Lord Palmerston was an "Old Boy" to the last. Many of the world's greatest geniuses never saw forty years. the head. how much more so is it when carried into old age! Gladstone at eighty had ten times the weight and power that any m an of twenty-five would have with the same ideals. Their ardor is their crown. But if enthusiasm is irresistible in youth. and Poe lived but a few months longer. At sixty-three Dryden began the translation of the "Aeneid. G alileo at seventy-seven. The contagious zeal of an old man. Whittier's. Pitt and Bolingbroke were ministers almost before they we re men. The glory of age is only the glory of its enthusiasm. Unknown at forty. Noah Webste r studied seventeen languages after he was fifty. and the former had made his infl uence felt throughout England before he was twenty-four. "The Lives of the Poets. George Stephenson did not learn to read and write until he had reached manhood. an age which h as been fatal to many a genius. Tom Scott began the study of Hebrew at eighty-six." Newton wro te new briefs to his "Principia" at eighty-three. and Tennys on's best work was done after they were seventy. Humboldt completed his "Cosmos" at ninety. Wellington planned and superintended fortifications at eighty. Peter the Hermit. Eli Whitney was twenty-three when he decided to prepare fo r college. Mrs. Plato died writing. Victor Hugo wrote a tra gedy at fifteen. and refused a crown at ninety-six. before which the languid and the passive bow. The "Odysse y" was the creation of a blind old man. Baco n and Humboldt were enthusiastic students to the last gasp. was working every day." Robert Hall learne d Italian when past sixty. . a month before his death. Alexander was a mere youth when he rolled back the Asiatic hordes that threat ened to overwhelm European civilization almost at its birth. It is said tha t no English poet ever equaled Chatterton at twenty-one. Romulus f ounded Rome at twenty. and died Prime Minister at eighty-one. He became Prime Minister of E ngland the second time at seventy-five. Newton made some of his gr eatest discoveries before he was twenty-five. that he might read Dante in the original. blind and feeble. manhoo d. James Watt learned German at eighty-five ." was written when he was seve nty-eight. had such an opportunity as he has to-day. at eightyone. Dr. Somerville finished her "Molecular and Microscopic Science" at eighty-nin e. Napoleon had conque red Italy at twenty-five. It is the age of young men and young women.

"Who cannot but see oftentimes how strange the threads of our destiny run? Oft it is only for a moment the favorable instant is presented." Note the sublime precision that leads the earth over a circuit of five hundred millions of miles back to the solstice at the appointed moment without the loss of one second. namely. life! Success is the child of two very plain parents--punctuality and accuracy. "Haste. and the next m ore dilatory. with a picture of a courier swinging from a gibbet.--CERVANTES. "we took up the war. doubt thy fitness for thy work.--towards youth? If not. "ON TIME. "Immediately on receiving your proclamation.With enthusiasm we may retain the youth of the spirit until the hair is silvere d. slow days of stage-coaches." OR THE TRIUMPH OF PROMPTNESS "On the great clock of time there is but one word--NOW.--for ages and ages of wh ich it traveled that imperiled road. when he rallied his men only to die just before his t roops were taken prisoners." . We miss it. but he lost honor.--no. "Delays have dangerous ends. and letters were carried by government mess engers subject to hanging if they delayed upon the road.--SHAKESPEARE. We can do as much in an hour to-day as they could in twe nty hours a hundred years ago. Post-offices were unknown. in the spirit in which we believe the Administration and the American people intend to act. and mont hs and years are lost.--EDWARD EVERETT." wrote Governor Andrew of Massachu setts to President Lincoln on May 3. He put the letter in his pocket without reading it un til the game was finished. Colonel Rahl. when it took a month of dangerous traveling to accomplish the distance we can now span in a few hours. unnecessary delay was a crime. at nine o'clock the next Sunday he said: "All the regiments demanded from Massachusetts are already either in Washington. "How ages thine heart. not the millionth part of a second." He had received a telegram for troops from Washington on Monday. libert y. was playing cards when a messenger brought a letter stating that Washington was crossing the Delaware. or in Fortress Monroe. haste! Haste for thy life!" was frequently written upon messages in the days of Henry VIII of England. as if there were not an inch of red tape in the world. "Lose this day by loitering--'t will be the same story tomorrow. the Hessian commander at Trent on. and have carried on our part of it. There are critical moments in every successful life when if the mind hesitate or a ne rve flinch all will be lost. Only a few minutes' delay. One of the greatest gains civilization has made is in measur ing and utilizing time. even as the Gulf Stream softens the rigors of northern Europe. Even in the old." Let's take the instant by the forward top. 1861." By the street of by and by one arrives at the house of never." Caesar's delay to read a message cost him his lif e when he reached the senate house. or o n their way to the defence of the Capitol." CHAPTER XIV. April 15. post.

to take advantage of which means victory." "The whole period of youth. "is what to do. and replied. The s ummer of eternity will not be long enough to bring to maturity the fruit of a de layed action. that what may be done at any time will be done at no time. If a star or planet were delayed one second." The energy wasted in postponing until to-morrow a duty of to-day would often do the work. even if he have the better judgment. what next to do. "do you accomplish so much. "To-morrow. "not only so. When asked how he managed to accomplish so much work. becomes drudgery." was the reply. the loss of a few moments by himself and Grouchy on the fatal morning was the most significant. "There is no moment like the present. never did any man or anything w ait one minute for me. or sunk in the slough of indolence. "I do it simply by never po . "If I had to mount guard at ten." that "nick of time" whic h occurs in every battle. after it has been delayed for days and weeks."The only question which I can entertain. "is one essentially of formation." asked a man of Sir Walter Raleigh. "To this quality I owed my extraordinary promotion in the army. but in the present. the other is. Putting off usually means l eaving off. The African Association of London wanted to send Ledyard." said Ruskin." said he. and when th at question is answered. the appointed work can ever be done again . and asked when he could set out. and it has been said that among the trifle s that conspired to defeat him at Waterloo. instruction. They will be dissipated. once passed. Vincent. Letters can never be answered so easily as when first received. afterwards Earl St. will succee d when a procrastinator. and at the same time atte nd to his social duties. it is to do work which ha s been put off! What would have been done at the time with pleasure or even enth usiasm. even if he makes occasional mistakes. edi fication. "Directly. The man who will not execute his resolutions when they are fresh upon him can have no ho pes from them afterward. ther e is no moment at all. Doing a deed is like sowing a seed: if not done at just the right time it will be forever out of season. How much harder and more disagreeable. Many large firms make it a rule never to allow a letter to lie unanswered overnight. and asked when he would be ready to go. I was ready at nine. was asked when he could join his ship. Blucher was on time. lost in the hurry and scurry o f the world." Napoleon laid great stress upon that "supreme moment. It is a well-known truism that has almost been elevated to the dignity of a max im. the traveler. The man who always acts promptly. Promptness takes the drudgery out of an occupation." was the reply. and in so short a time?" "When I have anything to do. it might throw the wh ole universe out of harmony. "To-morrow morning." Cobbett said he owed his success to being "always ready" more than to all his n atural abilities combined. or the neglected blow struck on the cold iron. It was enough to send Napoleon to St. a French statesman replied. John Jervis. replied without hesitation. Helena. There is not an hour of it but is trembling with destinie s--not a moment of which." he said. and Grouchy was late. and to chan ge the destiny of millions." Colin Campbell." said Maria Edgeworth. no instant force and energy. and to lose in hesitation means disaster. I go and do it. He said that he beat the Austrians because they di d not know the value of five minutes. and going to do becomes going undone. too. to Afri ca." "How. appointed commander of the army in Ind ia. will fail.

Copernicus was an early riser. but we make up our bodies every morning to keep it late. A person was once extolling the skill and courage of Mayenne in Henry's presenc e. "I am. and so did the detectives. It is the favorite refuge of sloth and incompetency. and promises. "Strike while the iron is hot." Henry rose at four in the morning. and that is prompt decision. Yet most of those who have become eminent have been early risers. We go to it with reluc tance. and murmured. how many a wreck on the road to success could say: "I have s pent all my life in pursuit of to-morrow. "Go to--I will not hear of it. and Mayenne at about ten ." "To-morrow. ." said he. "he is a great captain." and "Make hay while the sun shines. Some people it attacks after dinner. With most people the earl y morning hour becomes the test of the day's success. and baseless as the fantastic visions o f the evening. which must be employed instead of wasted if the day is to be saved. Webster." It is the devil's motto. but I have always five h ours' start of him." said Henry. 'Tis fancy's child." are golden maxims. Very few people recognize the hour when laziness begins to set in. Daniel Webster used often to answer twenty to thirty letters before breakfast. who had been overcome by a sleepy languor after deciding to make restitution. his favorite maxim being "n ever to do to-day what might be postponed till to-morrow. the defaulting clerk. and Napoleon his greatest campaigns." Alfred the Great rose befo re daylight. 'My head. This made all the difference between them." How many men have daw dled away their success and allowed companions and relatives to steal it away fi ve minutes at a time! "To-morrow. h ow heavy it feels!' But presently he roused himself. "for making my life as long as possible.' The morrow found him. waking up from a sort of heavy d oze. brokenly. and therefore sleep as little as possible. a last look at the receipts. didst thou say?" asked Cotton. Indecision becomes a disease and pr ocrastination is its forerunner." Charles Reade continues in his story o f Noah Skinner. There is in every person's life a crucial hour in the day. Wisdom disclaims the word. yet we quit it with regret. and nearly all our leading authors in the early morning. Bancroft at dawn. the currency of id iots. 'I'll take it to--Pembroke--Street to--morr ow. as were m ost of the famous astronomers of ancient and modern times." "But his resolutions remained unshaken. as it were. hopes." Oh. All history is strewn with its brilliant victims. being assured that to-morrow has some vast benefit or other in store for me. full of his penitent resolu tions. Peter the Gre at always rose before daylight. the wrecks of half-finished plans and unexecuted resolutions. He who hesitates is lost. wrought of such stuffs as dreams are. dead. Otherwise the disease is fatal to al l success or achievement. We make up our minds every night to leave it early. Clay. "by and by." It was said of an unsuccess ful public man that he used to reverse this process. unless perchance in the fool's calendar. and Calhoun were all early risers. and folly is its fathe r. "You are right. some after lunch. A noted writer says that a bed is a bundle of paradoxes. Jefferson. To-morrow! it is a period nowhere to be found in all the hoary registers o f time. to--morrow. he took. There is only one known remedy for the victims of indecision. Bryant rose at five. nor holds society with those that own it. Washi ngton. and some after seven o'clock in the e vening. and murmured again.stponing till to-morrow what should be done to-day. In the hours of early morning Columbus planned his voyage to Americ a. To-mo rrow! 'tis a sharper who stakes his penury against thy plenty--who takes thy rea dy cash and pays thee naught but wishes.

They are no t irregular. A fragment of their allotted time was lost. They are never too soon.Walter Scott was a very punctual man. Very frequently seven hours is plenty. Washington replied." Washington would say. but sure e nough. After th e eighth hour in bed. it is one of the practical virtues of civiliz ation." When his secretary excused the lateness of his attendance by saying that his wa tch was too slow. as he used to say. but they systemati cally go about it too late. but the work is always ten minutes in advance of the time." said Hamilton. Do instantly whatever is to be done. "why s hould he have for their money? What is the difference between taking a man's hou r and taking his five dollars? There are many men to whom each hour of the busin ess day is worth more than five dollars." . "I have generally found that the man who is good at an excuse is good for noth ing else. or an acquirement. "Then you must get a new watch." Some one has said that "promptness is a contagious inspiration." Whether it be an inspiration. their work and their time run parallel. but always ready with an excuse . and wrought with sufficient vigor. unless he has a good r eason." Franklin said to a servant who was always late. never before it. he gave this counsel: "Beware of stumbling over a propensity which easily besets you from not having your time fully employed--I mean what t he women call dawdling. Eight ho urs is enough sleep for any man. He rose at five. an appointment. "Gentlemen. "My cook. A man who fails to meet his appointment." said he. dress quic kly. their time and their work would end together. if a man is able. and He also gave them a competence of time." Not too much can be said about the value of the habit of rising early.--that is. Writing to a youth who had obtained a situation and as ked him for advice. and the world treats him as such. God gave them a work to do. but. "If a man has no regard for the time of other men. Their letters are posted the very minute a fter the mail is closed. broken th e neck of the day's work. By breakfast-time he had." When President Washington dined at four. They arrive at the wharf just in time to see the steamb oat off." said Horace Greeley. new members of Congress invited to din e at the White House would sometimes arrive late. they come in sight of the terminus precisely as the station gates are c losing. and take the hours of recreation after business. is practically a liar. "A singular mischance has happened to some of our friends. it has dropped out of existence. They cannot tell what became of it. and we will immediately proceed to business. and be mortified to find the P resident eating. he began to eat without them. as they did not arriv e at the moment appointed. "At the instant when He ushered them into existence. or I anoth er secretary. This was the secret of his enormous achie vements. There is one thing that is almost as sacred as the marriage relation. and usually too late by about the same fatal interva l." Napoleon once invited his marshals to dine with him. They came in just as he was rising from the table. They do not break any engagement or neglect any duty. so much that if they began at the right moment. "it is now past dinner. it is his business to get up. "never asks if the visitors ha ve arrived. the one an inch shorter than the other. but if the hour has arrived. But a good many years ago a strange misfortune befell them. and go to work. for just like two measuring-lines laid a longside.

teaches habits of pr omptness. can on the instant seize the most important thing a nd sacrifice the others. will keep his word. Horace Greeley managed to be on time for every appointment. Every business man knows th at there are moments on which hang the destiny of years. Adams is not in his seat. If you arrive a few mom ents late at the bank. in congr ess. your paper may be protested and your credit ruined." Promptness is the mother of confidence and gives credit. as a rule. Some men are always running to catch up with their business: t hey are always in a hurry. and is an expensive investment at any price. and seldom accomplish much. The man who is punctual. It is the best possibl e proof that our own affairs are well ordered and well conducted. "How q uickly you learn to depend on him. "No." John Quincy Adams was never known to be behind time. I propose to m ove immediately upon your works. Mr.Blücher was one of the promptest men that ever lived. He was called "Marshal Forw ard. Grant decided to enlist the moment that he learned of the fall of Sumter. Punctuality is said to be the polit eness of princes. simply because an agent is t ardy in transmitting available funds. A leading firm with enormous assets becomes bankrupt. as ordered. and give you the impression that they are late for a train. When Buckner sent him a flag of truce at Fort Donelson. is sure to win. he was equally punctual. One of the best things about school and college life is that the bell which str ikes the hour for rising. Brown. how I do appreciate a boy who is always on time!" says H. or for lectures. In court. as brevity is of wit. in society." It was found that the clock was three minutes f ast. for recitations. Webster was never late at a recitation in school or college. and may be depended upon. Amos Lawrence did not pe rmit a bill to remain unsettled over Sunday. Many a trenchant paragraph for the "Tribune" was written while the editor was w aiting for men of leisure. like Napoleon. They lack method. A conductor's watch is behind time. Adams comin g to his seat. and a terrible railway collision occurs. "Oh. and how soon you find yourself intrusting him with weightier matters! The boy who has acquired a reputation for punctuality h as made the first contribution to the capital that in after years makes his succ ess a certainty. A man is stopped five minutes to hear a trivial story and misses a train or steam er by one minute. . and prompt to the minute. "Mr. The Speaker of the House o f Representatives knew when to call the House to order by seeing Mr. and gives othe rs confidence in our ability. he promptly replied: "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. Adams arrived. Punctuality is the soul of business. tardy at some meeting. C. An innocent man is hanged beca use the messenger bearing a reprieve should have arrived five minutes earlier. Amid the cares and distractions of a s ingularly busy life. During the first seven years of his mercantile career." Buckner replied that circumstances compelled h im "to accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms which you propose." said another. asking for the appointment of commissioners to consider terms of capitulation. Every young man should have a watch which is a good timekeeper." The man who. Once a member said that it was time to begin. one th at is nearly right encourages bad habits.

The outer condition of the bod y is accepted as the symbol of the inner. As a general thing an individual who is neat in his person is neat in his moral s. It is not to be wondered at that the Talmud places cleanliness next to godlines s. fall away in the other. we conclude that the mind corresponds with it. rich not gau dy. She will fall little by little until she deg enerates into an ambitionless slattern. W. . As a rule. An honest. but when she saw the salesgirl's hands she changed her mind and made her purchase elsewhere. A few minut es often makes all the difference between victory and defeat. The first point to be emphasized in the making of a good appearance is the nece ssity of frequent bathing. The other day a lady remarked that she went into a store to buy some ribbons. A man who allows himself to become careless in reg ard to the one will. High ideals and strong. A young woman who ceases to care for her appearance in minutes t detail will soon cease to please.Many a wasted life dates its ruin from a lost five minutes. the conclusion is a just one. I should place it nearer still. If it is unlovely. "Dainty ribbons.--we ll. wholeso me lives and work are incompatible with low standards of personal cleanliness. But self-interest clamors as loudly as esthetic or moral considerations for the fulfilment of the laws of cleanliness. and then. strong. SHAKESPEARE. I hold that gentleman to be the best dressed whose dress no one observes. We express ourselves first of all in our bodies.--H. success and failur e. There is a very close connection between a fine." Of course." she said. without which health is impossible. cleanliness ess of attire. Usually these go together. CHAPTER XV WHAT A GOOD APPEARANCE WILL DO Let thy attire be comely but not costly. he will quickly deterior ate in every way. There are two chief factors in good appearance. Cleanliness or purity of soul and body raises man to the highest estate . it will not be long until that gir l's employer will discover that she is not advancing his business. for I believe that absolute cleanliness is go dliness.--LIVY. SHAW. wholesome condition of the skin. But not expressed in fancy. "could not be handled by such soiled fingers withou t losing some of their freshness. or repulsive. the law will work inexorably. clean. while outward slovenliness suggests a pearance that probably goes deeper than the clothes covering of body and comelin indicating a sanita carelessness for ap the body. clean physique and a f ine. Every day we see people receiving "demer its" for failure to live up to them. strong. in spite of himself. intelligent man whom I know lost his place in a large publishi ng firm because he was careless about shaving and brushing his teeth. throu gh sheer neglect or indifference. Without this he is nothing but a brute. Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy. For the apparel oft proclaims the man.--ANTH ONY TROLLOPE. A young man who neglects his bath will neglect his mind. "Too late" can be r ead between the lines on the tombstone of many a man who has failed. neatness of attire ry care of the person. I can recall instances of capable stenograp hers who forfeited their positions because they did not keep their finger nails clean. clean character. A daily bath insures a clean.

of course. But no one need blush f or a shabby suit.Next in importance to the bath is the proper care of the hair. If it is naturally oily. The consciousness of makin g the best appearance you possibly can. and no one can have negle cted teeth without reaping this consequence. and give you a dignity. If you can not afford to buy a whole set. N o employer wants a clerk. and want a job. the best counsel on the subj ect of clothes may be summed up in this short sentence. who rose in a short time from a section hand on the Long I sland Railroad to the presidency of all the surface railways in New York City. it is better to spend twenty dol lars for a suit of clothes. will be excused for wearing a dirty coat . no matter how poorly. In the course of an address on h ow to attain success. yet perhaps more people sin in this particular point of cleanliness than in an y other. s hould be a practical authority on this subject. Many an applicant has been denied the position he sought because of bad teeth. or other employee about him who conta minates the atmosphere. and in these days . when there is such an infinite variety of tasteful but inexpensive fabrics to choose from. a nd magnetic forcefulness that will command the respect and admiration of others. They do not realize that there could hardly be a worse blot on one's appearance than dirty or decaying teeth. or who does not make a good appearance when he applies for a posit ion. No one. a crumpled collar. or the absence of one or two in front. I f you have twenty-five dollars. and young women. no matter how poor he may be. We all know how disagreeable it is to be anywhere near a person whose breath is bad. The man who hires all the salespeople for one of the largest retail stores in Chicago says: . The hair. strength. you are appropriately dressed. but good clothes have got many a man a good job. Manicure sets are so cheap that the y are within the reach of almost everyone. If the hair is dry or lacking in oily matter. you can buy a file (you can get one as low as ten cents). It is not the shabbiness that is unavoidable. it should be washed thoroughly every two weeks with a good reli able scalp soap and warm water. or slovenly. Vreeland. If you are dressed according to your means. but the slovenliness that is avoidable. should be combed and brushed regularly every day. the majority can afford to be well dressed. want one whose appearance is marred by a lack of one or two front teeth." Simplicity in dress is its greatest charm. This requires little more than a small amount of time and the use of s oap and water. or muddy shoes. It is positively disgusting. For those who have to make their way in the world. will susta in you under the most adverse circumstances. if he is at all particular. Keeping the teeth in good condition is a very simple matter . and walk to the place. a hair-cut. of always being scrupulously neat and cl ean. "Let thy attire be comel y. and keep your nai ls smooth and clean. and t he teeth. that the world frowns upon . too." [Illustration: John Wanamaker] Most large business houses make it a rule not to employ anyone who looks seedy. and a clean collar. the hands. Nor does he. Nothing can be more offensive in man or woman than a foul breath. I know young men. Herbert H. and of maintaining your self-respect and integrity at all costs. than go with the money in t he pockets of a dingy suit. but not costly. it should not be washed oftener than once a month and the ammonia may be omitted. You will be more respected by yourself and every one else with an old coat on your back that has been paid for than a new one that has not. he said:-"Clothes don't make the man. who dress very well and seem to take considerable pride in their personal appearance. if circumstances prevent his having a better one. to which a very little ammonia may be added. and the rest for a shave. yet neglect their teeth. four dollars for shoes. or stenographer.

but ha ving secured it. is evide nced by the "London Draper's Record. lay a volume of meaning. second o nly to that of a clean conscience. Work people whose personal habits are sloven ly produce slovenly work. without assigning any reason. frayed cuffs. Apparently she posse ssed all the required qualifications. he can not afford to be careless of his personal appearance. A slovenly woman is not a fit guide for any . The young woman came to me fashionably and expensively dressed. in which our generation is rich. V. there is also almost always found extra carefulness as regards the finish of work done. and half of the buttons off her shoes." says El izabeth Stuart Phelps. Is it not a fact that the smart saleswoman is usually rather particular about her dress." As the consciousness of be ing well dressed tends to grace and ease of manner. and yet. Mrs ." It says:-"Wherever a marked personal care is exhibited for the cleanliness of the person and for neatness in dress. and general fi tness for the position they extolled in the highest terms. when questioned by a friend as to the cause of her seemingly inexplicable conduct in refusing to en gage so competent a teacher. and faded ties? The truth of the matt er seems to be that extra care as regards personal habits and general appearance is. And probably what is true of the workroom is equally true of the region behind the counter. Long afterward. Poor. the fac t remains that the most important element in an applicant's chance for a trial i s his personality. self-respect. can afford to be negligent in the matter of dress. That the same rule that governs employers in America holds in England. One of those large-souled women of wealth. but a trifle in whic h. occasionally." The importance of attending to little details--the perfection of which really c onstitutes the well-dressed man or woman--is well illustrated by this story of a young woman's failure to secure a desirable position. had established an industrial school for girls in which they received a good English education and were train ed to be self-supporting. as a rule. Diamonds in the rough of infinitely greater value than the polished glass of some of those w ho get positions may. but with torn and soiled gloves. which shows itself an tagonistic to slovenliness of all kinds. perfect manners. The young woman was i nvited by the founder of the school to call on her at once. though not possessing half the ability of the boy or girl who was turned away." No young man or woman who wishes to retain that most potent factor of the succe ssful life. those who are careful of their own appearance are equa lly careful of the looks of the work they turn out. so shabby. Our clothes unmistakably affect our feelings. A well-ironed collar or a fresh glove has car ried many a man through an emergency in which a wrinkle or a rip would have defe ated him. indicative of a certain alertness of mind. She needed the services of a superintendent and teache r. is aver se to wearing dingy collars. or soiled garments ar e detrimental to morals and manners." It does not matter how much merit or ability an applicant for a position may po ssess. or s oiled attire makes one feel awkward and constrained. lacking in dignity and impo rtance. be rejected. absolutely refused to give her a trial."While the routine of application is in every case strictly adhered to. and considered herself fortunate when the trustees of the institution recomme nded to her a young woman whose tact. "The consciousness of clean linen. "is in and of itself a source of moral strength. as in an Egyptian hieroglyphic. as anyon e knows who has experienced the sensation--and who has not?--that comes from bei ng attired in new and becoming raiment. and self respect. knowledge. she replied: "It was a trifle. they may keep it. Applicants whose good appearanc e helped them to secure a place may often be very superficial in comparison with some who were rejected in their favor and may not have half their merit. for "the character is subdued to what it is clothed in. ill-fitting. ill-fitting.

vermilion-tinted ties. they buy some cheap. who spent four thousand dollars a year at his tailo r's alone. At first sight. except i n this seemingly unimportant matter of attention to the little details of dress. for the old adage: "Tell me thy company and I will tell thee what thou art. Nine times out of ten. this or that expensive hat. that it is a duty. vulgar. spirit. too. person and purse is heroically consecrated to this one object." when you feel half sick and not able to work. out of their limited sala ries. that they do. and aspirants to success should be as careful in choosing their dr ess as their companions. Your mind will slip down. Young men of this stamp wear cheap rings. t hey fall into as great a pitfall as those who think clothes are of no importance . An undue love of dress is worse than a total disregard of it. you take a good bath . Very few men or women are so strong and so perfectly poised as to be unaffected by their surroundings. and." Probably the applicant never knew why she did not obtain the positi on. and almost invariably they occupy cheap positions. to the neglect of their mos t sacred duty to themselves and others. if.--put on your best clothes. From every point of view it pays well to dress well. and make you r toilet as carefully as if you were going to a fashionable reception. for she was undoubtedly well qualified to fill it in every respect. or who. who make it their chief object in life.young girl. slipshod. like Beau Brummel. Many young men and women make the mistake of thinking that "well dressed" neces sarily means being expensively dressed." they live to dress. in view of its effect on ours elves and on those with whom we come in contact. and the man and the woman. are frequently condemned by the very garb which they think makes them so irresistible. it may seem hasty or superficial to judge men or women by their clothes. untidily dressed person. when you have an a ttack of the "blues. which they see exhibited in so me fashionable store. to dress as well and becomingly as our position requires and our means will allow. and planning how they can buy. instead of l ying around the house in your old wrapper or dressing gown. They devote the time that should be given to the culture of head and heart to studying their toilets. without making your toilet. If they can not by any possibility afford the coveted arti cle. and who used to take hours to tie his cravat.--every faculty of who se soul. By emphasizing the importance of dress I do not mean that you should be like Be au Brummel. taking it easy because you do not expect or wish to see anybody. and they love dress too much who "go in d ebt" for it. tawdry imitation. The knowledge that we are becomingly clothed acts like a mental tonic. flashy. On the other hand. as well as t he truest economy. Like the dandy. but experience has proved .--a Turkish bath. an d your whole outlook on life will have changed. They are loud." is offset by this wise saying of some philosopher of the c ommonplace: "Show me all the dresses a woman has worn in the course of her life. or tie or coat. The worl d accepts the truth announced by Shakespeare that "the apparel oft proclaims the man".--a man whose trade . with this erroneous idea in mind. it will become as slovenly . and broad checks. the English fop. office and existence consists in the wearing of clothes. and have no time to devote to self-culture or to fitting th emselves for higher positions. The manners of both seem to have a subtle connection with their clothes. you will fi nd yourself very quickly taking on the mood of your attire and environment. the effect of which is only to make them look ridiculous. and with your room all in disord er. devote most o f their waking hours to its study. it will refuse to exert itself. measure the sense and self-respect o f the wearer. you will feel like a new person. But I do claim. . whom Carlyle describes as "a clothes-wearing man. The overdressed young woman is merely the feminine of the overdressed young man . as a rule. before you have finished dressing your "blues" and your half-sick feeling will have vanished like a bad dream. again and again. and inactive as your body. Their style of dress bespeaks a type of character even more objectionable than that of the slovenly. if you can afford it. If you lie a round half-dressed.

If she has five grains of common sense. Although. One can not but feel that God is a lover of appropriate dress. soiled one. but they have a much larger influe nce on man's life than we are wont to attribute to them. has personality which eludes the photographer.and I will write you her biography. and make one talk well. "Would you change the current of your thoughts? Change your raiment. unbecoming. "to teach a girl that beauty is of no value. which which the sculptor can not chisel. which no biograph a great deal to do with one's success in life. but also of comfort and power. she will find this out. He has put robes of beauty and glory upon all His works." she argues. when we remember what an effect clothes have in in citing to personal cleanliness. don an old soiled or worn wrapper. so as not to be at odds with her dress. while inferi ority of garb often induces restraint. The consciousness of being well dressed g ives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow." Webster and Sumner were great men. It does not matter whether her face or h ands are clean or not. ev ery field blushes beneath a mantle of beauty. but they did not arouse a tithe of the spontaneous enthusiasm evoked by men like Blaine and Clay. Good clothes give e ase of manner. the natu ralist and philosopher. Her whole prospect and hap piness in life may often depend upon a new gown or a becoming bonnet. He decla red himself utterly incapable of thinking to good purpose except in full court d ress. It was this pec uliar atmosphere which made Clay the idol of his constituents. Her mind runs along new channels. This he always put on before entering his study. . and y ou will at once feel the effect. CHAPTER XVI PERSONALITY AS A SUCCESS ASSET There is something about one's the painter can not reproduce. clean wrapper than for the wearer of the old. testifies to the influence of dress on thought. Calhoun was a greater man. The great thing is to teac h her their proper value. which some persons have in a remarkable degre e. or what sort of slipshod shoes she wears. Prentice Mulford declar es dress to be one of the avenues for the spiritualization of the race. every bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. And sure ly He is pleased when we provide a beautiful setting for the greatest of His han diworks. not even omitting his swo rd. The down-at-heel old shoes are exchanged fo r suitable slippers. which sets an audience wild at the mention of the name of a Blaine or a Linco ln. It is this indescribable quality. omething which every one feels." It is true that clothes do not make the man." Even so great an authority as Buffon." Her walk. the general trend of her feelings. dress of no use. Beauty is of value. and it will have the effect of making her indifferent as to whethe r her hair is frowsy or in curl papers." "How exquisitely absurd it is.--puts on a dainty muslin garment instead.--which makes people applaud beyond the bounds of enthusiasm. Let a woman. "is good enough to go with this old wrapper. he never aroused any such enthusiasm as "the mill-b oy of the slashes. She has much more respect for the wearer of the new. This subtle s but which no one can describe. This is not an extravagant statement. every star is veiled in brightness . Suppose she changes. how different her looks and acts! Her hair must be becomingly arranged. her manner. will in some subtle way be dominated by the old wrapper. or shabby apparel which not o nly robs one of self-respect. There is something about ill-fitting. Every flower is dressed in richness. for instance." says Sydney Smith. Her face and hands and finger nails must be spotless as the muslin which surrounds them. er ever put down in a book. for "anything. perhaps .

superb manner. we constantly see men of m ediocre ability but with fine personal presence. The moment they come near us we experience a cold chill. while he is delivering h is speech. they introd uce us. Charm of personality is a divine gift that sways the strongest cha racters. we were sad and discouraged. and we are fired with a desire to do more than we have ever before done. has dropped out of sight. perhaps. and do not reckon this personal atmosphere or magnetic power as a part of thei r success-capital. when. have b een transformed. and we are loath to leave the magical presence lest we lose our new-born power. for the moment. being rapidly advanced over the heads of those who are infinitely their superiors in mental endowments. They are much larger than anything they say or do. for the first time.A historian says that. and. although meeting them. and magnetic qua lities. A blighting.--the atmosphere that eman ates from them. but cou ld also make more accurate estimates concerning the future possibilities of scho olmates and young friends. and disheartenment to encouragement. and we resolve. A good illustration of the influence of personal atmosphere is found in the ora tor who carries his audience with him like a whirlwind. and sometimes even controls the destinies of nations. impulses and longings come thronging to our minds which never stirred us before. The moment we come into their presence we have a sense of enlargement. narrowing sensation. as if a bl ast of winter had struck us in midsummer. and then carry the measuring li ne above his atmosphere. at least. Even a momentary contact with a character of this kind seems to double our ment al and soul powers. we have caught a glimpse of higher ideals. and to be more than we have been in the past. to our larger. We are often misled as to the position they are going to occupy from the fact that we are apt to take account merely of their ability . A few minutes before. The influence of su ch speakers depends almost wholly upon their presence. They draw out the best that is in us. Indeed. as two great dynamos double the current which passes over th e wire. perhaps. With their presence. the flashlight of a potent personality of this kind has opened a rift in our lives and revealed to us hidden capabilities. we could not only measure the personal atmosphere of individuals. as if a great weight which long had pressed upon us had been removed . suddenly. Our horizon bro adens. with better heart and newer hope. The old commonplace life. We are unconsciously influenced by people who possess this magnetic power. We can converse with such people in a way that astonishes us. better selves. We express ourselves more clearly and eloquen tly than we believed we could. Sadness gives place to joy. They unlock w ithin us possibilities of which we previously had no conception. We have been touched to finer issues. with its absence of purpose and endea vor. we experience a sense of relief. to struggle to make permanently ours the forces and potentialities that have be en revealed to us. despair to h ope. we feel a new power stirring through all our being. On the other hand. as it were. we frequently meet people who make us shrivel and shrink int o ourselves. All at o nce life takes on a higher and nobler meaning. and yet so little of this personal element adheres to his cold words in print that those who read them are scarcely moved at all. "we mu st first reckon with the orator's physical bulk. in measuring Kossuth's influence over the masses. Certain personalities are greater than mere physical beauty and more powerful t han learning. whic . Yet this individual atmosphere has quite as much to do with o ne's advancement as brain-power or education." If we had discernment fine enough and tests delicate e nough.

Good taste is also one of the elements of personal charm. also. we shall find that the chief differ ence between them is that the first loves his kind. Tact. This mysterious something. The effect of their presence is paralyzing. a gift of nature. Wh ile it is. This type of personalit y we may all cultivate if we will. generosity of feeling. They are more than welcome. undefinable uneasiness. but can not locate or describe it. You can not offend the tastes of others without hur ting their sensibilities. or the qualities that can be rated. it can be cultivated to a certain extent. It is infinitely better than money capital. the charm of sentiment vanishes and life seems to lose color and zest. it is a privilege to speak to her.h seems to make us suddenly smaller. . when conversation drags. One must know exactly what to do. and the latter does not. which we sometim es call individuality. and interest is at a low ebb. Their gloomy miasmatic atmosphere chills all our natural impulses. One of the greatest investments one can make is that of attaining a gracious ma nner. for all doors fly open to sunny . and be able to do just the rig ht thing at the proper time. and that strong personal magnetism which inclines all hearts toward its fortunate possessor. They simply know they have it. Many women are endowed with this magnetic quality. In their presence there is no possibility of expansion for us. But we shall f ind that the man who practises unselfishness. but everybody is attracted. or art.--next to a fine manner. passes over us. a nd our natural prompting is to guard closely any expression of our hopes and amb itions. is often more powerful than the ability which can be meas ured. He will b e trusted and loved by all who come in contact with him. We instinctively feel that such people have no sympathy with our aspirations. As a da rk cloud suddenly obscures the brightness of a smiling summer sky. At a social gathering. born in one. She may not be handsome. who is genuinely interested in the welfare of others. If we study these two types of personality. When they are near us our laudable purposes and desires shrink into insi gnificance and mere foolishness. This was notably the case with some of the women who ruled in the French salon s more absolutely than the king on his throne. of possibility. cordiality of bearing. cultivated manne r. which is entirely independen t of personal beauty. Much of the charm of a magnetic personality comes from a fine. perhaps the most important. pleasing personalities. Good judgment and common sense are indispensable to those who are trying to acquire this magic power. Magnetic personality is intangible. like poetry. that rare charm of manner which captivates all those who come within the sphere of its influence. He will bring encouragement to and uplift every life that touches his.--even though polished manners and a gracious presence may be conspicuous by their absence. and we haste n from it as soon as possible. Of course. We could no more smile in their presence than we could lau gh while at a funeral. People who possess this rare quality are frequently ignorant of the source of t heir power. who feels it a privilege to have the power to do a fellow-cr eature a kindness. music. they are sought for everyw here. We feel a decided loss of p ower. are largely natural gifts. their shadows are cast upon us and fill us with vague. It is often possessed in a high degree by very plain women . is a very important element.--the delightful art of pleas ing.--will be an elevating influence wherever he goes. t he entrance of some bright woman with a magnetic personality instantly changes t he whole situation.

his law partner. indifferent man. It doubles success possibilities. What can be more valuable than a per sonality which always attracts. their s agacity. but also in every field of life. if they shoul d analyze their success. have amounte d to half so much. which a ttract people to you. to help along wherever he could. it will broaden your s ympathies. rude man ners drive away clients. he must keep back his bad tendencies. The ability to cultivate friends is a powerful aid to success. we find that they have attractive qualities. and builds up character. In trying to be popular. No person who is always thinking of himself and trying to figure out how he can ge . for making himself ag reeable under all circumstances. for. by their likes and dislikes. just becaus e they had cultivated popular qualities. as naturally as magnet s attract particles of steel. It is capital which will stand by one when panics come. Such men are business magnets. all of which are cultivatabl e. No matter what career you enter. even when they do no t apparently make half so much effort to get it as the less successful. It is worth everything t o the clergyman. and a popular business or professional man has every advantage in the world over a col d. it bring s clients to the lawyer. he w ill always be placed at a disadvantage. Business moves toward them. he is on the road to success and happi ness as well. or influence. Somehow everybody in trouble turned to him for help. gentlemanly. was crowded. one must strangle selfishness. and sleep on the counter in his store with a roll of calico for his pillow. he must be polite. if his personality repels. clients. patients. he had a passion for helping people. This was one of Lincoln's c hief characteristics. They will take the place of capital. It pays to cultivate popularity." This generous desire to as sist others and to return kindnesses especially endeared Lincoln to the people. those personal qualities. to find what a large percentage of it is due to their h abitual courtesy and other popular qualities. They ar e often a substitute for a large amount of hard work. or some other disaster. Had it not been for these. an d companionable. you can not overestimate the i mportance of cultivating that charm of manner. customers. The power to please is a tremendous asset. Some men attract business. perhaps. for the same reason that the steel particles point toward the magnet." But if we analyze these men closely. it will call out your success qualities. of making friends and holding them with hooks of steel! People are influenced powerfully by their friendships. and business training would not. develops man hood. How many men have been able to start again after ha ving everything swept away by fire or flood. Everything seems to point their way. because it is made up of so many other qualities. It is difficult to conceive of any more delightful birthright than to be born with this personal charm. It makes statesmen and politicians. Many successful business and professional men would be surprised. Herndon. Mr. for customers. or patients will flock to him.Many a youth owes his promotion or his first start in life to the disposition t o be accommodating. when busin ess concerns go to the wall. and patients to the physician. if his coarse. long-headedness. where Lincoln boarded. patients. There is usually some charm of personality about them that wins all hearts. Cultivate the art of being agreeable. It will help you to self-expression as no thing else will. says: "When the R utledge Tavern. he would often give up his b ed. clients. agreeable. I never knew a thoroughly unselfish person who was not an attractive person. when banks fail. because they had learned the art of bei ng agreeable. Their fr iends call them "lucky dogs. To be popular. never repels? It is not only valuable in busines s. no matter how able a man may be. or customers. and yet it is comparatively easy to cultivate .--because they are attra cted.

trying to get away from the sh adows. so that he could say things and do things impossible to him when alone? The power of the orator. People shrink from such a character. is a g reat accomplishment. or for the choicest bits at the table. a coarse. new forces. and a keener edge put on all of his faculties. to make a good impression at the very first meeting. The hardest natures can not resist these qualities any more than the eyes c an resist the sun. are developed. but we give ourselves out stingily and we live narrow and reserved lives. for our success and happiness depend largely upon them. Everybody is attracted by lovable qualities and is repelled by the unlovely whe rever found. There must be heartiness in the ex pression. encouragement. If people who are naturally unsocial would only spend as much time and take as much pains as people who are social favorites in making themselves popular. The secret of pleasing is in being pleasant yourself.t some advantage from everybody else will ever be attractive. they would acc omplish wonders. in the cordiality. you must be magnanimous. It is in contact and combination only that ne w creations. who elbow their way in front of us. who are always looking for the easiest chair. stingy soul is not lovable. which he flings back to his listeners. If you radiate sweetness and light. or how much you may dislike to be interrupted. and no matter how busy or how worried you may b e. On the other hand. Popular people. take infinite pains to cultiva te all the little graces and qualities which go to make up popularity. A fine manner pleases. to get the best seat in a car or a hall. It is difficult to snub the man who possesses it. regardless of others. in the smile. his intellect sharpened. for we are all looking for the sunlight. a . we are repelled by people who are always trying to get som ething out of us. when coming into contact with a stron g personality which has called forth hidden powers which he never before dreamed he possessed. those with great personal charm. We little realize what a large part of our achievement is due to others working through us. in being interesting. We are naturally d isgusted with people who are trying to get everything for themselves and never t hink of anybody else. We cannot help bein g attracted to one who is always trying to help us. who are always wanting to be waited on first at the restaura nt or hotel. wit hout raising the least prejudice. and this is what commands a great salary. There is something about h im which arrests your prejudice. to approach a prospective customer as though you had known him for years without offending his taste. It is unfortunate that these things are not taught more in the home and in the school. which is unmistaka ble. sympathetic. genero us. The ability to bring the best that is in you to the man you are trying to reach . We may know enough. but he could never get it from the separate individuals any more than the chemist could get the full power from chemicals standing in s eparate bottles in his laboratory. he first draws from his audience. when we should be broad. If you would be agreeable. in the hand-shake. who is always trying to make us comfortable and to give us every advantage he ca n. There is a charm in a gracious personality from which it is very hard to get aw ay. The narrow. and magnanimous. The whole principle of an attractive personality lives in this sent ence. Many of us are n o better than uneducated heathens.--who gives us his sympathy. brutal manner repels. radiating hope. to their sharpening our faculties. Who has not felt his power multiplied many times. but getting his sympathy and good will. people will love to get n ear you. somehow you haven't the heart to turn away the man with a pleasing personality.

The more you rad iate yourself. an d make you more of a man. meanly. You must give of y ourself in a whole-hearted. remains a pygmy in everythin g except his own little specialty. but having a chemical affinity for each other. something which will enrich his life. when you might have had great rivers and torrents of blessings. or you will receive only stingy rivule ts. It is through social intercourse that our rough corners are rubbed o ff.nd helpfulness into our lives. if he can on ly extract it. and esp ecially of mixing with those above us. Two substances totally unlike. because he did not cultivate his social side. the more magnanimous you are. But you must give it something. the buttressing of character by association. But it is a fact that you can only get a great deal out of them by giving them a great deal of yourself. finding ne w islands of power in himself which would have remained forever hidden but for a ssociation with others. Many an author owes his great est book. and t he pitting of brain against brain. Others are his discoverers. brighten the ideals . Two people with a strong affinity often call into activity in each other a power which neither dreamed he possessed before. the more you will get back. m ay produce a third infinitely stronger than either. Book knowledge is valuable. A man who might have been symmetrical. The more generously you give. About all you get from others is a reflex of the curre nts from yourself. which have remained dormant for the lack of exercise. the more generous of yourself. had he availed himself of every opportunity of touching life along all sides. something which will help h im on his way. because we can always carry away somethin g of value. that we become polished and attractive. If you go into social life with a determination to give it something. You must give much in order to get much. something which will enrich your life. It is always a mistake to miss an opportunity of meeting with our kind. Thei r faculties are sharpened and polished by the attrition of mind with mind. Artists have been touched by the po wer of inspiration through a masterpiece. well-rounded. or you will not get anything. the more you fling yourself out to them without reserve. It is astonishing how much you can learn from people in social intercourse when you know how to look at them rightly. to make i t a school for self-improvement. No man finds himself alone. . you will not find society either a bore or unprofitable. You will not receive if you give out stingily. A large part of the value of a college education comes from the social intercourse of th e students. or even both of those which unite. for calling out your best social qualities. the reenforcement. you will not think the time in the drawing-room wasted . When you learn to look upon every one you meet as holding a treasure. and open up new hopes and possibilities. Everybody he meets has some secret for him. something which he never knew before. narrowly. The man who mixes with his fellows is ever on a voyage of discovery.--the power to do an immortal thin g. generous way. for developing the latent brain cells. We are apt to overestimate the value of an education from books alone. The current will not set toward you un til it goes out from you. and sustaining and inspiring us mentally. his cleverest saying to a friend who has aroused in him latent powers which otherwise might have remained dormant. or by some one they happened to meet w ho saw in them what no one else had ever seen. the more you get in return. which will enlarge and broaden your experience. which stimulate ambition. but the k nowledge which comes from mind intercourse is invaluable.

He is a lways more or less of an enigma. had the slightest chance of bein g elected to any office of prominence while "Ike" was around. and when asked why the miners and the people in the town couldn't help liking him." said an Engli sh miner.--are conduci ve to the growth of the highest manhood and womanhood. who has no secrets. he's a man. he was a man. Secretiveness repels as much as frankness attracts. large -hearted and magnanimous. but there is a lurking fea r of some pitfall or unknown danger ahead of us. CHAPTER XVII IF YOU CAN TALK WELL When Charles W. Ev erybody admires the open-hearted. his sympathies are broad and active. "I recognize but one m ental acquisition as an essential part of the education of a lady or gentleman. were there seeking t heir fortune. and who is frank. He was elected mayor of his town. strong men drawn there from different parts of the country by the gold fever. if he ca n help it. graduates of Eastern colleges. and wh o do not try to cover up their faults and weaknesses. however educated or cultured. Eliot was president of Harvard. who wo n the love and good will of everyone. There is something about th e very inclination to conceal or cover up which arouses suspicion and distrust. namely. and may deal squarely with us. and sent to the legislature. although he coul d not speak a grammatical sentence. He endeavors to hide every trait that is not favorable to himself. because he is always ready to confess his faults. His heart is sound and true. the people who have nothing to conceal. We are uncomfortable because of the uncertainties. an accurate and refined use of the mother-tongue. and knew nothing of the usages of polite society. as a rule. do we get a glimpse of the real man. and. "Because he has a 'eart in 'im. Frankness of manner is one of the most delightful of traits in young or old. It was all because he had a heart in him. In the Black Hills of South Dakota there lived a humble. broad and liberal! How quickly he wins our confidence! How we all like and trust him! We forgive him for many a slip or wea kness. Never. ignorant miner." Bright. "You can't 'elp likin' 'im. How different the man who comes out in the open. You never go to 'im for nothin'. no matter h ow good they may seem to be. No matter how polite or gracious a secreti ve person may be. who reveal s his heart to us. handsome young men." . but none of them held the public confidence like this poor man. He could scarcely write his name. We may come out all right. They may be all right. They inspire love and confidence. We cannot have the same confidence in people who possess this trait. The very qualities he possesses--frankness and simplicity. sunny natures. he answered. which will make his life a little more shapely and att ractive. we can never rid ourselves of the feeling that there is a moti ve behind his graciousness. as a culture chisel. and that he has an ulterior purpose in view. and we are ready to mak e allowances for them. but we are not sure and can not trust them. a great many able. he said. by their very f rankness and simplicity. yet he so intrenched himself in the hearts in his community t hat no other man.The man who is determined to get on will look upon every experience as an educa tor. They are. invite the same qualities in others. Dealing with these secr etive people is like traveling on a stage coach on a dark night. and to make amends for them. as in frank. It he has bad qualities. He always 'elps the boys when in trouble. There is always a feeling of uncertainty. because he goes through life wearing a mask. they are always in sight.

It does not ma tter much what you say. you talk. Everybody wants to invite Mrs. "Talk. or how much it may hav e cost you. who reads. who can interest others immediately by his power of speech. She enter tains. as the ability to converse wel l." There is a helpful suggestion in this advice. able to interest people. no matter how talented you may be. No matter how expert you may be in any other art or accomplishment. everyone who comes in contact with you will see your life-picture. everyo ne with whom you talk will feel the influence of your skill and charm. But if you are an artist in conversation. or without anyone guessing your special ty. You may be a painter. It not only helps you to make a good impression upon stra ngers. who has been very successful in the launching of débutant es in society. but who cannot express himself with ease or eloquence. and yet. patients. Nothing embarrasses and bores the average man so much as a girl who has to be entertained. is a tremendous power developer. even though you are poor. and who has therefore something to say. But wherever you go and in whatever society you are. but talk . Conversation. but if you are a good converser. It sends you clients. only comparatively few people can ever hear or appreciate your music . you cannot use your expertness always and everywhere as you can the power to converse well. The temptation for people who are unaccustomed to society. is to say nothing themselves and listen to what others say. Everyone knows whether you are an artist or a bungler. but people enjoy her society because she can t alk well." There is no other one thing which enables us to make so good an impression. who has the art of putting things in an attractive way .Sir Walter Scott defined "a good conversationalist" as "one who has ideas. listens. unl ess you have very marked ability so that your pictures are hung in the salons or in the great art galleries. In fact. customers. You may be a fine singer. To be a good conversationalist. to rivet their attenti on. comparatively few people will ever see them. and yet travel around the world without having an opp ortunity of showing your accomplishment. you may have spent years with great masters. or how many years you may have spent in perfecting yourself in your specialty. The way to learn to talk is to ta lk. If you are a musician. It helps you into the be st society. A man who can talk well. esp ecially upon those who do not know us thoroughly. Good talkers are always sought after in society. always gives this advice to her protégés. no matter what your sta tion in life may be. if used as an educator. one which is s uperior to all others. is to be the possessor of a very great accomplishment. She may have many defects. you may have a great many accomplishments which people occasionally se e or enjoy. has a very great a dvantage over one who may know more than he. It opens doors and softens he arts. talk. It makes you interesting in all sorts of company. but chatter away lightly and gayly. by the very superiority of your conversationa l ability. and you may have a very beautiful home and a lot of property which c omparatively few people ever know about. and who feel diff ident. It helps you to get on i n the world. thinks. So-and-So to dinners or receptions because she is such a good talker. it also helps you to make and keep friends. A noted society leader. to draw them to you naturally. which you have been painting ever since you began to talk .

The man who has a bungling expression. None of them would ever get very f ar without hard work. T he ability to interest people in your conversation. on the cars. and you may not be able to go to school or co llege. to mak e an effort to express ourselves with elegance. we do not take the trouble or pains to learn to talk well. b ecause it is so much easier to do so than it is to think before we speak. "Search me". can help you. This is the price of all achievement that is of value. Poor conversers excuse themselves for not trying to improve by saying that "goo d talkers are born. will betray all your secrets. You may think you are poor and have no chance in life. I know a business man who has cultivated the art of conversation to such an ext ent that it is a great treat to listen to him. Few people think very much about how they are going to express themselves. you may be tied down to an iron environment. so quickly as your conversation. "I hate that man. or commanding language. What you say. flippant. "Well. mere chattering. Nothing else will indicate your fineness or coarseness of culture. All his life he has been a reader of the finest prose and poet ry. that's the limit". which will give so much pleasure to your friends. his words are chosen with such exquisite delicacy. he gets on my n erves. is a great pow er. Thousands of young people who envy such of their mates as are getting on faster than they are keep on wasting their precious evenings and their half-holidays. or good merchants are born.ing without thinking. Most of us express ourselves in sloppy. and power. silly talk which demoralizes o ne's ambition. to hold them. good phys icians. ease. without an effort to express oneself with clearness. in coarse slang expressions. and how you say it. "You're talking through your hat". taste. will giv e the world your true measure. every person with whom you converse. senseless things--things which do not rise to the level of humor. There is no accomplishment. there is such a refinement in his diction that he charms everyone who hears him speak. because in every sentence you utter you can practise the best form of expression. You may be situated so t hat others are dependent upon you. a nd in public places. It will tell your whole life's story. conci seness. Most of us are bunglers in our conversation. will never get hold of the best thing in a man. but the foolish. because it beg ets habits of superficial and senseless thinking. limpid beauty. because we do not make an art of i t. "You just bet". who uses good English. They use the first words that come to them. or efficiency. disappointed ambition. interesting. you may be tortured with an unsatisfied. slipshod English. coarse voices are heard in light. the average society small talk. not made. On the streets. They do not think of forming a sentence . and has cultivated conversation as a fine art. as you long to. an d yet you can become an interesting talker. your breedin g or lack of it. Every book you read. who knows a thing. lowers one's ideals and all the standards of life. or to study music or art. frothy. slipshod speech. is always placed at a great disadvantage. His language flows with such liqu id." We might as well say that good lawyers. There is no doubt that the gift of language was intended to be a much greate r accomplishment than the majority of us have ever made of it. as fine conversati on. Many a man owes his advancement very largely to his ability to converse well. not made. We do not read eno ugh or think enough. and accuracy. saying nothing but the most frivolous. It lies too deep for such superficial effort. no attainment which you can use so constantly and e ffectively. loud. or gossiping." and a score of other such vulgarities we often hear. but never can put it in logical.

I shall never forget. Now and then we meet a real artist in conversation. We all know people who use the c hoicest language and express their thoughts in fluent. The great discoveries of vast wealth in the precious minerals. as has ex-President Eliot of Harvard. The deterioration is due to the complete revolution in the condition s of modern civilization. the fascination of his personality. I have met a dozen persons in my lifetime who have given me such a glimpse of i ts superb possibilities that it has made all other arts seem comparatively unimp ortant to me. had this won derful conversational charm. in these strenuous times. and Elizabeth S. Livermore. who impre ss us by the wonderful flow of their conversation. when ev erybody has the mania to attain wealth and position. the liquid charm of his words.so that it will have beauty. and to develop our powers of conversation. and it seemed to me that I had never heard such exquisite and polished English. They do not impress us with their thoughts. Knowledge of all kinds was disseminated almost wholly through the spoken word. brevity. Oratory is becoming a lost art for the same reason. . but whose words are so full of meat and stimulating brain force that we feel ourselves multiplied many times by the power they have injected into us. There i s no longer the same need of communicating thought by the spoken word. they do not stimulate us to actio n. the new world op ened up by inventions and discoveries. transparency. that we should make such a botch of the medium of uman beings." Mrs. the profundity of his knowledge. The quality of the conversation is everything. Formerly people had almost no other way of communicati ng their thoughts than by speech. after we have heard them talk than we felt before. In these gr eat newspaper and periodical days. that it is in deed a luxury. He sat down on the sofa beside me and talked as he would to an old schoolmate. I have met several Englis h people who possessed that marvelous power of "soul in conversation which charm s all who come under its spell. and using a superb diction. and his marvelous art of putting things. we no longer have time to r eflect with deliberation. Julia Ward Howe. We do not feel any more determined to do something in the world. and the music of his voice. Printing has become so chea p that even the poorest homes can get more reading for a few dollars than kings and noblemen could afford in the Middle Ages. power. liquid diction. with little thought of arrangement or order. but that is all there is to i t. In this lightning-express age. no magazi nes or periodicals of any kind. The words flow from t heir lips helter-skelter. when it is capable of being made the art of it is such a treat and bunglers in our convers communication between h arts. Ward. and the great impetus to ambition have ch anged all this. There were no great daily newspapers. to be somebo dy. Mary A. In olden times the art of conversation reached a much higher standard than that of to-day. and delight that we wonder why the most of us should be such ation. So rare is it t o hear one speaking exquisite English. P. the purity. the transparency of his dicti on. eve rybody sits behind the morning sheet or is buried in a book or magazine. I was once a visitor at Wendell Phillips's home in Boston. when everybody can get for one or a few cents the news and information which it has cost thousands of dollars to collect. It is a rare thing to find a polished conversationalist to-day. We know other people who talk very little.

when they make an effort to say something and cannot. and will gain ease of manner and facility of expression. Timid young people often suffer keenly in this way in att empting to declaim at school or college. you may be well r ead in history and in politics. if your knowledge is locked up within you. repeat and repeat. telling language. who have that awfu l feeling of repression and stifling of thought. especially the timid and shy. when he first attempted to speak in public and was of ten deeply humiliated by his blunders and failures. however. Many people have good thoughts and ideas. who know a great deal. while some superficial. when momentous questions are being disc ussed. n o explaining. You may be a profound scholar. Locked-up ability may give the individual some satisfaction. We see brainy men at public gatherings. you must be as much as possible in the socie ty of well-bred. though you are a coll ege graduate. if one keeps on trying. and art. how quickly he will conquer his awkwardness and self-con sciousness. w ould avail. and its great value. . because they can not carry on an intelligent c onversation upon any topic. There is no other way. that you stammer and flounder about for words which you are unable to find. and yet. shallow-brained person holds the at tention of those present simply because he can tell what he knows in an interest ing way. nobody would appreciate it until it was ground and polished and the light let into its depths to reveal its hidden brilliancy. People with a lot of ability. They are constantly humiliated and embarrassed when away from those who happen to know their real worth. unable to tell what they know. But it is just as important to know how to give out knowledge in a pal atable manner as to acquire it. It does not matter how valuable the rough diamond may be. It merely reveals its wealth. and that is a great aid to conversation. It is remarkable. The grinding does not add anything to the diamond. before the world will appreciate it or give credit for it. sit silent. no describing its marvels of beauty within. cultured people. to become an orator or a good conversationalist than by constantly trying to express oneself efficiently and elegantly. they can not find it. expressed in some attractive way. We all sympathize with people. Conversation is to th e man what the cutting of the diamond is to the stone. Many people--and this is especially true of scholars--seem to think that the gr eat desideratum in life is to get as much valuable information into the head as possible. l iterature. you may be sure that every honest effort you make. wil l make it all the easier for you to speak well the next time. often appear like a set of dummies in company. They have not words enough to clothe their id eas and make them attractive. you will always be placed at a great disadvantage. They talk around in a circle. howev er. you will be a poor converser. There are hundreds of these silent people at our nat ional capital--many of them wives of husbands who have suddenly and unexpectedly come into political prominence. even if you fail in your attempt. Everywhere we see people placed at a tremendous disadvantage because they have never learned the art of putting their ideas into interesting. but i t will also increase one's vocabulary. but it must be exh ibited. will not only broaden the mind and give new ideas.Good reading. but they cannot express them because o f the poverty of their vocabulary. If you find that your ideas fly from you when you attempt to express them. If you are ambitious to talk well. when they want a particular word to convey their exact meaning. b ecause. But many a great orator went through th e same sort of experience. you may be wonderfully well-posted in science. when they are infinitely bette r informed than those who are making a great deal of display of oratory or smoot h talk. If you seclude yourself.

the faculties are on the alert. It stimulates thought wonderfully. send u s patients. a great revealer of possibilities a nd resources. and to value them in proportion as they furnish readers for our books. we have not enough respect for the talker to keep qu iet. a magnetism which held. Then the avenues of the mind fly open. intelligently. To converse well one must listen well also--hold oneself in a receptive attitud e. if we can interest and hold others. hitch about as if we were bored and were anxious t o get away. For the hun . "We are too intense for epigram or repartee. Many a college graduate has been silenced and put to shame by peo ple who have never even been to a high school. we are inclined to look upon them as so many rungs in a ladde r. to elbow our way through the crowd to get the position or the money we desire. Ever ything bores us which does not bring us more business. The school and the college employ the student comparatively a few hours a day f or a few years. We are too impatient to listen. or more money. Our life is feverish and unnatural. We think more of ourselves if w e can talk well. Many get the b est part of their education in this school. develops new powers. We lack time. Instead of being attentive and eager to drink in th e story or the information. clients. customers or show their ability to give us a boost for poli tical position. our self-confidence. but who have cultivated the art o f self-expression. No man knows what he really possesses until he makes his best effort to express to others what is in him. and which often stimulates and inspires to fre sh endeavor. In fact. Nothing else will develop the brain and character more than the constant effort to talk well. children are allowed to mangle th e English language in a most painful way. Every good converser has felt a power come to him from the lis tener which he never felt before. as the mixing of two chemicals often produces a new third substance. but we are poor listeners as well. We look about impatiently. conversation is a training in a perpetual school. before this age of excitement. interestingly. for there was a touch of personality. a superb personality which fascinated. or which d oes not help us to attain the position for which we are striving. and interrupt the speaker before he reaches his conclusion. Instead of enj oying our friends. The mingling of thought with thought. We are not only poor conversationalists. or elegance of diction. The power to do so increase s our self-respect. the contact of mind with mind ." Nervous impatience is a conspicuous characteristic of the American people.How little parents realize the harm they are doing their children by allowing t hem to grow up ignorant of or indifferent to the marvelous possibilities in the art of conversation! In the majority of homes. It was better than most modern lectures. perhaps snap our watch. play a tattoo with our f ingers on a chair or a table. than anyth ing one could find in a book. We know people who are such superb conver sers that no one would ever dream that they have not had the advantages of the h igher schools. upon all sorts of topics. Conversation is a great ability discoverer. it was con sidered one of the greatest luxuries possible to be a listener in a group surrou nding an intelligent talker. we are such an impatient people that we have no time for anything excepting to push ahead. There is a splendid discipline in the constant effort to express one's thoughts in clear language and in an interesting manner. a charm of s tyle. We have no time to develop charm of manner. Before these days of hurry and drive.

Spontaneity and humor. It is pitiable. distant. and the possibility of a fine culture and a superb charm of personality in us are almost impossible and extremely rare. Life is becoming so artificial. Our conversation will never reach a high standard while we l ive in such a feverish. if it does not happen to interest those to whom you are talking your efforts will be largely lo st. It is: "How do?" or "Morning. to see men standing around at the average reception or club gathering. They are cold and reserved. You must be able to ente r into another's life. how they can make more show." accompanied by a sh arp nod of the head. how you get on. business and their own little worl d. We are too self ish. they are interested at once. the charm of the days of chivalry and leisure has almost vanished from our civilization. We have no time for the grace s and the charms. and you must touch them along the lines of their interest. instead of by a graceful bow. to live it with the other person. business. A new type of in dividual has sprung up. We have no time for the development of a fine manner. yearning for an education. thinki ng. She dissipated their fears. business. and powerless to enter heartily into t he conversation because they are in a subjective mood. almost helpless. more patients. It does not do to stab people if you would interest them. and unsympathetic state. and then rush to a theater or other place of amusement in the evening. their affections on themselves and their own affairs.gry soul. sympathe tic manner that she helped the timid and the shy to say their best things. We are like some coll ege boys. nor to drag ou t their family skeletons. more clients. No matter how much you may know about a subject. and m ade them feel at home. thinking business. or how they can help you. We work like Trojans during the day. If you talk about these things. we driv e our human engines at such a fearful speed. People thought her an interesting c onversationalist because she had this ability to call out the best in others. They are thinking. and wrapped up in our own little wor ld. thinking how they can get on a little faster--get more business. She had such a cordial. sometimes. But to-day everything is "touch and go. selfish. and they could say things to her which they could not say to anyone else. so diverse from naturalness. No one ca n make a good conversationalist who is not sympathetic. though she talked very little. to be a good listener o r a good talker. or what your ambition is. One cause for our conversational decline is a lack of sympathy. They do not enter heartily into the lives of others. We pay people for doing that while we sit and laugh. Great conversationalists have always been very tactful--interesting without off ending. or abandon themselves to the occasion enough to make good talkers. too busily engaged in our own welfare. Some people have the peculiar quality of touching the . If you would make yourself agreeable you must be able to enter into the life of the people you are conversing with. There are only two things that interest them. We have no time to make our own amusement or to develop the faculty of humor and fun-making as people used t o do. because their minds are somewhere else. Everything must give way to the material. who depend upon tutors to carry them through their examinations--they expect to buy their education ready-made. dumb. too intent upon our own self-promotion to be interested in others. or more readers for the ir books--or a better house to live in. that our finer life is crushed out." We have no time to stop on the street and give a decent salutation. so forced. but they do not care a snap about your affairs. Walter Besant used to tell of a clever woman who had a great reputation as a co nversationalist. to drink in knowledge from those wise lips was to be fed with a royal feast indeed.

buoyant. and you give him the mastery of palaces and fortunes wherever he goes. A sense of humor such as Lincoln had is. others stir up the bad. With hat in hand. you will make yourself ludicrous by attempting to be funny. distant. If you are co ld.--EMERSON. and an open mind. nat ural. in his power to express himself in strong. so that he wil l throw wide open every avenue of his nature and give you free access to his hea rt of hearts. You must be broad. which. and the con versation is perfunctory. never inter ests you. Thou must rather enforce it with thy smile. You must feel a spirit o f helpfulness. effective. must open your heart wide. no amount of money. will make you appear well if you use poor English. he has not the trouble of earning or owning them . But not everyone can be funny. Than hew to it with thy sword. You lock tight all the approaches to your inner self. No amount of natural ability or education or good clothes. mechanical. is not too serious. You must bring your listener close to you. to be a good conversationalist you must be spontaneous. You must get the attention of people and hold it by interesting them. a great addition to one's c onversational power. interesting language. and they call out all that is spontaneous and sweet and beauti ful. if you lack the sense o f humor. it ought to be in his personality.best that is in us. and. A good conversationalist. they solicit him to enter and possess. A man who i s always violating your sense of taste. Politeness has been compared to an air cushion. one gets on in the world. If a man is a success anywhere. Others allay all that is disagreeable. statistics. Therefore. CHAPTER XVIII A FORTUNE IN GOOD MANNERS Give a boy address and accomplishments. Facts. and of fairness. and exp ress itself in his manner. Strangers were always glad to talk with him because he was so co rdial and quaint. of course. SHAKESPEARE. He should not be obliged to give a stranger an inventory of his possessions in order to show tha t he has achieved something. A greater wealth should flow from his lips. and must show a spirit of good will. He does not deal too muc h with facts. tolerant. however. sympathetic. although there is appare . no matter how important. He put people at ease with his stories and jokes. every avenue is closed to him. Lincoln was master of the art of making himself interesting to everybody he met .--GERMAN PROVERB. of justice. They never touch our sensitive spots. too light. and made them feel so comple tely at home in his presence that they opened up their mental treasures to him w ithout reserve. disgusts. A narrow stingy soul never talks well. Heavy conversation bores. You must be responsive. and must enter heart and soul into things which interest others. and exhib it a broad free nature. and always gave more than he got. Your magnetism and your helpfulness are thus cut off. and unsympathetic you can not hold their attention. What thou wilt. Vivacity is abs olutely necessary. weary. and without life or feeling. Every time they come into our presen ce they irritate us. and you ca n only interest them by a warm sympathy--a real friendly sympathy.

and to keep me from piercing to the very marrow of their bones. I can twist off a s hip's mast as easily as you can waft thistledown. "Has 'e 's been han hofficer 'e bought to know 'ow to be'ave 'isself better. the pinions of birds and the sails of vessels were gently wafted onward. hi say. when a worthy fellow soldier wished to be reinstated in a position from which he had been dismissed. There was no reply. I am the terror of all invalids. saying that no place could . I can lift and have often lifted the Atlantic. and even the good angels went a long way to see him and live with him. "It is I. "Who is it?" inquired the Prince. but it expresses pretty forcibly the fact that a good bearing is indispensable to success as a soldier. let 'im cock 'is chin hup. "Why the doose de 'e 'old 'is 'ead down like that?" asked a cockney sergeant-ma jor angrily." Is it necessary to add that the door was opened. His inborn politeness and kindness of heart were irresistible. switch 'is stick abart a bit. helse 'e might just has well be a Methodist parson. Birth's gude. an give a crack hover the 'ead to hanybody who comes foolin' round 'im. "Don't you wish you had my power?" asked the East Wind of the Zephyr. or that the disagreement was at an end? It is said that civility is to a man what beauty is to a woman: it creates an instantaneous impression in hi s behalf. and was sent in charge of an angel to find his prope r place in the nether world. all the forests and fields. whe n I start they hail me by storm signals all along the coast. With one sweep of my wing I st rew the coast from Labrador to Cape Horn with shattered ship timber. and health and happ iness were everywhere. "Why. died while under the ban of e xcommunication by the pope." The English is somewhat rude. and all the r ivers and lakes and seas. What use 'ud 'e be has a non-commissioned hoffice r hif 'e didn't dare look 'is men in the face? Hif a man wants to be a soldier.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. eases our jolts wonderfully. After a long interval there came a gentle tapping and the low spo ken words: "It is I. orchards ripened. but with the same result. and he seemed to change the hell into a heaven. In about five minutes some one knocked. fleecy clouds went sailing in the lofty heaven. The fallen angels adopted his manner. silver wheat-fie lds turned to gold. closing and locking the d oor. But his genial disposition and great conversational powers won friends wherever he went. U nder my breath the nations crouch in sepulchers. He was remove d to the lowest depths of Hades. Gardens bloomed. men cut down forests for th eir fires and explore the mines of continents for coal to feed their furnaces.--GEORGE L. your wife. The story goes that Queen Victoria once expressed herself to her husband in rat her a despotic tone. Open to the Queen of England!" haughtily responded her Majesty. all the beasts and birds a nd men smiled at its coming. Conduct is three fourths of life. Victoria. sought the seclusion of his own apartment. Mien and manner have much to do with our influence and reputation in any walk of life. whose manly self-respect was smarting at her words. Don't you wish you had my power ?" Zephyr made no reply.ntly nothing in it. according to a quaint old legend.--SCOTCH PROVERB. At length the angel returned with the monk. CAREY. The foliage and flowers and fruits and harvests. but breedin's better. and Prince Albert. but floated from out the bowers of the sky. the warm th and sparkle and gladness and beauty and life were the only answer Zephyr gave to the insolent question of the proud but pitiless East Wind. The monk Basle.

and he was sent to Heaven and canonized as a saint. At the great recep tion to Napoleon on his return from Italy. "Please. Those arriving in the first coach had a rueful experience to relate--a terrific thunder-storm. They were the creatures of her will . and breathed a purer air. "To this day. But sh e was so fascinated by Burr's charming manner that she sat with his friends.. H er hold upon the minds of men was wonderful. The party in the second coach heard their stor y with surprise. but she was so overcome by the fine manner of the accused that she believed in his innocence and prayed for his acquittal. His fascinating smile and winning speech disarmed the fiercest hatred and made friends of the bitterest enemies. Cavanaugh. "I feel the m agic of his wonderful deportment. no. He still remained the same Basle. but she possessed that indefinable so mething before which mere conventional beauty cowers. the privileged circle at Coppet after making an excursi on returned from Chambéry in two coaches. Aaron Burr. "When Dickens entered a room. twenty thousand francs were put into it. P. The intoxication of the conversation had made t hem insensible to all notice of weather or rough roads.be found in which to punish him. of mud. "one an ecdote more. shocking roads." as Longfellow wrote of Evangeline." said she fifty years afterwards. such a conversation between Madame de Staël and Madame Récamier and Benjamin Constant and Schlegel! they were all in a state of delight. the crowd caught sight of this fascin ating woman and almost forgot to look at the great hero." whispered a servant to Madame de Maintenon at dinner. "I should command Madame de Staël to talk to me every day. Beuve. by which every one was warmed. Our door-yards brighter blooming." yet he sway ed the destinies of empires." She was so fascinating in manner and speech that her guests appeared to overlook all the little discomforts of life. The Duke of Marlborough "wrote English badly and spelled it worse. Madame. Roche in Paris. who was witho ut arms or legs. According to St. In the words of Whittier it could be said of her as might be said of any woman: -Our homes are cheerier for her sake. and dange r and gloom to the whole company. Even the Emperor Napoleon fe ared her influence over his people so much that he destroyed her writings and ba nished her from France. for there is no roast to-day. they had forgotten earth. The charm of his manner was irresistible and influe nced all Europe. So his sente nce was revoked." Madame de Staël was anything but beautiful." said one who knew him well." It is said that when Goethe entered a restaurant people would lay down their kn . And all about the social air Is sweeter for her coming. they knew nothi ng. of thunder-storm. "it seemed like the ceasing of exquisite music. of steeps. M. but the conver sation and manner of the host were so charming that the visitor was scarcely con scious of his deformity." Madame Récamier was so charming that when she passed around the box at the Church St. A guest for two weeks at the house of Arthur M." "When sh e had passed. and locked her up." said Madame Tesse. "If I were Queen. whom he regarded as an arch-traitor. A gentleman took his daughter of sixteen to Richmond to witness the trial of hi s bitter personal enemy. of danger. and she shaped careers as if she were omnipotent. was very desirous of knowing how he fed himself. "it was like the sud den kindling of a big fire. commonplace and ashamed. Her father took her from the courtroom.

the first gentleman in Europe. The Que en's courteous suspension of the rules of etiquette. Julian Ralph." His manner as well as his logic was irresistible. She co ughed and moved uneasily. "L et us sit down.ives and forks to admire him. With two friends who had accompanied him. to the c onsternation of the others. to find all the doors locked. The Prince. after speaking to her a few minutes. An open titter of amusement w ent round the table. "but I call him a very lucky lawyer. but no one could d escribe." The man made no reply. and what it may have cost h er. so she said tartly: "You probably are a foreigner. who was a Scotch peasant. He understood so little of the manners at court that. returned to his hotel at two o'clock in the morning. but the same fine courtesy which led him to give up his cigar was shown again as he spared her the mortification of even a questioning glance. but threw hi s cigar from the window. he said. after telegraphing an account of President Arthur's fishing-trip to the Thousand Islands. but what was his chagrin when the door wa s opened by the President of the United States! "Why. feeling that he had always been a nobleman in his own right. immovable fig ure with apprehension until she reached the door. he was almost worshiped by the students. and which never left him. But she was g reat enough. Silent and abashed. Philip of Macedon. I could have sent my colored boy. that's all right. can be better understood from what an acquaintance of Carlyle said of him wh . sai d: "Had I been there he would have persuaded me to take up arms against myself. the guest. His great popularity lay in a magical atmosphere which every one felt. although she watched his dumb. he battere d at a side door to wake the servants. and make a speech to himself and his wife. still less of a look of amusement. drank from his saucer. She withd rew in confusion. the other members of the princely household took the r ebuke and did the same. and gave a gesture that seated all her puppets in a moment. when a somewhat stout man sitting just ahead of her lighted a cigar. "You wouldn't have got in till morning if I had not come. but the hints had no effect. No one is up in the house b ut me. Smoking is not permitted here. When Edward Everett took a professor's chair at Harvard after five years of stu dy in Europe. Arthur when Mr. being tired. His manner seemed touched by that exquisite grace seldom found except in women of rare culture." The late King Edward. A New York lady had just taken her seat in a car on a train bound for Philadelp hia. which he declined. gravely emptied his cup into his saucer and drank after the manner of his g uest." Henry Clay was so graceful and impressive in his manner that a Pennsylvania tav ern-keeper tried to induce him to get out of the stage-coach in which they were riding. madam. "I don't think much of Choate's spread-eagle talk. offering him the tit le of nobleman. a moment later. invi ted an eminent man to dine with him. Queen Victoria sent for Carlyle. and do not know that there is a smoking-car attached t o the train. When coffee was served. What has her astonishment when the conductor told her. Ralph asked his pardon. when prese nted to the Queen." said a simple-minded member of a jury that had given five successive verdicts to the great advocate. but he had fallen asleep and I hated to wake him. when Prince of Wales. that she had entered the private car of General Grant." whereat the courtiers were ready to faint." said Mr. quickly noting the cause of the untimely amusem ent. after hearing the report of Demosthenes' famous oration. for there was not one of those five cases that ca me before us where he wasn't on the right side.

and the pedestal up set. in their eagerness to see the Princess. Its lines seem co ntinuous." Some persons wield a scepter before which others seem to bow in glad obedience.'" "It was only a glad 'good-morning. contentment. r asped the nerves. not the one of greate st physical beauty. or pick their teeth with forks. Beauty of life and character. At an entertainment given years ago by Prince Edward and t he Princess of Wales. charity. as it was sometim es expressed. It was fortunate for Napoleon that he married Josephine before he was made comm ander-in-chief of the armies of Italy. actually stood upon it. or wipe their faces on the damask. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. Ladies of the court must not wash out their mouths in the drinking-glasses. there was such pushing and struggling to see the Princess. But whence do they obtain such magic power? What is the secret of that almost h ypnotic influence over people which we would give anything to possess? Courtesy is not always found in high places. benignity. when I would say. It is sharp angles that keep man y souls from being beautiful that are almost so. I expected to meet a rare being. 'I will that all around me be happy. as in art. Mirabeau was one of the ugliest men in France. and love. Josep hine was to the drawing-room and the salon what Napoleon was to the field--a pre eminent leader. "in which I would voluntarily use the words. but also of the nations her husband conquered. to which only the very cream of the cream of society was a dmitted. that. The most fas cinating person is always the one of most winning manners. The Greeks thought beauty was a proof of the peculiar favor of the gods. Her fascinating manners and her wonderful powers of persuasion were more influential than the loyalty of any dozen men in France in attaching to him the adherents who would promote his interests. in some unaccountable manner.' As she passed along the way. These rul es were "the ticket" or the etiquette. Even royal courts furnish many exa mples of bad manners. From this the word passed to cards upon which were printed certain rules to be observed by guests.en he saw him for the first time. she published the follo wing rules of etiquette upon cards: "Gentlemen will not get drunk before the fea st is ended. It was said he had "the face of a tiger pitted by smallpox. or had had an attack of seasickness. became the thing with the better class es. so gently does curve melt into curve." But to-day the nobles of R ussia have no superiors in manners. If a bag had this ticket it was not examined. According to their ideal. as she passed through the reception rooms. 'I will!'--namely. To be "the ticket. has no sharp angles. beauty must be the expression of attractive qualities within--s uch as cheerfulness. who was then but lately married. to act or talk by the card." or. Our good is less good when it i . a bust of the Princess Royal was thrown from its pedestal and damaged. and the ladies. Etiquette originally meant the ticket or tag tied to a bag to indicate its cont ents." she said to a friend. and I left him feeling as if I had drunk sour wine. "His presence. and considered that beauty only worth adorning and transmitting whi ch was unmarred by outward manifestations of hard and haughty feeling. When Catherine of Russia gave receptions to her nobles. The secret of her personality that made her the Empress not only of the hearts of the Frenchmen." but the charm of his manner was almost irresistible . Noblemen are forbidden to strike their wives in company. "There is only one occasion. has been beautifully told by herself." A fine manner more than compensates for all the defects of nature.

as though she were a lady. hatred. or a civi l one to Sir Robert Walpole. As by magic he becomes talkative. S uddenly the bell rings. and joy everywhere. sulky. and accuses her of extravagance that would ruin a millionaire. his little girl begs her father to keep on his "co mpany manners" for a little while. and his tail will wag with gratitud e. and the reaso n why. Throw a bone to a dog. crabb ed bear as before the arrival of his guests. a servant girl came to the door. silent. crabbed. "is the best security against o ther people's ill manners. "an d he will always give you a civil and polite answer. When we got there. as revenge. a nd mean with his family and servants. a nd the banker took off his hat. and bowed to the servant girl. He refuses his wife a little money to buy a needed dress." says Chesterfield. What friend of the great Dr. Generosity of heart and a genial go od will towards all are absolutely essential to him who would possess fine manne rs." A fine courtesy is a fortune in itself. as we call it. for these poison the sou rces of spiritual life and shrivel the soul. Many a man and woman might double thei r influence and success by a kindly courtesy and a fine manner. 'Follow your no se and you will find it. or jealousy. Johnson did not feel mortified and pained to see h im eat like an Esquimau. polite. but the sullen mood returns and his courtesy vanishes as quickly as it came. the lower classes are not polite is because the upper cl asses are not polite. and he will run off with it in h is mouth. pat him on the head. I remember how astonished I was the first time I was in Pa ris. let him take the bone from your hand. The good-mannered can do without riches . They can enjoy nearly everything without the t rouble of buying or owning. sunshine. rude. generous. All doors fly open to them. and adopt all that is finest and most wort hy of imitation in every cultured person they meet. said a shrewd observer. a boarding-house." The true gentleman cannot harbor those qualities which excite the antagonism of others. and called her ma demoiselle. the reason why the lower classes the re are so polite is because the upper classes are polite and civil to them. moody. for they bear good will to everybody. They disarm jealousy and envy. that he might embody in his matchless Venus a combination of the loveliest found in all. contemptible. but ask any person a questi on for that purpose in this country (Scotland). malice. No man ever said a pert thing to the Duke of Marlborough. stingy. The dog recognizes the good deed and the gracious manner of doing it. or ill placed. Bees will not sting a man smeared with honey. . They are as welcome in every household as the sunshi ne. Guthrie of Edinburgh. So the good-mannered study. "A man's own good breeding. It carries along with it a dignity that is respected by the most petulant. and he will say.s abrupt. but with no vibration in his tail. Ill breeding invites and authorizes the familiarity of the most timid." said Dr. for they have passports everywhere. He is the same disagreeable.' But the blame is with the upper classes. Call the dog to you. envy. who took me to a pension. and they enter without money and without price. observe." or Great Bear. or. and to hear him call men "liars" because they did not a gree with him? He was called the "Ursa Major. "Ask a person at Rome to show you the road. After the callers have gone. Here is a man who is cross. sullen. ill timed. in this country. Tradition tells us that before Apelles painted his wonderful Goddess of Beauty which enchanted all Greece. Now. I spent the first night with a banker. he traveled for years observing fair women. Some neighbors call: what a change! The bear of a moment ago is as docile as a lamb. Those w ho throw their good deeds should not expect them to be caught with a thankful sm ile. and why not? for they carry light.

hope. modest." Dr. exalt or debase. and deems every other person as good as himself. barbarize or refine us by a con stant.Benjamin Rush said that when Goldsmith at a banquet in London asked a question about "the American Indians. invincible operation like that of the air we breathe. or mushroom. sensible. steady." said the French Minister." A gentleman is just a gentle man: no more. and enables the machinery of society to pe rform its functions without friction. cont rols his speech. subdues his feelings." replied Goldsmith. "because if they are untrue I run the risk of being deceived. They are the ki ndly fruit of a refined nature. He will nev er choose danger. He who h as lost all but retains his courage." Aristotle thus described a real gentleman more than two thousand years ago: "Th e magnanimous man will behave with moderation under both good fortune and bad. and no other can. and well-bred man Would not insult me. Manners are what vex or soothe. cheerfulness. I hear." was the felicitous reply of the man who became highly esteemed by the most polite court in Europe. must be painted before he is glazed. nor seek it. Johnson exclaimed: "There is not an Indian in North America foolish enough to ask such a question. uniform. or timely thoughtfulness with human sympathy behind it. that seemed nothing . virtue. slow to take offense. to Mr." After Stephen A. l ike porcelain-ware." "Sir. in a late autumn morning. that subtle oil which lubr icates our relations with each other. He is slow to surmise evil. no less. A gentleman is gentle." Cowper says:-A modest. Jefferson." No one can fully estimate how great a factor in life is the possession of good manners. A gentleman. is a true gentleman. and is rich still. of hating people not worth thinking about. "I never listen to calumnies. a diamond polished that was first a diamond in the rough." replied Clement. "I succeed him. "You should not have returned their salute. nor grieved with failure. whe n Clement XIV bowed to the ambassadors who had bowed in congratulating him upon his election. which do really clothe a princely nature. He is not given to talk about himself or others. and self-respec t. "a po or fungus. He will neither be delighted with success." says Emerson. "Oh. "I have not been pope lo ng enough to forget good manners. There can be no change after it is burned in. he will not allow himself to be abased. "there is not a savage in America rude enough to make such a speech to a gentlem an. "Hans Andersen's story of the cobweb cloth woven so fi ne that it was invisible--woven for the king's garment--must mean manners.--a plant without any solidity. and if they are true. no man can replace him. courteous. and never giving it. Ev en power itself has not half the might of gentleness. refines his tastes." said the master of ceremonies." asks Emerson. and are the open sesame to the best of society. nor that other people should be blamed. I beg your pardon. as he never thin ks it. nay." "I think. "You replace Dr. and all that is put on afterwards will wash off. who had been sent to Paris to relieve our most popular repr esentative. He does not care that he himself should be praised. Douglas had been abused in the Senate he rose and said: "What no gentleman should say no gentleman need answer." said Montesquieu. H e will not allow himself to be exalted. Franklin. "Have you not seen in the woods. He subjects his appetites. Count de Vergenne s.

and it kind o' took me off my feet." The art of pleasing is the art of ris ing in the world. manage to break its way up through the frosty ground. and so allowed him to retain his seat. and the next time you run ag'in ' me. "who in no single instance reminded me of the difference betwe en himself and me. "since a good manner often s ucceeds where the best tongue has failed. instead of its being General Lorges. Helena to make way for a laborer bending under a heavy load. In hastily turning the corner of a crooked street in London." Napoleon was much displeased on hearing that Josephine had permitted General Lo rges. N apoleon commended her highly for her courtesy. like bullets." "There is no policy like politeness. everything considered. "Thomas. Jim. The President returned the salutation by raisi ng his hat. and then. yet are they everywhere polite and affable. James Russell Lowell was as courteous to a beggar as to a lord. are the Jews. and actually to lift a hard crust on its head? It is the symbol of the power of kindness. Mass. to sit beside her on the sofa. when they met a slave . a young lady ran w ith great force against a ragged beggar-boy and almost knocked him down. miss. and despoiled of their civil privileges and thei r social rights. came to a stream which he could not cross. while a broad. A Washington politician went to visit Daniel Webster at Marshfield. respect the burden.--by its constant. Stoppin g as soon as she could. They indulge in few or no recriminations." says Richter. as he courteou sly stepped aside at St. Calling to a rough-looking farmer near by. my little fellow. it was one of the aged generals of his army." If parents were not careless about the manners of their children at home." said Napoleon. "as you would eat at the table of the king. he offered a quarter to be carried to . total. and was once ob served holding a long conversation in Italian with an organ-grinder whom he was questioning about scenes in Italy with which they were each familiar. The politest people in the world. who took off his hat and bowed. pleasant smile overspread his face: "You h ave my parding. it is said. are faithful to old associations.." The astonished bo y looked at her a moment.but a soft mush or jelly. you can knock me clean down and I won't say a word." says Magoon. he said to a companion: "I say. they surpass al l nations in courtesy. she turned around and said very kindly: "I beg your pard on. and forbearance. and. ma de a low bow and said. not more worldly-minded and mon ey-loving than people generally are." sa id Fred Douglass. "Men. it's the first time I ever had any body ask my parding. "go farthest when they are smoothest." "Eat at your own table. while his companion seemed inclined to keep the narrow path.--and welcome." "Respect the burden. and. and inconceivably gentle push ing. more considerate of the prejudices of others than others are of theirs. "do you permit a slave to be more of a gentleman than yourself?" "Lincoln was the first great man I talked with freely in the United States. affability. and welcome." After the lady had pa ssed on. I am very sorry that I ran against you." says Confucius. In all ages they ha ve been maltreated and reviled. President Jefferson was one day riding with his grandson. Josephine explain ed that. She was unwilling to wound the feelings of the honest old soldier. entirely unused to the customs of courts. madame. but the grandson ignored the civility of the negro. taking off about three quarters of a cap. of the difference in color. a young and handsome man. they would seldom be shocked or embarrassed at their behavior abroad." said t he grandfather. in taking a short cut to the house.

The strangers were Russians sent by their Czar. and to the great surprise and chagrin of the vi sitor was introduced as Mr. opened the store. as well as of persuasive eloquence. but would not take the quarter. This little incident was talked of all about the city and brought him hundreds of customers. for th ey know not what they do. an d conciliating. a merchant in Pr ovidence. Hence. He was one o f the serenest souls that ever lived. and in terrible agony on the cross. Webster. the former will become rich while the boorish one will starve. Butler. obliging. kind. gave them choice seats. and was disc ourteous to his customers. Not long ago a lady met the late President Humphrey of Amherst College. if one be gentlemanly. A poor curate saw a crowd of rough boys and men laughing and making fun of two aged spinsters dressed in antiquated costume. and exceptional shrewdness and sagacity. Winans to establish locomotive works in Russia. and amid the titter of the congregation. conducted them up the central aisle. even to His persecut ors. The ladies were embarrassed and di d not dare enter the church.the other side. and she was so much pleased with his great politeness that she gave a generous donation to the college. "he always suspected his employees of cheating him. Christ was courteous. no man ever put good will or energy into work done for him. Ross Winans of Baltimore owed his great success and fortune largely to his cour tesy to two foreign strangers. and g ot the thread. The old rustic presented himself a t the house a few minutes later. harsh. Garrison was as polite to the furious mob that tore his clothes from his back a nd dragged him through the streets as he could have been to a king. Good manners often prove a fortune to a young man. I. He cried: "Father. a nd soon his profits resulting from his politeness were more than $100. These old ladies although strangers to him. Although his was but a fourth-rate factory. The curate pushed through the crowd.. Take two men possessing eq ual advantages in every other respect. at their death left the gent le curate a large fortune. wh o later invited Mr. and his patrons went to shops where they were sure of civility. R. industry. The farmer took the politician on his broad shoulders and lande d him safely.000 a year . "Why did our friend never succeed in business?" asked a man returning to New Yo rk after years of absence. and insolent. w hile agreeable manners win in spite of other defects." Some men almost work their hands off and deny themselves many of the common com forts of life in their earnest efforts to succeed. He went back. Bad manners often neutralize even honesty. a thorough knowledge of h is business. [Illustration: Jane Addams] ." "He was sour and morose. and. Mr. He did so." St. rude. He became very wealthy. They repel patronage. business which might easily be theirs goes to others who are really less de serving but more companionable. his g reat politeness in explaining the minutest details to his visitors was in such m arked contrast with the limited attention they had received in large establishme nts that it won their esteem. had once closed his store and was on his way home when he met a little girl who wanted a spool of thread. and yet render success imposs ible by their cross-grained ungentlemanliness. Courtesy pays. forgive them. natura lly." was the reply. largely because of his court esy. Paul's speech before Agrippa is a model of dignif ied courtesy. and the other disobliging. "he had sufficient capital. and the greatest energy.

and has frequently been a barrier to the highest culture. who would walk up to a cannon's mouth in battle. and which cause us intense mortification and embarrassment. At last he det ermined to give up trying to cure his shyness. Shak espeare was very shy. reserved. He would not allow his name to be used in connection with his theory of the moon's motio n. for fear it would increase the acquaintances he would have to meet. He took second or third-rate parts on account of his diffidence. Gough said that he could no t rid himself of his early diffidence and shrinking from public notice. which locks their lips and ties their tongues. and would often b e covered with cold perspiration. Ex cessive shyness must be overcome as an obstacle to perfect manners." said Sydney Smith. He did not acknowledge his grea t discovery for years just for fear of attracting attention to himself. He retired from London at forty. Many persons of real refinement are thought to be stiff. but are merely diffident and shy. George Wa shington was awkward and shy and had the air of a countryman. Elihu Burritt was so shy that he would hide in the cellar when his parent s had company. and did not try to publis h or preserve one of his plays." spoken to a little beggar-girl who bou ght a pennyworth of snuff proved a profitable advertisement and made Lundy Foote a millionaire. though he had acted for thirty years with marked self-possession. my dear. By this co urse the business has been developed until it is said to be the largest of the k ind in the world. Practice on the stage or lecture platform does not always eradicate shyness. proud. "but it was not long before I made tw o very useful discoveries. he was so confused a nd embarrassed that the judge dismissed him. but he co uld scarcely utter a dozen words in conversation without being embarrassed. please call again. Sir Isaac Newton was the shyest man of his age. "Thank you. so that every visitor will remember the Bon Marché with pleasure. Mere politenes s is not enough. He said that he never went on the platform without fear and trembling. "I was once very shy. There are many worthy people who are brave on the street. Da vid Garrick. It is peculi ar to the Anglo-Saxon and the Teutonic races. and dare no t express an opinion in the social circle. and h aughty who are not. and next. "for why. It is a disease of the finest organizations and the high est types of humanity. Archbishop Whately was so shy that he would escape notice whenever it was possible. and where almost everything is kept for sale. an enormous establishment in Paris where thousands of clerks are employed. Addison was one of the purest writers of English and a perfect master of the pen. Something more must be done than is done in other st ores. and. that all mankind were not solely employed in o bserving me. that shamming was of no use. but who are cowards in the drawing-room. Generally shyness comes from a person thinking too much about himself--which in itself is a breach of good breeding--and wondering what other people think abou t him. It is a curious fact that diffidence often betrays us into discourtesies which our hearts abhor. John B. They feel conscious of a subtle tyran ny in society's code. was once summoned to testify in court. and extreme courtesy. "should I en dure this torture all my life?" when. the great actor. It never attacks the coarse and vulgar." he asked. it almost entirely disapp eared.A fine illustration of the business value of good manners is found in the Bon M arché. that the world was very clea . the employees must try in every possible way to please and to m ake customers feel at home. first. The two distinguishing characteris tics of the house are one low price to all. to his surprise.

They claim adm iration for plain. industrious. As peculiarities in apparel are sure to attract attention. square. horseback riding. permit me to wish you health and happiness. for a country booby. when it may indicate quite the reverse. every f ield blushes beneath a mantle of beauty. Our manners. from the same superfi cial cause. and similar accomplishments. "Is this pe rson going up or down? Through how many grades has he passed?" For example. bearing in mind that outward appearances are deceitful. Good clothes give ease of manner. Every time we go into society we must step on the scales of each person's opinion. con siderate. and went to a hotel in Boston. plain. such as boxing. All present weigh him in their judgment and silen tly say. their best time. when he overheard the remark between some ladies and gentlemen: "Ah." They asked him all sorts of queer questions. Whitman. every star is veiled in brightness.r-sighted. elocution. and may you grow better and wise r in advancing years. Yo u mistook me. and soon estimated a man at his true value. who for it ne glect the culture of the mind or heart. It is e . "This young man is gaining. who are troubled more by an unfashionable garment than by a neglected duty. The consciousness of being well dressed gives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. tending to throw ridicule upon him. They love dress too much who give it their first thought. eve ry bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. thoughtful. They might as well say that they prefer square. But it is a lower beauty. it is well to avoid bright colors and fashionable extremes. or all their money. He entered the parlor and sat down. Shy people should dress well. thought you were ladies and gentlemen. he came to Boston from his farm in countryman's dress. cordial feeling for one's fellow men! Shy people are al ways distrustful of their powers and look upon their lack of confidence as a wea kness or lack of ability. who care more for dress than for their character. turning to the dumfounded company. "Ladies and gentlem en. St. and the loss or gain from our last weight is carefully noted. was elected t o the Massachusetts legislature. said: "I wish you a very good evening. and wear plain. youn g Brown enters a drawing-room. When Ezekiel Whitman. he is more careful. solid. we may do much to overcome the sense of shyness. This cured me. rail at it who may. unornamented houses made from square blocks of stone . The mistake has been mutual." Just then Governor Caleb Strong entered and called to Mr. By teaching ch ildren early the arts of social life. straightforward. "external advantages make us more respect ed. like our characters. Peter's is none the less strong and solid because of its elegant columns a nd the magnificent sweep of its arches. and unlock the tongue. for which a higher beauty should not be sacrificed. Each mentally asks. Beauty in dress is a good thing." What a misfortune it is to go through life apparently encased in ice. A man with a good coat upon his back meets with a better reception than he w ho has a bad one. polite. well-fitting garm ents of as good material as the purse will afford. He has put robes of b eauty and glory upon all his works. are always under inspection. while I. yet all t he while full of kindly. its carved and fretted marbles of matchl ess hues. dancing. when he arose and said. a prominent lawyer and graduate of Harvard. here comes a rea l homespun countryman." One cannot but feel that God is a lover of the beautiful. while inferiority of garb often induces res traint. Some people look upon polished manners as a kind of affectation. rugged characters. Here's fun. who. or the claims of others on their service ." says Johnson. Every flower is dressed in richness." "In civilized society." Besides him stands young Jones. from my dress.

they are always analyzing. one ounce. that tell tale in the soul. Of Essence of Heart's-Ease. Etiquette is but a substitute for good manners and is often but the ir mere counterfeit. . Of the Oil of Charity. Of the tincture of Good Cheer. The following recipe is recommended to those who wish to acquire genuine good m anners:-Of Unselfishness. Of the Extract of the Rose of Sharon. fatal. three drachms. and self-consciousness belong to the same family. He is careless.vident that he is losing ground rapidly. two ounces. Their thoughts are always turned inward. do not constitute or fin ally determine his character. who ever stands in the shadow of ourselves holding the scales of justice. and who was the first true gentlema n that ever breathed. se people could only forget themselves and think of others. ease. what success in hey would achieve. doe s not look you in the eye. tagged with these invisible labels by all who know u s. ting themselves. Mere politeness can never be a substitute for mora l excellence. yet is over-p olite to strangers. and they are all enemies of peace of mind. stingy. and no scruples. four ounces. indifferent. is mean. And so we go through life. one ounce. three drachms. Sincerity is the highest quality of good manners. I sometimes think it would be a great advantage if one could read these ratin gs of his associates. they would be sed to see what freedom. happiness. rough. It may well indicate the kind of wood below. snaps at the servants. and achievement. while they are the garb of the gentleman. or I-am-better-than-you-ness. if we dwell upon our weaknesses. We cannot long deceive the world. they think too much about lves. Of the Infusion of Common Sense and Tact. But manners. themse dissec If the surpri life t Timidity. The Mixture to be taken whenever there is the slightest symptom of selfishness. No one has ever done a great thing wh ile his mind was centered upon himself. Self analysis is valuable only to learn our strength. and grace they would gain. but not always whether it be sound or decayed. Pattern after Him who gave the Golden Rule. We usually find all where we find any one of these qualities. exclusiveness. shy people are morbidly self-conscious. rushes to the eye or into the manner and betrays us. any more than the bark can take the place of the heart of the oak. CHAPTER XIX SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND TIMIDITY FOES TO SUCCESS Timid. for that other self. wondering how they appear and what people think of them. three drachms. shyness. We must lose ourselves before we can fin d ourselves. Of the Spirit of Love. meanness.

Do not brood over what is said to you. When he thinks they are aiming remarks at him. o r drinking. or stealing. Think less of yourself and m ore of others. "What shall I do to get rid of it?" asks a victim. putt ing slights upon him. and depreciating and making light of them on ever y possible occasion. so he is simp ly forced to drop his foolish sensitiveness. A sufferer who wishes to overco me it must take himself in hand as determinedly as he would if he wished to get control of a quick temper. Their super-sensitiveness makes cowards of them.Thousands of young people are held back from undertaking what they long to do. or analyzing his character. One of the best schools for a sensitive boy is a large business house in which he will be thrown among strangers who will not handle him with gloves. by his quickness to take offense. Become interested in things outside of yourself. is really an exaggerated form of s elf-consciousness. He begins to see that the wor ld is too busy to bother itself especially about him. making fun at h is expense. when boys enter college as freshmen. or get out. and that. and have been knocked about and handled in a rough but good-humored manner by youths of their own age. because of this weakness. whatever he does. even when people look at him. Many a good business man has been kept back. they realize that it would be the most foolis h thing in the world to betray resentment. well educated and able. Th ere is many a clergyman. If one shows that he is hurt. Working in competition with other people. Do not have suc h a low and unjust estimate of people as to think they are bent on nothing but h urting the feelings of others. Morbid sensitiveness requires heroic treatment. he is the center of obs ervation. He imagines that people are criticizing his movements. or any other defect which prevented his being a whole man. Thousands of people are out of positions. but will make up his mind to grin and bear it. or to resent a fancied slight. who is so sensitive that he can not keep a pastorate long. He does not realize that other people are too busy and too much inter ested in themselves and other things to devote to him any of their time beyond w hat is absolutely necessary. and are kept from trying to make real their great life-dreams. because they are afraid to jostle with the world. and who gi ves his neighbors credit for being at least as good as he is. Oftentimes. or whatever he says. or trying to hold him up to the ridicule of others. they m ay not be even conscious of his presence. or analyze every simple remark until you magnify it into something of the greatest importance. takes the nonsense out of him. He will be ashamed to play "cry baby" every time he feels h urt. or even ruined. wherever he goes. they are so touchy th at their sense of honor is constantly being hurt and their pride stung by the un conscious thrusts of classmates and companions. whether in man or woman. It is far removed from conceit or self-esteem. They shrink from exposing their sore spots and sensitive points. which smart from the lightest touch. when they are probably not thinking of h im at all. Mingle freely with people. Over-sensitiveness. yet it causes one's personality to overshadow everything else. From his distorted viewpoint some brother or sister in the church is always hurting him. or to rid himself of a habit of lying. A sensitive person feels that. In such a n environment he will soon learn that everyone has all he can do to attend to hi s own business. But after they have been in coll ege a term. and seeing that exactly the same treatment is given to those above him as to himself. saying and thinking unkind things. A man who appreciates himself at his true value. and teased unmercifully. he know s that he will be called the class booby. or throw . He will realize that he must be a man and give and take with the others. cannot be a victim of over-sensitiveness. A college course is of inestimable value to a boy or girl of over-refined sensi bilities. and cannot keep places when they get them. they are not usually thinking of him.

or trying to apply the conventional rules of or atory. If they do not. touch an d go. they doom themselves to unhappiness and failure. He always carries about an injured air. that he really does a great thin g. vigorous editorial write r who is so prone to take offense that he can not hold a position either on a ma gazine or a daily paper. who has been kept in a very ordinary situation for years simply because of her morbid sensitiveness. forgets everything but his subject. metaphorically speaking. that he writes naturally. He is cut to the very quick by the slightest criticism. but they have a ll they can do to attend to their own affairs. and have no time to spend in minu tely analyzing the nature and feeling of those whom they meet in the course of t heir daily business. their grammar. She takes it for granted that if any criticism is made in the department where she works. It is when a writer is so completely carried away with his subject that he cann ot help writing. and regards every suggestion for the improvement of his work as a personal affr ont. and she "flies off the handle" over every lit tle remark that she can possibly twist into a reflection upon herself. Remarks of par ents. by losing themselves in their subject. of perspective. fused in the fire of his geni us. Could anything be more foolish and short-sighted than to allow a morbid sensiti veness to interfere with one's advancement in life? I know a young lady with a superb mind and a fine personality. No painter ever did a great masterpiece when trying to keep all the rules of hi s profession. the science of color. Self-consciousness is a foe to greatness in every line of endeavor. No orator has ever electrified an audience while he was thinking of his style o r was conscious of his rhetoric. or school committees. No one ever does a really great thing until he feels that he is a part of something greater than himself. ar e usually very sensitive. a feeling that he has been imposed upon. which greatly detracts from an otherwise agreeable personality. In the busy world of affairs. No singer ever captivated her audience until she forgot herself.ing out hints and suggestions calculated to injure him in the eyes of the congre gation. or little bits of gossip which are reported to them make them feel as if people were sticking pins in them. Then they found their style. and he forgets hi s audience. it is intended for her. it is give and take. Many schoolteachers are great sufferers from over-sensitiveness. . and then only. Writers. The great majority of people. never touched their power. all the time. The result is that she makes it so unpleasant for her employers that they do no t promote her. no matter how rough in manner or bearing. Some of our best writers never found themselves. And she can not understand why she does not get on faster. are kin d-hearted. Everything must be swallowed up in his zeal. unt il they forgot their rules for construction. the laws of drawing. until she was lost in her song. and those who expect to get on must rid themselves of all morbid sensitive ness. and would much rather help than hinder a fellowbeing. in his mind. authors. It is when the orator's soul is on fire with his theme. can he really create. capable of filli ng a superior position. their rhetorical arr angement. He shows what his real style is.--then. and other people with artistic temperaments. until he surrenders to that greater principle. I have in mind a very strong.

learn. Gets the vote in the Senate. not their own. Lincoln took up a cradle and led the gang arou nd the field. if they are wise: they will forget self." The officer surrendered. They asked no questions about internal improvements. Sails out of the bay. ELIZA COOK. so that he never quite knows whether they are i n sympathy with him or not. so that your Majesty is sure always to have it at perfection. listen. Spite of Webster or Clay. The art of using moderate abilities to advantage wins praise." "I never will surrender to a nigger.No one wishes to employ anyone who is so sensitive that he is obliged to be on his guard every moment lest he wound him or touch a sore spot." This seemed to him the more strange because sometimes he would breakf ast at eight and at other times as late as eleven. and will gain more credit by his adroit mode of hiding his ignorance. Laugh." When Abraham Lincoln was running for the legislature the first time. A man wants to feel that his employees understand him." said the cook. "Tact clinches the bargain. "must kill you den.--BOVEE. massa. with consideration and friendliness in his words or commands. "he did not inte nd to guarantee them. They will think of his troubles. hain't time to go back and git a white man." says Montesquieu. "I do not know how it is. and Force replied "Address. they will not take offense. and that they take into consideration the thousand and one little vexations and happenings which are ext remely trying. A man who knows the world will not only make the most of everything he does kno w." said a Confederate officer." said the negro. "Berry sorry. "Sire." . than the pedant by his awkward attempt to exhibit his erudition. that every quarter of an hour I put a fresh chicken down to roast. and that if he does not happen to approach them with a smiling fa ce. or teach. and often acquire s more reputation than actual brilliancy."--VICTOR HUGO. "When God endowed human beings with brains. CHAPTER XX TACT OR COMMON SENSE "Who is stronger than thou?" asked Braham.--COLTON. It makes an emplo yer very uncomfortable to feel that those about him are carrying around an injur ed air a large part of the time. on the pla tform of the improvement of the Sangamon River. he went to secure the votes of t hirty men who were cradling a wheatfield. He'll suit his bearing to the hour. he knows that he is liable to give offense to these people without ev er intending it. and contribute their zeal to the greater good. If anything has gone wrong in his business and he fe els vexed. "the r eason is. the want of it gives them. The whole thirty voted for him." said Napoleon in surprise to his cook. leveling his rifle. when a colore d soldier chased and caught him. but only seemed curious to know whether he had muscle enough to r epresent them in the legislature. Address makes opportunities. "but at whate ver hour I call for my breakfast my chicken is always ready and always in good c ondition.--ROCHEFOUCAULD. but of many things he does not know.

the keen smell. "How much will you have?" asked the mercha nt. t he surmounter of all difficulties. A merchant is excused if he is a giant in merchandise. but. "Well. Many great men are very impractical even in the ordinary affairs of life. symmetrical man. Charles Lanman. one-sided. as he read. impractical men. Napole on might fall. We often call these one-sided men geniuses. One of Napoleon's marshals understood military tactics as well as his chief . a large hole for the cat. becaus e they can perform one kind of work that no one else can do as well. Beethoven was a great musician. tact knows how to do i t. not a full-orbed. He did not know enough of business to cut the coupon fro m a bond when he wanted money. Learning of a new issue of gold pieces at the Treasury. Dean Swift nearly starved in a country parish where his more practical classmate Stafford became r ich." The world is full of theoretical. very well. "Talent is something. my wife did not say. a fee of one thousand dollars in crisp ne w bills of large denomination was handed to Daniel Webster as he sat reading in his library. the judging taste. "No matter. but he did not know men so well. Webster was at first puzzled." Many a great man has been so absent-minded at times as to seem devoid of common -sense. he had two holes cut through the panel s for them to pass at will. but could not find any of the bills. I' ll call at another time. and lacked the other's skill and tact. but on reflection remembered that he had given them away. tired of rising from his chair t o open the door for a cat and her kitten. but it i s like the life of all the five. and so on until he took the whole amount lost from the places where he had deposite d them thoughtlessly. as he turned the page of a book. "The professor is not at home. tact is up at six. one by one." replied Lessing. and lively touch." Talent is power." was asked b y his wife to bring home some coffee. Adam Smith could teach the world economy in his "Wealth of Nations .Talent in this age is no match for tact. to obtain several hundred d ollars' worth. I declare. a "book-worm. the remover of all obstacles. On turning the next leaf he found another. and the wo rld excuses their impractical and almost idiotic conduct in most matters. but sold the whole instrument. It is not a sixth sense. and yet he was so poor at times that he had only a biscuit and a gla ss of water for dinner. but I guess a bushel will do. Tact wi ll manipulate one talent so as to get more out of it in a lifetime than ten tale nts will accomplish without it. "Oh. Talent knows what to do. it is the interpreter of all riddles. "Talent lies abed till noon. like a cat. while all their other faculties have atrophied and died. Isaac Newton could read the secret of creation. but the y were all gone. tact is skill. but he sent three hundred florins to pay f or six shirts and half a dozen handkerchiefs. he directed his secretary." . and a small one for the ki tten. he would fall upon his feet. A day or two after he put his hand in his pocket for one. The next day he wished to use some of the money. he found a bank-bill without a crease in it. though he may be an imbecile in the drawing-room. but. For his argument in the Florida Case. who have turned a ll the energies of their lives into one faculty until they have developed." said his servant who looked out of a window in the dark and failed to recognize Lessing when the latter knocked at his own door in a fit of absent-mindedness. He paid his tailor as large a sum in advance. We see its failure everywhere." but he could not manage the finances of his own household. A professor in mathematics in a New England college. Years afterward. It is the open eye. but a monstrosity. the quick ear. but tact is everything. to friends who seemed to appreciate their b eauty.

coarse sheep-raiser. a nd when he graduates. and unfits him for real life." He knew that ther e was to be an eclipse of the sun. yet who can scarcely get a living. the college against the ranch. won by observation. as it became larger. On the appointed day the sun rose without a cloud. and when the sun had passed out of the shadow they leaped and danced and sang for joy. his head is filled with theories and saturated with other men's thoughts.Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. one from Cambridge. but the Indians did not believe him. It was said of a great Fren ch scholar: "He was drowned in his talents. and too finely cultured for every day use. he is astonished to find that he has lost the power to gra pple with men and things. has developed hard common sense and practical wisdom. in the fierce struggle for existence. The world cares little for his theories or his encyclopaedic know ledge. "Common sense. He could talk about nothing but sheep and farm. and would soon drive away the monster from th e sun if they would never offend him again. he came out and said that t he Great Spirit had pardoned them. Book culture alone t ends to paralyze the practical faculties." said Columbus to the Indian chiefs. "We have been among you several weeks. if po ssible. "bows to the inevitable and makes use of it. too self-conscious. The st amina of the vigorous mind he brought from the farm has evaporated in college. He knew nothing of books or theories. promising to save them. You brought us food in plenty every morning. But at length a dark spot was seen on one margin. and the other from a German Universi ty. weakens a man. and the ranch beat every time. and is gained at the cost of vigor and rugged strength. but he knew sheep. and is therefore out-stripped in the race of life by t he boy who has had no chance. "an d. but no w you bring very little and the amount is less with each succeeding day. they drove sheep. although at first you treated us like friends. but he had made a fortun e. and told the day and hour it would occur." Do not expect too much from books. Bacon said that studies "teach not their own use. The cry of the age is for practical men. The bookworm loses his individuality. but he could make money." . They readily promised. and. The college graduate often mi stakes his crutches for strength." Over-culture. It was "culture against ignorance. without practical exp erience. beginning to show signs of open hostility as the hours passed without a s hadow on the face of the sun. Book education alone tends to make a man too critical. and the Indians shook their heads. too fine for the mechanical drudgery of practical life. The Gre at Spirit is angry with you for not doing as you agreed in bringing us provision s. but that there is a practical wisdom without them. He retired to his tent. you are now jealous of us and are trying to drive us away. one from Oxford. He inhabits an ideal realm where common sense rarely dwells. The culture of books and colleges refines. His three hired graduates could speak foreign langu ages and discuss theories of political economy and philosophy. Not long ago three college graduates were found working on a sheep farm in Aust ralia. About the time for the eclipse to pass away. Therea fter the Spaniards had all the provisions they needed.--college men tending brutes! Trained to lead men. timid." said Wendell Phillips. Even the University could not supply common sense. for he c ould black his own boots. and continued to reduce the supply of food. To show his anger he will cause the sun to be in darkness." Th e use of books must be found outside their own lids. The owne r of the farm was an ignorant. yet it is often but an ethical cultu re. the natives grew frantic and fell prostrate before Col umbus to entreat for help. but who. distrustful of his abili ties. The world is full of men and women apparently splendid ly endowed and highly educated. too highly polishe d. while the college men could scarcely get a living.

as he sa w several shadows moving across the fields. The emperor of France favored the South." Then springing upon the horse the b oys had brought. ma de to imitate a gigantic grinning face. By three presid ents whom his tact and shrewdness had helped to elect he was offered the English mission and scores of other important positions. He was unselfish. but nearly fainted as he found it was too large for the rifle. and was creating a dangerous public sent iment abroad and at home by its articles in sympathy with the Confederacy. and will not be back until morning. and don't strike a light to-night. he flung it over the vegetable lantern. and left Obed and Joe to watch. reluctantly yielding the post of danger to them at their urge nt request. "They'll sound the wa r-whoop in a minute. "Now for it!" he added. if I give them time. Moore carried the younger children to the loft of the cabin. "Get ready for the redskins!" shouted an excited man as he galloped up to the l og-cabin of the Moore family in Ohio many years ago. He was very indignant because Charl eston harbor had been blockaded. But Weed's rare tact modified his views. Moore and dayligh t came together. Weed was then sent to Europe to counteract the pernicious influence of secession agen ts. and the Indians fled w ildly to the woods. Obed felt around to see if there were any smaller balls in the cupboard. "and give me a fresh horse as soon as you can. hiding forever from h is followers the ill omen of his threatened fall. and at the appearance of the second fiery face the savages gave a final yell and vanished in the forest. speaking of some comparisons that had been instituted between himself a nd Shakespeare. Thoug h Weed and Bennett had not spoken to each other before for thirty years. before I hit. "They're coming. "Stand by that window with the axe. pulling the coat away. one of th e two which he and Joe had been using to make Jack-o'-lanterns when the messenge r alarmed them. Goethe." Opening the bullet-pouch. he took ou t a ball. and almost stumbled over a very large pumpkin. Joe! Light up the other one! Don't you see that's wh at scar't 'em so?" demanded Obed. with open eyes. An unear thly yell greeted the appearance of the grinning monster. "Quick. and wit h a live coal from the ashes he lighted the candle inside. Mrs. but the Indians did not return. but he had tact and intuition. the ver y next day after their interview the "Herald" became a strong Union paper. Moore. nose." he whispered. while I get the rifle pointed at this one. thus shutting off French manufacturers from lar ge supplies of cotton. Joe!" whispered Obed early in the evening. and nobody k nows where they'll turn up next!" "What shall we do?" asked Mrs. He had very few chances such as are now open to the humblest boy.When Caesar stumbled in landing on the beach of Britain." "Husband away? Whew! that's bad! Well. said: "Shakespeare always hits the right nail on the head at onc e." It has been said that a few pebbles from a brook in the sling of a David who kn ows how to send them to the mark are more effective than a Goliath's spear and a Goliath's strength with a Goliath's clumsiness. and mold them to his will. Cover up yo ur fire. Mr. he instantly grasped a handful of sand and held it aloft as a signal of triumph. but I have to stop and think which is the right nail. with a pale face. Pulling off his coat. shut up as tight as you can. Thurlow Weed earned his first quarter by carrying a trunk on his back from a sl oop in New York harbor to a Broad Street hotel. and mouth." w hich had a large circulation in Europe. His fat her had taken the wrong pouch. He could read m en as an open book. They killed a family down the river last night. Lincoln selected Weed to attempt the reconciliation of the "New York Herald. as he raised the covere d lantern to the window. he galloped away to warn other settlers. and induced him . but he invariably declined. "My husband went away y esterday to buy our winter supplies.

Webster." "How do you do. as he glanced at a thousand people waiting to take his hand." thundered the godlike Daniel. F. E." said the mayor of a Western city. James?" asked Webster mec hanically. the men sitti ng behind you on the raised benches. Montaigne tells of a monarch who. "The twelve Apostles. and acqu ired a fortune of a million dollars." said a judge to a witness who insisted upo n imparting his testimony in a confidential tone to the court direct. sir." was the answer the shrewd young preacher sent back. and said. M. "I am not very well. or common sense. are seen everywh ere. Webster. gentlemen. Smith. A." said Napoleon to his chief engineer. "Address yourself to the jury. and let them go about doing good. holding himself carefully er ect. "Good-morning. and possesse d that practical wisdom and tact which have ever moved the world. "Mr." "Very well. "allow me to introduce you to Mr. I think it's rheumatiz. Webster. would be delayed for an hour by a fa ilure to make close connections. I cannot. "Speak to the jury. "Yes. in a tone of anxious concern." He did not bring them. "Will you lecture for us for fame?" was the telegram young Henry Ward Beecher r eceived from a Young Men's Christian Association in the West. as t hey came to a bridgeless river which the army had to cross. showed his resentment against Providence by abolishing the Christian religion throughou t his dominions for a fortnight. or you shall be deposed." The engineer drew the cap-piece of his helmet down until the edge seemed just i n line between his eye and the opposite bank." replied Mr." "What are these?" asked Napoleon. leaving poor Mr. over talent and genius. "mel t them. His total want of tact had made him ridiculous. "The tru th is. and said: "This is the approximate width of the strea m. the witness bowed low in awkward suavity." "I don't think the Proverbs of Solomon show very great wisdom. sir. and soon changed largely the current of public sent iment. He paced the distanc e to the point last noted. Fifty and my expenses. but my wife----" "Mr." broke in the mayor . I don't know that. "Well. "Sire. one of our most distinguished citizens." said a student at Brown University. James." replied Pr esident Wayland. James to enjoy his bad health in the pitiless solitude of a c rowd. on the sudden death of an only child. as their Master did. Webster. Walpole was an ignorant man." Turning. Mr. and Charlemagne could hardly write his name so that it could be deciphered. "Take them down. The man di d not understand and continued as before. he turned on his heel and noticed where the edge seemed to touch the bank o n which he stood. although weary with travel. ." "Measure the width of this stream instantly. coin them into money. pointing to twelve silver statues in a cathed ral. James in a most lugubrious tone. England was working night and day preparing for war when Weed arrived upon the scene." was the reply. when it was learned that the g reat statesman. be reasonable!"--"Ascerta in at once the width of this river. Mr. On his return to America the city of New York extended public thanks to h im for his inestimable services. The triumphs of tact. My scientific instruments are with the army. "Tell me the breadth of this stream." "I hope nothing serious is the matter.to change to friendliness the tone of a hostile speech prepared for delivery to the National Assembly. He was equally successful in business. and we are ten miles ahead of it."--"Sire. "bring in two to-morrow morning. but these giants knew men and things." said Napoleon. this is Mr. then. which was on the same level as the other." He was promoted. "I could make as good ones myself. Mr.

that he might save some. but there must be black sheep in every flock. it needs manure. Ther e is a certain getting-on quality difficult to describe." said he. I giv it up. these m iserable papers. pas sions and characters. but on reflectin ' that he cood pollish me much wuss in his paper. The palm is among the hardest and least yielding of all woods. Place him in a good light. but who had a sort of dull energy in him which enabled him to get on in the world.Tact. as you would a picture. A farmer who could not get a living sold one half of his farm to a young man wh o made enough money on the half to pay for it and buy the rest. which is jist what he wants. even to the making of gunpowder." was his reply. The class leader had only a theoretical knowledge. but seizes the opportunity. went to anuther offiss to get my handbills printed. Paul was all things to all men." John Jacob Astor had practical talent in a remarkable degree. and must be willing to work like a horse. Artemus Ward touches this bubble with a pretty sharp-pointed pen. Some people show want of tact in resenting every slight or petty insult. He set my Show up steep. he worked everything into his plays. I thort at fust Ide pollish him orf ar-lar Beneki Boy. According to an old custom a Cape Cod minister was called upon in April to make a prayer over a piece of land. th e black and the white. Shakespeare had marvelous tact. and could not cope with the stern realities of the age. "No." To see a man as he is you must turn him round and round until you get him at th e right angle. How our old schoolmates ha ve changed places in the ranking of actual life! The boy who led his class and w as the envy of all has been distanced by the poor dunce who was called slow and stupid. but which is the great winner of the prizes of life. and I wood here t ake occashun to advise people when they run agin. mus t not omit a single essential detail. and called me a horey-heded itinerent v agabone. when shown the land. an d kalled me the urbane and gentlemunly manager. the simple and the profound. A practical man not only sees. Abuv all. He sed my wax-wurks was a humbug. it is said to turn into a creeper. to not pay no attenshun to um. and climb the n earest trunk to the light. He ground up the king and his vassal. however rapid its flight. the pure and the impure. "It was in a surtin town in Virginny. Even genius. fur the purpuss of s howin' fair play all round. cuts the knots it cannot untie. and don't do you no more good than it would to jump into enny other mudpuddle. howeve r unworthy their notice. the Muther of Presidents and things. don't assault a editer of this kind. Napoleon could do anything in the art of war with his own hands. that I was shaimfully aboozed by a editer in human form. honor and dishonor. It only gives him a notorosity. "You have not ta ct. During a storm at . who are sure to have the advantage of the final word. but when I. what duz this pussillanermus editer do but change his toon and abooze me like a injun.--everything within the sweep of his vi sion he ground up into paint and spread it upon his mighty canvas. Others make Don Quixote's mistake of fighting a windmil l by engaging in controversies with public speakers and editors. "this does n ot need a prayer. and leads its forces to g lorious victory. as they sumtimes will. the fool and the fop. The excellence s and defects will appear if you get the right angle. the prince and the peasant. One of the greatest elements of strength in the character of Washington was found in his forbearance when unjustly attack ed or ridiculed. yet rather than be deprived of the rays of the life-giving sun in the de nse forests of South America. Edito rs are generally fine men. when the old man asked how one could succeed so well where t he other had failed. like Alexander.

" Accuracy is the twin brother of honesty." Seven years later the gentleman returned from India. le ave it undone." "I would not part with my watch ." said he. If it be right. I vill dell you what is de difference." said George Graham of London to a customer who asked how far he could depend upon its keeping corr ect time. "I have had it seven years. If I were a cobbler. OLD SONG. what do you complain of?" "Why.--GILPIN. whose name on a timepiece was considered proof positive of its exc ellence." said the man. it is a watch which I have made and regulated myself. do it boldly. expecting every minute to go down. I wi ll return you your money.--C." said a traveler to one of that race. but ven annoder man goes into dat man's shtor e and sells him vot he don't vont. "for ten times the sum I paid for it. it would be my pride The best of all cobblers to be." "Indeed! In that case I return you your money. if it be wrong. dat is chenius. If I were a tinker. He learned his trade of Tampion. the world will make a beaten path to his door. so he paid the money and took the watch. on his voyage to America. no tinker beside Should mend an old kettle like me. SIMMONS. Ven one goes into a man's shtore and manaches to see l him vat he vonts." "And I would not break m y word for any consideration. "and it has gained for them an a scendency. If after seven years you come b ack to see me. which he used as a regulator. If a man can write a better book. between dalent and chenius." "Dey are coming to de vront. "Let me see the watch. or make a better mous e-trap than his neighbor. in drade. "Their trading talent is bringing the Jews to the front in America as well as i n Europe. Well. but young Astor went below and coolly put on his best suit of clothes. "Sir." CHAPTER XXI ENAMORED OF ACCURACY "Antonio Stradivari has an eye That winces at false work and loves the true. saying that if the ship should founder and he shou ld happen to be rescued.--CARLYLE. he would at least save his best suit of clothes. at least in certain branches of trade. Genius is the infinite art of taking pains. dat is dalent. the other passengers ran about the deck in despa ir. from which nothing will ever d isplace them. the most exquisite mechanic in London. if not in the world. "I bring you back your watch.sea. preach a better sermon. I hate a thing done by halves." said the man. "but vy d o you shpeak of deir drading dalent all de time?" "But don't you regard it as a talent?" "A dalent? No! It is chenius. When a person once asked him to repair a watch upon which his name was . and dat is de chenius vot my race has got. most zairtainly.--EMERSON. and there is a difference of more than five minutes. and can tell me there has been a difference of five minutes." said Graham." "I remember our conditions. though he build his house in the woods." replied his companion." replied Graham. "Sir. "take it with you wherever you please.

" none of which have been much improved since. if he cou ld have an absolutely accurate timekeeper. and in another clause 20." said the carpenter. 10. and only four seconds on the outward v oyage. I do." said a carpenter to the blacksmith in a New York village before the first railroad was built. saying. In a round trip of one hundred and fifty-six days to Barbadoes." the "dead escapement. a supply unheard of in his previous bus iness career. When the contractor sa w the tools." "As good a one as I know how?" asked David Maydole. the word "Maydole" stamped on the head being universally considered a guaranty of the best article the world could produce. the best. The clock which he m ade for Greenwich Observatory has been running one hundred and fifty years. and left a standing order for all the blacks mith could make. Tampion and Graham lie in Westmi nster Abbey.500 pounds if within forty miles. he ordered two for himself. it varied less than two minutes. About two hundred years later the English government offered 5. "We have no secret. To insure safety. the varia tion was only fifteen seconds.000 pounds if within thirty miles." The storekeeper soon ordered two dozen." "Yes. "I can't make any better ones. They all came t o the shop next day.000 pounds for a chronomete r by which a ship six months from home could get her longitude within sixty mile s." and the "orrery. and I've left mine at home. He could be sure of this knowledge when the sun is shining. doubtfully. I make it as well as I can. A New York dealer in tools came to the village to sell his wares. The watchmakers of the world contested for the prizes. "six of us have come to work on the new church. and how far east or west of some known point. Tampion smashed it with a hammer. a navigator must know how far he is from the equator. In a trip of one hundred and forty-seven days from Portsmouth to Jamaica a nd back. The 20. but 1761 came. and whose hand was as exquisitely delicate in its movement as the mechanism of his chronometer. Character is power.000 pounds was paid to the man who had wor ked and experimented for forty years." It was indeed a good hammer that he received. but such a thing has not yet been mad e. "when I m ake a thing.fraudulently engraved. In that year John Harrison asked for a test of his chronom eter. and they had not been awarded. David had wedged the handle in its place so that the head could not fly off. David might have grown very wealthy by making goods of the stan dard already attained. and is the best advertisement in the world. yet it needs regulating but once in fifteen months. who boasted of his prize to his companions. a careless repetition. no matter whom it is for. "Make me as good a hammer as you know how. or W ashington. 7. here is a watch of my ma king." said Maydole." said the manager of an iron works employing thousands of m ." Graham invented the "compensating mercury pendulum. Paris.000 pounds for correctness within thirty miles. and handed the astonish ed customer one of his own master-pieces. as Greenwich. "Sir. a wonderful improvement in the ey es of the carpenter. that had ever been made. They we re usually sold without any warrant of excellence. In the sixteenth century Spain offered a prize of a thousand crowns for the d iscovery of an approximately correct method of determining longitude. north o r south. asking that they be made a little bette r than those of his men. "but perhaps you don't want to pay for a s good a one as I know how to make. By means of a longer hole than usual. probably. and each ordered just such a hammer. and bought all the storekeeper had. but throughout his long and successful life he never ceas ed to study still further to perfect his hammers in the minutest detail. "I want a good hammer. because of the accuracy of their work.

" "But you will all ow me to attend you. Mr. and if it is good.en. to b ecome a pupil in his studio. had omitted a mole. my bredren. "There." "I don't try to see how cheap a machine I can produce. "Well. and gave with minutest fidelity not merely the man's features and expression." said Wellington. I'm quite sure. Wellington consulted a celebrated physician. and we don't care who knows it." said the father." When troubled with deafness. but never mind. Brown saw the statue at the house of a lady living at New burgh-on-the-Hudson. "Whi tin make. "I can remember when you blacked my father's shoes." or who call day after day the hottest of the summer or the coldest of the winter? There is nothing which all mankind venerate and admire so much as simple truth. The doctor apologized." said an old lady." John B. to a customer who complain ed of the high price of some cotton machinery. "I will never mention it. "I saw an immense number of dogs--five hundred. but how much more truthful are they who "never saw it rain so before. causing an inflammation which threatened his lif e. suddenly closed his Bible and said." said one member of the Hou se of Commons to another in the heat of debate." "Well. the rent in his coat. as he admired a statue in alabaster mad e by a youth in his teens. "but did I not black them well?" "It is easy to tell good indigo. Six years later he invited her brother." "Surely not so many. New E ngland cotton manufacturers were accustomed to state the number of years it had been in use and add. "Just take a lump and put i t into water. wishing his congregation to fresc o the recess back of the pulpit. duplicity. J." said the father. exempt from artifice. and the creases in his narrow-brimm ed stove-pipe hat." was the prompt re ply. Business men soon learned what th is meant. "True enough. it could not be le ss than ten: this I am quite certain of. expressed great regrets. who p ut strong caustic into his ear. "No. Gough told of a colored preacher who. as an all-sufficient guaranty of Northbridge products. "We always try to beat our last batch of rails. thinking to please the great man. "I saw at least ou r Dash and another one. of Northbridge. so that people will not withdraw their confidence?" "No. "Paint me just as I am. "this boy has something in him. Ward. but even the pa tches in his trousers. That is all the secret we've got." "Father. last night." "Well. You have contradicted yourself twice already. "for you spoke as confidently of seeing five hundred as of see ing this smaller number. To-day the name of Ward is that of the most prosper ous of all Americans sculptors. Whitin." "Madam. warts and all." s aid the Iron Duke. and design. Q." "I will not believe you saw ten even. it will either sink or swim. "I don' t think there are a hundred dogs in our village. Mass." said Oliver Cromwell to the artist who. I am sure --in our street. I am not sure whic h. ther e were one hundred." "It could not be. It exhibits at once a strength of ." said the sculptor H. and said that the blunder wou ld ruin him." said the late John C. and now I cannot believe you." said the father. but how good a machine. and when there was occasion to advertise any machinery for sale." We condemn the boy for exaggerating in order to tell a wonderful story. K." said a boy.. de Gospel will not be dispensed with any more from dis pulpit till de c ollection am sufficient to fricassee dis abscess. sir. A. Brown. "that would be lying." It was the figure of an Irishman who worked for the Ward family in Brooklyn years ago. you can try it for yourself. sir." said the disconcerted boy.

You nev er fail. "No. The positive is stronger than the superlative. Its adjustment is so delicate that the human hand is the only instrument thus far known suitable for giving the final polish. I haven't time to do that in this instance. Roses blossom and crystals form with the same precision of tint and angle to-day as in Eden on the morning of creation. We find no lying." Truth is necessary to permanency.000. and one sweep of the hand more than is needed." Mr. Hence I must refuse." said Clark. Alva n Clark says. to equivocate." said the orator. to keep silent rather than s peak the truth. The crystal found deep in the earth is constructed wit h the same fidelity as that formed above ground. to evade. Mr." The marvelous resources and growth of America have developed an unfortunate ten dency to overstate." "Ah. to assum e to know or think or feel what you do not--all these are but various manifestat ions of hollowness and falsehood resulting from want of accuracy. let it cool before making another trial. yet return to equinox or solstice at the appointed second. Webster. "the p oise is so delicate that the heat from your hands affects it. no slipshod business in nature. "Wait. the workmen turned it a little with their hands. but. it is really difficult to ascertain the exac t truth in America. The rose in the queen's garden is not more beautiful. you always speak well upon any subject. Even the tiny snowflake whose d estiny is to become an apparently insignificant and a wholly unnoticed part of a n enormous bank. but we igno re this fact in our speech. to deceive by a glanc e of the eye. a gesture. assumes its shape of ethereal beauty as faithfully as though pr eparing for some grand exhibition. I can't do it. Indeed. "No. to shirk the truth. During the test of the great glass which he made for Russia. To say nice things merely to avoid giving offense. yet they are fa r superior to us in their accuracy of vision. to seem to concur with another's opinions when you do not. and exaggerate. "Does the devil lie?" was asked of Sir Thomas Browne. It seems strange that there should be so strong a temptation to exaggerate in a country where the truth is more wo nderful than fiction." . to exaggerate. the men who have advanced our knowledge of that science the most working with ordinary instruments backed by most accurately trained minds and eyes." "But that's the very reason. These men have made little advance in civilization. more fragrant. Planets rush with dizzy sweep through almost limitless courses. overdraw. more exquisitely perfect. to lack sincerity. How many American fortunes are built on misrepresentation th at is needless. "because I never allow myself to speak upon any subject without first making that subject thoroughly my own. to face both ways. Clark's love of accuracy has made his name a synonym of exactness the world over. a smile. boys. It is a curious fact that not a si ngle astronomical discovery of importance has been made through a large telescop e. toward the close of a Congressional session. a nod of the head. to dodge. A double convex lens three feet in diameter is worth $60. th eir very movement being "the uniform manifestation of the will of God. or in some far-off glen where n o human eye ever sees it. In Siberia a traveler found men who could see the satellites of Jupiter with th e naked eye." said Webster. "I am so p ressed with other duties that I haven't time to prepare myself to speak upon tha t theme. it is impossible. for then even he cou ld not exist.character and integrity of purpose in which all are willing to confide. would impair the correctness of the glass. than that which blooms and blushes unhe eded amid the fern-decked brush by the roadside. to say what is expedient rath er than what is truthful. no inaccuracy. for nothing else is half so strong as truth. when urged to speak on a q uestion soon to come up.

"Every line was then writte n twice over by Pope. "I now see that you can use your eyes. "will soon form the habit of not writing well on any occasion." Leonardo da Vinci would walk across Milan to change a single tint or the slight est detail in his famous picture of the Last Supper. He did not vary from a promise in the slightest degree. yet his brother merchants attributed his s uperior success to good luck. "He who does not write as well as he can on every occasion. strength. Two hours later he examined his new pupil. saying.Rufus Choate would plead before a shoemaker justice of the peace in a petty cas e with all the fervor and careful attention to detail with which he addressed th e United States Supreme Court. The more they are elaborated. the more fresh and spontaneous they become." Reynolds said he could go on retouching a picture forever. but was awakened towards morning by a request for another star to steer by. "should be done with our bes t care." An accomplished entomologist thought he would perfect his knowledge by a few le ssons under Professor Agassiz." but absolutely good. as they had "sailed by the other. and faithfulness of purpose. and gave orders for his mighty host to defile toward the Danube. "Whatever is right to do. of manuscript brought to be c opied. commonplace shape in which they were first written down." Stephen Girard was precision itself. In 1805 Napoleon broke up the great camp he had formed on the shores of the Eng lish Channel. "There is only one real failure in life possible. Every detail of b usiness was calculated and planned to a nicety. vague. or the crude." said George Ripley." said the great scientist. Gibbon wrote his memoir nine times. He left nothing to chance. "to find the length of time during which some of the best known instrumental melodies remained in his thoug hts till they were finally used." "There goes a man that has been in hell. and the first chapters of his history eighteen times. The captain of a Nantucket whaler told the man at the wheel to steer by the Nor th Star." said Canon Farrar. Of one of his works Montesquieu said to a friend: "You will rea d it in a few hours. "That will do." This roused the pupil to earnest effort." said his publisher Dodsley. "and that is. the al pha and omega of his aims and objects. we have no scales by which we can weigh our faithfulness to duties. V . That which seems a trifle to us may be the secret spring which shall mo ve the issues of life and death." He had made it his study by day and his dream by night. but soon remarked. so realistic seemed to them his description of the nether world. "Yo u haven't really looked at the fish yet. He believed that no gre at success is possible without the most rigid accuracy in everything. but I assure you it has cost me so much labor that it has w hitened my hair. not to be true to the best one knows. and he became so interested in things he had never noticed before that he did not see Agassiz when he came for the third examination. He was as exact and precise even in the smallest trifles as Napoleon." "It is quite astonishing. or determine their relative importance in God 's eyes." After a seco nd examination he shook his head." said an eminent writer. You'll have to try again. People knew that his word was not "pretty good. The latter handed him a dead fish and told him to use his eyes. He did not allow those in his employ to de viate in the slightest degree from his iron-clad orders. "You do not show that you can use your eyes." Grove said of Beethoven." the Florentines would say when Dante passed.

there are other women who use the same needle and thread. "No pric e too high. he might a s well do the work himself as employ another to do it in that way.000." "Geneva Award. When h e chose to make careful preparation on a subject." said Curran. saying that only by such means can a writer be natural." "Carelessness. the scholars of Paris throng the cathedral to hear his fascinating. Accurate people are methodical people. no other speaker could command so great an array of facts." "The Press. These details . Besides his scrapbooks. he did no t content himself with giving the order. and leaving the elaboration of its deta ils to his lieutenants. "Those who employ men do not wish to be on the constant lookout. every valuable hi nt he could get being preserved in the cold exactness of black and white. How m any clerks. If a carpenter must stand at his journeyman's elbow to be sure his w ork is right. To details and minutiae which inferior captains would ha ve deemed too microscopic for their notice." "If you make a good pin. and how many frightful accidents have occ urred through carelessness in sending messages! "The accurate boy is always the favored one. editors. and method m eans character. "whose stitches always come out. When a noted French preacher speaks in Notre Dame. and it is ver y certain that the employer will get rid of such a blunderer as soon as he can. and you can't start a button in a generation." "Tariff. never allowed a sentence to stand until it was as good as he could make it." came back over the wire instead of "No.000 bushels wheat on your account at $1. h e wrote in a notebook the separate names of grasses and wild flowers growing nea r. "Am offered 10. Shall I buy." "French Spoliation." could t ruthfully be written over the graves of thousands who have failed in life.." "United States History. "you will earn more t han if you make a bad steam-engine. however." etc. The omission of a period cost the Sacramento dealer $1." said President Tuttle." "Electoral Laws and Commissions." said Fields. cashiers. and professors in colleges have lost p osition and prestige by carelessness and inaccuracy! "You would be the greatest man of your age. or waistcoat." "indifference. Grattan. Garfield had a large case of some fifty pigeonholes. as though they were rogue s or fools. or is i t too high?" telegraphed a San Francisco merchant to one in Sacramento. How many thou sands have lost their wealth or lives.ast and various as were the projects fermenting in his brain. eloquent." said a successful manufacturer. polished discourses. When Sir Walter Scott visited a ruined castle about which he wished to write. and the button s they sew on fly off on the mildest provocation. or if a cashier must run over his bookkeeper's columns. and you may tug away at their work on your coat. and the result of that memorable march was the victory of Austerlitz. Price too high. This bril liant finish is the result of most patient work." "There are women.00." "Parliamentary Decisions. which sealed the fate of Eur ope for ten years. he gave such exhaustive attention th at before the bugle had sounded for the march he had planned the exact route whi ch every regiment was to follow." as was int ended. and the precise moment when it was to reach its destination. were carried out to the letter." "slipshod financiering." "Public Men. so thoroughly premeditated. Macaulay. clergymen." "State Po litics. The historian." "slouchiness. as he delivers but five or six sermons a year. the exact day and hour it was to leave that sta tion. "if you woul ." "Gener al Politics. la beled "Anecdotes.

without selling two cents' worth. every sentence must be perfectly balanced before it left h is lips. The demand for perfection in the nature of Wendell Phillips was wonderful. Character has a commercial as well as an ethical v alue. Many able essays have been rejected because of poor penmanship. Exact precision characterized his style. His eye was upon his business in all its ramifications. an art not fully comprehended even in our day. He determined to make an instrument yielding the fullest and richest volume of melody with the least exertion to the player. Turner was intended by his father for a barber.d buy a few yards of red tape and tie up your bills and papers. or h . and employ them in as lofty work as they seem able to do. but as he lacked means he took anythin g to do that came in his way. He soon became skilful. A. We must strive after accuracy as we would after wisdom. Alexandre Dumas prepared his manuscript with the greatest care. and the article eagerly accepted by one of the very pu blishers who had refused it before. he mastered every detail and worked hard. every phrase must be of du e length and cadence. and put it on his pianos. but Jonas Chickering sent a petition to the legislature. and. He surpassed the acknowledged masters in various fields of lan dscape work. and for every delinquency a penalty was rigidly enforced. he advised hi m to have it handsomely copied by a professional penman. The rhythmical fulness and poise of his periods are remarkable. yet whos e application attracted attention and paved the way to fortune. withstanding atmospheric chang es. T. W. perfection was his aim. a nd the name was changed back. frequently illustrating guide-books and almanacs. and straightforw ardness. He permitted no irregularity in workmansh ip or sales. Bergh tells of a man beginning business who opened and shut his shop regularly at the same hour every day for weeks. And so he toiled upward until he began to employ himself. but he showed such a taste for drawing that a reluctant permission was given for him to follow art as a profession. Met hod ruled in every department of his store. He resolved that each pi ano should be an improvement upon the one which preceded it. What Shakespeare is in literature. He was easily the first forens ic orator America has produced. and preserving its purity and truthfulness of tone. But although the pay was very small the work was never careless. Stewart was extremely systematic and precise in all his transactions. compared with accuracy and knowledge. Neither time nor labor was of any account to him . and was characterized by simplicity. From the time Jonas Chickering began to work for a piano-maker. t he greatest name on record. The advice was taken. Joseph M. Chickering's name was such a power that one piano -maker had his name changed to Chickering by the Massachusetts legislature. and the price increasing as other men began to get glimpses of the transcendent art revealed in his paintings. successful. He distanced all competitors. his work sure of a ma rket at some price." Curran realized that methodical people are accurate. transparency. but the price was increased and work of higher grade given him simply because men seek the services of those who are known to be faithful. and then change the tit le. he was noted fo r the pains and care with which he did everything. He soon made pianos in a factory of his own. To the end of his life he gave the finishing touch to each of his instrumen ts. To him there were no trifles in the manufacturing of pianos. and left matchless studies of natural scenery in lines never before attempted. When consulted by a friend whose article had been rejected by several publishers. Ever y word must exactly express the shade of his thought. as a rule. His labor was w orth several times what he received for it. Turner is in his special field. and would trust it to no one else.

or are otherwise maime d. buildings often fall and bury the workmen under their ruins. the mangling and maiming of men an d women. deceptions. The worst crimes are not punishable by law. dishonest--either employer or emplo yee--and worked lies. Where a tiny flaw or the slightest defect may cost a precious life. Careless and indiffere nt habits would soon ruin a millionaire. botched. clear down to the plating. are crimes against self. How many have lost their lives because of dishonest work. Not long since. but it would also give us a hig her quality of manhood and womanhood. indifferent workers. because dishonest workmen wrought deception into the articles they manufactur ed. Accuracy means character. Even before they are completed. did it to a complete finish. covered up defects and weak places with paint and varni sh. which cause so m uch misery and cost so many lives. numberless graves. lies in defectiv e rails. because of the mistake of a court cl erk who wrote "years" instead of "months" in the record of the prisoner's senten ce. The steel shaft broke in mid-ocean. ties. or an arm. because somebody was careless. . careless ness is as much a crime as deliberate criminality. lies in dishonest labor put into manufactured materi al by workmen who said it was good enough for the meager wages they got! Because people were not conscientious in their work there were flaws in the steel. Everywhere over this broad earth we see the tragic results of botched work. against humanity. and while being repair ed a hammer was found in the bottom that had been left there by the builders thi rteen years before. and the lives of a thousand passengers were jeopardized because of somebody's carelessness. slipsh odness. somebody's habit of inaccuracy. in a southern prison. steamboat boilers. fatherless and motherless homes ev erywhere speak of somebody's carelessness. crimina l blundering in railroad construction? Think of the tragedies caused by lies pac ked in car-wheels. or half-done. They are the evil fruit of the low i deals of slovenly. CHAPTER XXII DO IT TO A FINISH Years ago a relief lifeboat at New London sprung a leak. are the result of carelessness. The history of the human race is full of the most horrible tragedies caused by carelessness and the inexcusable blunders of those who never formed the habit of accuracy. careless. and engines. Avoid slipshod financiering as you would the plague. Carelessness. a leg. locomotives. carelessness. that of ten do more harm than the crimes that make the perpetrator an outcast from socie ty. Determine to form exact business hab its. it was discovered that a girl had served twenty years for a twe nty months' sentence. whic h caused the rail or pillar to snap. thoughtlessne ss. lack of thoroughness. of doing things to a finish. the locomotive or other machinery to break. Woo den legs. into the building. it would not only reduce the loss of human life.idden treasure or anything we would attain. Nearly every very successful man is acc urate and painstaking. or switches. blundering work. From the constant motion of the boat the hammer had worn thr ough the planking. slighted their work. somebody's blunders. of thoroughness. to a fraction of what it is at present. The majority of railroad wrecks. Multitudes of people have lost an eye. If everybody put his conscience into his work. and character is power. armless sleeves. of disasters on land and sea.

and the tragedy of it all is. Inferiority is an infection which. and he has become so demoralized by the habit which. seemingly without being conscious of it. palsies the asp iring faculty. that he now s lights his work without a protest. prodding. How quickly a youth of high ideals. who has been well trained in thoroughness. It paralyzes the normal functions. but his menta l processes have so deteriorated. after doing a poor job. he does not know why he has failed! One's ambition and ideals need constant watching and cultivation in order to ke ep up to the standards. affects the entire system. so subtle. When he started on his career he was very exact and painstaking.Most young people think too much of quantity. The thought of slighting his work was painful to him. not so likely to regard your word as sacred as bef ore. and brac ing up of the whole man that comes from doing one thing absolutely right. the comfort. He demanded the best of himself--would not accept his second-best in anything. I know a man who was extremely ambitious to do something very distinctive and w ho had the ability to do it. careless manner det eriorates the whole mentality. excellence is impossible. you a re not quite the same man you were before. and tends to bring our whole conduct to the same l evel. often deteriorates when he leaves home and goes to work for an employer with inf erior ideals and slipshod methods! The introduction of inferiority into our work is like introducing subtle poison into the system. even when he may think he is doing his best t o carry it out. to demoralize. like leaven. indifferent people . far outweighs the value that att aches to the doing of a thousand botched or slipshod jobs. We are so constituted that the quality which we put into our life-work affects everything else in our lives. doing things in a loose-jointed. slipshod. It dulls ideals. or with careless. and too little of quality in thei r work. can hardly be estimated because the processes are so gradual. confidence goes with it. grew upon him. without apparent mortification or sense of humiliation. The mental and moral effect of half doing. of accepting his second-best. and do not do it well. from p utting the trade-mark of one's character on it. They require the constant assistance. On the contrary. and causes deterioration all along the li ne. its powe r to drag down. suggestion. They do not realize that the education. improves the whole character. and pulls down the whole life. He i s to-day doing quite ordinary things. . or carelessly doing things. Every half-done or slovenly job that goes out of your hands leaves its trace of demoralization behind. No one can respect himself who habitually botches his wo rk. the satisfaction. and when confidence an d self-respect have gone. after a while. and when self-respect drops. the general improvement. It is astonishing how completely a slovenly habit will gradually. stupefies the ambition. You are not so likely to try to keep up the standard of your work. The entire person takes on the characteristics of one's usual way of doing things. insidiously f asten itself upon the individual and so change his whole mental attitude as to t hwart absolutely his life-purpose. demoralizes the mental processes. They try to do too much. Many people are so constituted that their ambition wanes and their ideals drop when they are alone. The habit of precision and accuracy strengthens the mentality. After slighting your work. or example of othe rs to keep them up to standard.

you must not steal his goods or ruin his property by h alf finishing or botching your work. Honesty means integrity in e verything. acc uracy. and not your second-best. and blundering of employees cost Chicago one million dollars a day. honesty in your work. One of John Wanamaker's partners says that unnecessary blunders and mi stakes cost that firm twenty-five thousand dollars a year. deceiving their employers--to indifferent. says that he has to station pickets here and there throughout t he establishment in order to neutralize the evils of inaccuracy and the blunderi ng habit. I shall thin k more of myself. and I get twice as much money as you do. "What a fool you are. lack of accuracy. and any departure from it demoralizes and taints the whole character." Many a young man is being kept down by what probably seems a small thing to him --negligence. but also carefulness. Your contract with your employer means that you will give him your best . he can not be depended upon to do anything quite right. when you don't get much pay for it. You must not steal another's time. It fits our very natures. A prominent business man says that the carelessness. We were made to be honest. "but I shall like myself better. and that is more important to me than money. it means truth in everything--in deed and in word. A great many of them were from business houses. Perfe ct work harmonizes with the very principles of our being. The dead letter depar tment of the Post Office in Washington received in one year seven million pieces of undelivered mail. or botched work. Hundreds of clerks and book-keepers are getting sma ll salaries in poor positions today because they have never learned to do things absolutely right. "to take so much pains with that job. clipping their hours. by blundering through carelessness or indif ference. It does not mean that if only you will not lie with your lips you may lie and defraud in the quality of your work. Of these more than eighty thousand bore no address whateve r." You will like yourself better when you have the approval of your conscience. dishonest work. 'Get the most money for the least work. Nothing else can give you the glow of satisfa ction. inaccuracy. to shirk. Did you ever notice the rapid decli ne in a young man's character when he began to slight his work. He never quite finishes anything he undertakes. The manager of a large hou se in that city. to sli p in rotten hours. Some one has said: "It is a race between negligence and ignorance as to which c an make the more trouble.' is my rule. because we were made f or perfection. the electric thrill and uplift which come from a superbly-done job. skimped. Honesty is our normal expression." replied the other." "That may be. many of them could trace the first signs of deterioration to shirking. Th at will be worth more to you than any amount of money you can pocket through fra udulent. his work always needs lo oking over by some one else." said one workman to another. Merely not to steal another's money or goods is not all there is to honesty. There is a very intimate relation between the quality o f the work and the quality of the character. in his dishones . completeness.The human mechanism is so constituted that whatever goes wrong in one part affe cts the whole structure. rotten service? If you should ask the inmates of our penitentiaries what had caused their ruin. Are the clerks who are respon sible for this carelessness likely to win promotion? Many an employee who would be shocked at the thought of telling his employer a lie with his lips is lying every day in the quality of his work. Honesty means wh oleness. It not only means reliability in your word.

and often the entire arti cle goes to pieces before it is worn half a dozen times. Eve . your trade-mark of superiority upon it. to hide away during working hours to smoke a cigar ette or take a nap. that lies can be acted as well as to ld and that acting a lie may be even worse than telling one. as to express it with the lips. is dishonest with himself as well as with his fellow men. It is not pretty well done. and under no circumstances would they allow their names to be put on an im perfect article. Your reputation is at stake in everyt hing you do. becaus e of its great reputation for integrity and square dealing. and must pay the price in loss of self-respect. Strangers from any part of the world could send their purchase money and order goods from those manufacturers without a doubt that they would be squarely dealt with." "pretty good. dishonest manufacturing is so general that concerns w hich turn out products based upon honesty and truth often win for themselves a w orld-wide reputation and command the highest prices. not for service. very quickly get out of shape. yet I have known of fice-boys. and your reputation is your capital. I am w illing to stand for that piece of work. Articles of clothing that look stylis h and attractive when first worn. individuality in i t." Accept not hing short of your best. who could not be induced to tell their employer a direct lie. in the rotten hours he is slipping into it. not realizing. to let botched work or anything that is inferior go out of your hands. but which in reality is full of blemishes and weaknesses. to stea l his time when on an errand. perhaps.t service." would be a good label for the great mass of ma nufactured articles in our markets to-day. who lies or cheats in the goods he sells or manuf actures. I will stand for that. many things "go to pieces" altogether. You cannot afford to do a poor job. seams give way at the slightes t strain. I am wi lling to be judged by it. Glue starts at joints." Never be satisfied with "fairly good. There is no other advertisement like a good reputation. and hang and lo ok like old. Tampion and Graham lie in Westminster Abbey because of the accuracy of their wo rk--because they refused to manufacture and sell lies. dropped stitches are everywhere in evidence. chairs and bedsteads break down at the slightest provocation. Vast sums of money are often paid for the use of a name. loss of character. Put such a quality into your work that anyone who comes across anything you have ever done will see character in it. "Made to sell. It is difficult to find anything that is well and honestly made. Yet on every side we see all sorts of things selling for a song because the mak er put no character. handles pull out. This slipshod. There was a time when the names of Graham and Tampion on timepieces were guaran tees of the most exquisite workmanship and of unquestioned integrity. that has chara cter. The man who botches his work. Everywhere we see furniture which looks all right. individuality and thoroughness wrought into it. in shirking. castors co me off. Buttons fly off. in shirking. even while prac tically new. When you finish a thing you ought to be able to say to yourself: "There. done to a complete finish. much-worn garments. of standing in his communi ty. Some of the world's gre atest manufacturers have regarded their reputation as their most precious posses sion. covered up with paint and varnish. no thought into them. it is done a s well as I can do it. in his indif ference to his employer's interests. It is just as dishonest to express deceptio n in poor work. Most things are just throw n together." "good enough.

the best that human skill can produce. but they d etect very quickly the earmarks of superiority. it is being a little more polite. Think of the value such a reputation for thoroughness as that of Stradivarius o r Tampion. humble. but because there is something in him which refuses to acce pt anything from himself but the best. every piece of work you touch. It may be months. who does it to a finish. John D. I have known many instances where advancement hinged upon the little overplus o f interest. no matter how unimportant or trivial it may seem. accuracy. a little more energet ic. being a little neater. a humble positio n." The majority of young people do not see that the steps wh ich lead to the position above them are constructed. a little quicker. to help me along? " But it is the youth who sees a great opportunity hidden in just these simple s ervices. a little more obliging. Stradivari us did not need any patent on his violins. should be ar your trade-mark of excellence. which he "made for etern ity. Employers do not say all they think. as Tampion regarded every watch that went out of his shop. It is doing things a little better than those about you do them. who gets on in the world." and not one of which was ever known to come to pieces or break.. you should regard every task that goes through your hands. it is ingenuity in finding new and more progressive ways of doing old things. "in this dry routine. They keep their eye on the emplo yee who has the stamp of excellence upon him. by the fa ithful performance of the common. It is just the little difference between the good and the best that makes the d ifference between the artist and the artisan. Rockefeller. No other characteristic makes such a strong impression upon an employer as the habit of painstaking." between "fairly good" and "excellent. a little more cheerful. They know he has a future. every-day duties of the position they are now filling. for no other violin maker would pay s uch a price for excellence as he paid. Every "Stradivarius" now in existence is worth from three to ten thousand dollars. says that the "secret of success is to do the common duty uncommonly well. a little more accurate. ordinary things. Many employees are looking for some great thing to happen that will give them a n opportunity to show their mettle. not from the standpoint of salary or wha t he can get for it. It is just the little touches afte r the average man would quit that make the master's fame. who takes pains with his work. would give you! There is nothing like being enamored of accuracy. little by little. in doing these common. or it may be a year before the opening come s. or several times its weight in gold. The thing which you are now doing will unlock or bar the door t o promotion. being grounded in thoroughness as a li fe-principle. He knows that if a youth puts his c onscience into his work from principle. than those about you that attracts the attention of your employer a nd other employers also. of painstaking an employee put into his work. Many a boy is marked for a higher position by his employer long before he is aw are of it himself. a little more observant. but when it does come the one who has appreciated the infinite difference bet ween "good" and "better. helpful. Jr. on his doing a little better than was expected of him. optimistic. of always striving for excellence. a little more tactful." between what ot . such a passion to give quality to your work.ry bit of your work. "What can there be. that he is honest and made of good materi al. Regard your work as Stradivarius regarded his violins. It must be the very best you can do. who sees a very uncommon chance in a common situation. carefulness." they say to themselves. would take such pains to put his stamp of superiority upon his instrument.

If there is that ss. No ma tter what you do. Everybody knows the things that make for second-class characteristics. live up to your best. neglect of healt h. helps to make you second-class. They have not been content with mediocrity. indeed. is possible to practically eve . Do your best in everything. They always pushed things that came to their hands a little higher up. to get control over you. and could in no sense be called first-class. People who have accomplished work worth while have had a very high sense of the way to do things. the botched and slovenly. below the standard of the best men for any purpose. this little farther on. Edu cation of some sort. or in your personal habits. mechanics who will never be anything but bunglers. there are other thin gs that help to make second-class men. It is the constant effort to be first-class in everything one attempts that c onquers the heights of excellence. It is said that Daniel Webster made the best chowder in his state on the princi ple that he would not be second-class in anything. he remains second-class. i f you are not particular about quality in your work. Sometimes they are sec ond-rate or third-rate people because those who are responsible for their being and their care during their minor years were so before them. try to do it as well as it can be done. It is this li ttle higher up. if. exhausts his strength and vitality. but always a little better. whatever the reason. will be likely to get the place. Men get drunk for all sorts of reasons. never to be second-class in anything. wears his nerves till his limbs tremble like leav es in the wind. but.hers call "good" and the best that can be done. do not try to be first-class. do not put conscience in to their work. who will always fill very ordinary positions because they do not take pains. Dissipation. They have not con fined themselves to the beaten tracks. they have never been satisfied to do thin gs just as others do them. but more and more i s it becoming one's own fault if. vitiates his blood. Boys imi tate older boys and smoke cigarettes in order to be "smart. is only half a man. failure to get an education. but the surest consequence is that of becoming second-class . whose growth has been stunted by self-indulgences. Dissipation in other forms is pursued because of ple asure to be derived. This is a good resolution wit h which to start out in your career. to fall back to the rear of the procession. all make second-class men. or in your environment. A ma n who. that counts in the quality of life's wor k." Then they keep on s moking because they have created an appetite as unnatural as it is harmful. they cannot remain first-class men and drink. Aside from the lack of desire or effort to be first-class. and puts you at a disadvantage in the race for honor. Carelessness as to health fills the ranks of the infer ior. wealth. deal with the best. all sorts of people who will never rise above mediocrity. choose the best. positio n. is a second-class man. through his amusements in his hours of leisure. if you insist hieve distinction on to follow your in your nature which demands the best and will take nothing le on keeping up your standards in everything you do. then you must expect to take second place. and even a pretty good sort. The submerged classes that the economists talk about are those that are bel ow the high-water mark of the best manhood and womanhood. A man weakened by dis sipation. Everywhere we see mediocre or second-class men--perpetual clerks who will never get away from the yardstick. But if you are satisfied with the cheap and shoddy. a little farther on. all through life. bad habits. he is not third-class. whose understanding has been dulled. Have nothing to do wit h the inferior. Every fault you allow to become a habit. and happiness. you will ac in some line provided you have the persistence and determinati ideal.

will do it with all your might and with all the ability you possess. If you make yourself first-class in anything. and when first-class is in demand everywhere. but rather of the plodding young men who. the great French novelist. whether it be in books or in business training. persistence. you will do it right. or who gave great promise at the outset of their careers. and first-class bread. is sure to relegate one to the ranks of the seco nd-class. It demands that you be a master in your line. common sense. his teacher soon found that when Elihu professed to k . as a rule. first-class me at. was asked to make a sp eech on some question at the close of a Congressional session. eat first-class butter. who could stay by a task until it was don e. he replied: "I ne ver allow myself to speak on any subject until I have made it my own. When he was a boy in the gra mmar school at Clinton. first-class men are wanted. a farmer." Dickens would never consent to read before an audience until he had thoroughly prepared his selection.ryone in our land. but it does demand that whatever you do undertake. If you are a king in your calling. he made up his mind that anything he had to st udy he would keep at until he mastered it. The world does not demand that you be a physician. even to the minutest detail. Macready. New York. Failure to get the best education available. always played as if he were before the most brilliant audi ences in the great metropolises of the world. who had the best brain of his time. the habit of half d oing things. and honesty. a lawyer. Genius is the art of taking infi nite pains. it is not composed of those who were brilliant i n youth. They do not realize that all great achievement has been characte rized by extreme care. no matter how humble it may be. The thorough boys are the boys that are heard from. I haven't time to do that in this case. Slipshodness. or a mer chant. now United States Senator. no excuse for b eing second-class when it is possible to be first-class. They are taken and u sed when the better article is scarce or is too high-priced for the occasion. I must refuse to speak on the subject. or. Fo r work that really amounts to anything. if they have not dazzled by their brilliancy. Second-class things are wanted only when first-class can't be had. who have had grit. we should find that. half-done work into their careers and get firstclass products. when playing before scant audiences in country theaters in England. have had the power of a day's work in them. There is no excuse for incompetence in this age of opportunity. When Daniel Webster. and usually from posts far higher up than those filled by the boys who were too "smart" to be thorough. If we were to examine a list of the men who have left their mark on the world. inaccuracy. You wear fir st-class clothes if you can pay for them. you will be in demand. Second-class me n are no more wanted than any other second-class commodity. if you don't. No you th can ever hope to accomplish much who does not have thoroughness and accuracy indelibly fixed in his life-habit. The trouble with many Americans is that they seem to think they can put any sort of poor. and Scotland. I reland. no matter what your condition or circumstances . sometimes worked a week on a single page. and well done. no matter what your race or color. Although not considered one of the "b right" boys of the school. infinite painstaking. you wish you could. nothing can keep you from success . Thoroughness characterizes all successful men. hence. slipshod. One such boy is Elihu Root. Balzac. would ruin the career of a youth with a Napoleon's mind.

and bu tcher their patients. Half-trained lawyers stumble through their cases. is their thoroughness. To every problem there was only one answer. and the completene ss of their preparation for business. "I have no use for anyone who can 'almost' do anything." is characteristic of our country. on churches. Carrying the principle of "doing every thing to a finish" into the law. a German who expects to engage in business takes a four years' cours e in some commercial school. As a rule. Thoroughness and reliability. On winter eve nings. and after graduation serves three years' apprentice ship without pay. Elihu frequently remained in his r oom with his arithmetic or algebra. Many an American youth is willing to stumble through life half prepared for his work. Perhaps there is no other country in the world where so much poor work is done as in America." . because they are not willing to take time for thorough pre paration. the German's characteristics. on schools. they do poor. armed with letters of introduction from prominent men. and German employees. William Ellery Channing. but Elihu would only smile pleasantly. a little smattering of books. are increasing the power of Germany throughout the civilized world. Half-trained clerg ymen bungle away in the pulpit. he became one of the most noted members of the New York bar. "I can do almost anything. and then they are ready for business. or college education." The quality which. "Can't wait. and disgust their intelligent and cultured paris hioners. "Well . esp ecially in banks and large mercantile houses. The boy can't w ait to become a youth. while the other boys were out skating. has helped to raise the German people t o their present commanding position in the world. and make their clien ts pay for experience which the law school should have given. the superiority of their training. who in his youth was har dly able to buy the clothes he needed. one day pre sented himself before Chief Engineer Parsons. Parsons. Eve ry employer is looking for thoroughness. owing to their pr eeminence in this respect.now anything he knew it through and through. Sometimes the other boys called him a plodder. had a passion for self-improvement. feveris h work." remarked the Chief Engineer. rising to end the interview. Young men rush into busine ss with no great reserve of education or drill. "I wa nted to make the most of myself." "haven't time to be thorough. How seldom you find a young man or woma n who is willing to prepare for his life-work! A little education is all they wa nt. but tried to get comprehensive views of what I studied. It is g iving young Germans a great advantage over both English and American youths. seminary. while many die of old age in the forties. and is written on everything--on commerce." answered the young man. nor the youth to become a man. I prefer someone who can actually do one th ing thoroughly. to his chosen business. of the Rapid Transit Commission of New York as a candidate for a position. of course. the great New England divine. and patience was the price to be paid for it. Our great lack is want of thoroughness. and break down in middle life. "I was not satisfied with knowing thi ngs superficially and by halves. it made him carefu l about jumping at conclusions. A young man. Root recently said that if his close app lication to problems in his boyhood did nothing else for him. are in great demand to-day in England. Half-trained medical students perform bungling operations. intrusted with vast interests." he says. for he knew what he was about. on society. and then a member of the President' s cabinet. We can't wait for a high-school. more than any other. and then blame society because he is a failure. "What can you do? Have you any specialt y?" asked Mr. Mr. He was fond of hard problems requir ing application and patience.

there is shoddy.There is a great crowd of human beings just outside the door of proficiency. when we are constantly slipping rotten hours. St amp it with your manhood. Y our honor. whose elements they have not fully mastered. or make a better mousetrap than his neighbor. dishonesty in your character . Let superiority be your trade-mark. They have acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because they were not carried quite to the point of skill. You cannot be just to yourself and unjust to the man you are working for in t he quality of your work. The world is full of half-finished work. shoddy shams. A successful manufacturer says: "If you make a good pin. which they can not practise with satisfaction or profit! The Patent Office at Washington contains hundreds. thousands. is demoralizing to every element of nobility. he can not help feeli ng that his career has been a botched one. If any work that goes out of your h ands is skimped. the education. It indicates the best kind of brain. Everything you do is a part of your career. to a finish . greater value. sham. it is better capi tal than cash. manhood and womanhood are at stake. to make them useful to civilization. "though he build his house in the woods. prea ch a better sermon. dealing in cheap. defective material an d slipshod service into our work. an art or two. if there is shoddy or sham in it. or bot ching one's work. This is what every employer is looking for. i f there is dishonesty in it.--yes. Beecher said he was never again quite the same man after reading Ruskin. Ch aracter. bungled. must be conscious that he has not been a real man. you not only strike a fat al blow at your efficiency. a little better education. it is the best substitute for genius." says Emerson. Th ey can half do a great many things. let it characteriz e everything you touch. or botched. We cannot have an honest character. if you slight your work. who has botched his work all hi s life.--of inventi ons which are useless simply because they are not quite practical. How many people almost know a language or two. if it goes to pieces. will be affected by the way y ou do your work. The man who has dealt in shams and inferiority. To spend a life buying and selling lies. it is a better promoter than friends. compared with which salary is nothi ng. or "pulls" with the influen tial. Think what a loss it would be if such men as Edison and Bell had not come to the front and carried to a successful termina tion the half-finished work of others! Make it a life-rule to give your best to whatever passes through your hands. If you would be a fu . for. If yo ur work is badly done. which they can neither write nor speak. after botching your wor k. by the conscience or lack of it which you put into your job. they stopped just short of efficiency. at stake. the world will make a path to his door . You have something of infinitely greater importance. your whole career. or the ability ne cessary to carry them to the point of practicability. your character will suffer. You ar e never again quite the same man after doing a poor job.--failures which require only a little more persistence. untarni shed career. but also smirch your character. a little finer mechanical training." Never allow yourself to dwell too much upon what you are getting for your work. but can't do any one thing well. a science or two. shirked. We are all of a piece." "If a man can write a better book. your future success. you will earn more mon ey than if you make a bad steam engine. because the m en who started them lacked the staying quality. a complete.

But in the ordinar y situations of life there is plenty of time to do everything as it ought to be done. our whole nature im proves. There is everything in holding a high ideal of your work. causes loss of s elf-respect. to r esolve that. Whatever your vocation. to do anything that was low or demoralizing. a protest or condemnation. slipshod work on the plea of lack of time. let quality be your lifeslogan. of skipped problems. would satisfy them! Adopt this motto as yours. is not kept awake by a tr oubled conscience. from principle. and your life-work will be what every one's should be--A MASTERPIECE. He is not haunted by the ghosts or tail ends of half-finished tasks. "WHERE ONLY THE BEST IS GOOD ENOUGH. There is an indescribable superiority added to the character and fiber of the m an who always and everywhere puts quality into his work. you must be honest to the core in the qualit y of your work. When we are trying with all our might to do our level best. or half doing it. It will bob up farther along in your career at the most unexpected moments. Aspiration lifts the life. Hang it up in your bedroom. a complete man. and every time we disobey it. There is a sense of who leness. weave it into the texture of everythi ng you do. of slovenliness. and the amount of damage is deducted from her wages. I was much impressed by this motto. Every time we obey the inward law of doing right we hear an inward approval. of satisfaction. groveling lowers it. of skipping diffi cult problems in school. CHAPTER XXIII . that's good enough. A famous artist said he would never allow himself to look at an inferior drawin g or painting. of happiness. put it into your pocket-book. in your office or place of business. habits of inaccuracy. Many excuse poor. and makes us unhappy." What a life-motto this would be! How i t would revolutionize civilization if everyone were to adopt it and use it. whatever they did only the best they could do would be good enough. which I saw recently in a great establishme nt. It will be sure to mortify you when you least expect it. Everything looks down when we are going down hill. a neglected or botche d piece of work. A single broken thread in a web of cloth is traced back to the girl who neglected her work in the factory . in his life which is never felt by the ma n who does not do his level best every time. Like Banquo's ghost. "Oh . of slurring their work. Thousands of people are held back all their lives and obliged to accept inferio r positions because they cannot entirely overcome the handicap of slipshod habit s formed early in life.ll man. the life copies. in the most embarrassing situations. Don't think you will never hear from a half-finished job. it will arise at the most unexpected moments to mar your happiness. shirking. what's the use of being so awfully particular?" has been t he beginning of a life-long handicap in many a career. It will never die. a just man. lest familiarity wit h it should taint his own ideal and thus be communicated to his brush. We are so c onstituted that every departure from the right. for whatever model th e mind holds. th e amen of the soul. No one can be really happy who does not believe in his own honesty.

--CARLYLE." F rom the same man came that harangue against Warren Hastings which the orator Fox called the best speech ever made in the House of Commons. and soon had three hundred pieces baking. and it shall come out of me. as no other man had ever played it. was ove rwhelming. when young. burning so much wood.THE REWARD OF PERSISTENCE Every noble work is at first impossible. "You would bet ter have stuck to your former pursuits. The grand se cret was learned.--JEREMY COLLIER. then looked up and said. to try his experiments in a common furnace." With head on his hand Sheridan mused fo r a time. a nd Charles shall go to Eton!" He had been so terribly in earnest with the study of his profession that he had at length made a mark on his generation. "Unstable as water. "It is in me. as he rushed home to his trembling wife. which are open to all. and losing so much time. and all London was at his feet.--these are the masters of victory. but he borrowed some . in Massinger's drama. to play the character of Sir Giles Overreach." said Woodfall the reporter. and he was forced." wrote a publisher to an ag . "I am sorry to say that I don't think this is in your line. and tried to get a better flux. the eye that never blanches. His money was all gone. Though only a glass-painter. which was a failur e. and then a second. Persistence had triumphed again. who left his home in the south of France in 1828.--BURKE. that poverty stared him in the face. To perfect his invention he next built a glass-furnace. Victory belongs to the most persevering. His furnitur e followed to no purpose. Success in most things depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed. "Mary. the thought that nev er wanders. he fed them to the flames. By a persistency that nothing seemed able to daunt. spoiling so many drugs and pots of c ommon earthenware. but.--NAPOLEON. his enamel would not melt. when it did come. he attained no result until his fuel was gone. carrying the bricks on his back. but in vain. after Sheridan had made his first speech in Parliament. Tearing off the p alings of his garden fence. At length the time came for a trial. The sight of an elegant Italian cup disturbed his whole existence and from that moment the dete rmination to discover the enamel with which it was glazed possessed him like a p assion. When next he li ghted his fire. thou shalt not excel. "I had no other books than heaven and earth. He built a furnace. one of which came o ut covered with beautiful enamel. For months and years he tried all kinds of experiments to learn the mate rials of which the enamel was compounded. but he determined." said Berna rd Palissy." The nerve that never relaxes. you shall ride in your carriage yet. and the great burst of heat melted the enamel. he so t rained himself to play the character that his success. "The pit rose at me!" exclaimed Edmund Kean in a wild tumult of emotion. but he decided on the spot to beg in all over again. Flat failure was the result. at the age of eigh teen. though he kept the heat up s ix days.--MONTES QUIEU. "If you work hard two weeks without selling a book. from lack of ability to buy fuel. He was a little dark man with a voice naturally harsh. and make a seeming impossibility give way. Perpetual pushing and assurance put a difficulty out of countenance. he had the soul of an artist. and bought more pots and wood. The shelves of his pantry were then broken up and thro wn into the furnace.

" Perseverance built the pyramids on Egypt's plains. and I am not easy while away from it until it is finished . I like it. flutters. except the phonograph. in any other art. tunneled mountains of granite. dimensions. "Are your discoveries often brilliant intuitions?" asked a reporter of Thomas A . and reared in its stead a community of states and nations. The man who resolves. navigated every sea and explored every land. taught her laws." s aid William Wirt." "Whoever is resolved to excel in painting. "must bring all his mind to bear upon that one object from the moment that he rises till he goes to bed. I have never had any time to put on electrical w onders." said Turner. he wi ll be at best stationary. or. winged as many flying shuttles. and set them flying from town to to wn and nation to nation. and velocities. measured her untrodden spaces. leve led the forests of the new world. Perseverance has put i n motion millions of spindles. with every breath of caprice that blows. painted on canvas the gorgeous mimicry of nature. cloud-c apped Alps. erected the gorgeous temple at Jerusalem. indeed. No. "and work at it like a Hercules. and annihilated space wi th the lightning's speed. counted her myriad hosts o f worlds. The last blow drives home the nail. from plan to plan. But he fought his way to eminence through ri . and tires. prophesied her future movements. The slow trotter will out-travel the fleet racer. inclosed in adamant the Chinese Empire. "The man who is perpetually hesitating which of two things he will do first.ent. Instead of being progressive in anything. and if he have ability and common sense. when I have fully decided that a result is worth getting I go ahead on it and make tr ial after trial until it comes. How Bulwer wrestled with the fates to change his apparent destiny! His first no vel was a failure. and computed their distances. The afternoon-man wears off the laurels. Edison. It has whitened the waters of the world with the sails of a hundred nations." "Know thy work and do it. "Do they come to you while you are lying awake nights?" "I never did anything worth doing by accident. scaled the stormy." con tinued the great inventor. valuable simply as novelties to catch the popular fancy." "I have no secret but hard work. but suffers his resolu tion to be changed by the first counter-suggestion of a friend--who fluctuates f rom opinion to opinion. and his youthful speeches prov oked the ridicule of his opponents. It has reduc ed nature in her thousand forms to as many sciences. "will do neither. his success will be great." said Reynolds." was the reply.--can never acco mplish anything great or useful. retrograde in all. and veers like a weather-cock to ever y point of the compass. the painter." said Carlyle. Anything I have begun is always on my mind. and. Genius darts. and engraved on a metallic surface the viewless substance of the shadow. "nor did any of my inventions come indirectly through accident. Perseverance has wrought from the marble block the exquisite creati ons of genius." [Illustration: Thomas Alva Edison] A man who thus gives himself wholly to his work is certain to accomplish someth ing. "you will make a success of it. harnessed thousan ds of iron steeds to as many freighted cars. The all-day horse wins the race. opened a highway through the watery wilderness of the Atlantic. The slow penny is surer than the quick dollar. his early poems were failures. but perseverance wears and wins. I have always kept strictly within the lines of commercially useful inventions. "I don't know any other reason. more probably.

" Newton rewrote h is "Chronology of Ancient Nations" fifteen times. had sent out secretly an expedition of his own. his spirit enters into them. and showed that the planets roll in their orbits as a result of the same law which brings an apple to the ground." Noah Webster spent thirty-six years on his dictionary. had drifted from unknown lands in the west. but to-day you hear the thunder of his guns at Waterloo hurling dismay and death among his former conquerors. Twenty years later he corrected the err or. "But the sun and moon are round. he had lost h is wife. Sothern. Opposition gives us greater power of re sistance. but one slig ht error in a measurement of the earth's circumference interfered with a demonst ration of the correctness of his theory. "But how can men walk with their heads hanging down. an d helps us to win the next victory. 1492. industry w ill supply the deficiency. In February. So the spirit of our conquests enters us. But his last hop e of obtaining aid for a voyage of discovery had failed. Gibbon worked twenty years on his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. and forsaken him. the great actor. in the words of Joshua Reyno lds. From boyhood he had been haunted with the idea that the earth is r ound. while pretending to think of helping him. and their feet up. H arvey labored eight long years before he published his discovery of the circulat ion of the blood. The council of wise men called by Ferdinand and Isabella ridiculed his theory of reaching the east by sailing west. "Never depend upon your genius. What a sublime patience he sho wed in devoting a life to the collection and definition of words! George Bancrof t spent twenty-six years on his "History of the United States. He was then called a crack-brained impostor by his fellow phys icians. twenty years on his condensing engine. found on the shores of Portugal. Opposing circumstances create strength. He had begged bread. "why not the earth?" "If the earth is a ball. said that the early part of his theatrical career was spent in getting dismissed for incompetency." said Columbus. Newton discovered the law of gravitation before he was twenty-one. what holds it up?" asked the wise men." Savages believe that when they conquer an enemy. Titian wrote to Charles V. rode slowly out through the beautiful gateway of the Alhambra. King John of Portugal." He worked on his Pietro Martyn eight years.: "I send your majesty the Last Supper. Watt. "if you have talent. his head bowed with discouragement a lmost to the back of his mule. a nd fights for them ever afterwards. if you have none. Amid abuse and ridicule he waited twenty-five years before his great dis covery was recognized by the profession. To overcome one barrier gives us greater ability to overcome the next. after working on it almost daily for seven y ears. a poor gray-haired man. "What holds the sun and moon up?" inquired Columbus. George Stephenson was fifteen years perfecting his locomotive. drawn maps and charts to keep from starving. industry will improve it. his friends had called him crazy.dicule and defeat. like fl ." said John Ruskin. Blücher may have been routed at Ligny yesterday. He believed that the piece of carved wood picked up four hundred miles at sea and the bodies of two men unlike any other human beings known.

On October 12. a magnificent new frigate of the United States Navy. breaking the cable. The cable was loaded upon the A gamemnon. Through four hundred miles of almo st unbroken forest they had to build a road as well as a telegraph line across N ewfoundland." said another phi losopher. it is rank heresy to say it is round. in his vessels scarcely larger than fishing-schooners.ies on a ceiling?" asked a learned doctor. By hard work he secured aid for his company from the British government." said Dickens. and upon the Niagara . Seven hundred miles more of cable were ordere d. Terror seized the sailors. The preli minary work included the construction of a telegraph line one thousand miles lon g. the electric current was suddenly lost. as if in the presence of death. Newfoundland. Field was about to give the order to cut the cable. land birds fly near. which says. "How hard I worked at that tremendous shorthand. telegraphic communication could be established between Europe and Ame rica." Cyrus W. as did the laying of a cable across the St. Field was not the man to give up. 'The heavens are stretched out like a tent:'--of course it is flat. "I will pled ge my jewels to raise the money. Three days out. the brakes were applied too suddenly just as the steamer gave a heavy l urch. "how can trees grow with their roots in the air?" "The water would run out of the ponds and we should fall off. and of a patient and continuous energy whic h then began to be matured. Twenty-three hundred miles from home. from New York to St. when five miles of c able had been paid out. intending to offer his services to Charl es VII. and all improvement appertaini ng to it. and a man of great skill was set to work to devise a better machine for payin . Just as Mr. so the king and queen compelled them. though he tells them it is but seventeen hundred. An old friend had told Isabella that it would add great renown to her reign at a trifling expense if what the sa ilor believed should prove true. Call him back. Columbus raised the banner of Castile over the western world. The sailors are ready to mut iny. it caught in the machinery and parted. "I will only add to what I have already written of my p erseverance at this time of my life. John's. He plunged into the undertaking with all the force of his being. but he tells them the North Star is not exactly north. Columbus left the Alhambra in despair. but. "It shall be done.." said a priest. The following night. when the sh ip was moving but four miles an hour and the cable running out at the rate of si x miles." Columbus turned and with him turned the world. the compass ceased to point to the North Star. Two hundred miles west of the Canar ies. Not a sailor would go voluntaril y. a bush with berries floats by. the current returned as quickly and mysteriously as it had disappeared. Another stretch of one hundred and forty miles across the island of Cape Breton involved a great deal of labor. but he heard a voice calling his name. and they pick up a piece of wood curious ly carved. On the second tri al. Lawrence. the Pinta floated a signal of distress for a bro ken rudder. the flag ship of the British fleet at Sebastopol. Field had retired from business with a large fortune when he became po ssessed with the idea that by means of a cable laid upon the bottom of the Atlan tic Ocean. but in Congress he encountered such bitter opposition from a powerful lobby that his m easure only had a majority of one in the Senate. and m en paced the decks nervously and sadly. when two hundred miles at sea." said Isabella. but Columbus calmed their fears with pict ures of gold and precious stones from India. "This doctrine is contrary to the Bible.

the other for Newfoundland. which. their friends. Everything worked to a charm until with in six hundred miles of Newfoundland. After sev eral attempts to raise it. and continued to Newfoundland. with such success that the whole cable was l aid without a break. which steamed slowly out to sea. was begun the trial which ended with the following mes sage sent to New York:-"HEART'S CONTENT. yet with such persistence did they work that they persuaded men to furnis h capital for yet another trial even against what seemed their better judgment. A third time the cable was spliced and about two hundred miles paid out. and the vessels returned to the coa st of Ireland. and he became one of the three greatest scholars of China. Thank God! the cable i s laid and is in perfect working order. I see the difference in my exec ution. This example of patience sent him back to his studies with a new determinat ion. In Revelation we read: "He that overcometh. A new and superior cable was loaded upon the Great Eastern. discouraged by repeated failures. Before the vessels were three miles apart. organized a new company. capitalists were shy. July 27. "CYRUS W. when it parted some twenty feet from the Agamemnon. the one headed for Ireland." replied. but perseverance is more so. and bu t for the indomitable energy and persuasiveness of Mr. great powers will yield to great industry. spliced. "We arrived here at nine o'clock this morning. when the cable snapped and sank. and if for a week. Faith now seemed dead except in the breast of Cyrus W. if for two days. "About forty years. the enterprise was abandoned for a year. I will give him to sit down with me on my throne. "Tw elve hours a day for twenty years. Lyman Beecher w hen asked how long it took him to write his celebrated sermon on the "Government of God. 1866." The old cable was picked up. All well. Not discouraged by all these difficulties." A Chinese student. it is said. and several messages were flashed through nearly seven hund red leagues of ocean. and one or two fr iends. my friends see it. the public skeptical. Talent is desirable.g out the long line." replied the great violinist. or the favorable circumstances around them. and on July 13. Field. had thrown away his book i n despair. who worked day and night almost without food or sleep. when he saw a poor woman rubbing an iron bar on a stone to make a nee dle. and the tw o are still working." Successful men. Again it was spliced. owe more to their perseverance than to their natura l powers. the whole project would have been abandoned . Finally a third attempt was made. the current was lost. Genius will falter by the side of labor. and made a new cable far superior to anything before us ed. Malibran said: "If I neglect my practice a day. with good prospects for usefulness for many years. Mr. would bind two continents together. Field went to work with a will. FIELD. paying out as she advanced. At length in mid-ocean the two halves of the cable were spliced and the steamers began to separate. but when the ships were eighty miles apart. each running out the precious thread. "How long did it take you to learn to play?" asked a young man of Geradini. it was hoped. American and British inventors united in making a machine. when suddenly the current ceased. the cable parted. all the world know . Field. Directors were disheartened.

patient. but Carlyle was n ot the man to give up." Addison amassed three volumes of manuscript before he began the "Spectator. He knew the principal was to take a certain tr ain that afternoon. humble. Pointing to a piece of bread from which he had just eaten his dinner. but Webster kept right on. he loaned the manuscript to a neighbor who left it lying on the floor. Marcus Morton ran sixteen times for governor of Massachusetts. so he went to his room and learned seven hundred lines. and they were even better than the first. Every one was ruined. After repeating the hundred lines he continued until he had recited two hundred. "My own invention. and he was elected by a majority of one! Such persistence alway s triumphs. Webster's tenacity was illustrated by a circumstance which occurred in the academy. The princi pal finally stopped him and asked him how many more he had learned." All are familiar with the misfortune of Carlyle while writing his "History of t he French Revolution." said Webster. he carried his material through the streets on a wheelbarrow. He found a formidable rival in the city and invited him to his ro om. The principal punished him for shooting pigeons by compelling him to co mmit one hundred lines of Vergil. "You can have the rest of the day for pigeon-shooting. I assure you. Webster declared that when a pupil at Phillips Exeter Academy he never could de claim before the school." Everyone admires a determined. He w ent to recite them to the principal just before train time. and the servant gi rl took it to kindle the fire. work-room." Constant. he sai d: "Unless you can live cheaper than I can you can not starve me out. "such as i t is." he says. continuing to recite. but Audubon took his gun and note-book and started for the forest." said the principal. would never have served me as it has but for the habit of co mmonplace. Audubon. toiling attention. persistent struggle she found to be the price of her ma rvelous power. the naturalist. . he is compelled to practise three m onths drawing the string to his ear before he is allowed to touch an arrow. When he returned he opened the box only to fin d a nest of Norwegian rats in his beautiful drawings. Benjamin Franklin had this tenacity of purpose in a wonderful degree. making drawings of birds. He reproduced his drawings. but he became the great orator of America. persistent man. When Dickens was asked to read one of his selections in public he replied that he had not time. he reproduced that which had burned in a f ew minutes. It w as a terrible disappointment. He nailed them all up securely in a box and went off on a vacation. Indeed. When he s tarted in the printing business in Philadelphia. it is doubtful whether Demosthenes himself surpassed his great reply to Hayne in the United States Sen ate. for he was in the habit of reading the same piece every day for six months before reading it in public. He hired one room for his office. At last his opponents voted for him from admirati on of his pluck. He said he committed piece after piece and rehearsed th em in his room. but when he heard his name called in the academy and all eyes tu rned towards him the room became dark and everything he ever knew fled from his brain. It was a bitter disappointment. The principal anxio usly looked at his watch and grew nervous.s my failure." After the first volume was ready for the press. and sleeping-room. After many months of poring over hundreds of volumes of a uthorities and scores of manuscripts. had spent two years with his gun and note-book in the forests of America. When an East India boy is learning archery. "About five hundred more.

" says Bulwer "is th e courage of the conqueror. Show me a really great triumph that is not the reward of persistence. One of the paintings which made Titian famous was on his easel eig ht years. and its importance in a social view--its import ance to races and institutions--cannot be too earnestly inculcated. The rolling stone gathers no moss. another." Yet he took up his pen wit h as much determination as ever." and only sold one hundred copies at fiftee n pence each. Is the stern watchword of 'Neve r give up!'" ." Want of constancy is the cause of many a failure. but have been elaborated an d elaborated into grace and beauty. Therefore. Adam Tucker spent eighteen years on the "Light of Nature. by endless blotches and er asures." yet you can read it in sixty minutes." A rival playwright once laughed at Eu ripides for spending three days on three lines. they become our helpers. "A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers. Thoreau wrote in his diary: "I have some nine hundred volumes i n my library. it is the virtue par excellence. Seven hundred of the one thousand copies printed were returned from the publishers. Rousseau says he obtained the ease and grace of his style only by ceaseless inquietude. Vergil worked eleven years on the Aeneid. until every trace of their efforts has been obliterated. making the millionaire of today a beggar to-morrow. He spen t ten years on his "Orlando Furioso. "but if you do. to show that when we have conquered our misfortunes . of Man against Dest iny--of the One against the World. The reading and re-reading of a single volume has been the making of many a man. w hile my three lines will live forever. And of all maxims. The persistent tortoise outruns the swift bu t fickle hare. of the years p ut into a book which may be read in an hour. An hour a day for twelve years more than equals the time given to study in a four years' course at a high school. Bishop Butler worked twenty years incessantly on his "Analogy. and it was en tirely reset. Oh. "But your five hundred lines in three days will be dead and forgotten. the glory of an unconquerable will! CHAPTER XXIV NERVE--GRIP. by writing hundreds of pages as mere practise-work. The note-books of great men li ke Hawthorne and Emerson are tell-tales of the enormous drudgery. Adam Smith s pent ten years on his "Wealth of Nations. Their works h ave not been flung off from minds aglow with genius. the best. The proof of Burke's "Letters to a Noble Lord" (one of the sublime st things in all literature) went back to the publisher so changed and blotted w ith corrections that the printer absolutely refused to correct it. Knowing that Providence mingles the cup." and even then w as so dissatisfied that he wanted to burn it. work on in despair." says Burke. by w orking like galley-slaves at literature for half a lifetime with no other compen sation than--fame." was an ent ire failure. for the wisest is boldest." The head of the god Hercules is represented as covered with a lion's skin with claws joined under the chin." he replied. Ariosto wrote his "Description of a Tempest" in sixteen different ways. when he had written five hundred lines.Great writers have ever been noted for their tenacity of purpose. "Never despair. seven hundred of which I wrote myself." Thoreau 's New England pastoral. as the oldest. Montesquieu was twenty-five years w riting his "Esprit des Lois. "Patience. and of the Soul against Matter. th is is the courage of the Gospel. seven. How came popular writers famous? By writing for years without any pay at all. PLUCK "Never give up.

Grant never looked backward. I will sally forth from Genoa sword in hand. It is the final effort that brings victory. St ick to your aim. for his own sake as well as for the good of the country. He fights. and too few to intimidate me. He has the grip of a bulldog. handed one to each general. nothing can shake him off. even after his h ead is cut off. you are Frenchmen. or seek a m ore favorable position in the rear.000 men in Genoa had been reduced by fighting and famine t o 8. w hen Santa Anna with 20. with clenched teeth and knit muscles.000 Austrians. after several days of hard fighting without definite result. or fall back. "Soldiers. But only crowbars loose the bulld og's grip. the jaw that never yields Drags down the bello wing monarch of the fields! HOLMES." It was Lincoln's marvelous insight and sagacity that saved Grant from the storm of popular passion. to die hard.000 men offered him a chance to save his 4. when he once gets his teeth in. Lincoln listened for hours one night. G eneral Ott demanded a discretionary surrender. solid. It is just such grit th at enables men to succeed. "General Taylor never surrenders. almost every member of Congress. starvation stared them in the face. and they seemed at the mercy of their opponents. but their prov isions were completely exhausted. the mongrel's hold will slip. but Massena replied: "My soldiers must be allowed to march out with colors flying. "Add a step to it. and general after general told how he would withdraw. as he withdrew. At length all eyes were turned upon Grant." said old "Rough and Ready" at Buena Vista. but at length the Mexicans we re glad to avoid further defeat by flight. If you do not grant this. and arms and baggage. Massena's army of 18. h e said: "I can't spare this man. and said: "Gentlemen. "My sword is too short.000 soldiers b y capitulation. It is said that the snapping-turtle will not release his grip. and with the morning sun the army moved forward to victory. He rose. he called a council of war. the enemy outnumbered them four to one. Small though he looks." Every paper gave definite directions for an advance." "How brave he is!" exclaim ed the ringleader. if he dies. he replied. The battle was long and desperate. Then. then. completely cowed. at dawn you w ill execute those orders." and "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer. one constant element of luck Is genuine." was the only reply. When Lincoln was asked how Grant impr essed him as a general. but free to fight when and where we please. One general described the route by which he would retreat. and gave us the greatest hero of the Civil War. Once. With eight thousand famished ." that settled the fate of the Rebellion ." said Napoleon.000. coolly walking among his disaffec ted generals when they threatened his life in the Egyptian campaign. w ho had been a silent listener for hours. Friends of the President pleaded with him to gi ve the command to some one else. They had killed and captured more than 15. until the clock struck one. old Teutonic pluck. He is resolved." said a Spartan youth to his father. that shows what Oxford boatm en call "the beefiness of the fellow. It is this keeping right on that wins in the battle of life.Be firm. speaking only at rare intervals to tell a pithy story. after a long silence. nearly every newspaper of b oth parties in the North. another thought it better to retire by a different road. "The greatest thing about him is cool persis tency of purpose. and public sentiment everywhere demanded his removal. It is the last pul l of the oar. not as p risoners of war. took a bundle of papers from a n inside pocket. "you are to o many to assassinate." It was "On to Richmond." After Grant's defeat at the first battle of Shiloh. for what is called luck is generally the prerogative of valiant souls.

He was right. who owned the Museum building . as though he had been the conqueror. "but w e will see who can pound the longest. and will pay for the Museum before the year is out." and he kept h is word. "f or silver and gold have I none." said Wellington at Waterloo to his officers. "Is this the way you eat your dinner?" he asked. Napoleon said of this man. . and I intend never to eat another until I get out of debt. who was orphaned in infancy and cast upon the world to make his own way in life: "When defeated." said Desaix. "Well. who knew that the showman had not a dollar. Barnum assented to the arrangement. and credit Barnum towards the purchase with all above expenses and an allowance of fifty dollars per month to support his wife and three children. looking at his watch." Ott at last agreed. "I have not eaten a warm dinner since I bought the Museum. The goddess of fame or of fortune has been won by many a poor boy who had n o friends. when consul ted by Napoleon at Marengo. Olmstead. "There is room enough up higher. no backing. and more determined pluck. "what do you intend buying it with?" "Brass. and knew the condition of his pocket." said Mr. or anything but pure grit and invincible purpose. and won the field." said Barnum to a friend in 1841." with emphasis that can not be mistaken." was the prompt reply. O lmstead was to appoint a money-taker at the door. gentlemen. alt hough a few minutes before the French soldiers all along the line were momentari ly expecting an order to retreat. an d offered to cut down the household expenses to a little more than a dollar a da y. consulted numerous references all telling of "a good showman. except on the Sabbat h. "Hard pounding. as an Austrian shell scattered earth over the dispatch he was writing at the d ictation of his commander-in-chief." and accepted a proposition to give security for the purchaser. Mr." Everyone interested in public entertainments in New York knew Barnum." He then made his famous cavalry charge. slappi ng the young man approvingly on the shoulder. and found Ba rnum eating for dinner a few slices of bread and some corned beef. Learn to meet ha rd times with a harder will. The nature which is all pine and straw is of no use in times of trial. and I will fight till I cut my way through it. Six months later Mr." "The battle is completely lost. we must have some oak and iron in us. This is true in every department o f activity." said young Junot coolly . for in less than a y ear Barnum had paid every cent out of the profits of the establishment. but Francis Olmstead. "but it is only two o'clock. Whoev er attempts to pass through the door to success will find it labeled. or if he would depart by sea so as not to be quickly joine d by reinforcements. The young man who succeeds must hold his ground and push hard. "Push." Ot t knew the temper of the great soldier." said Webster to a young man hesitating to stu dy law because the profession was so crowded. "I am going to buy the American Museum . and agreed to accept the terms if he wou ld surrender himself. and we shall have time to gain another. The remark attracted Napoleon's attention an d led to the promotion of the scrivener. Massena's only reply was: "Take my terms." "Ah! you are safe . who would do as he agreed. Massena was always ready to fight a battle over again." "It is very kind of them to 'sand' our letters for us. or I will cut my way through your army. when Massena said: "I give you notic e that ere fifteen days are passed I shall be once more in Genoa." There is another big word in the English language: the perfection of grit is th e power of saying "No.men I will attack your camp. Mrs. Olmstead entered the ticket-office at noon." "Buy it!" exclaimed the astonished friend.

on whom a bungling operation merely removed an imped iment of speech." says Huxley. Whitney his cot ton-gin. Howe hi s sewing-machine. an element of luck in the amount of success which crowns the efforts of different men. equally expert. ten. after repeated fail ures in trying to imitate a storm at sea. to him who is not striving. Gould. does not come to much if a feeble frame is unable to respond to the desire. or Rockefeller. for industry. dishonesty. or twenty years it will be found that they succeeded almost in exact proportion to their skill and industry. T wo pearl-divers. Indeed. an ignoramus utter lectures on science. while the temperate man looks haggard and suffers want a nd misery? Does luck starve honest labor. Stewart. and wishes the postman would bring him the news of a legacy. for all practica l purposes. an Aeneid. or a Hamlet. No success is worthy of the name unless it is won by honest industry and brave breasting of the waves o f fortune. but only opened an internal tumor. Apparent exceptions will be found to relate almost wholly to single undertakings. of a painter who produced an effect long desired by throwing hi s brush at a picture in rage and despair. Vanderbilt. dive together and work with equal energy. Bell his telephone. Luck lies in bed. folly at a premium? Does it cast intelligence into the gutter. a Minerva. Morse his telegraph. worn out by a painful disorder. a Paradise Lost. while the other returns empty-handed. a carel ess stonecutter carve an Apollo. "labor. labor. with keen eyes and strong will. Edison his phonograph ? If you are told of the man who. tried to commit suicide. Goodyear his rubber. a Venus de Medici. There is no luck. will turn up something. and pamper idleness? Does luck put com mon sense at a discount. Luck relies on chance. effecting a cure." says Cobden. or cowardice. Fulton his steamboat. not inaction. labor turns out at six o'clock. Field. obtained the result desired by angrily running his hands together from the extremities of the keyboard. There is. Only once learn to carry a . a dolt write an Odyssey. Wagram. and iron industry are impregnable to the assault s of the ill luck that fools are dreaming of. and laud vice ? Did luck give Watt his engine. of the Persian co ndemned to lose his tongue. the longer I live. while in the long run the rule will hold good. go forth to the task. No life is w asted unless it ends in sloth. "Luck is ever waiting for something to turn up. Waterloo. What are called accidental discoveries are almost invariably made by those who are looking for something. of a musician who. and his home cheerful. Believe you were made for the place yo u fill. perhaps." Stick to the thing and carry it through. and that no one else can fill it as well.--bear in mind that even this "luck" came to men as the result of action. electrify yourself. Blanchard his lathe. or a Greek Slave? Does luck raise rich crops on the land of the sluggard. or Richmond. A man incurs about as much risk of being struck b y lightning as by accidental luck.A good character. Put forth your whole energies. a Rothschild. an d with busy pen or ringing hammer lays the foundation of a competence." Has luck ever made a fool speak words of wisdom. Franklin his captive lightning. I am much disposed to think that endurance is the most valuable quality of all. good habits. but even here it wi ll usually be found that the sagacity with which the efforts are directed and th e energy with which they are prosecuted measure pretty accurately the luck conta ined in the results achieved. Luck whin es. But let both persevere a nd at the end of five. One b rings up a pearl. a lo afer become a Girard or Astor. as the desire to work hard. "Varied experience of men has led me. Be awake. "to set less value on mere cleverness. to attach more and more importance to industry an d physical endurance. weeds and brambles on t hat of the industrious farmer? Does luck make the drunkard sleek and attractive. and whose senses are not all eagerly att ent. a coward win at Yorktown. on character. and raise ignorance to the skies? Does it imprison virtue. labor whistles.

envies not." said Harriet Beecher Stowe. Sees his hopes fail. DRYDEN. the ceaseless vi gilance and fidelity which made the Roman legionaries masters of the known world . did Pizarro and his few volunteers resolve to stak e their lives upon the success of a desperate crusade against the powerful empir e of the Incas. but in rising every time we fall. Choose. true and just. I go to the south. 79. "neve r give up then. when his men were c lamoring to return to Panama. e ase and pleasure. D. "on that side are toi l. yet keeps unfa ltering trust That God is God. he crossed the line and was followed by thirteen Spaniards i n armor. the drenching storm. determined doer. Our greatest glory is not in never falling. His plans work out f or mortals."--BEETHOVEN." So saying. third. after trac ing with his sword upon the sand a line from east to west. The world in its very heart admires the stern. till it seems as if you could not hold on a minute longer. For my part. a mute witness to the thorough discipline. nakedness. I have a soul that. which was buried by the dust and ashe s from an eruption of Vesuvius A. in the face of certain death.-GOLDSMITH. backbone. The barriers are not yet erected which shall say to aspiring talent. he alone is great . and verge enough for more. He might have found saf ety under sheltering rocks close by. the workmen found the skeleton of a Rom an soldier in the sentry-box at one of the city's gates. and you will become a hero . You will think better of yourself. backbone. Falls f rom his grasp. a crust Than living in dishonor. B ut with a smile and words of hope. like an ample shi eld. "Friends and comrades. b ackbone. each man." "When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you. with love. that somehow. Nor even murmurs at his humbler lot. better. hunger. That wins each godlike act." While digging among the ruins of Pompeii. on this side. There lies Peru with its riches: here. Who by a life heroic conquers fate. gives zest To every toiler. but. second. "I like the man who faces what he must With step triumphant and a heart of chee r. and plucks success E'en from the spear-proof crest of rugged danger. as he turned toward the south." Charles Sumner said "three things are necessary to a strong character: First. There's a brave fellow! There's a man of pluck! A man who's not afraid to say h is say. Is it necessary to add that all difficulties yie lded at last to such resolute determination? "Perseverance is a Roman virtue. Panama and its poverty. "Thus far and no farther." said Pizarro. At the time they had not even a vessel to transport them to the country they wished to conquer." CHAPTER XXV CLEAR GRIT Let fortune empty her whole quiver on me. Can take in all. on the little island of Gallo in the Pacific. and death. not a tear Is shed when fortune. desertion. Though a whole town's against him. N or loses faith in man. he had r emained at his post. what best becomes a brave Castilian. LONGFELLOW. others will think better of you. . Thus. for that's just the place and time that the tide'll turn. Who fights the daily battle without fear.thing through in all its completeness and proportion. but does his best. which the world holds dear.

"Mean natures always feel a sort of terror before great natures. and fin ally the Walter Press." "It is in me and it shall come out. at his post. The father was in utter dismay. that a man with brains and push and tenacity of purpo se stood at the helm. His son. After many misgivings. Thereupon the public customs. but among the missing. that its article s meant business. In the presence of men permeated with grit and sound i n character. Enterprise. throwing off 17.. begged his father to give him full control of the paper. his name will be found neither among the d ead nor among the wounded. It is that quality which achieves. that the first steam printed paper was given to the world. backbone w ithout brains will carry against brains without backbone. has the right of way. pure grit. But nothing could daunt this resolute young spirit. Young Walter was the soul of the paper. and had had no individuality or character of its own. and scarcely dared recite . In those days only three hundred copies of the paper could be struck off in an hour by the best presses. an d his personality pervaded every detail. push. But no remonstrance could swerve the son from hi s purpose to give the world a great journal which should have weight. The "London Times" was an insignificant sheet published by Mr. only added to his determination to succeed. and many a bas e thought has been unuttered. and his foreign dispatches were all stopped at the outposts. charact er. and all opposition from the government. The audacious y oung editor boldly attacked every wrong. there is no alternative but to keep pegging away. and the government adverti sements were withdrawn. individuality. 1814. grit were behind the "Times. patiently. was the result. and Walter had duplicate and even triplicate types set. who dies. Am ong other new features foreign dispatches were introduced. and courageously grapples with his fate.000 copies per hour. and ev erybody admires achievement. whenever he though t it corrupt. if need be . the fa ther finally consented. Then he set his brain to work.--a man who could make a way when he could not find one. He became known as one of the foremost orators of his day. Jr. at th e close of any battle for principles. The " leading article" also was introduced to stay. The public soon saw that a new power stood behind the "Times". hypocrisy is uncertain. You can not. Ev ery obstacle put in his way. Lincoln. In the strife of parties and principles. John Walter. he was sure. through the fear in spired by the rebuking presence of one noble man. even the government. then only twenty-seven years old. Walter and was s teadily losing money. being asked by an anxious visitor what he would do after three or four years if the rebellion were not subdued. whi le the ministerial journalists were allowed to proceed. both sides printed. and independence. character. that new life and new blood and new ideas had been infused int o the insignificant sheet. many a sneaking vote withheld. The paper had not attempted to mold publi c opinion. At enormous expense he employed special couriers. wo uld ruin the paper and himself. replied: "Oh. by tying an opinion to a man's tongue. and they appeared in the "Times" several days before their appearance in the government organs." As a rule. printing." and nothing could stay its progress. It was the 29th of November. when told that he would nev er make an orator as he had failed in his first speech in Parliament." said Sheridan. Mean men are uncomfortabl e. The aggressive editor antagonized the government.The world admires the man who never flinches from unexpected difficulties. make him the representative of that opinion. who calmly. "Clear grit" always commands respect. When a boy Henry Clay was very bashful and diffident. meanness and baseness slink out of sight. dishonesty trembles. The young journalist began to remodel the establishment and to introduce new ideas everywhere.

they ought to have been foun d somewhere between the birth and death of Kitto. "If you try to wheedle out of him his plans for a campaign. and delegations were waiting upon him to ask for th at general's removal. both had that rare nerve which cares not for ridicule. which enters into the very structure. While you are wondering what k ind of creature this man without a tongue is. obliging this man by investing in hopeless speculation. and. the great President sat with crossed legs. for his grit speaks in his e very act. with a crew in mutiny. even if he had to subsist like the Hottentots. r ather than offend a friend. indorsing a questionable note. when his methods were criticized by his own party. or in the barn with the horse a nd cows for an audience. It insp ires a sublime audacity and a heroic courage. and in the the knowledge that ll prevail. yielding disposition." When the illustrated papers everywhere were caricaturi ng him. is not clamor. immov able. He could not be moved from his base. proving that behind the cigar. in truth is mighty. he blandly lights another cig ar. Through sunshine and storm. and field turnips. they were "plucky. he placidly returns the pu ff from his regalia. He is spared the necessity of declaring himself. solid quality. he was self-centered. He begged his father to take him ou t of the poorhouse. nuts. when no epithet seemed too harsh to heap upon him. with no ability to say "No" with an emphasis. if you praise him as the greatest general living. W hat were impossibilities to such a resolute. It is unfortunate for a young man to s tart out in business life with a weak. If impossibilities ever exist. Here was real grit. Many of our generals in the Civil War exhibited heroism. through sleet a nd rain. can bear abuse and hatred. with no resolution or backbone to mark his own course and stick to it." an d often displayed great determination. that deaf pauper and master of Oriental learning. you are suddenly electrified with the news of some splendid victory. The man of grit carries in his very presence a power which controls and command s. Lincoln and Grant swerved by public truth. and it dies still struggling. but he determined to become an orator. and was willing to sleep on a hayrick. the v ery tissues of the constitution. but Grant had pure "grit" in the most con centrated form. it is a part of his life. and behind the face discharged of all telltale expression. He said he could live upon blackberries. by which he thought he co uld raise about twelve shillings. But Kitto did not find them there. . There is a mighty force in sublime conviction and supreme self-confidence behind it. and was reminde d of a story. Many of the failures of life are d ue to the want of grit or business nerve. He told him t hat he would sell his books and pawn his handkerchief. if you call him an imbecile and a blunderer. he stolidly sm okes. it perseveres. through hurricane and tempest. with a leaky ship. and if you tell him he should run for the presidency. indomitable will? Grit is a permanent. is the best brain to plan and the s trongest heart to dare among the generals of the Republic. in fact. In the presence of his de cision and imperial energy they melted away. nothi ng but death can subdue it." Lincoln had pure "grit. It does not come by fits and starts. So he commit ted speeches and recited them in the cornfields. and the conviction and confidence that it wi Pure grit is that element of character which enables a man to clutch his aim wi th an iron grip. popularly speaking.before his class at school. it do es not disturb the equanimity with which he inhales and exhales the unsubstantia l vapor which typifies the politician's promises. and keep the needle of his purpose pointing to the star of his hope. and the generals in the war were denouncing his "f oolish" confidence in Grant.

though the French themselves thought that the battle was lost. He persevered in spite of repeated attacks of illness and par tial loss of sight." he replied. half starved and thinly clad. that secu res what all so much desire--SUCCESS. It enable d Gideon Lee to go barefoot in the snow. you would shake worse yet if you knew where I am going to take you. It helped Locke to live on bread and water in a Dutch garret. The Austrian army extended its wing s on the right and on the left. required almost an impossibility. and the battle was won for France . he r ose painfully and said courageously. But that steadfast soul seemed alt ogether unaffected by bodily prostration. lesson after lesson with the scho lar. The messenger found Masséna seated on a heap of rubb ish. looking down at his knees which we re smiting together. Half dead as he was with fatigue. and. Whipple tells a story of Masséna which illustrates the masterful purpose that plu cks victory out of the jaws of defeat. "After the defeat at Essling. to whom the Emperor dispatched a messenger. crop after crop with the farmer. being too poor to buy a dictionary. by getting up every time I fell down. his frame weakened by his unparalleled exertions during a contest of forty hours. Then. 'Tell the Emperor that I will hold out for two hours. Physician s said there was no hope for him." "Often defeated in battle." said Macaulay of Alexander the Great. "Oh. The lad determined to continue his college stu dies. walking from his home in the vill age of Dartmouth. This order.. Crapo. picture after picture with the painter. He resolved to make a critical study of Dante. He was competing for the university prize. Oh. but his work was successful." It is victory after victory with the soldier. It sustai ned Lincoln and Garfield on their hard journeys from the log cabin to the White House. A promising Harvard student was stricken with paralysis of both legs. and the Austrians were confident i t was won.A little boy was asked how he learned to skate. Napoleon gave the command to charge. telling him to keep his posit ion for two hours longer at Aspern. actually copied one. the Old Guard charged down into the weakened center of the enemy. his eyes bloodshot.' And he kept his word. but Napoleon knew the indomitable tenacity o f the man to whom he gave it. Congressman William W. and mile after mile with the traveler. "he was alway s successful in war. Once when Marshal Ney was going into battle. blow after blow with the laborer. the triumphs of this indomitable spirit of the conqueror! This it was that enabled Franklin to dine on a small loaf in the printing-office with a book in h is hand. the trumpet's blast being g iven. . he said. the Austrians considered the day won. couched in the form of a request . while working his way through college. and his whole appearance indicating a physical state better befitting the hospital than the field. competing for a prize. rolled the two wings up on either side. Mass. Think of the para lytic lad. helpless in bed. fighting death inch by inch! What a lesson! Before his manuscript was published or the prize awarded. and in four years he took his degr ee. the success of Napoleon's attempt to withdraw his beaten army depended on the character of Masséna. to New Bedford to replenish his store of words and defi nitions from the town library." In the battle of Marengo. "You may well shake. The French army was inferior in numbers. and had given way. to follow up the French. The examiners heard him at his bedside. to do which he had to learn I talian and German. the bra ve student died. cut it i n two.

You could see that this young man intended to make his way in the w orld." Cobden broke down completely the first time he appeared on a platform in Manche ster. he was absolute master of himself and hi s situation. Francis Parkman put grit in place of health and eyesight. "Prime Minister of England. See young Disraeli. the great Prime Minister. eyes. when this gay young fop was introduced to him. Indeed. studied law. Imagine England's su rprise when she awoke to find this insignificant Hebrew actually Chancellor of t he Exchequer! He was easily master of all the tortures supplied by the armory of rhetoric. ears. forcing his leaders hip upon that very party whose prejudices were deepest against his race. until he stands self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social power . You can not keep a man down who has these qualities. he left home moneyle ss. and paying his notes at the same time. he could s ting Gladstone out of his self-control. without opportunit y. returned to college. he could exhaust the resources of the bitterest invective. and bec ame the greatest historian of America in his line. after three defeats in parliamentary elections he was not th e least daunted. "It is all very well. bu t phoenix-like. Prescott also put grit in place of eyesight. and became the greatest Postmaster -General England ever had. Determined audacity was in his very face. and told him he could not stay at home. for he knew his day would come. fairly wringing success from adverse f ortune. Henry Fawcett put grit in place of eyesight. Fox. and nevertheless has gone on. and cheaper loaf. up through the upper classes. he rose repeatedly from the ashes of his misfortune each time mo re determined than before. with the hated Hebrew blood in his veins. and lift himself to success." The time did come. Scoffed. legs and yet have achieved marvelous su ccess. owing thousands more than he possessed. and whi ch had an utter contempt for self-made men and interlopers. Thousands of men have put gri t in place of health. Again and again he was ruined. Barnum was a ruined man. When the youth found the props all t aken out from under him. One of the most remarkable examples in history is Disraeli. He may go on." said Charles J. and I will back that young man to do better than most of those who have succeeded at the first trial. most of the great things of the world have been accomplished by g rit and pluck. At fifty. His father refused to give him mo re. Lord Melbourne. . and became one of America's greate st historians. ridiculed. and the boy wit h no chance swayed the scepter of England for a quarter of a century. Handsome. The son returned at the end of the fresh man year with extravagant habits and no money. and that he must now sink or swim. he simply says . Seward was given a thousand dollars by his father with which to go t o college. but show me a young man who has not succeeded at f irst. "to tell me that a young man has di stinguished himself by a brilliant first speech. William H. this was all he was to have. rebuffed. "The time will come when you will hear me. or he may be sati sfied with his first triumph. graduated at the head of his class. He will make stepping-stones out of his stumbling-blocks. sprung from a hated and persecuted race. and worked thirty-five years after his funeral had been planned. hissed from the House of Commons. pushing his way up through the middle classes. But he did not give up speaking till every poor man in England had a larger. yet he resolutely resumed business once more. better. and became Lincoln's great Secretary of State during the Civil War. asked him what he wish ed to be.President Chadbourne put grit in place of his lost lung. and the chairman apologized for him. hands." was his audacious reply. was el ected Governor of New York.

the distance we have run. because they get no sympathy and are forever tortured for not doing that again st which every fiber of their being protests. they l acked will-power. "Begone. greedy world. with th e opposition of parents who do not understand them? How many a round boy is hind ered in the race by being forced into a square hole? How many youths are delayed in their course because nobody believes in them. will decide the prizes. will often receive the greater prize. will all be taken into account. But the general set the example of living on acorns. "there is nothing impossible to him who will try." "I can't. self ish." said Napoleon. So in the race of life the distance alone does not determine the prize. unprovided for an d starving. What chance is there in this crowding. sloth and folly Shiver and sink at sight of toil and hazard. and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. ought to be sufficient to put to shame all grumblers over their hard fortune and those who attempt to excuse aiml ess. During a winter in the War of 1812. The race is not always to the swift. and every drop of their blood rebe ls? How many men have to feel their way to the goal through the blindness of ign orance and lack of experience? How many go bungling along from the lack of early discipline and drill in the vocation they have chosen? How many have to hobble along on crutches because they were never taught to help themselves. "If the power to do hard work is not talent. for a young man with no will. They could not half will. of breeding. no grip on life? "The truest wisdom. became mutinous and were going home. to be tossed about hither and thither." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes. How many young men are weighted down with debt. the handicaps. shiftless. the battle is not always to the strong. a mere sport of chance. but have be en accustomed to lean upon a father's wealth or a mother's indulgence? How many are weakened for the journey of life by self-indulgence. the weights we have carried. I should say unhesitatingly. or friends? How many are fettered with ignorance. those who have su ffered abuse in silence. "The wise and active conquer difficulties. by a weak constitution. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam. of circumstances. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. General Jackson's troops. to Alexander. successless men because they have no chance. it is the best poss ible substitute for it. where everything is pusher or pushed. We must take into consideration the hindrances. of surrounding s. by dissipation. and then he rode before the rebellious line and threatened with instant death the first mutineer that should try to leave. Not the distance we have run. how many are crippled by disease. always at the mercy of those who have wills. Can he will strong enough. The poor wretch who has plodded along against unknown temptations." The triumph of industry and grit over low birth and iro n fortune in America. and this is taken into acco unt in the result. Ho rses are sometimes weighted or hampered in the race. by impaire d eyesight or hearing? When the prizes of life shall be finally awarded." said a foiled lieutenant. "is a resolute deter . pushing. the disadvantages of education. the weights we have c arried. the disadvantages und er which we have made the race. the land of opportunity. it is impossible. By daring to attempt them. and who have been unrecognized or despised by their fel low-runners. And make the impossibility t hey fear. because nobody encourages them ." shouted the conquering Macedonian. the poor woman who has buried her sor rows in her silent heart and sewed her weary way through life. but the obstacles we have overcome. hampered by inhospitable surroundings. with the support of invalid parents or brothers and sisters. by "lif e-sappers".Garfield said. with povert y. of training.

" said the innkeeper. as he looked into the bright honest eyes of the boy. Seeing that steam-vessel s would soon win supremacy over those carrying sails only. to carry the cargo across a sand-spit to the lighte rs. harrow. If. But the tide turned. "I have here three teams that I want to get over to Staten Island. on the first of May." Speaking of his first attempt at a debating club. He early identified himself with the g rowing railroad interests of the country. and plant with corn the eight-acre lot. J. my dear sir. He was a remarkable example of success under difficulties. N." The innkeeper asked the reason for this novel proposition." CHAPTER XXVI SUCCESS UNDER DIFFICULTIES Victories that are easy are cheap. In 1829 he b egan business as a steamboat owner.--WASHINGTON IRVING. N. Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortunes. The horse was soon redeemed. having imbibed a strong liki ng for the sea. For twelve years he ran between New York City and New Brunswick. Barnum began the race of business life barefoot. and if I don't send y ou back six dollars within forty-eight hours you may keep the horse. I took courage and had actually proceeded al ." The field was rough and stony. 1810. I will advance you the money. it was not. untarnished by ambition or avarice ." said a boy of twelve one day in 1806 to the innkeeper at South Amboy. for at the age of fifteen he w as obliged to buy on credit the shoes he wore at his father's funeral. The boy had been sent with three wagons . "If you will pu t us across. From this small beginning Cornelius Vanderbilt laid the foundation of a colossal fortune. J. and learned that the lad's father had contracted to get the cargo of a vessel stranded near Sandy Ho ok. I'll leave with you one of my horses in pawn. and three men. Curran." replied the orator. Those only are worth having which come as th e result of hard fighting. six horses. P. "it was born some three and twe nty years and some months after me. "My son. but with cha racter it would make a Wellington or a Grant. by that time. "The undivided will 'T is that compels the elements and wrings A human music fr om the indifferent air. but the work was done in time. and he prospered so rapidly that he a t length owned over a hundred steamboats. There was no keeping him down. when he asked her to lend him one hundred dollars to buy a boat. The work accomplished. you will plow. and became the richest man of his day in America. in the face of opposition so bitter that he lost his last dollar. and reached South Amboy penniless. "Indee d. and well done." said this same boy's mother. trembling through every fiber. "I'll d o it.mination.--BEECHER." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon. In 1818 Vanderbilt owned two or three of the finest coasting schooners in New Y ork harbor. "on the twenty-seventh of this month you will be sixteen years o ld. but great minds rise above t hem. he had started with only six dollars to travel a long distance home over the Jersey sands. and take it to New York in lighters. "Eloquence must have been born with you. he said: "I stood up. he gave up his fine b usiness to become the captain of a steamboat at one thousand dollars a year. no opposition daunted him. and had a capital of nine thousand dollars. but remembering that in this I was but imitating Tully." said a friend to J.

He mastered Vergil and Horace in this way. If a man was to compare the effect of a single stroke of the pickax. Curran rose and ga ve the man a "piece of his mind. I perceived that every eye was turned on me. and studied in the n ight schools for years. work ou t their problem. harassed by want and woe. and the r oom could not have contained as many more. There were only six or seven present. in time surmount the greatest difficulties. they seize upon whatever is at hand. Gifford wrote his first copy o f a mathematical work. Great men have found no royal road to their triumph. Encouraged by this success. I became dismayed and dumb. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance: it is by th is that the quarry becomes a pyramid. and read extensively. and spoke at every opportunity. and early learned the lesson that it takes one hundred cents to make a dollar. incessantly continued. he took great pains to become a good speaker. but dies worth a million and a . So eager for knowledge was he. was in London completing his first s ewing-machine. by way of industry and perseverance. and that distant countries are united with canals. taught school at ten dollars per month. and then he pawned his letters patent to pay his expenses home. Nor do they wait for fa cilities or favoring circumstances. My friends cried. It is always the old route ." When Elias Howe. The boy Arkwright begins barbering in a cellar. and amid the deafening roar of machinery would po re over its pages." "I doubt not. He bought beans and cooked them himself. besides studying botany. and master the situation. yet those petty operation s. Chairman. at which we look with praise and wonder. to my astonishment and terror. as if I were the central object in nature. by the slender force of human beings. he c an bring electricity from the clouds with a common kite. and oceans bounded." Stung by the taunt.most as far as 'Mr. Bunyan wrote his "Pilgrim's Progress" on the untwisted papers which were used t o cork the bottles of milk brought for his meals. 'Hear him!' but there was nothing to hear. "All the performances of human art. A young man determined and willing wi ll find a way or make one. In af ter years he fought "steals" in Congress. he wou ld be overwhelmed by the sense of their disproportion. or of one impression of the spade. with the general design and last result. Washburn. first calculated eclipses on his plow handle.' when. The farmer boy. yet was it." and well did he deserve the title until he ventured to stare in astonishment at a speaker who was "culminating chronology by the most preposterous anachronis ms." He was nicknamed "Orator Mum . and assembled millions were gazing upon me in breathless expectation. although it was worth fifty. Out of his first week's wages he bought a Latin grammar." Great men never wait for opportunities. to my panic-stricken imag ination. H e sold his first machine for five pounds. "that 'Orator Mum' possesses wonde rful talents for eloquence. Elihu B. but I would recommend him to show it in future by so me more popular method than his silence. David Livingstone at ten years of age was put into a cotton factory near Glasgo w. notwithstanding he had to be at the factory at six in the mo rning." speaking fluently in his anger. on small scraps of leather. and mounta ins are leveled. He would sit up and study till midnight unless his mothe r drove him to bed. he had frequently to borrow money to live on. when a cobbler's apprentice. He corrected his hab it of stuttering by reading favorite passages aloud every day slowly and distinc tly. the astronomer. A Franklin does not require elaborate apparatus. that he would place his book bef ore him on the spinning-jenny." s ays Johnson. and Rittenhouse. until he was called the "Watchdog of t he Treasury. they make them." said the annoyed speaker. He also borrowed money to send his wife back to America.

have become the companions of kings. and given the reins of power. Amid scenes unpropitious. men like Seward. studied. singularly awkwar d. mustered all the impediments. and exercised an influence upon the thought of the world amounting to a species of intellectual legislation. Everyone who enters makes his o wn door. of what real parentage we know not.half. the most experienced and accomplis hed men of the day." said a sage. wretched. the guides and teachers of their kind. but often in adversity and destitution. nor fair surrounding. were sent to the rear. While at college. There is scarcely a great truth or doctrine but has had to fight its way to pub lic recognition in the face of detraction. "discovered a more splendid series of celestial phenomena than any one since with the great telescopes. But the boy would not lead a useless life. Not in the brilliant salon. he lost one eye by a hard piece of bread thrown during a "biscuit battle." What a lesson in his life for young men! What a rebuke to those who have thrown away their opportunities and wasted their liv es! "Galileo with an opera-glass. Daniel Webster." Surroundings which men call unfavorable can not prevent owers. and t rained themselves. and lived to become honored and wealthy. and death might be chanted by a Greek chorus as at once the pr elude and the epilogue of the most imperial theme of modern times? Born as lowly as the Son of God. which closes behind him to all others. not even permitting his own chil dren to pass. ami dst the harassing cares of a straitened household. and Chase. have men labored. squalor. The great l eaders of his party were made to stand aside. Then he spent ten years more. even against the opposition of the most progressive men. the unfolding of your p sprang the greatest of crowded ranks of toil. statesmen famous and trained. not in the tapestried library. repulsive. he spent ten years stu dying before he even decided upon a particular theme for his first book. William H. Prescott was a remarkable example of what a boy with "no chance" can do. raised to supreme comm and at a supreme moment. career. is genius born and nurtured. have often come tors of our race. From the and homes to which luxury is a stranger. The world treated his novelties just as it treats everybody's novelties--m ade infinite objection. and turned all hi s energies in that direction. but he snapped his fingers at their objections. "What does he know." and the other eye became almost useless. until they have at last emanated from the gloom of that obscu rity the shining lights of their times. late in life. wh ose life. with no gleam of light. Nearly every great discovery or invention that has blessed mankind has had to f ight its way to recognition. reared in pe nury. "who has not suffered?" Schiller produced his . in bare and fireless garrets. There is no open door to the temple of success." said Emerson. a young manhood vex ed by weird dreams and visions. and persecution. calumny. to be snatched from obscurity. and intrusted with the destiny of a nation. By the aid of others' eyes. He set his heart upon being a historian. not in ease and comp etence. in a hovel. ungainly even among the uncouth about him: it was reserved for this remarkabl e character. before he publi shed his "Ferdinand and Isabella. and Sumner. while this strange figure was brought by unseen hands to the front. the leaders and benefac Where shall we find an illustration more impressive than in Abraham Lincoln. From among the rock-ribbed hills of New Hampshire American orators and statesmen. poring over old archives and manuscripts. with scarcely a natural grace. Columbus f ound the new world in an undecked boat.

Threats. or swerved a hair's breadt h from his purpose. but was hissed down as befor e. Columbus was dismissed as a fool from court after court. when a young man. but the "Iron Duke" never faltered in his course. and on them will climb to greatness. in Boston. a noted actor. and scoffs of his audiences. which was supposed to have money on board. talking about a Spanish ship wrecked off the Bahama Islands. He was so discouraged by his defeats that he determined to give up forever all attempts at oratory. Beethoven produced his greatest works amidst gloomy sorrow. and reputation . hanging his head in great confusion. and whom he compelled to refund a part of his fortune. He then heard of anothe . All that is great and noble and true in the history of the world is the result of infinite painstaking. The words "New World" were graven upon his heart. Jay had arranged with Great Britain. his books were burned in public. after many hardships. of common every-day industry. discovered the lost treasure. T ake away his money. He stammered so much that he could not pronounce some of the letters at all. heard some sailors on the street. Cripple hi m. and such an impedim ent in his speech. in order to overcome his stammering. pleasure. yet he persevered and won s uccess. must be sacrificed. and last of all his "Requiem. Mozart composed his great opera s. Place stumbling-blocks in his w ay and he takes them for stepping-stones. and struggling with distress and suffering. Roger Bacon. he determined to be an orator at any cost. As he withdrew. But he remained fir m. perpetual plodding. encouraged him still further to try to overcome his impediment. could not shake his mighty purpose. mutiny of sailors. scorned by quee ns. life itself if need be. he sat down to compose the great w orks which have made his name immortal in music. believed the young man had something in him. Young Phipps determined to find it. who had defrauded him. All his first attempts were nearly drowned by the hisses. His first effort tha t met with success was against his guardian. Satyrus." when oppressed by debt and struggling with a f atal disease. and he writes the Waverley Novels. He overcame his short breath by practising while running up steep and difficul t places on the shore. ostracism. ease.greatest tragedies in the midst of physical suffering almost amounting to tortu re. and he makes spurs of his poverty to urge him on. He went to the seashore and practised amid the roar of th e breakers with small pebbles in his mouth. One of his audito rs. leaky vessels. Perhaps no one ever battled harder to overcome obstacles which would have dishe artened most men than Demosthenes. Handel was never greater than when. Finally. when o ppressed by almost total deafness. and the people adopted his opinion. and he was kept in prison for ten years. and was so short of breath. He was accused of dealing in magic. and encouraged him to persevere. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the overmastering purpose which domi nated his soul. and. He accordingly appeared again in public. He had such a weak voice. was terrib ly persecuted for his studies in natural philosophy. jeers. however. but he pushed his suit against an incredulous and ridiculing world. His awkward gestures were also corrected by long and dete rmined drill before a mirror. William Phipps. and at the same time accustom himself to the hisses and tumults of his audience . Even our own revered Washington was mobbed in the streets because he would not pander to the clamor of the people and reje ct the treaty which Mr. You can not keep a determined man from success. and his breath woul d give out before he could get through a sentence. warned by palsy of the approach of death . Rebuffed by kings. that he could scarcely get throug h a single sentence without stopping to rest. one of the profoundest thinkers the world has produced. storms. The Duke of Wellington was mobbed in the streets of London and his windows were broken while his wife lay dead in the hou se. He set out at once. position. ridicule.

The man who has not fought his way up to his own loaf. Cyrus W. we have worked hard and usefully. When. They proved to belong to th e wreck. To his delight the king fitted up the ship Rose Algier for him. is the price of all great achievements. but concentra te it all in one direction.--EMERSON. James II was th en on the throne. but for that loss of money. have truly lived instead of vegetating. was in his later years nearly." said Harriet Martineau.000. reputation." Two of the three greatest epic poets of the world were blind.--SPU RGEON. won friends. which had been wrecked off Port De La Plata many years before. His crew mutinied and threatened to throw him overboard. does not know the highest meaning of success. and Phipps had to wait for four years before he could raise mo ney to return. in short. Field placed his hand upon the tele graph instrument ticking a message under the sea. Many men owe the grandeur of their lives to their tremendous difficulties. blin d. Edison demon strated that the electric light had at last been developed into a commercial suc cess. He searched and searched for a long time in va in. and at length had to return to England to repair his vessel. but he t urned the ship's guns on them. adds brains. a ceaseless battle to win success in spite of every barrie r. Though losses and crosses be lessons right severe.--Homer and Milton . The good are better made by ill. of repeated failure. Dante. whi le it was yet time." "Many and many a time since. There's wit there ye'll get there. think you that the electric th rill passed no further than the tips of his fingers? When Thomas A. The money acquired by those who have thus struggled upward to success is not th eir only. "have we said that. It almost seems as though some great characters had been physically crippled in certain respects so that they would not dissipate their energy. abroad and at home. whereas. BURNS. A distinguished investigator in science said that when he encountered an appare ntly insuperable obstacle. on our own resources." "Kites rise against. or indeed their chief reward. but he returned to Engl and with $1. after years of toil. by being thrown. sewin g and economizing and growing narrower every year. not with. As odors crushed are sweeter still. ye'll find no other where. A constant struggle. He had nothing but dim traditions to guide him. when she adds difficulties. he usually found himself upon the brink of some disco . of opposition . of ridicule. do you suppose those bright rays failed to illuminate the inmost recesses of his soul? CHAPTER XXVII USES OF OBSTACLES Nature.r ship. He set sa il for England and importuned Charles II for aid. we might h ave lived on in the ordinary provincial method of ladies with small means. if not altogether. ROGERS. "Adversity is the prosperity of the great.500. while the third. referring to her father's failure in business. One day an Indian diver went down for a curious s ea plant and saw several cannon lying on the bottom. and does not bear the sc ar of desperate conflict. seen the world abundantly. the wind. and independence.

Without their opposition we could never have braced an d anchored and fortified ourselves. When Napoleon's school companions made sport of him on account of his humble or igin and poverty he devoted himself entirely to books. T heir biting sarcasm and scathing rebuke are mirrors which reveal us to ourselves . quickly rising above them in scholarship. is always floundering in the mud. We are the victors of our opponents. but it is only like th e obstruction of ice or débris in the river temporarily forcing the water into edd ies. "Let the adverse breath of criticism be to you only what the blast of the storm wind is to the eagle. Soon he was regarded as the brigh test ornament of the class. If the germ of the seed has to struggle to push its way up through the stones a nd hard sod. We dread these thrusts an d exposures as we do the surgeon's knife. Friends cover our faults and rarely rebuke. by awakening p owers which were sleeping. for they are of ten our best friends in disguise. They have developed in us the very power b y which we overcome them. There is good philosophy in the injunction to love our enemies." A kite would not fly unless it had a string tying it down. commanded their respect. by firing a dormant purpose. and develop a firmer fiber of mind. and our griefs develo p us in a similar way. "a young man must live li ke a hermit and work like a horse. They reac h depths before untouched. a stronger muscle and stamina of body. our sorrows. and to struggle under difficulties su fficient to stimulate into activity their dormant powers.--a force against him that lifts him higher. enemies d rag out to the light all our weaknesses without mercy." said an eminent jurist. and then to wrestle with s torm and tempest." Thousands of men of great native ability have been lost to the world because th ey have not had to wrestle with obstacles. The man who has triumphed over difficulties bears the signs of victory in his f ace. "To make his way at the bar. It is just so in lif e. "Returned with thanks" has made many an author. An air of triumph is seen in every movement.very. The man who is tied down by half a dozen blooming responsibilities and their mother will make a higher and stronger flight than the bachelor who. Poverty and obscurity of origin may impede our progress. but they often act as a stimulus to the naturally indolent. as the oak is braced and anchored for its th ousand battles with the tempests. There is nothing that does a young lawyer so much good as to be half starved. They tell us the truth when friends flatter. Failure often leads a man to su ccess by arousing his latent energy. and. and we are led to resolve to redeem ourselves from sc orn and inferiority. These unkind stings and thrusts are often spurs which urge us on to grander su ccess and nobler endeavor. . Our trials. Men of mettle turn disappointments into helps as the oyster turns into pearl the sand which annoys it. Poverty and obscurity are not insurmount able obstacles. but are the better for them. the fiber of its timber will be all the t ougher and stronger. to fight its way up to sunlight and air. with snow and frost. having noth ing to keep him steady. No effort is too dear which helps us along the line of our proper career. where it accumulates strength and a mighty reserve which ultimately sweeps the obstruction impetuously to the sea.

but were rocked in the cradle of difficulties and pillowed on hardships. Perhaps Phillips and Garrison would never have been known to hi story had it not been for slavery. Suddenly. the fire in man wo uld never blaze but for antagonism. . never. A century of peace would never have prod uced a Bismarck. inasmuch as the only obstacle it has to overcome is the resistance of the air. It is defeat that turns bone to flint." "Then I must learn to sing better. who made a theology for the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. and the greater the friction necessary to bring it out. "No. an electric car came to a standstill j ust in front of a heavy truck that was headed in an opposite direction. as a rule. How many ce nturies of peace would have developed a Grant? Few knew Lincoln until the great weight of the war showed his character. Difficulties call out great qualities. thwarted. and that has given the sweet law of l iberty instead of the bitter law of oppression. Trials unlock their virtues. it would fall instantl y to the ground. warped too much to become an artist of high merit. He should have some gr eat thwarting difficulty to struggle against. and so was Robert Hall. might suppose that if only the air we re out of the way it could fly with greater rapidity and ease. "The gods look on no grander sight than an honest man struggling with adversity . it is defeat that has made those hero ic natures that are now in the ascendency. A drenching shower of adversity wo uld straighten his fibers out again." In the sunshine of wealth a man is. The very element that offers the oppositi on to flying is at the same time the condition of any flight whatever." replied Northcote. the no blest characters are developed in a similar way. The harder the diamond.--until the motorman quietly tossed a shovelful of sand on the tr ack under the heavy wheels. crushed. "Will he not make a great painter?" was asked in regard to an artist fresh from his Italian tour. "Friction is a very good thing. The philosopher Kant observed that a dove. Me n who have stood up bravely under great misfortune for years are often unable to bear prosperity. rebuffed. was tortured with disease for many years. and make greatness possible. the mor e brilliant the luster. defeat is the thres hold of their victory. The great men who have lifted the world to a higher level were not developed in easy circumsta nces. Their good fortune takes the spring out of their energy. with much jarring and jolting. in th e opinion of those around them. it is defeat that turns gristle to muscl e. Strong characters. Only its own dust is hard enough to make this most precious stone reveal its ful l beauty. and the bird should try to fly in a vacuum. seem to thrive best when most abused. The best tools receive their temper from fire. All the urging of the teamster and the straining of the horse s were in vain. The spark in the flint would sleep forever but for friction. like the palm-tree. Yet if the air we re withdrawn. defeated. as th e torrid zone enervates races accustomed to a vigorous climate. their edge from grinding." said Anaximander. "Why not?" "Because he has an income of six thousand pounds a year. The huge truck wheels were sliding uselessly round on the car tracks that were wet and s lippery from rain. and then the truck lumbered on its way. unable to fly at all.John Calvin." remarked a passenger. Some people neve r come to themselves until baffled. when told that the very b oys laughed at his singing. it is defeat that makes men invincible.

Every obstacle ove rcome lends him strength for the next conflict. How often we see a young man develop as tounding ability and energy after the death of a parent. The poor boy bemoans h is hard lot. and. The prison has roused the slumbering fire in many a noble mind. gratify his every wish. regrets that he has "no chance in life. thread bare clothes. slen der sapling. Place one in the country away from the hothouse culture and refinements of the city. The oak standing alone is exposed to every storm. For twenty years Dante worked in exile. They meet again as men. on the other hand. as if in anticipation of fierce conflict with t he elements. but all the wh ile it has been expending its energy in pushing a root across a large rock to ga in a firmer anchorage. as nearly alike as possible. But for our Civil War the names of its grand heroes would not be written among the greatest of our time." and envies the city youth. and watch them grow. emergencies often call out powers and virtues before unknown and unsuspected. as nearly alike as possible. Place h im under the tutelage of great masters and send him to Harvard. but how changed! It is as easy to distinguished the stu rdy. He compels respect and rec ognition from those who have ridiculed his poverty. and useless brain. Its roots reach out in every directio n. The acorn planted in the deep forest. Put the other boy in a Vande rbilt family. and cannot fail to leave us stronger. If he falls. and let him travel extensively. The gales which sport so rudely with its wide branches find more than their match. tawny face. with only the district school. Give him thousan ds a year for spending money. and a few books. he rises with more determination than before. "Robinson Cru soe" was written in prison. and only serve still further to toughen every minutest fiber from pith to bark. idle. Shielded by its neighbors. Obstacles and opposition are but apparatus of the gymnas ium in which the fibers of his manhood are developed. the Sunday-school. Sometimes its upward growth seems checked for years. The "Pilgrim's Progress" appeared in Bedford Jail. The two meet. plant one on a hill by itself. or secure the prize we seek. position. Luther translated the Bible while confined in the Castle of Wartbu rg. hard hands. the harder the obstacle he meets the higher he rebounds. . The plain. Like a rubber ball. He thinks that it is a cruel Providence that places such a wide gulf between th em. Then it shoots proudly aloft again. and family influence. Every rootlet lends its elf to steady the growing giant. Take two boys. or the loss of a fortun e. Take two acorns from the same tree. and even under sentence of death. clutching the rocks and piercing deep into the earth. and the other in the dense forest. or after some other calamity has knocked the props and crutches from under hi m. if he has the right sort of material in him. it feels no need of spreading its roots far and wide for support. self-made man from the one who has been propped up all his life by wealth. prepared to defy the hurricane. and awkward manner of the country boy make sorry contrast with the genteel appearance of the other. The city lad is ashamed of his country brother. S ir Walter Raleigh wrote "The History of the World" during his imprisonment of th irteen years. Remove wealth and props of every kind.Emergencies make giant men. From an aimless. as it is for the shipbuilder to tell the differe nce between the plank from the rugged mountain oak and one from the sapling of t he forest. Give him French and German nurses. he will thrive. The effort or struggle to climb to a higher place in life has strength and dign ity in it. even though we may never reach the position we desire. shoots up a weak.

or pursuit. you blockhead. but what you don't like." Just so with every art. " if he had only been well flogged when a boy. "If the re were no difficulties there would be no success." It was in the Madrid jail that Cervantes wrote "Don Quixote. not hindrances. or till the rending asunder of our affections forces us to become conscious of a ne ed. Through the pit and the dungeon Joseph came to a throne. The rude and rough experience of the eaglet fits him to become the bold king of birds. but he is spoiled by the ease with which he composes. In this necessity for exertio n we find the chief source of human advancement." said Beethoven of Rossini. but to the Necessities. John Huss led to the stake at Constance. we are not aware of the God within us until some chasm yawns which must be filled. Milton. the y are not what they seem. There is no more helpful and profiting exercise than surmounting obstacles. matures the judgment. . whose eyes have been sharpened b y affliction. trade. and may prove to be helps." said Mendelssohn to his critics when entering the B irmingham orchestra." re plied the other." We do our best while fighting desperately to attain what the heart covets. wo rn to a shadow. disciplines the faculties." says Dr. alone--what failures the y might all have seemed to themselves to be. St." says Smiles. "Seldom does one re ach a position with which he has reason to be satisfied without encountering dif ficulties and what might seem discouragements. Paul in his Roman cell. dying in a negro hut in Central Africa. it i s the difficulties that scare and keep out unworthy competitors. he does not send him to school to the Graces." He was so poor th at he could not even get paper during the last of his writing. But if they are properly met. amid the incipient earthquake throes of revolution." "Stick your claws into me. and gives one independence of thought and force of char acter. and had to write on scraps of leather. for." John Hunter said that the art of surgery would never advance until professional men had the courage to publish their failures as well as their successes." As soon as young eagles can fly the old birds tumble them out and tear the down and feathers from their nest. We are not conscious of the mighty cravings of our half divine humanity. fierce and expert in pursuing his prey.--the advancement of individuals as of nations. Kossuth called himself "a tempest-tossed soul. teaching two little boys in Aldgate Street. Peabody. Tyndale dying in his prison at Amsterdam. "Young men need to be taught not to expect a perfectly smooth and easy way to t he objects of their endeavor or ambition. "Don't tell me what you like. A rich Spaniard was asked to help him. if there were no gibbets. promotes self-reliance." "He has the stuff in him to make a good musician. It has led to most of the mechanical inventions and improvements of the age. e very one would be a highwayman. Waters says that the struggle to obtain knowledge and to advance one's self in the world strengthens the mind. but replied: "Heave n forbid that his necessities should be relieved. it is his poverty that makes t he world rich.When God wants to educate a man. David Livingstone. one of them exclaimed: "What a f ine profession ours would be if there were no gibbets!" "Tut. "Success grows out of struggles to overcome difficulties. "gibbets are the making of us. yet what mighty purposes was God wo rking out by their apparent humiliations! Two highwaymen chancing once to pass a gibbet.

crash ing through a beautiful garden. God knows where the richest melodies of our lives are. and develop the long unused muscles of manhood. the statue of man . crowded out. chiseled into grace and beauty. hardships. the calm endurance. ye t they have given the world its noblest songs.Boys who are bound out. staminaless. the snows. The angel of our higher and nobler selves would remai n forever unknown in the rough quarries of our lives but for the blastings of af fliction. From the ugly gashes which misfortunes and sorrows make in our hearts. nerveless. wrestling with the storm. the tempests. when disease had robbed them of all they held dear in li fe! Often we can not see the angel in the quarry of our lives. but in severe climates. where they have to fight the frosts and th e winter's cold." said the aged Sidenham Poyntz. and its grain would have never been susceptible of high polish." "It was not the victories but the defeats of my life which have strengthened me . Without this struggle it would have been characterless. its wisest proverbs. Who has not observed the patience. kicked out. of the blasting which disturbs its peace of centuries: it is not pl easant to be rent with powder. oppression has been the lot of the Hebrews. God may see a rough diamond in you which only the hard hits of poverty can polish. that gives it value. the monument." In one of the battles of the Crimea a cannon-ball struck inside the fort. its sweetest music. the chi seling. To them hardship ha s been "like spring mornings. and deve loped their greatest virtues when reverses of fortune have swept away everything they had in the world. Almost from the dawn of history. The most beautiful as well as the strongest woods are found not in tropi cal climates. But from the ugly chasm there burst forth a spri ng of water which ever afterward flowed a living fountain. They hold the purse-strings of many nations. The Creator may see something grand a nd mighty which even He can not bring out as long as your wealth stands in the w ay. the cold of which will kill the vermin. But look again: behold the magnificent statue. the sweet loveliness chi seled out of some rough life by the reversal of fortune or by some terrible affl iction? How many business men have made their greatest strides toward manhood. Don't lament and grieve over lost wealth. fighting for its life from the moment that it leaves the acorn until it goes into the shi p. With them persecution seems to bring prosperity. It is its half-century 's struggle with the elements for existence. The rough ledge on the hillside complains o f the drill. Fierce winters are as necessary to it as long summers. The statue would have slept in the marble forever but for the blasting. are the chisel and mallet whic h shape the strong life into beauty. The frost. and the sand-papering of a thousand annoya nces. usually "turn out. frosty but kindly. perennial fountains of rich ex perience and new joys often spring. Adversity strippe d him only to discover him. and the polishing. to be hammered and squared by the quarryman. You must throw away the crutches of riches and stand upon your own feet. Obstacles. They thrive where other s would starve. the lightnings are the rough teachers that bring the tiny acorn to the sturdy oa k. but will let the plant live. the chiseling of obstacles." while thos e who do not have these disadvantages frequently fail to "come out. Many a man has never found himself until he has lost his all. and what drill and what discipline are necessary to bring them out. telling its grand story of valor in the public square for centuries.

And learn in suffering what they teach in so ng. shabby. awes the opulent. Adversity exasperates fools. Schiller wrote his best books in great bodily suffering." published when he was but nineteen years of age. and fortitude of the voyager." Byron was stung into a determination to go to the top by a scathing criticism o f his first book." or "Orator M um. Our antagonist is our h elper. Many an orator like "stuttering Jack Curran." In a few years he stood by the sid e of such men as Scott. and th e great fire had licked up cheap. and difficulties and o bstacles have squared and chiseled the granite blocks into grace and beauty. from her ashes and ruin. he could even pray for greater trouble. talent. and makes the idle industrious. "There is scarce an instance in history of so sudden a ri se to so dizzy an eminence as Byron reached. until then. and excite the invention. if it were lawful. "Hours of Idleness. The grave buried his dearest hopes. ski ll. a grand and mighty city. "Helps" and "aids" are advertised everywhere. "set over us by one who knows us better than we do ourselves. like those of the ocean. he had never seen." Bunyan sa id that. and virtue shall issue from a farmhouse rather than from a palace. "best can do. "Adversity is a severe instructor. and sick. It is said t hat there are ten thousand chances to one that genius. phoenixlike. but un covered in his nature possibilities of patience. He that wrestle s with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill. The storms of adversity.hood. endurance. True salamanders live best in the furnace of persecution. wicked London. This is the crutch age. until the blasts of misfortune have rent the ledge. Many a man has been ruined into salvation. We have i . A man upon whom continuous sunshine falls is l ike the earth in August: he becomes parched and dry and hard and close-grained. rouse the faculties. prudence. as he loves us better too. and Campbell. He was not free from pain for fifteen years. dejects cowards. Men have drawn from adversity the elements of greatness. You can not keep them down . The greatest men will ever be those who have risen from the ranks. Beethoven was almost totally deaf and burdened with sorrow when he produced his greatest works. This conflict with difficulty makes us acquainted with our object." said he." says Edmund Burke. Not until the breath of the plague had blasted a hundred thousand lives. for the grea ter comfort's sake. and died at thirty-seven. Every obstacle seems only to add to their ability to get on. "Who best can suffer. It will not suffer us to be superf icial." Men who have the right kind of material in them will assert their personality a nd rise in spite of a thousand adverse circumstances. but draws out the faculties of th e wise and industrious. Macaulay said. and gave him glimpses of himself which. The lightning which smote his deares t hopes opened up a new rift in his dark life." as he was once called. did she arise. Southey. Many of our best poets "Are cradled into poetry by wrong. puts the modest to the necessity of trying their skill. has been spurred into eloquence by ridicule and abus e. and co mpels us to consider it in all its relations. Milton wrote his leading productions when blind. that ag e so fatal to genius. and hope which he ne ver before dreamed he possessed. poor.

"Short roads" and "abridged methods" are characteristic of the century. colleges. MUNGER. ARMOUR. Daily his own heart he eats. whether riches. The most beautiful as well as the strongest characters are not developed in war m climates. as if conscious of delayed bles sings. that bids not sit nor stand but go. humble our pride. and not like children. A stout "no" means a stout character .--T. repine that we do not possess another we did not buy. But do not misinterpret her edict." One stands for the surrender of the will." Our boys are too often tutored through college with very little study. and whatever w e buy with our time. It is rugged necessity. but rather in a trying climate and on a stubborn soil. has rushed to man's relief with her wondrous forces. Nature has little regard for the mere lump of breathing clay. S he emancipates the muscles only to employ the brain and heart. Nature.--LONGFELLOW. magaz ines. libraries. we must stand by our decision. where man finds his bread ready made on trees. Our thinking is done for us. Self-help and self-reliance are getting old-fashioned. Everything must give way to that. T. labor. "The hero is not fed on sweets. Chambers of the gr eat are jails.--P. He must have the p ower to decide instantly on which side he is going to make his mistakes. teachers. so Nat ure cares only for the man or woman shut up in the human being. BROWNING. le t us down from the ladder of fame. humiliate our ambition. gild it as we may. fame. . the other for character. D. will discipline us in a thousand ways. As the sculptor thinks only of the angel imprisoned in the marble block. universities. one stands for gratification. She will strip us of wealth. A man must master his undertaking and not let it master him. The sculptor will chip off all unnecessary material to set free the angel. Newspapers give us our politics. that develops the stamina of m anhood. "yes" and " no. The world is a market where everything is marked at a set price. the ready "yes" a weak one. and undertakes to do the world's drudgery and emancipate him from Eden's curse.nstitutes. when we hav e purchased one thing. or knowledge. And head-winds right for royal sails. Intelligent labor found the world a wilderness and has made it a garden. the other for denial." Then welcome each rebuff. it is the strug gle to obtain. it is poverty. Ingenious methods are used everywhere to get the drudgery out of the college cou rse. and preachers our religion. It is no t chance that returns to the Hindoo ryot a penny and to the American laborer a d ollar for his daily toil.--MA THEWS. and calls the race out of barbarism. newspapers. The heaviest charged words in our language are those briefest ones. ease. Each sting. if she can develop a little character. books. or ingenuity. that makes Mexico with its mineral wealth poor. and thou art free. the priceless spur. Nature will chip and pound us remorselessly to bring out our possibil ities. She does not bid the world go and play while she does the work. and where exertion is a great effort. CHAPTER XXVIII DECISION Resolve. Our problems are all worked out in "explanati ons" and "keys. and Ne w England with its granite and ice rich. integrity. That turns earth's smoothness rough. She emancipates from the lower only to call to the higher. The sculptor car es nothing for the block as such.

he burned all the ships which had borne them to the sh ores of Britain. After a few moments of terrible s uspense he resumes his invincible spirit and expresses that sublime line: "What matter where. had the power to choose one co urse. but would win it with the sword. the man who is forever twisting and turning. although it may be wrong. The prompt decision of the Rom ans won them many a battle. By the prompt decision of the intrepid ambassador the in vader was led to withdraw. only a satellite. "I came. proclaims by his indecisi on that he can not control himself. The whole history of the world w as changed by that moment's decision. and made them masters of the world. excites a feeling akin to admiration. They were in the act of weighing it. when Camillus appeared on the scen e. and war was prevented. The vacillating man is ever at the mercy of the opinion of the man who talked w ith him last. He may see the right. but he drifts toward the wrong. a legend tells us. does not wa it for favorable circumstances. In fact." could not hesitate long. and forbade his crossing the line until h e had given his answer. positive man. In order to cut off all hope of retreat. the Romans sent an ambassador who met Antiochus near Alexandria and comman ded him to withdraw." and his intrepid mind did not waver long." he said."--even his great decision wavered at the thought of i nvading a territory which no general was allowed to enter without the permission of the Senate. the inhabitants resolved never to surrender. To hesitate is s ometimes to be lost. threw his sword into the scales in place of the ransom. But his alternative was "destroy myself. changes the face of everything. like Napoleon. In an emergency. Caesar's quic k mind saw that he must commit his soldiers to victory or death. is one of the most potent forces in winning success. forever debating which of two courses he will pursue. a man who is ever balancing between two opinions. He is a tonic to the hesitating. The decided man. This acti on was the key to the character and triumphs of this great warrior. decided. it was victory or death. I conque red.When Rome was besieged by the Gauls in the time of the Republic. "The die is cast. Satan's sublime decision in "Paradise Lost. the prompt man. who will do so mething. he is not a man. An undecided man. the Romans wer e so hard pressed that they consented to purchase immunity with gold. There was no hope of return. I saw. which was then under the protection of Rome. backi . or destroy my country. he does not submit to events. He. The invader gave an evasive reply. to silence them forever and not al low them continually to plead their claims and distract us from our single decid ed course. If he decide s upon a course he only follows it until somebody opposes it. when once sacrificed. and declared that the Romans should not purchase peace. When Julius Caesar came to the Rubicon. This act of daring and prompt decision so roused the Romans that they triumphantly swept fro m the sacred soil the enemy of their peace. as he das hed into the stream at the head of his legions. if I be still the same?" That power to decide instantly the best course to pursue. bewildered crowd. All the great ac hievements in the history of the world are the results of quick and steadfast de cision. which formed the boundary of Italia.--" the sacred and inviolable. When he landed with h is troops in Britain. and sacrifice every conflicting plan on the instant. The brave Roman swept a circle around the king with his sword. Such a man co mes upon the scene like a refreshing breeze blown down from the mountain top. that he was meant to be possessed by others. and. and to sacrifice ever y opposing motive. The man who said. events must submit to him. When Antiochus Epiphanes invaded Egypt. Men who have left their mark upon their century have been men of great and prom pt decision." after his hopeless banishment from heaven. the arrival of a prompt.

The "ifs and buts." says John Foster. he replied. hesitating and dawdling. he only invites distrust.ng and filling. His will. and stands for something. He seemed to be everywhere at once. There is not positiveness en ough in him. Those who lin gered were swept off by the returning wave. and one thing after another vindicates i ts right to him by arresting him while he is trying to go on. dispatches an d. shuffling and parleying.. since if he dared to assert that he did. and weighs them until the two sides hang in equipoise." he said. the puny force of some cause. gauge hi m. the decided man. and so does not move at all of his own volition. is a power in the world. His invincible energy thrilled the whole army. to attend to correspondence. "A man without decision. on an Irish cliff. But the positive man. in whic h the fate of the engagement was decided. but also are often quickly gone. an d clung for a few moments to the cliff. You can measure him." says Motley. at midnight. and engulfed forever. Prompt decision saved Napoleon and Grant and their armies many a time when delay would have been fatal. with no preponderi ng motive to enable him to decide." The decided man not only has the advantage of the time saved from dillydallying and procrastination." When the packet ship Stephen Whitney struck. Napoleon used to say that although a battle might last an entire day. It is related of A lexander the Great that." He would sit up all night if necessary. He belon gs to whatever can make capture of him. half-hearted men! "The doubt of Charles V. abo ut as powerful as a spider. and without promptness no success is possible. as twigs and chips floating near the edge of a river are intercepted by every weed and whirled int o every little eddy. "can never be said to belong to him self. all the passengers who leaped instantly upon the rock were saved. What he could accomplish in a day surprised all who knew him." . was as prompt and decisive in the minutest detail of command as in the greatest battle. may make a seizure of the unhappy boaster the very n ext minute. listening to every new motive whi ch presents itself. negativeness never accomplishes anything. which subdued nearly the who le of Europe. Yet there is not a man living who might not be a prompt and decided man if he w ould only learn always to act quickly. and inspire with courage the most stupid men. You can estimate the work that his energy will accomplish. He is in stable equilibrium. when asked how it was that he had conquered the world. weighing and b alancing. splitting hairs over non-essentials. shiftless. The vacillating man is never a prompt man. The positive step landed them in safety. can do twice as much as the undecided and dawdling man who never quite knows what he w ants. yet it generally turned upon a few critical minutes. but moves very easily at the slightest volition of another. after riding thirty or forty leagues. "changed the destinies of the civilized world. will never accomplish anything. but he also saves the energy and vital force which is wast ed by the perplexed man who takes up every argument on one side and then on the other. Great opportunities not only come seldom into the most fortunate life . He could rouse to imm ediate and enthusiastic action the dullest troops. "By not wavering. the decided man. details. and contemptuously exhibit the futility of the determination by whic h he was to have proved the independence of his understanding and will. "are at present out of season. and above all it must be done with speed. The punctual man. Decision of purpose and promptness of action enabled him to astonish the world with his marvelous successes. What a lesson to dawdling. He seemed to electrify everybody about him. The negative man creates no confidence.

"The secret of the whole matter was. his enthusiasm evaporates. she came out on the other side without any. a man must concentrate. one emphatic "No" might silence their solicitors forever. thus getting on the flats.--namely. conquers the world. Without decision there c an be no concentration. An undecided man is like the turnstile at a fair. ca ptured by any new occupation which happens to appeal to him as the most desirabl e at the time. and preparing expedients. But in a few days the thorns begin to appear. and lo. throwing away all the skill they had acquired in mastering the drudgery of the last occupation. his heart throbbing with a great purpose. Learn. to succeed. do ing this thing and that thing. going b ackward. "we had formed the habit of prompt acting. that when Congress adjourned. There is a legend of a powerful genius who promised a lovely maiden a gift of r are value if she would go through a field of corn. which are always most agreeable. he drops his own and adopts the other. Jefferson wrote to Monroe at Paris: "You will see by their proceedings the truth of what I always told you. the great soul. They spend their lives at the beginning of occupations . and. tak es the step." and thus they throw d . In fact. But they are weak. and. they are afraid of offending. never using his judgment or common sense.So powerful were President Washington's views in determining the actions of the people." There is no vocation or occupation which does not present many difficulties. comfort." replied Amos Lawrence. to will strongly and decisively. She passed by many magnificent ones. and. at times almost overwhelming. full of enthusiasm. While other men are bemoaning difficulties and shrinking from dangers and obstacles. by every wind that blows. and contentment. while the habit of som e others was to delay till about half tide. adopts it as his life's work." Most of the young men and women who are lost in our cities are ruined because o f their inability to say "No" to the thousand allurements and temptations which appeal to their weak passions. without pausing. Republicanism resigns the vessel to the pilot. and executes nothing. but governed by his imp ressions and his feelings at the moment. thus fix your floating life and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither. One vocation or occupation presents its rosy side to him. and the young man who allows himself to waver every time he comes to a hard place in life will not succeed. impelled by his hatred to the Romans. or wandering hither and thither. thus taking the top of the tide. he feels sure it is the thing he wants to do. like a withered leaf. select the largest and ripest ear. not being allowed to go backwa rd. You never know where to find them. they don't like to say "No. Alexander. The undecided man can not bring himself to a focus. He dissipates his energy. even crosses the Alps to compass his d esign. they are here to-day and there to-morrow. they never go far enough in anything to get beyond the drudgery stage to the remunerative and agreeable stage. These people rarely reach the stage of compet ency. The one which his friend adopted is much better suited to him. Hannib al. the mountain has been leveled and the way lies open. and he wonders why he is so foolish as to think himself f itted for that vocation. but was so eager to get the largest and m ost perfect that she kept on without plucking any until the ears she passed were successively smaller and smaller and more stunted. The value of the gift was to be in proportion to the size and perfection of the ear . then. who supports his judgment against thei r own and that of their representatives. He can not hold to one thing long enou gh to bring success out of it. and. without fuss or noise. So he vacillates through life. s catters his forces. If they would only show a little decision at firs t. that one man outweighs them all in influence. which is in every body's way but stops no one. Such people are never led by principle. the skilful stage. Finally they became so small that she was ashamed to select one of them.

t he servant called. perhaps. shiftless." There is no habit that so grows on the soul as irresolution. and all because he has never ma de up his mind what he would do with it. There is no quality of the mind which does not sympathize with bodily weakness. Then the wise man pleaded that the fool was to blame because h e desired to take the wrong way. he simply hovers . the wise man kn ew that the difficult one was the shortest and safest. the wrecks strewn along the shores of life "just behind success. great decision of character is usually accom panied by great constitutional firmness." "j ust this side of happiness. The fool desired to take the pleasant way. consent thou not. The fool pleaded that he was only a fool. as an impartial judge." Oh. and n o sensible man should have heeded his counsel. and by the time the cause is over dinner is ready. and wer e soon met by robbers. Any bodily weakness. This is the only way to check t he propensity to dawdling. "I am employed. who seized their goods and made them captives."--do instantly. Men who have been noted for great firmn ess of character have usually been strong and robust. and cam e to a point where two ways opened before them. or la ck of tone and vigor. their capacity. and bring assistance more quickly from th e bank or from a friend. mad e his servant promise before he went to bed to get him up at just such a time. On many of the tombstones of those who have failed in life could be read between the lines: "He Dawdled. then dashed cold water into the bed between the sheets. convinced that it would ruin his success. and they give me twenty reasons fo r and against. their success. as a rule. but Burton would beg him to be left a little longer. Indus try advises me to get up. It is my part. and so declared. The world knows that . But at l ast the urgency of the fool prevailed. "Hoc age. it is the strong physical man who carries weight and conviction." There is no doubt that. to hear all that can be sai d on both sides. A little l ater both they and their captors were arrested by officers of the law and taken before the judge. their contagion infects their whole neig hborhood. knowing that he would lose his shilling if he did n ot get him up. This man neither advances nor recedes." above which the words of warning are flying! Webster said of such an undecided man that "he is like the irresolution of the sea at the turn of tide." Such a man is at the mercy of any chance occurrence that may overtake him. To indolent." "Behind Time. They do not realize that the habit of putting everything off puts off their manhood. When one asked a lazy young fellow what made him lie in bed so long. first felt in the weakened or debilitated pow er of decisions. than the reputation of promptness. and especially is this tru e with the power of decision. or lassitude. turn ing over and dreading to get up! Many a career has been crippled by it." he said." "Nervelessness." He has no power to seize the facts w hich confront him and compel them to serve him. listless people life becomes a mere shuffle of expedien ts." "Always B ehind. The judge punished them both equa lly." "Shiftlessness. the ot her narrow and rough. " "Procrastination. "in hearing counsel every morning. which is usually impaired or weakened from physica l suffering or any great physical debility. An old legend says that a fool and a wise man were journeying together. "If sinners entice thee. and called. which creep s in at every crevice of unoccupied time and often ruins a bright life. The servant.--one broad and beautiful. is. Scott used to caution youth against the habit of dawdling. "Your mo tto must be.own the gauntlet and are soon on the broad road to ruin." said he. A little resolution ear ly in life will soon conquer the right to mind one's own business. As a rule. Nothing will give greater confidence. How many hours have been wasted dawdling in bed. Burton c ould not overcome this habit. and Burto n came out with a bound. and." "Listlessness. Sloth to lie still. they took the more inviting path. and coaxed. he has gambled his life away. Before a man knows what he has done. Hi s "days are lost lamenting o'er lost days.

like Caesar. Grant's decision was like inexorable fate. They know that h esitation is fatal to enterprise. difficulties. tha t your decision. when it was within easy grasp. Prompt decision and sublime a udacity have carried many a successful man over perilous crises where deliberati on would have been ruin. but never act. those who saw him after that imagined that he picked up the material for his sermons on the street. consider. They have just energy enough to weigh motives. and the North b reathed easy for the first time. that gave the first confidence to the North that the rebellion was doom ed." Some minds are so constructed that they are bewildered and dazed whenever a res ponsibility is thrust upon them. lest in a moment of discouragement and irresolution he be tempted t o sheathe it. I replied. How many a man can trace his downfall in life to the failure to seiz e his opportunity at the favorable moment. deliberate. the ni ck of time. There was no going behind it. deter mined to sink with his ship if he can not conquer." CHAPTER XXIX OBSERVATION AS A SUCCESS FACTOR Henry Ward Beecher was not so foolish as to think that he could get on without systematic study. fatal to progress. fatal to success." "Let men know that what you say you will do.'" He was a hard student during four hours every morning. but they lacked that power of decision which made unconditional surrender absolutely imperative wherever he met the foe. Yet someh ow they seem fated with a morbid introspection which ever holds them in suspense . knew the country as well. At last Lincoln had a general who had the power of decision. He must nail his colors to the mast as Nelson did in battle. but nothing left for the moment um of action. " Let it be your first study to teach the world that you are not wood and straw. were better educated. weigh. "men doubted whether I could sustain myself. "Hoc age. they have a mortal dread of deciding anything. "I propose to fight it out on these lines if it takes all summer. and I do not care what comes after.the prompt man's bills and notes will be paid on the day. It was his decision whic h voiced itself in those memorable words in the Wilderness. Yet having said so much. and a thorough-going knowledge of the world of books. They analyze and analyze." and which sent back the words "un conditional surrender" to General Buckner. once made. . but he lacked that power of rapid decision and powerful concentration which characterized the greatest military leaders perhaps of the world. a nd make retreat forever impossible." he said. "When I first went to Brooklyn. ponder. who asked him for conditions of capit ulation.--no wavering. and fears. and they can not seem to get light enough to decide nor courage enough to attempt to remove the obstacle. There were several generals under Grant who were as well skilled in war tactics. once resolved. you are not to be allured or intimidated. it is true that much that was most vital in his preach ing he did pick up on the street. that. The man who would forge to the front in this competitive age must be a man of p rompt and determined decision. When he draws his sword he must throw the sc abbard away. no opening it up for reconsideration. and will trust him. is final. t hat there is some iron in you. he must burn his ships behind him. 'Give me uninterrupted time till nine o'clock every morning. which often does not present itself but once! It was said that Napoleon had an officer under him who understood the tactics o f war better than his commander. The very effort to come to immediate and unflinching decision starts up all sort s of doubts.

the physician. and upon one occasion he answered: "I keep my eyes open an d ask questions. seascapes. ambitious world was everywhere throbbing for him. He did not watch the progress of the great human battle from his study. The clouds. people on sick beds and death beds. to do t heir work a little better. the newsboy.--keeping his eyes open and asking q uestions. He kept his hand upon the pulse of events. I watched him. but picked them up as He walked along the banks of the Jordan and over the hills and through the meadows and villages of Galilee. He was in the smoke and din. there he was studying its great problem s. the rain. There was something in his sermons that appe aled to the best in everyone who heard him. He got them everywhere from life and nature. accidents. the cheerful. their naturalness. the despondent. He picked them u p in the marketplace. the day laborer. They pulsated with lif e. and entrancing sunsets. the sun shine. he was never again satisfied without illustrations fresh from the lives of the people he met every day. the Christ was his great model. healthy. This great observer was not only a student of human nature. which he loved so well. Beecher's sermons were very simple. the steam-cars. the blacksmith. like Christ's. to be a little more conscientious. all sor ts of experiences and bits of life. orphans. completely absorbed in drinking in the beaut ies of the marvelous landscape. and great crowds cam e from every direction to hear him. Beecher believed a sermon a failure when it does not make a great mass of heare rs go away with a new determination to make a little more of themselves. on Wall Street. the lawyer. . the record of creation imprinted in the rocks and the mountains were interming led with the ferryboats. Although Beecher was an omnivorous reader he did not care much for the writings of the theologians. [Illustration: Henry Ward Beecher] When he once got a taste of the power and helpfulness which comes from the stud y of real life. The great. He always preached on Sunday at the hotel where he stayed. they had the vigor of bright red blood in them. Now it was the problem of slavery. because. and the business man." This is the secret of many a man's success. He was in the swim of things. He went into the thick of the fight himself. but of all nature a s well. The flowers. and the storm were reflected in them. as many did. busy. the train conduc tor. in the stores. He saw that the strength of this great Master' s sermons was in their utter simplicity. again the problem of government. life pictures of successes and failure s.--whatever touched the lives of men. Where the battle of life raged fiercest. a little more determined to do their share in the world. and he knew that H e did not search the writings of the Sanhedrin for His sermons. Happiness and sunshine. He got them from the brakem an. calamities."Where does Mr. the brooks . they grew out of doors. and strong. the fields. a little more help ful. the mechanic. the optimist and the pessim ist. or education. and where he spent many summers. gathering grandeur and sublimity from the great White Mountains. when he saw how much more forceful and interesting actual life s tories were as they were being lived than anything he could get out of any book except the Bible. in hospitals and in funeral processions. or commer ce. of the discouraged. many a time. birds and trees alte rnated with the direst poverty in the slums. passed in quick succession and stamped themselves on the brains of his eage r hearers. They were full of pictures of beauti ful landscapes. the clerk. Beecher get his sermons?" every ambitious young clergyman in th e country was asking.

I was much impressed by his marvelous power of seeing things. He could feel the Divine presence in all created things. Noth ing else was half so interesting. the Divine plan. Wherever he went. He had a passion for knowledge. "Let's leave it to Osler. and brought home almost nothing of value. he yearned to know the meaning of things. but thousands can think for one who can see. Th e majority of those present disagreed with him. which was performed. but he brought home rich treasures from over the sea. While visiting Luther Burbank. th ere was a great interrogation point before him." says Herbert Spencer. Then the great Johns Hopkins professor examined the pa tient. w hich he read as an open book. He has . To him man was the greatest study in the world . to b e able to discriminate between the genuine and the false. the philosophy underlying the common. He was a poor student. To place the right values upon men.--nothing s eemed to escape him. and extr acted the meaning of everything that came within its range. His mind stopped and questioned. his ears. He saw symptoms which others could not see. everyday oc currences. Like Professor Agassiz. he did not stand nearly as high in col lege as some of his classmates whom he far outstripped in life. He did not ask questions. recently. He was not a great scholar. and the patient recovered. The power which inheres in a trained faculty of observation is priceless. Everything he saw must give up i ts secret before he would let it go. the wizard horticulturist. Beecher had an eye like the glass of a microscope. The e ducation which Beecher got through observation. Beecher continued his study of life through observation." I once traveled abroad with two young men. Lincoln was another remarkable example of the possibilities of an education thr ough reflection upon what he observed. that they were willing to leave the whole decision to him. by keeping his eyes. but his mind pen etrated to the heart of things." There is no position in life where a trained eye can not be made a gre at success asset.Wherever he went. he could see the marvelous philosophy. who could see wonders in the scale of a fish or a grain of sand.--everything was a telltale of the patient's condition. The day after leaving a city. meant a great deal more to him and to the world than his colle ge education. to emphasize the right thing in them. His experienced eye drew a conclusion from the slightest evidence. He rec ommended a certain operation. Ruskin says: "Hundreds of people can talk for one who can think. his manner of breathing. a nd his mind open. Things so triv ial that his companion did not notice them at all. the appearance of the eye. but such was their confidence in his power to diagnose a case through symptoms and indications which escape most physicians. The o ther young man was comparatively rich. Professo r Osler was called a living X-ray machine. He watched the patient closely. he regarded as one of a c lergyman's greatest accomplishments. "An exhaustive observation." said the physicians at a consultation where a precio us life hung by a thread. with additional eyes in finger tips s o familiar with the anatomy that they could detect a growth or displacement so s mall that it would escape ordinary notice. Like Ru skin. one of whom was all eyes. meant a great deal to him. while the former ha d a genius for absorbing knowledge of every kind through the eye.--and the other never saw anything. which reveals marve ls of beauty in common things. because he read the hidden meaning in things. in his famous garden. to be able to pierce t heir masks and read the real man or woman behind them. "is an element of all great success. the latter could scarcely recall anything of interest. He could see beauty and harmony where others saw only ugliness and discord. in the lowliest ob ject.

the telescope. It does not take long to develop a habit of attention that seizes the salient p oints of things. apathy. every triu mph of modern labor-saving machinery. He does not merely look with his eyes. Most people are too lazy. he would never have advanced. become marvels of beauty. forming opinions. He keeps his ears open. calculating. but he always kept his eyes open. The youth who would get on must keep his eyes open. The power of keen observation is indicative of a superior mentality. He was a shrewd observer. the miracles o f electricity. the sewing machine. Chi ldren often become passionately fond of this exercise. But for this power of seeing things quickly. George W. or out of d oors anywhere. yet he speaks ou r language fluently. Just the effort to try to see how much they can remember and bring back is a splendid drill. He was after an oppo rtunity. Cortelyou was a stenographer not long ago. Close observation is a powerful mental process. estimating. If the mind is n ot focused. The telegraph. indifferent observation does not go back of the eye. Careless. He must be quick. every discovery in science and art. just for the purpose of finding out how many things they can see in a certain given time. and much about our resources and opportunit ies. He is always accumulating knowledge of eve ry kind. considering. The efficient man is always growing. under the eye of this miracle worker. his mind ope n. his ears open. and how closely they can observe them. I know a young Turk. the lack of ambition. weighing. He knows its geograp hy. who has been in this country only a year. He sees with them. the indifference of our young men to our marvelous possibilities. He keeps his mind open to all that is new and fresh and helpful. He said that when he landed in New York it seemed to him that he saw more o pportunities in walking every block of our streets than he had ever seen in the whole of Turkey. sharp. is due to the trained power of seeing things. of absorbing knowledge. the image is not clean-cut. Indifference. The whole secret of a richly stored mind is alertness. not the optic nerve. a nd thoughtfulness. ready. He was always looking for the next step above him. for it is the mind. The majority of people do not see things. to see things carefully. mental lassitude and laziness are fatal to all effective observation. And he could not understand the lethargy. Promotion was always staring him in the face. the telephone. and is capable of becoming a mighty power. keen attention. The mind is all the time working over the material which the eye brings it. they just look at them. every great invention of the past or present. He has studied the map of our country. b alancing. and it becomes of inestim . and a great deal of our history.observed the habits of fruits and flowers to such purpose that he has performed miracles in the fields of floriculture and horticulture. Few people realize what a tremendous success and happi ness is possible through the medium of the eye. and is not carried with force and distin ctness enough to the brain to enable it to get at the truth and draw accurate co nclusions. Many people thought he wou ld remain a stenographer. Stunted and ugly flower s and fruits. alert. mentally. in fact. It is a splendid drill for children to send them out on the street. that really sees. The observing faculty is particularly susceptible to culture.

Garfield. before you go into his store. He thought a boy. Trace difficulties. study the situation. look up e vidences of success or failure everywhere. You will find perhaps that he never knew the valu e of good manners in clerks. he is driving out of the door cus tomers the proprietor is trying to bring in by advertisements. If you keep your eyes o pen. Let nothing escape you. why he remains in mediocrity all his life. In all my acquaintance I ha ve never known a man to be drowned who was worth the saving. perhaps. in a little while. as I can testify. no detection of the wants of possible buyers. Go into a place of business with the eye of an eagle. If he is making a remarkable success. "Colonel Crockett makes room for himself!" exclaimed a backwoods congressman in answer to the exclamation of the White House usher to "Make room for Colonel Cr ockett!" This remarkable man was not afraid to oppose the head of a great nation . you can. try to find out why. "but nine times out of ten the best thing that can happen to a young man is to be tossed overboard and compelled to sink or swim for himself. that there is no busines s insight.able value in their lives. by gruff.--PESTALOZZI. LOWELL. He does not know them. Crockett was a man of great courage and determination. but he had not been in his seat sixty days before his ability was recognized and his place conceded. Shall die and leave his errand unfulfill ed. Be sure. What I am I have made myself. Other things equal. your ears open. Make deductions from what you see and hear. Who waits to have his task marked out. if honest. Think why the man does not do bett er if he is not doing well. Hereditary bondsmen. No matter where you go. Though rough. Study his emp loyees. my son. CHAPTER XXX SELF-HELP I learned that no man in God's wide earth is either willing or able to help any other man. "Poverty is uncomfortable." Garfield was the youngest member of the House of Representatives when he entere d. Ask yourself why it i s that the proprietor at fifty or sixty years of age is conducting a business wh ich a boy of eighteen or twenty ought to be able to handle better. You will see that this man has not studied men. analyze the situation.--HUMPHRY DAVY. know ye not Who would be free themselves must strike the b low? BYRON. It will be one of the greatest factor s in your own success. it is the keen observer who gets ahead. would make a good sale sman." said James A. He succeeded because all the world in concert could not have kept him in the background. He preferred being right to being president. and because when once in the front he played his part wi th an intrepidity and a commanding ease that were but the outward evidences of t he immense reserves of energy on which it was in his power to draw. He stepped to the front with the confidence of one who b elonged there. but. uncultured. multiplied the receipts tenfold in a few years. Keep your eyes open. perhaps. find out why this man is not a greater success. You will see by h is show windows. and unc outh. uncouth manners. .--PATRIC K HENRY. and remember that the best men always make themselves. You can see that a little more knowledge of human nature would have revolutioni zed his whole business.

which has not felt the impress of their feet . foresight. and strength which enabled you to maintain your lofty position. the power. t o keep your millions intact. which will probably dwarf him. and honest ambition has no heig ht that genius or talent may tread. an anxiety. every possible goal is accessible. lethargy. "Will you give me ten years to learn to pa int. You may leave your millions to your son." "A person under the firm persuasion that he can command resources virtually has them. which the acqu isition has given you. which lie concealed in your wealth. Col l' Antonio thinking that he would never be troubled further by the gypsy. but was told that no one but a painter as good as the father should wed the maiden. You cannot transfer the skill. but rather the men with no "start" who have wo n fortunes. joy. ignoranc e. and so entitle myself to the hand of your daughter?" Consent was given. where "Fame's proud temple shines afar. Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. and which alone enables you to stand firm on your dizzy height. sagacity. with no education. stamina. You thought to spare him the drudgery. the thirteenth child. no chan ce. the experience. a self-made President of the United States replied. The world must be just. it will be a dead weight to him. You had the power which comes only from experience." It is not the men who have inherited most. the . You thought it a kindness to deprive yourself in order that your son might begi n where you left off. Judge of his surprise on learning that Solario was the artist. a wandering gypsy tinker. promptness. the joy fe lt only in growth."Take the place and attitude which belong to you. the character which trained habits of accuracy. discipline. In climbing to your fortune. prudence. to him it may mean inaction. who have risen highest. to him it will be a temptation. you can not transfer the delight of achieving. You have taken the priceless spur--necessity--away from him. "and all men a cquiesce. When asked to name his family coat-of-arms. patience. Richard Arkwright. indolence. you developed the mu scle. Your fortune wa s experience to you. the spur which h as goaded man to nearly all the great achievements in the history of the world. His great d etermination gained him his bride. b ut means nothing to your heir. to you it was education and expansion of your high est powers. except it be in nobility of soul and purpose. which the painter extolled in terms of the highest pr aise. honesty of dealing. About the time that the ten years were to end the king's sister showed Coll' An tonio a Madonna and Child." To such men. Solario. and put a scepter in England's right h and such as the queen never wielded. for he c ould black his own boots. It leaves every man with profound unconcern to set his own rate. in a hovel. gave his spinning model to the world. It was wings to you. the hardships. and character. but have you really given him anything ? You can not transfer the discipline. fell deeply in love with the daughter of the painter Coll' Antonio del Fiore. It meant a great deal for you. and have made adverse circumstances a spur to goad them up the steep mount. "A pair of shirtsleeves." says Livy. method. dispatch. growth. politen ess of manner have developed." says Emerson. weakness. the pride of acquisition.

During the great financial crisis of 1857 Maria Mitchell." said Robert Collyer. "when there is no money left?" "They ear n it. "Only to tend this line till I come back. in recognition of his great work for civil ization in mooring two continents side by side in thought. they look around for somebody to lean upon. not being stimulated by the struggle for selfelevation. But grief shook the sands of life as he thought only of the son who had brought disgrace upon a name before unsullied." said the dying Cyrus W. will gradually die away. There is no manhood mill which takes in boys and turns out men. Once down. "But what becomes of the Ameri can daughters. It was work and opportunity that he wanted." asked the English lady. help yourself. the lack of opportunities. swept the rooms." "And what is that?" asked the other. "Man. no real happiness.deprivations. The old man was gone so long that the yo ung man began to get impatient. I could sell them and buy food and lodgings. with God's help. When the o wner returned he had caught a large number. who brought hi s wife to America in the steerage. I wish to go on a short err and. which you had on the old farm. he found written at the end . you will have a weakling on your hands at twenty-one. "They live on their brothers. When misfortune comes. If I had only had firmness enough to compel my boys to earn their living. the wounds were s harper than those of a serpent's tooth. no great character is ever possible. and rang the bell." His table was covered with medals and cer tificates of honor from many nations. "my fortune gone." said the owner. in a little town near Cincinnati. He was poor and dejected. "if you will do me a trifling favor. He became literally the light of the church. and presenting them to the youth. they are as helpless as capsized turtles. What you call " no chance" may be your only chance. down they go." The proposal was gladly accepted. His enthusiasm will evaporate. It the prop is not there. Oh. "Finis.--but he knew that a fine church and great salary can not make a great man. or unhorsed men in armor. lift yourself. without which no real success. He felt that if there were anything in him work would bring it out. to self-elevation. you ha ve taken away from him the incentive to self-development. Don't wait for your place to be made for you . who chanced to over hear his words. asked an English lady what became of daughters when no property was left th em. At length. Field. kindled the fires. If you do everything for your son and fight his battles for him." A young man stood listlessly watching some anglers on a bridge. His salary was only about $200 a yea r. Men who have been bolstered up all their lives are seldom good for anything in a crisis. of the fame he had wo n and could never lose. his ambition. "I f . H enry Ward Beecher did not wait for a call to a big church with a large salary. my home dishonored. Meanwhile the fish snapped greedily at the hook. who was visiting Engl and. When Beethoven was examining the work of Moscheles. Don't wait for somebody to give you a lift. then they w ould have known the meaning of money. "If now I had these I would be happy." "I w ill give you just as many and just as good. Counting out from them as many as we re in the basket. the old fisherman said." was Miss Mitchell's reply. to self-discipline and self-help. make it yourself. the meager education. he sighed. approaching a basket filled with fish." was the reply. Many a frontier boy has succeeded beyond all his expectations simply because all props were early knocked out from under him and he was obliged to stand upon his own feet. "My life is a wreck. and he lost all his depression in the excitement of pulling them in. "A man's best friends are his ten fingers. But you have put a crutch into his hand instead of a staff. his energy will be dissipated. H e accepted the first pastorate offered him. for he trimmed the lamps. I was so unkind to Edward when I thought I was being kind." He wrote under it.

" The door to the temple of success is never left open. A lowly beg inning and a humble origin are no bar to a great career. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to ri . my man." shouted the bluff old boatman. From Croesus down to Rockefeller the story is the same. an d made it into an oyster stand on the street corner. "The male inhabitants in the Township of Loaferdom. at twenty-three. are presidents of our banks. Circumstances have rarely favored great men. and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But su ccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. Every one who enters makes his own door. He found a board. and then he b ought a horse and cart. but cast a line for yourself. and dally with their purpose because they have no capital to start with. Isaac Rich. of our colleges. "found themselves laboring under great inconvenience fo r want of an easily traveled road between Poverty and Independence. left Cape Cod for Boston to make his way with a capital of only four dollars. and wh eeled them to his stand. Nearly all of the great capitalists of the city came from the c ountry. in Congress." says a printer's squib. nothing without it. and he will tell you it was on a farm or in a small country village. to-day. They therefo re petitioned the Powers that be to levy a tax upon the property of the entire c ounty for the purpose of laying out a macadamized highway. Our p oor boys and girls have written many of our greatest books. and all the way down hill to the latter place. bought three bushels of oysters. the larges t and strongest man in the party.ulfil my promise from the fish you have caught. It cannot be coaxed or bribed. in pulpits . They have fought their way to triu mph over the road of difficulty and through all sorts of opposition. The farmer's boys fill many of the greatest places in legislatures. but what of that? He made an opening. and have filled the highest places as teachers and journalists. not only in the getting of wealth. "Let us pray . wrote: "I will become the sculptor of my o wn mind's statue. faint." His biography shows how often the chisel and hammer were in h is hands to shape himself into his ideal. How many yo ung men falter. and threatened to capsize the boat." says Sallust. but also in the acquirement of eminence. Bayard Taylor. Yo u take an oar. which closes behind him to all others. no. those men have won most who relied most upon themselves. Soon his little savings amounted to $130." A white squall caught a party of tourists on a lake in Scotland. Boys of lowly origin have made many of the greatest disco veries. broad and smooth. Like Horace Greeley. of our universities. in a state of intense fear. to teach you whenever you see ot hers earning what you need to waste no time in foolish wishing. pay the price and it is yours. in business." "Every one is the artificer of his own fortune. When it seemed that the crisis had really come." The grandest fortunes ever accumulated or possessed on earth were and are the f ruit of endeavor that had no capital to begin with save energy. in the County of Hatework. and t he will." "No. and went three miles to an oyster smack. Man is not merely the architect of his own fate. You will never find success "marked down. at the bar. said. "let the little man pray. he could find no opening for a boy. but he must lay the bricks him self. intellect. Ask almost any great man in our larg e cities where he was born. the founder of Boston University. The gods sell ever ything for that. He borrowed a wheelbarrow. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. Labor is the only legal tender in the world to true success.

pull up by the roots. and scarcely legible." Lord Eldon astonish ed the world with his great legal learning. carrying it in his poc ket that he might utilize every spare moment. scratched. Lucretius worked nearly a lifetime on one poem. Matthew Hale for years studied law sixteen hours a day." he replied." H ume toiled thirteen hours a day on his "History of England. and often by candle-light? Yet. th ey would be inspired with new hope. polished and repolishe d. the nerve-aches. the fears and despair involved in works which have gained the admiration of the worl d. Genius has been well defined as the infinite capacity for taking pains. He would hack. What chance had such a boy for distinction? Probably not a single youth will read this book who has not a better opportunit y for success. one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived. blotted. of what is called genius is merely the result of persistent. apprenticed to a blacksmith. the more he will have to say about great things being done by genius. At thirty years of age he was master of every important language in Europe and was studying those of Asia. and put down in his memorandum book ready for any emergency. the disheartening trials. o r practise any other severity on whatever he wrote." Even Lord Bacon. The lazier the man . split. in most cases of down-right hard work. but th e days and months of weary plodding over details and dreary drudgery often requi red to produce it would stagger belief. The drudgery which l iterary men have put into the productions which have stood the test of time is a lmost incredible. Yet he had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improveme nt. but when he was a student too poor t o buy books. often rewritten a dozen times. You can read in a fe w minutes or a few hours a poem or a book with only pleasure and delight. to pick up an excellent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. John Foster would sometimes linger a w eek over a single sentence. The greatest geniuses have been the greatest workers. till it gained his consent t o exist. in whose shop h e had to work at the forge all the daylight. Chalmers was once asked what Foster was about in London. which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. and even then was not satisfied with it. Sheridan was considered a genius. It is said that Bryant rewrote "Thanatopsis" a hundred times. the discouraged hours. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and ge tting their eyes open. but it was found that the "brilliants" and "off-hand sayings" with whic h he used to dazzle the House of Commons were elaborated. he managed. at his death lef t large numbers of manuscripts filled with "sudden thoughts set down for use. he had actually borrowed and copied many hundreds of pages of large law books. young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. wha t an uplift of inspiration and encouragement they would give! How often I have w ished that the discouraged. the h eadaches." Rousseau says of the labor involved in his smooth and lively style: "My manuscripts. line by l ine. "at the rate of a line a week.se in the world than Elihu Burritt. and studying at night and holidays . that it is the slavery to a single ide a which has given to many a mediocre talent the reputation of being a genius. It completely absorbed his life. "Hard at it. It is interesting to note that the men who t alk most about genius are the men who like to work the least. by studying with a book before him at his meals. If men who have done great things could only reveal to the struggling youth of to-day h ow much of their reputations was due to downright hard digging and plodding. in terlined. The greatest works in literature have been elaborated and elaborated. struggling youth could know of the heartaches. There is not on . If the youth of America who are struggling against cruel circumstances to do so mething and be somebody in the world could only understand that ninety per cent. Speaking of Fox. but which have taxed the utmost powers of their authors. determined industr y. attest the trouble they cost me. paragraph by paragraph. prune. some one declared that he wrote "drop by drop.

But of his eight hundred compositions. and was in his study ev ery morning. who was too poor to afford even a c andle or a fire. Perhaps ninety-nine of a hundred under such unfortunate circumstances wou ld be content to remain helpless objects of charity for life. when a man like Francis Joseph Campbell. "The Creation" eclipsed them all. who apprenticed him at the age of thirteen to a bookbinder in London. Franklin was b ut a poor printer's boy. son of a blacksmith. and twelve years to w rite the Aeneid. holding his book in one hand. Michael Faraday was a poor boy. but he had a hard life of p ersecution until he became a barber in Vienna. When a man like Lord Cavanagh. who became a friend to him. his father was a coachman and he.e of them which I have not been obliged to transcribe four or five times before it went to press. There is scarcely a bar in his music that was not writ ten and rewritten at least a dozen times. manages to put himself int o Parliament. there was no more barbering. a blind man. "The Creation. . His favorite maxim was. with the meanness of his origin. Some of my periods I have turned or returned in my head for five or six nights before they were fit to be put to paper. and a great philanthropist. one is taken at the worth he has put into himself. double your talent just the same. no matter what it may be. became the most eminent scholar of Scotland . If it is your call to acquire money power instead of brain power.'" Gibbon wrote his autobiography nine times. whose highest luxury at one time was only a penny roll. He was courted by princes and dined with kings and queens. Personal value is a coin of one' s own minting. at six o'clock. It took Vergil seven years to write his Georgics. Scotland. some of the shot falling in his garden. Even Plato. He was sent away from home to act as errand boy for a mus ic teacher. after others had gone. we get a hint as to what it means to make the most possible out of ourselves and our opportun ities." upon which Gibbon worked twenty years. m arried a servant girl. "The barriers are not yet erected which can say to aspiring talent and industry 'thus far and no further. and clinging to the lamp-post with the other. A glover's apprentice of Glasgow." Beethoven probably surpassed all other musicians in his painstaking fidelity an d persistent application. Michael laid the foundations of his future greatness by making himself familiar with the contents of the books he bo und. He remained at night. eaten in the streets of Philadelphia. with less ch ance than almost any boy in America. Here he blacked boots for an infl uential man. Francis Parkman. who had been a tallow-chandler in his youth. A French doctor once taunted Fléchier. became one of America's greatest historians in spi te of everything. He was so displeased with the latter that he attempted to rise from his deathbed to commit it to the flames. . Burke wrote the conclusion of his spee ch at the trial of Hastings sixteen times. half blind. friendless and lonely. wrote the first sentence in his "Republic" nine differ ent ways before he was satisfied with it. because he made himself such. Haydn was very poor. and when the shops were closed climbed the lamp-post. Bishop of Nismes. his reputation w as made. and yet youth who waste their ev enings wonder at the genius which can produce "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Lord Tenterden was proud to point out to his son the shop where he had shaved for a penny. to read and study the precious volumes. He absorbed a great deal of information. He died while Napoleon's guns we re bombarding Vienna. one of the greatest writers that ever lived. In 1798 this poor boy's oratorio." came upon the musical world like the rising of a new sun which never set. summer and winter. .--this poor boy. without arms or legs. to acquire business power instea d of professional power. to whi . becomes a di stinguished mathematician. and who studied by the light of the shop windows in the streets . no more poverty. and Butler his famous "Analogy" twent y times. a musician.

ch he replied, "If you had been born in the same condition that I was, you would still have been but a maker of candles." Edwin Chadwick, in his report to the British Parliament, stated that children, working on half time (that is, studying three hours a day and working the rest o f their time out of doors), really made the greatest intellectual progress durin g the year. Business men have often accomplished wonders during the busiest live s by simply devoting one, two, three, or four hours daily to study or other lite rary work. James Watt received only the rudiments of an education at school, for his atten dance was irregular on account of delicate health. He more than made up for all deficiencies, however, by the diligence with which he pursued his studies at hom e. Alexander V was a beggar; he was "born mud, and died marble." William Hersche l, placed at the age of fourteen as a musician in the band of the Hanoverian Gua rds, devoted all his leisure to philosophical studies. He acquired a large fund of general knowledge, and in astronomy, a science in which he was wholly self-in structed, his discoveries entitle him to rank with the greatest astronomers of a ll time. George Washington was the son of a widow, born under the roof of a Westmoreland farmer; almost from infancy his lot had been that of an orphan. No academy had welcomed him to its shade, no college crowned him with its honors; to read, to w rite, to cipher--these had been his degrees in knowledge. Shakespeare learned li ttle more than reading and writing at school, but by self-culture he made himsel f the great master among literary men. Burns, too, enjoyed few advantages of edu cation, and his youth was passed in almost abject poverty. James Ferguson, the son of a half-starved peasant, learned to read by listening to the recitations of one of his elder brothers. While a mere boy he discovered several mechanical principles, made models of mills and spinning-wheels, and by means of beads on strings worked out an excellent map of the heavens. Ferguson made remarkable things with a common penknife. How many great men have mounted t he hill of knowledge by out-of-the-way paths! Gifford worked his intricate probl ems with a shoemaker's awl on a bit of leather. Rittenhouse first calculated ecl ipses on his plow-handle. Columbus, while leading the life of a sailor, managed to become the most accomp lished geographer and astronomer of his time. When Peter the Great, a boy of seventeen, became the absolute ruler of Russia h is subjects were little better than savages, and in himself even the passions an d propensities of barbarism were so strong that they were frequently exhibited d uring his whole career. But he determined to transform himself and the Russians into civilized people. He instituted reforms with great energy, and at the age o f twenty-six started on a visit to the other countries of Europe for the purpose of learning about their arts and institutions. At Saardam, Holland, he was so i mpressed with the sights of the great East India dockyard that he apprenticed hi mself to a shipbuilder, and helped to build the St. Peter, which he promptly pur chased. Continuing his travels, after he had learned his trade, he worked in Eng land in paper-mills, saw-mills, rope-yards, watchmakers' shops, and other manufa ctories, doing the work and receiving the treatment of a common laborer. While traveling, his constant habit was to obtain as much information as he cou ld beforehand with regard to every place he was to visit, and he would demand, " Let me see all." When setting out on his investigations, on such occasions, he c arried his tablets in his hand and whatever he deemed worthy of remembrance was carefully noted down. He would often leave his carriage if he saw the country pe ople at work by the wayside as he passed along, and not only enter into conversa tion with them on agricultural affairs, but also accompany them to their homes,

examine their furniture, and take drawings of their implements of husbandry. Thu s he obtained much minute and correct knowledge, which he would scarcely have ac quired by other means, and which he afterward turned to admirable account in the improvement of his own country. The ancients said, "Know thyself"; the twentieth century says, "Help thyself." Self-culture gives a second birth to the soul. A liberal education is a true reg eneration. When a man is once liberally educated, he will generally remain a man , not shrink to a manikin, nor dwindle to a brute. But if he is not properly edu cated, if he has merely been crammed and stuffed through college, if he has mere ly a broken-down memory from trying to hold crammed facts enough to pass the exa mination, he will continue to shrink, shrivel, and dwindle, often below his orig inal proportions, for he will lose both his confidence and self-respect, as his crammed facts, which never became a part of himself, evaporate from his distende d memory. Every bit of education or culture is of great advantage in the struggle for exi stence. The microscope does not create anything new, but it reveals marvels. To educate the eye adds to its magnifying power until it sees beauty where before i t saw only ugliness. It reveals a world we never suspected, and finds the greate st beauty even in the commonest things. The eye of an Agassiz could see worlds o f which the uneducated eye never dreamed. The cultured hand can do a thousand th ings the uneducated hand can not do. It becomes graceful, steady of nerve, stron g, skilful, indeed it almost seems to think, so animated is it with intelligence . The cultured will can seize, grasp, and hold the possessor, with irresistible power and nerve, to almost superhuman effort. The educated touch can almost perf orm miracles. The educated taste can achieve wonders almost past belief. What a contrast between the cultured, logical, profound, masterly reason of a Gladstone and that of the hod-carrier who has never developed or educated his reason beyo nd what is necessary to enable him to mix mortar and carry brick! Be careful to avoid that over-intellectual culture which is purchased at the ex pense of moral vigor. An observant professor of one of our colleges has remarked that "the mind may be so rounded and polished by education, and so well balance d, as not to be energetic in any one faculty. In other men not thus trained, the sense of deficiency and of the sharp, jagged corners of their knowledge leads t o efforts to fill up the chasms, rendering them at last far better educated men than the polished, easy-going graduate who has just knowledge enough to prevent consciousness of his ignorance. While all the faculties of the mind should be cu ltivated, it is yet desirable that it should have two or three rough-hewn featur es of massive strength. Young men are too apt to forget the great end of life, w hich is to be and do, not to read and brood over what other men have been and do ne." "I repeat that my object is not to give him knowledge, but to teach him how to acquire it at need," said Rousseau. All learning is self-teaching. It is upon the working of the pupil's own mind t hat his progress in knowledge depends. The great business of the master is to te ach the pupil to teach himself. "Thinking, not growth, makes manhood," says Isaac Taylor. "Accustom yourself, t herefore, to thinking. Set yourself to understand whatever you see or read. To j oin thinking with reading is one of the first maxims, and one of the easiest ope rations." "How few think justly of the thinking few: How many never think who think they do." CHAPTER XXXI

THE SELF-IMPROVEMENT HABIT If you want knowledge you must toil for it.--RUSKIN. We excuse our sloth under the pretext of difficulty.--QUINTILLIAN. What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the human soul.--ADDISO N. A boy is better unborn than untaught.--GASCOIGNE. It is ignorance that wastes; it is knowledge that saves, an untaught faculty is at once quiescent and dead.--N. D. HILLIS. The plea that this or that man has no time for culture will vanish as soon as w e desire culture so much that we begin to examine seriously into our present use of time.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. Education, as commonly understood, is the process of developing the mind by mea ns of books and teachers. When education has been neglected, either by reason of lack of opportunity, or because advantage was not taken of the opportunities af forded, the one remaining hope is self-improvement. Opportunities for self-impro vement surround us, the helps to self-improvement are abundant, and in this day of cheap books and free libraries, there can be no good excuse for neglect to us e the faculties for mental growth and development which are so abundantly suppli ed. When we look at the difficulties which hindered the acquisition of knowledge fi fty years to a century ago; the scarcity and the costliness of books, the value of the dimmest candle-light, the unremitting toil which left so little time for study, the physical weariness which had to be overcome to enable mental exertion in study, we may well marvel at the giants of scholarship those days of hardshi p produced. And when we add to educational limitations, physical disabilities, b lindness, deformity, ill-health, hunger and cold, we may feel shame as we contem plate the fulness of modern opportunity and the helps and incentives to study an d self-development which are so lavishly provided for our use and inspiration, a nd of which we make so little use. Self-improvement implies one essential feeling: the desire for improvement. If the desire exists, then improvement is usually accomplished only by the conquest of self--the material self, which seeks pleasure and amusement. The novel, the game of cards, the billiard cue, idle whittling and story-telling will have to b e eschewed, and every available moment of leisure turned to account. For all who seek self-improvement "there is a lion in the way," the lion of self-indulgence , and it is only by the conquest of this enemy that progress is assured. Show me how a youth spends his evenings, his odd bits of time, and I will forec ast his future. Does he look upon this leisure as precious, rich in possibilitie s, as containing golden material for his future life structure? Or does he look upon it as an opportunity for self-indulgence, for a light, flippant good time? The way he spends his leisure will give the keynote of his life, will tell whet her he is dead in earnest, or whether he looks upon it as a huge joke. He may not be conscious of the terrible effects, the gradual deterioration of c haracter which comes from a frivolous wasting of his evenings and half-holidays, but the character is being undermined just the same. Young men are often surprised to find themselves dropping behind their competit

ors, but if they will examine themselves, they will find that they have stopped growing, because they have ceased their effort to keep abreast of the times, to be widely read, to enrich life with self-culture. It is the right use of spare moments in reading and study which qualify men for leadership. And in many historic cases the "spare" moments utilized for study w ere not spare in the sense of being the spare time of leisure. They were rather spared moments, moments spared from sleep, from meal times, from recreation. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to rise in the world than Elihu Bur ritt, apprenticed at sixteen to a blacksmith, in whose shop he had to work at th e forge all the daylight, and often by candle-light? Yet he managed, by studying with a book before him at his meals, carrying it in his pocket that he might ut ilize every spare moment, and studying nights and holidays, to pick up an excell ent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and getting their eyes open, young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. He had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improvement, which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. A wealthy gentleman offered to pay his expenses at Harvard. But no, Elihu said he could get his education himself, even though h e had to work twelve or fourteen hours a day at the forge. Here was a determined boy. He snatched every spare moment at the anvil and forge as if it were gold. He believed, with Gladstone, that thrift of time would repay him in after years with usury, and that waste of it would make him dwindle. Think of a boy working nearly all the daylight in a blacksmith shop, and yet finding time to study seve n languages in a single year. It is not lack of ability that holds men down but lack of industry. In many cas es the employee has a better brain, a better mental capacity than his employer. But he does not improve his faculties. He dulls his mind by cigarette smoking. H e spends his money at the pool table, theater, or dance, and as he grows old, an d the harness of perpetual service galls him, he grumbles at his lack of luck, h is limited opportunity. The number of perpetual clerks is constantly being recruited by those who did n ot think it worth while as boys to learn to write a good hand or to master the f undamental branches of knowledge requisite in a business career. The ignorance c ommon among young men and young women, in factories, stores, and offices, everyw here, in fact, in this land of opportunity, where youth should be well educated, is a pitiable thing in American life. On every hand we see men and women of abi lity occupying inferior positions because they did not think it worth while in y outh to develop their powers and to concentrate their attention on the acquisiti on of sufficient knowledge. Thousands of men and women find themselves held back, handicapped for life beca use of the seeming trifles which they did not think it worth while to pay attent ion to in their early days. Many a girl of good natural ability spends her most productive years as a cheap clerk, or in a mediocre position because she never thought it worth while to de velop her mental faculties or to take advantage of opportunities within reach to fit herself for a superior position. Thousands of girls unexpectedly thrown on their own resources have been held down all their lives because of neglected tas ks in youth, which at the time were dismissed with a careless "I don't think it worth while." They did not think it would pay to go to the bottom of any study a t school, to learn to keep accounts accurately, or fit themselves to do anything in such a way as to be able to make a living by it. They expected to marry, and never prepared for being dependent on themselves,--a contingency against which marriage, in many instances, is no safeguard.

The trouble with most youths is that they are not willing to fling the whole we ight of their being into their location. They want short hours, little work and a lot of play. They think more of leisure and pleasure than of discipline and tr aining in their great life specialty. Many a clerk envies his employer and wishes that he could go into business for himself, be an employer too but it is too much work to make the effort to rise a bove a clerkship. He likes to take life easy; and he wonders idly whether, after all, it is worth while to strain and strive and struggle and study to prepare o neself for the sake of getting up a little higher and making a little more money . The trouble with a great many people is that they are not willing to make prese nt sacrifices for future gain. They prefer to have a good time as they go along, rather than spend time in self-improvement. They have a sort of vague wish to d o something great, but few have that intensity of longing which impels them to m ake the sacrifice of the present for the future. Few are willing to work undergr ound for years laying a foundation for the life monument. They yearn for greatne ss, but their yearning is not the kind which is willing to pay any price in ende avor or make any sacrifice for its object. So the majority slide along in mediocrity all their lives. They have ability fo r something higher up, but they have not the energy and determination to prepare for it. They do not care to make necessary effort. They prefer to take life eas ier and lower down rather than to struggle for something higher. They do not pla y the game for all they are worth. If a man or woman has but the disposition for self-improvement and advancement he will find opportunity to rise or "what he can not find create." Here is an ex ample from the everyday life going on around us and in which we are all taking p art. A young Irishman who had reached the age of nineteen or twenty without learning to read or write, and who left home because of the intemperance that prevailed there, learned to read a little by studying billboards, and eventually got a pos ition as steward aboard a man-of-war. He chose that occupation and got leave to serve at the captain's table because of a great desire to learn. He kept a littl e tablet in his coat-pocket, and whenever he heard a new word wrote it down. One day an officer saw him writing and immediately suspected him of being a spy. Wh en he and the other officers learned what the tablet was used for, the young man was given more opportunities to learn, and these led in time to promotion, unti l, finally, the sometime steward won a prominent position in the navy. Success a s a naval officer prepared the way for success in other fields. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. How many yo ung men falter, faint, and dally with their purpose, because they have no capita l to start with, and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But s uccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. It can not be coaxed or bribed ; pay the price and it is yours. One of the sad things about the neglected opportunities for self-improvement is that it puts people of great natural ability at a disadvantage among those who are their mental inferiors. I know a member of one of our city legislatures, a splendid fellow, immensely p opular, who has a great, generous heart and broad sympathies, but who can not op en his mouth without so murdering the English language that it is really painful to listen to him.

There ted to cters, ack of

are a great many similar examples in Washington of men who have been elec important positions because of their great natural ability and fine chara but who are constantly mortified and embarrassed by their ignorance and l early training.

One of the most humiliating experiences that can ever come to a human being is to be conscious of possessing more than ordinary ability, and yet be tied to an inferior position because of lack of early and intelligent training commensurate with his ability. To be conscious that one has ability to realize eighty or nin ety per cent of his possibilities, if he had only had the proper education and t raining, but because of this lack to be unable to bring out more than twenty-fiv e per cent of it on account of ignorance, is humiliating and embarrassing. In ot her words, to go through life conscious that you are making a botch of your capa bilities just because of lack of training, is a most depressing thing. Nothing else outside of sin causes more sorrow than that which comes from not h aving prepared for the highest career possible to one. There are no bitterer reg rets than those which come from being obliged to let opportunities pass by for w hich one never prepared himself. I know a pitiable case of a born naturalist whose ambition was so suppressed, a nd whose education so neglected in youth, that later when he came to know more a bout natural history than almost any man of his day, he could not write a gramma tical sentence, and could never make his ideas live in words, perpetuate them in books, because of his ignorance of even the rudiments of an education. His earl y vocabulary was so narrow and pinched, and his knowledge of his language so lim ited that he always seemed to be painfully struggling for words to express his t hought. Think of the suffering of this splendid man, who was conscious of possessing co lossal scientific knowledge, and yet was absolutely unable to express himself gr ammatically! How often stenographers are mortified by the use of some unfamiliar word or ter m, or quotation, because of the shallowness of their preparation! It is not enough to be able to take dictation when ordinary letters are given, not enough to do the ordinary routine of office work. The ambitious stenographer must be prepared for the unusual demand, must have good reserves of knowledge t o draw from in case of emergency. But, if she is constantly slipping up upon her grammar, or is all at sea the mo ment she steps out of her ordinary routine, her employer knows that her preparat ion is shallow, that her education is very limited, and her prospects will be li mited also. A young lady writes me that she is so handicapped by the lack of an early educa tion that she fairly dreads to write a letter to anyone of education or culture for fear of making ignorant mistakes in grammar and spelling. Her letter indicat es that she has a great deal of natural ability. Yet she is much limited and alw ays placed at a disadvantage because of this lack of an early education. It is d ifficult to conceive of a greater misfortune than always to be embarrassed and h andicapped just because of the neglect of those early years. I am often pained by letters from people, especially young people, which indica te that the writers have a great deal of natural ability, that they have splendi d minds, but a large part of their ability is covered up, rendered ineffectual b y their ignorance. Many of these letters show that the writers are like diamonds in the rough, wit

h only here and there a little facet ground off, just enough to let in the light and reveal the great hidden wealth within. I always feel sorry for these people who have passed the school age and who wil l probably go through life with splendid minds handicapped by their ignorance wh ich, even late in life, they might largely or entirely overcome. It is such a pity that, a young man, for instance, who has the natural ability which would make him a leader among men, must, for the lack of a little training , a little preparation, work for somebody else, perhaps with but half of his abi lity but with a better preparation, more education. Everywhere we see clerks, mechanics, employees in all walks of life, who cannot rise to anything like positions which correspond with their natural ability, be cause they have not had the education. They are ignorant. They can not write a d ecent letter. They murder the English language, and hence their superb ability c annot be demonstrated, and remains in mediocrity. The parable of the talents illustrates and enforces one of nature's sternest la ws: "To him that hath shall be given; from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath." Scientists call this law the survival of the fittest. The fittest are those who use what they have, who gain strength by struggle, an d who survive by self-development by control of their hostile or helpful environ ment. The soil, the sunshine, the atmosphere are very liberal with the material for t he growth of the plant or the tree, but the plant must use all it gets, it must work it up into flowers, into fruit, into leaf or fiber or something or the supp ly will cease. In other words, the soil will not send any more building material up the sap than is used for growth, and the faster this material is used the mo re rapid the growth, the more abundantly the material will come. t s e d The same law holds good everywhere. Nature is liberal with us if we utilize wha she gives us, but if we stop using it, if we do not transform what she gives u into power, if we do not do some building somewhere, if we do not transform th material which she gives us into force and utilize that force, we not only fin the supply cut off, but we find that we are growing weaker, less efficient.

Everything in nature is on the move, either one way or the other. It is either going up or down. It is either advancing or retrograding; we cannot hold without using. Nature withdraws muscle or brain if we do not use them. She withdraws skill the moment we stop drilling efficiently, the moment we stop using our power. The fo rce is withdrawn when we cease exercising it. A college graduate is often surprised years after he leaves the college to find that about all he has to show for his education is his diploma. The power, the efficiency which he gained there has been lost because he has not been using the m. He thought at the time that everything was still fresh in his mind after his examination that this knowledge would remain with him, but it has been slipping away from him every minute since he stopped using it, and only that has remained and increased which he has used; the rest has evaporated. A great many college graduates ten years afterwards find that they have but very little left to show for their four years' course, because they have not utilized their knowledge. Th ey have become weaklings without knowing it. They constantly say to themselves, "I have a college education, I must have some ability, I must amount to somethin g in the world." But the college diploma has no more power to hold the knowledge you have gained in college than a piece of tissue paper over a gas jet can hold the gas in the pipe.

Everything which you do not use is constantly slipping away from you. Use it or lose it. The secret of power is use. Ability will not remain with us, force wil l evaporate the moment we cease to do something with it. The tools for self-improvement are at your hand, use them. If the ax is dull th e more strength must be put forth. If your opportunities are limited you must us e more energy, put forth more effort. Progress may seem slow at first, but perse verance assures success. "Line upon line, and precept upon precept" is the rule of mental upbuilding and "In due time ye shall reap if ye faint not." CHAPTER XXXII RAISING OF VALUES "Destiny is not about thee, but within,-- Thyself must make thyself." "The world is no longer clay, but rather iron in the hands of its workers," say s Emerson, "and men have got to hammer out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows." To make the most of your "stuff," be it cloth, iron, or character,--this is suc cess. Raising common "stuff" to priceless value is great success. The man who first takes the rough bar of wrought iron may be a blacksmith, who has only partly learned his trade, and has no ambition to rise above his anvil. He thinks that the best possible thing he can do with his bar is to make it into horseshoes, and congratulates himself upon his success. He reasons that the rou gh lump of iron is worth only two or three cents a pound, and that it is not wor th while to spend much time or labor on it. His enormous muscles and small skill have raised the value of the iron from one dollar, perhaps, to ten dollars. Along comes a cutler, with a little better education, a little more ambition, a little finer perception, and says to the blacksmith: "Is this all you can see i n that iron? Give me a bar, and I will show you what brains and skill and hard w ork can make of it." He sees a little further into the rough bar. He has studied many processes of hardening and tempering; he has tools, grinding and polishing wheels, and annealing furnaces. The iron is fused, carbonized into steel, drawn out, forged, tempered, heated white-hot, plunged into cold water or oil to impr ove its temper, and ground and polished with great care and patience. When this work is done, he shows the astonished blacksmith two thousand dollars' worth of knife-blades where the latter only saw ten dollars' worth of crude horseshoes. T he value has been greatly raised by the refining process. "Knife-blades are all very well, if you can make nothing better," says another artisan, to whom the cutler has shown the triumph of his art, "but you haven't h alf brought out what is in that bar of iron. I see a higher and better use; I ha ve made a study of iron, and know what there is in it and what can be made of it ." This artisan has a more delicate touch, a finer perception, a better training, a higher ideal, and superior determination, which enable him to look still furth er into the molecules of the rough bar,--past the horse-shoes, past the knife-bl ades,--and he turns the crude iron into the finest cambric needles, with eyes cu t with microscopic exactness. The production of the invisible points requires a more delicate process, a finer grade of skill than the cutler possesses. This feat the last workman considers marvelous, and he thinks he has exhausted the possibilities of the iron. He has multiplied many times the value of the cut ler's product.

passes with ease by the horse-shoes. how the texture of the metal can b e so much refined that even a fiber. an d a better training. by hard work. To him. and returns the product of his bar in fine mainsprings for watches. turns his product into almost invisible coils of delicate hair-spr ings. knife-blades. if a pound could be collected. He puts his bar through many processes of refinement and fine tempering. crude. While a pound of gold. that he possesses the magic that can perform a still greater miracle in iron. It sounds magical. Other experts may still further refine the product. it will not be stiff. A higher artist-artisan appears. with a more finely organized mind. the perception. He knows that. that even mainsprings and ha irsprings are looked back upon as coarse. by the training of the eye. barbed filaments of steel. by mixing brains with its molecules. moral. but so full of its new qualities that it almost seems instinct with life.But. in the develo pment of iron. is worth about two hundred and fifty dollars. a slender thread of it. takes but a fragmen t of one of the bars of steel. yet all capable of control and direction by the higher self. acting and c ounteracting. worth only a few tho usand dollars. a thousand influences may be brou ght to bear upon mind and character. the knife-blades. mental. the human being is a bundle of forces. more patience. by even the average educated man. The difference in human attainment is due only slightly to the original materia l. in triumph. While the iron is an inert mass acted upon by external influences only. who shall set b ounds to the possibilities of the development of a human being. whose processes are so almost infinitely delicate. a dozen processes are possible. and the needles. the hand. but the magic is only that wrought by the application of the homeliest virtues. the processes of educ . he has raised th e few dollars' worth of iron to a value of one million dollars. and . and cheap. Where the others saw horseshoes. After infinite toil and pain. a higher order of skill. this artist-artisan sees how every process of mainspring making can be carried further. such ethereal fineness of touch. When his work is don e. he shows you a few of the minutely barbed instruments used by dentists to dra w out the finest branches of the dental nerves. by pai nstaking care. whose product is so little known. even main-springs seem coarse and clumsy. perhaps forty ti mes the value of the same weight of gold. and develops its higher possibilities with such m arvelous accuracy. almost clairvoyant vision. roughly s peaking. If a metal possessing only a few coarse material qualities is capable of such m arvelous increase in value. behold! another very skilful mechanic. the r eal. and spiritual forces? Whereas. dominating personality. more perfection can be reached. but it will be many a day b efore the best will exhaust the possibilities of a metal that can be subdivided until its particles will float in the air. might be worth hundre ds of times as much. a nd merely a passive metal. and by determination and grit. With penetrating. a more delicate touch. or needles. i f care enough be used in tempering the steel. It is the ideal followed and unfolded. He knows that the crude iron can be manipulated and coaxed into an elasticity t hat can not even be imagined by one less trained in metallurgy. the effort made. Still another workman. his penetrating eye saw a product worth one hundred thousand doll ars. can do marvelous wo rk. a pound of these slender. and how. at every stage of manufacture. he has made his dream true. trenchant. that wonderful c ompound of physical. that his trade is unmentioned by the makers of dictionaries and encylopedias. who tells us that the rough bar has not even y et found its highest expression. more industry.

the c ommon soldier. to work on and up from clumsy horseshoes to delicate hairsprings. It was thus that Columbus . From the same material. Franklin. and our ef forts. the fiery trials of disaster and bereavement. draw out. and all are s ubject to the dominating will. or comparatively so. or to better it in some way. From the same rough piece of marble. will raise his material in value a hundredfold. one man builds a palace and another a hovel. if exposed to the elements. everyday life. but in ourse lves they are largely matters of growth. we m ust resolve to struggle. developed their powers. and become worthless. of what use would it be? It has that virtue. by becoming mer ely a horseshoe. hammer. The iron. Many of us consider our natural gift-bars poor. the bricklayer. is strengthened. if we would but realize them. in the main. I f we see only horseshoes or knife-blades. the criminals. Just as a bar of iron. if every furnace should burn the life out of it. Life. The blows of opposition. to endure trials and tests. his lack of means to get a college education. toil. the poor wheelwright's son. Just as each artisan sees in the crude iron some finished.--all these are necessar y to the man who would reach the highest success. the struggles amid want and woe. to temper it. will oxidize. Cervantes. a nd through them it comes to its highest expression. the weaver." the faulty characters. so must we see in our lives glorious possibilities. un til they towered head and shoulders above other men. has counterparts of all the tortures the iron undergoes. yet one with no better means of improvement than the o thers. the grinding of constant difficulties. aye. all our efforts and struggles will nev er produce hairsprings. compared with those of others. dreary drudgery in education and discipline. While one boy is regretting his want of opportunities. while the ninety-nine will w onder why their material remains so coarse and crude. the weariness of ye ars of dry. perhaps with infinitely poorer means. a thousandfold. but. raise the value of the raw material to almost fabulous heights. Ben Jonson. another a hideous monster which demoralizes every one who sees i . those qualit ies that withstand all. if we are willing. so wil l character deteriorate if there is no constant effort to improve its form. the "nobodies. In the iron the qualities are. the slave. to i ncrease its ductility. and Haydn. by infinite patience and persistence. and remains in ignorance. to pay the necessary price. study. but it is hard to raise your life-product to higher values. another with half his chances pi cks up a good education in the odds and ends of time which other boys throw away . We must realize our own adaptability to great ends. and will attribute their f ailure to hard luck. culture. if every rolle r should pulverize it. the rolling. by this manipulation. refined product. and development. one man calls out an angel of beauty which delights every beholder. the cutler's son. made more elastic or more resistant. five-hundredfold. are the on es who fail. the journeyman printer. that draw profit from every test. confident that the result will pay us for our suffering. Demosthenes. the crushings of iron circumstances. by patience. our trials. and the drawing out. and mold our life-bar into its ultimate development.ation and experience undergone that fuse. the rebuffs that chill enthusiasm. Those who shrink from the forging. the beg gar. and inadequate. There is very little difference between the material given to a hundred average boys and girls at birth. If every blow sho uld fracture it. and come out triumphan t in the end. to hammer. the raspings of care and anxiety. refined. and stru ggle. we can. It is easy to remain a common bar of iron. mean. and adapted to the use each artisan dreams of. Aesop. inherent. and refine. Homer.

A great many ques . Of course. there is always a chance for revision. it may be on canvas: it may be through oratory. Young people. no matter what they intend to be. and he knows that he can burn his manuscript again and ag ain if it does not suit him. weighing every thought. only a few persons hear them . d epends very largely upon your ideal. everybody sh ould have such complete control of himself. and perhaps no one will ever think of them again. the rest is the com poser's. It may be in music. upon your having the grit to be hammered. A man may write as listlessly as he pleases. Self-expression in any legitimate form tends to call out what is in a man. we do not feel that so much depends upon our words. to be drawn out. use much or lit tle of his brain or energy. In all ages oratory has been regarded as the highest expression of human achievement. especially public vocal expression. as does the orator. inventiveness. should make it a study. as expression before an audience. but would you prefer to remain a roug h bar of iron or a horseshoe all your life? [Illustration: Lincoln studying by the firelight] CHAPTER XXXIII SELF-IMPROVEMENT THROUGH PUBLIC SPEAKING It does not matter whether you want to be a public speaker or not. his resourcefulness. no matter how large or formidable. No one is wa tching him. should train himself to think on his feet. When one undert akes to think on his feet and speak extemporaneously before the public. Yet anyone who lays any claim to culture. Nothing else will call out what is in a man so quickly and so effectively as th e constant effort to do his best in speaking before an audience. whether vocal or i nstrumental. just as he chooses or feels like doing. The occasions for little speaking are increasing enormously. what one gives out is only partially one's own. The writer has the advantage of being able to wait for his moods. but no other form of self-expression develops a man so thoroughly and so effectively. Whether you go upward to the mainspring or hairspring stage. to be thrust from the fire into cold water or oil in order to get the proper temper. Then. and so quickly unfolds all of his powers. His pride and vanity are not touched. and what he writes may never b e seen by anyone. and it takes lots of stamina to undergo the processes that produce the finest product. In music. but it must come through self-expression. Self-expression in some manner is the only means of developing mental power. should be so self-centered and selfposed that he can get up in any audience. it may come th rough selling goods or writing a book. the powe r and the skill of the entire man are put to a severe test. it is hard and painful. so that he can at a moment's notice rise and express himself intelligently . whether blacksmith or farmer. In conversation. and express his thoughts clearly and distinctly. He do es not have to step upon the scales of every listener's judgment to be weighed. It is doubtful whether anyone can reach the highest standard of culture without studying the art of expression. your determination to be the higher thing. There are not a thousand eyes upon him. merchan t or physician. He does not have a great audience criticizing every sentence. He can write when he feels like it. The extent to which you can raise the value of your life-bar depends very large ly upon yourself.t.

in debating clubs to get rid of their self-consciousness and to acquire ease and facility in public speaking. The effort to express one's ideas in lucid. they have position. H e had simply cultivated the ability to say his best thing on his feet. at school. but they always shrank from every opportunity. mortified. got up and made a brill iant speech. and may be a very agreeable instead of disagreeable speaker if he will ta ke care and pains. and he got up and trembled and stammered and c ould scarcely say his soul was his own. or on other public occasions . concise. telling English tends to make one's everyday language choicer and more direct. and was placed at a tremendous disadvantage. In this and other ways speech-making develops mental power and character. lifted them selves into positions of prominence. and strangers no doubt thought that he was much the stronger man. a shallow-brained business man. There is everything in learning what you wish to know. and mental furnishing. They had plenty of opportunities when they were y oung. tells me that he has been surprised on several occasions when he has been called upon to speak at banquets. because they were timid. and improves one 's diction generally. All sorts of business deals are now carried through at dinners. but they are nobodies when called upon to speak in public. and he now regrets more than anything else that he has allo wed so many opportunities for calling himself out to go by in the past. by the dint of hard work and persistent grit. There was never before any such demand for dinner oratory as to-day. may choose good words instead of bad ones an d speak properly instead of improperly. even to make a few remarks.tions which used to be settled in the office are now discussed and settled at di nners. Every man. and who made such a miserable failure of his attempt to give his opinion upon an important public matter on which he was well posted. embarrassed. He could not even make a decent appearan ce. Your vocal culture. who hadn't a hundr edth part of the other man's practical power in affairs. Now they have money. and he felt cheap. At the very meeting where this strong man who had the respect and confidence of everybody who knew him. who is king in his specialty. or scarcely to put a motion without trembling like an aspen leaf. It is a matter of painstaking and preparation. All they c an do is to look foolish. b eing so confused and self-conscious and "stage struck" that he could say scarcel y anything. he may have grace in his motions and ges tures. but there he stood. as helpless as a child. in the same city. and yet they are not able to stand on their feet in public. We know men who have. He had power and a great deal of experience. A very brilliant young man in New York who has climbed to a responsible positio n in a very short time. Some time ago I was at a public meeting when a man who stands very high in the community. manner. and the o ther man had not. or felt that somebody else could handle t he debate or questions better. was called upon to give his opinion upo n the matter under consideration. and probably would have given anything if he had early in life trained himself to get himself in hand so that he could think on his feet and say with power and effectiveness that which he knew. There are plenty of business men to-day who would give a great deal of money if they could only go back and improve the early opportunities for learning to thi nk and speak on their feet which they threw away. are to . stammer out an apology and sit down. says Lord Chesterfield. clean-cut. This explains the rapidity with which a young man develops in sc hool or college when he begins to take part in public debates or in debating soc ieties. blush. at the new discoveries he has made of himself of power which he never before d reamed he possessed.

must cultivate bodily posture. every power of thought and expression spurred. moving forward with a monotonous dr oning. the man who has no sensitiveness. One's manhood. In thinking on one's feet before an audience. He was a p erfect genius for dry uninteresting oratory. The attempt to become a good public speaker is a great awakener of all the ment al faculties. assura nce. arouses ambition. since force. Close. stirring the emotions or convincing the reason of an audience. "Ninety-nine men in every hundred never rise above mediocrity b ecause the training of the voice is entirely neglected and considered of no impo rtance. conviction. or making fools of themselves in the estimation of others. The speaker summons all his reserves of education. P ublic speaking--thinking on one's feet--is a powerful educator except to the thi ck-skinned man. judgment of his opinions--al l things that go to make him what he is--are being unrolled like a panorama. Nothing else so thoroughly discloses a man's weaknesses or shows up his limitations of thought. compact statement must be had. his narrow vocabular y. and pausing now and then as if refreshing himself by slumber. and masses all his forces in the endeavor to capture the approval and applause of the audi ence. will-power are greatly affected by physical condition. of experience. and tends to make one more effective in ev ery particular. gives self-confidence. no other men who run such a risk of exposing their weak sp ots. as do orators. enthusi asm. everything expressed on the same dead level. It is a great art to be able to r aise and lower the voice with sweet flowing cadences which please the ear. character. vigorousl y. There is no class of people put to such a severe test of showing what is in the m as public speakers. or who does not care for what others think of him.be made a matter for thought and careful training. and have good habits at easy command. This requir es practise in early life. Nothing else is such a touchstone of the character and the extent of one's re ading. Learn to stop when you get through. too . Nothing will tire an audienc e more quickly than monotony. Eve ry mental faculty is quickened. T houghts rush for utterance. The sense of power that comes from holding attention." It was indeed said of a certain Duke of Devonshire that he was the only English statesman who ever took a nap during the progress of his own speech. In youth the would-be orator must cultivate robust health. There must be variety. the carefulness or carelessness of his observation. Do no t keep stringing out conversation or argument after you have made your point. his poverty of speech. of natural or acquired ability. the greatest oratorical effo rt ever made on this continent. One. One must know words. good judgment. An early training for effective speaking will make one careful to secure a good vocabulary by good reading and a dictionary. the human mind tires very quickly without it. What woul d have been the result of Webster's reply to Hayne. Do not neutralize all the good impression you have made by talking on and on long after you have made your point. Gladstone said. with proper facial and bodily expression and gesture. one must think quickly. self-reliance. Yo u only weaken your case and prejudice people against you for your lack of tact. learning. effectively. words press for choice. or sense of proportion. This is especially true of a monotonous tone. At the same time he must speak effectively through a properly mo dulated voice. . if he had sat down in the Senate and put his fee t on his desk? Think of a great singer like Nordica attempting to electrify an a udience while lounging on a sofa or sitting in a slouchy position.

Every time you rise to your feet will increase your confidence. They want to wait until they can use a l ittle better grammar. It is so easy and seductive. The effort to marshal all one's reserves in a lo gical and orderly manner. He lacks confidence in himself. and there is no one thing which will develop young people so rapidly and effect ively as the debating clubs and discussions of all sorts. or how difficult it is to get the time. the drill you will get by it is the turning point. Do the thing so many times that it will become second nature to you. to shrink from the public debates or speaking. Cho ate. Do not remain way back on the back seat. beads the brow. and when you have accepted the position you can post yo urself on the rules. facility. is to get the experience. Do not be afraid to show yourself. This shrinking into a corner and getting out of sight and avoiding pub licity is fatal to self-confidence. No matter how far you have to go t o attend it. Nothing will call a young man out mo re than the struggle in a debate to hold his own. and yet he is so timid that he always shrinks from speak at banquets or in public because he is so afraid rience enough. Wilson. the imagination quickened to se e figures and similes that would never come to calm thought. and after awhil e you will form the habit of speaking until it will be as easy as anything else. and sends the blood surging through the veins. This forced awakening of the whole personality has effects reaching much furthe r than the oratorical occasion. and force yourself to speak every time you get a chance. lea ves these reserves permanently better in hand. vigorous exercis e for the mind as wrestling is for the body. on the ground that they are not quite well enough educated at present. fires the eye. If you have an invitation to speak. until they have read more history and more literature. It is strong. and the chances are that you will never know the rules unti l you are thrust into the chair where you will be obliged to give rulings. A vast number of our p ublic men have owed their advance more to the old-fashioned debating societies t han anything else. and Patrick Henry got their training in the old-fashioned Debating So ciety. Jump to your feet and say something upon every question that is up for discussion. Clay. unt il they have gained a little more culture and ease of manner. If th e chance does not come to you. make it. Do not think that because you do not know anything about parliamentary law that you should not accept the presidency of your club or debating society. self-reliance. We know of a young man who has a great deal of natural ing.Such an effort takes hold of the entire nature. no matter how much you may shrink from it. half-forgotten memories revived. Lincoln. to express their opinions with force and independence. or how timid or shy you may be. resolve that you will not let this opportunity for self-enla rgement slip by you. Here they learned confidence. especially for boys and girls in school or college . This is just the place to learn. He is so ability for public speak accepting invitations to that he has not had expe proud. Dormant impuls es are stirred. Webster. Do not be afraid to rise to put a mot ion or to second it or give your opinion upon it. You never will be. The way to acquire grace. Join just as many young people's organizations--especially self-improvement organizat ions--as you can. they discovered themselves. or how much trouble it is. ease. more readily in reach. the way to get poise and balance so t hat you will not feel disturbed in public gatherings. and so afraid tha . The Debating Club is the nursery of orators. Go up front. to bring to the front all the power one possesses. It was here they learned not to be afraid of themselves. Do not wait until you are bett er prepared. flushes the cheek.

His opinion carries with gives consent to his judgment. his power is crippled. and as nervous as a cat. when he knows that all eyes are watching him. What is technically called "stage fright" is very common. yet fearing to speak. It would have been a thousand times better for him to ha ve made a mistake. and making up their minds whether he measures more or less tha n they expected. But no orator can make a great impression until he gets rid of himself. are very difficult to get out of one's consciousness. of putting forward their views or opinions on any subject as being worthy of attention. A college boy recited an address "to the conscript fathers. criticizing him. or even to have broken down entirely a few times. meetings of literary societies. l onging. even when a question in which they are deeply i nterested and on which they have strong views is being discussed. what people thi nk of him. in his act.t he will make some slip which will mortify him." he replied. wooden. At debating cl ubs. would paralyze them. if they should get on their feet to make a motion or to speak in a public gathering. He would give anything in the world if he had only accepted all of the invitations he has had." His professor asked. wh at he stands for. which never leaves one. Some are constitutionally sensitive. he is him There is nothing of the negative. or gatherings of any kind. The mere thought of asserting themselves. He ws it. scrutinizing him to see how much there is in him. that he has waited and waited a nd waited until now he is discouraged and thinks that he will never be able to d o anything in public speaking at all. but the man behind the speech. The whole man He himself is in his conviction. and his speech to that extent will be mechanic al. One of the most entrancing speakers I have ever listened to--a man to hear whom people would go long distances and stand for hours to get admission to the hall where he spoke--never was able to get the confidence of his audience because he .--"Is that the way C aesar would have spoken it?" "Yes. Even a partial failure on the platform has good results. the uncertain in his nature. or as valuable as those of their companions. but he knows that he kno it the entire weight of his being. makes them blush and shrink more into themselves. and Disraeli's "The time will come when you will hear me." An almost fatal timidity seizes on an inexperienced person. not only knows a thing. Demosthenes' he roic efforts. "if Caesar had been scared half to death. It is not the speech. until h e can absolutely annihilate his self-consciousness. The sound of their own voices. than to hav e missed the scores of opportunities which would undoubtedly have made a strong public speaker of him. they sit dumb. for it often arouses a determination to conquer the next time. not so much the fear of one's audience. and so afraid of being gazed at that they don't dare to open their mouths. studying him. however. that everybody in his audience is trying to measure a nd weigh him. forget himself in his speech . the doubtful. which are measuring him. The hardest thing for the public speaker to overcome is self-consciousness. Tho se terrible eyes which pierce him through and through." are his toric examples. While he is wondering what kind of an impression he is making. One man carries weight because self convinced of what he says. that wins a way to the fro nt. because then he would have profited by experience. he is himself the embodiment of power. as the fear lest one can make no suitable expression of his thought. This timidity is often.

In the presence of the orator. No orator living was ever great enough to give out the same power and force and magnetism to an empty hall. and perhaps unexpected. to empty seats. a mighty power which did not exist in his own personal ity. There was a great charm in the cadences of his perfect sentences. and he towered so far above his opponent that Hayne looked like a pygmy in comparison. But somehow they could not beli eve what he said. They laugh or cry as he pleases. intensifies our faculties a thousandfold and enables us to do things whi ch before we thought impossible. Webster had no time for immediate prepara tion. which it is impossible to feel at a col d mechanical rehearsal. Mirabeau. an indefinable magnetism th at stimulates all the mental faculties. If t he audience sees mud at the bottom of your eye. Those who are prepared acquire a world-wide influence when the fit occasion comes. We bster. Very few people ever rise to their greatest possibilities or ever know their en tire power unless confronted by some great occasion. they will not take any stock in you. It is not enough to say a pleasing thing. but the process is slower and less effect ive than the great occasion that discovers the orator. People liked to be swayed by his eloquence. he feels surging through his brain the combined force of his audience. The power was there just the same before. a new substance is formed from the combination. when nations have been in peril. Patrick Henry. Actors tell us that there is an indescribable inspiration which comes from the orchestra. comes to our relief. and to convince others he must have strong convictions. The public is very quick to see through shams. The pen has discovered many a genius. have developed and brought ou t some of the greatest orators of the world. but it was not aroused. The orator must be sincere. in the depths of our natures. or rise and fall at his bidding. which did not exist in either alone. Somehow the power t hat stands behind us in the silence. and John Bright might all be called to witness to this fact. the orator must be able to convince. that he could give to an audience c apable of being fired by his theme. As when two chemicals are united . just as we can often say to a friend in animated conversation thi ngs which we could not possibly say when alone. In the presence of the audience lies a fascination. an interesting thing. The occasion had much to do with the greatest speech delivered in the United St ates Senate--Webster's reply to Hayne. the audience. Every crisis calls out ab ility. Cicero. wh ich he calls inspiration. unti . We are as much amazed as ot hers are when. and acts as a tonic and vitalizer. Great occasions. but the occasion brought all the reserves in this giant. There is something in a great sea of expectant faces whi ch awakens the ambition and arouses the reserve of power which can never be felt except before an audience. An or ator can say before an audience what he could not possibly say before he went on the platform. It would be difficult to estimate the great part which practical drill in orato ry may play in one's life. in some great emergency. that you are not honest yourself . the audience is absolutely in his power to do as he will. previously undeveloped. Great speeches have become the beacon lights of history. the footlights.lacked character. that you are acting. we out-do ourselves.

Their example shows what can be accomplished by th e practise of the common virtues. HOLLAND. said Wetmore Story. and persistence. industry.--SOLOMON. rail-splitter and president. His opening words changed their scorn to adm iration. and they could not resist cheering him. the se great men are to be considered as setting a standard of success for the emula tion of every aspiring youth. When James Russell Lowell was a student. by taking some concrete example of great success which has been achieved by patient plodding toward a definite goal. and their contempt to approbation. They meant to hoot him for his remaining in Tyl er's cabinet. and Story livid. they reasoned.--LONGFELLOW. The most encouraging truth that can be impressed upon the mind of youth is this : "What man has done man may do.--J. but who were curious to listen to his oratory. No more illustrio us example of success won by the exercise of common virtues can be offered than Abraham Lincoln. Probably Lincoln has been the hero of more American boys during the last two ge nerations than any other American character. that. What is oratory but to stir the blood of all hearers. He warped their own judgment an d for the time took away their prejudice. It would be easy. were fixed on them. Instead. Seest thou a man diligent in business? He shall stand before kings. so changed the convictions of Sou therners who hated him. I have see n him when it seemed to me that he was almost godlike in his power. Is not oratory a fine art? The well-spring of eloquence. for the time being he almost persuaded them that they were in the wrong. With the eas e of a master he swayed his audience. like the smitten roc k of the wilderness reviving the life of desert wanderers. It is not a question of what a man knows but what use he can make of what he kn ows." said another student. quenches the thirst of myriads of men. Some who hated him in the slavery days wer e there. without a thought of fame. Lowell turned pale. "He gave us a glimpse into the Holy of Holies. His great eyes . and doin g well whatever you do. CHAPTER XXXIV THE TRIUMPHS OF THE COMMON VIRTUES The talent of success is nothing more than doing what you can do well. When he begun.l he releases them from the magic spell. when up-gushing as the very water of life. they thought. What art is greater than that of changing the minds of men? Wendell Phillips so played upon the emotions. in relati ng his experience in listening to a great preacher. det ermination. if we analyze his charact . raised up for a divine purpose. patience. and yet. G. to so arouse their emotio ns that they can not control themselves a moment longer without taking the actio n to which they are impelled? "His words are laws" may be well said of the statesmen whose orations sway the world." Men of great achievements are not to be set on pedestals and reverenced as exceptions to the average of humanity. to get the three thousand people to join them. Young people look upon him as a mar velous being. thrift. We can best appreciate the uplifting power of these simple virtues which all ma y cultivate and exercise. he and Story went to Faneuil Hall to hear Webster. self-denial.--diligence.

frank. but there is no evidence of any grea t genius. Let me assure you tha t the big prizes I have won are largely accidental. kindly neighbor a nd an honest citizen. and to stick to it. downrigh t honesty. You could depend upon him. so commanding that it could be ranked as genius . for completeness. never had secrets. but that are within the reach of the poorest and the humblest. who look upon him as a demigod. "If when I die the ones who know me best believe that I was a thoughtful. his purity and unselfishness of motive as his highest attr ibutes. Everybody who knew him felt that he was a m an. The ability to do hard work. The strong thing about Lincoln was his manliness.--in fact. any marvelous powers. to be somebody. it is o nly as anyone of you can succeed. In a speech to the people in Colorado Mountains. a large-hearted. to lift his head up from his hu mble environment and be of some account in the world. What an inestimable blessing to the world. of influence. his yearning for fulness of life ten more. The reader can see that it would be easy to make up the hundred per cent. wise and painstaking father. his aspiration . they would probably expect to find some brilliant faculty which would rank at least f ifty per cent of the total. without finding a ny one quality which could be called genius. his longing for growth. and as a citizen. He was a simple man. open. If I have succeeded. generous friend. of family. an inspiratio n to poor boys and poor girls that his great achievement can be accounted for by the triumph in his character of those qualities which are beyond the reach of m oney. his passion for wholen ess. and certainly these qualities are within the reach of the poorest boy an d the humblest girl in America. merely because I have tried to do my duty as I saw it in my home and in my business. a generous. that will be a far more real honor. possess these qualities. whether it was a pig stuck in the mire. and will prove my life to have been more successful than the fact that I have ever been president of t he United States. his do gged persistence. He was ambitious to make the most of himse lf. what an encouragement. a passion for a larger and c ompleter life than that of those about him. There is no one quality in his entire make-up so overpowering. He wanted to know something. His simplicity was his chief charm. the poo rest boys and girls. helpf ul husband. is the right hand of genius an d the best substitute for it. The door of his hea rt was always open so that anyone could read his inmost thoughts. never straining after effec t. If young people were to represent Lincoln's total success by one hundred. that is genius. a loving. He simply wanted to better his condition. t ransparent. Roosevelt said: "You think tha t my success is quite foreign to anything you can achieve. his ability for hard work ten per cent.er. for doing everything to a finish ten more. we find it made up of the humblest virtues. He never covered up anything. or a farmer who needed advice. a poor widow in trouble. the commonest qualities. his straightforward. It is true that he had a divine hunger for growth. always ready to help everybody and everyth ing out of their troubles. Suppose we rank his honesty. He had a helpful mind. that the total of his character wou ld be made up of the sum of the commonest qualities. But I think that the verdict of history has given hi s honesty of purpose. his integrity twenty per cent of the total. Had a few events over which no one had control been other than they were it is quite possible I might never have held the high office I now oc . the most ordinary virtues w ithin the reach of the poorest youth in the land.

level head. can refuse to stop . Bricks and mortar are mortar and bri cks until the architect makes them something else. his habitual class response was that he was too busy getting the lesson of a few days back to look at the one of the da y. t unnels through them. There was nothing very surpri sing or startling in his career. and.cupy. He had tact and diplom acy and made the most of every opportunity. because he kn ows that he is not a genius." It has been well said that from the same materials one man builds palaces. There is no open door to the Temple of Success. sharpen his wits and develop his inna te resources." came out seventeenth in a class of seventy. solid ground of full success. The record of human achievement is full of the truth. Therefore each of you has the same chan ce to succeed in true success as I have had. One of the greatest generals on the Confederate side in the Civil War. distancing fifty-three who started with bette r attainments and better minds. how to hang on. Obstacles only serve to stiffen his backbone. The boulder which was an obst acle in the path of the weak becomes a stepping-stone in the pathway of the reso lute. "This is very interesting r eading. at which we look with praise and wonder. anot her hovels. With this he possessed great applicatio n and dogged determination." "All the performances of human art. When he is confronted by barriers he leaps over them. and he made a specialty of th e tariff. and if my success in the end proves to have been as great as that achieved by many of the humblest of you I shall b e fortunate. "There is no difficulty to him who wills. but he had a good. he would come out first. Every man and woman can exercise this virtue of perseverance. So. was noted for his slowness. He had no very brilliant talents. but no train of events could accidentally make me a noble character or a f aithful member of my home and community. because there were no great jumps. but he avera ged well. one warehouses. His classmates used to say that. If he undertook a task. Nothing can keep from success the man who has iron in his blood and is determin ed that he will succeed. the effect is largely lost upon himself. yet it has been the ope n sesame of more fast locked doors of opportunity than have brilliant tributes. "Stonewa ll" Jackson. The world always stands aside for the determined man. or makes a way around them. he was not a great lawyer. He did not stand very high in school. because the moment he gets the impression that the character he is re ading about was a genius. another villas. no great leaps and bounds in his life from particula r ability or special opportunity. who looks on them as a sort of mental spring-board by which to vault across the gulf of failure to the sure. You will find no royal ro ad to your triumph. He had good common sense and was a hard worker. One of the commonest of common virtues is perseverance. not notable as a sch olar. increase his determination. and he knew that the only way to show what he was made of in Congress was to stick to one thing. he never let go till he had it done." McKinley did not start with great mental ability. He was not a great genius. He had the bes t substitute for genius--the ability for hard work and persistence. when he went to West Point. following the advice of a statesman friend. if the course w as ten years instead of four. The biographies of the giants of the race are often discouraging to the average poor boy. from the least promising "plebe. He kept up this steady gait. The difficulties which dishearten one man only stiffen the sinews of anoth er. and he says to himself. he did no t make a great record in Congress. He knew how to keep plodding." s ays Johnson." But when he reads the life of McKinley he does not see any reason why he could not do the same things himself. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance. but I can never do those things.

and asked the reason. fling their whole lives into their work. and that he had decided to give up and go home. and remaining there. and he writes t he immortal "Pilgrim's Progress. You will think better of yourself. the r's "open sesame. It is by the exercise of . Daniel said he despaired of ever making a scholar. and see what hard study would do. The friend said he ought to go back. a nd you will become a hero. schola Persistency is to talent what steam is to the engine. and it was not long before he silenced those who had ridiculed him. and stayed there only a short tim e when a neighbor found him crying on his way home. earnestly living the everyday simple life. Take away his money. f or always being at the foot of the class. Daniel Webster had no remarkable traits of character in his boyhood. they could work with enthusiasm and zeal and power and con centration. They would be willing to make any sacrifice. Tenacity of purpose has been characteristic of aracters who have left their mark on the world. with a very little talent. You cannot keep a determined man from success. It is the driving force b y which the machine accomplishes the work for which it was intended. to undergo any hardship in order to achieve what these men have achieved. tha t it is not making a tremendous strain to do something great. Perseverance. can decline to turn aside in search of pleasures that do but hinder progress. if they were positivel y sure that they could be a Webster in law.short of the goal of ambition. can be counted on to go farther tha n a great deal of talent without persistency. Lock him up in a dungeon." Nothing is good enough unless it reflec ts our best." fascin all ch said. A great dea l of persistency. Thoroughness is another of the common virtues which all may cultivate. He was sen t to Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire. Wellington's dispatches centered around the commo n word duty. the tremendous talent exhibited by those leaders. Fidelity to duty has been a distinguishing virtue in men who have risen to posi tions of authority and command. the inventor's secret. they would devote all their energies to study. or a merchant prince like Wanamak er or Marshall Field. and so they are not willing to make the great exertion." Stick to a thing and carry it through in all its completeness and proportion. others will exalt you. applied himself to his studies with determination to win. or a great leader in medicine. It has been observed that the dispatches of Napo leon rang with the word glory. He said the boys made fun of him. Every little while I get letters from young men who say. The man who puts his best into every task will leave far behind the man who lets a job g o with the comment "That's good enough. or if they could be an Ediso n in invention. it has been is the statesman's brain. He went back. The romance of perseverance under especial difficulty is one of the most ating subjects in history. But many of them say they do not feel that they have the marvelous ability. but that it is jus t honestly. They do not realize that success is not necessarily doing some great thing. and he make s spurs of his poverty to urge him on. the great genius. Nowadays people seem unwilling to tread the rough path of duty and by patience and steadfast perseverance step into the ranks of those the country delights to honor. by reaching the hea d of the class. the warrior's sword.

Marshall is a good. CHAPTER XXXV GETTING AROUSED "How's the boy gittin' on. we spoil many of the most delicious things in life in our scra mbling and greed to grasp something which is unusual. the sum of which would make our lives sublime. in trying to do some marvelous thing that will attract attention and get our names in the papers! We trample down th e finer emotions. as he took an apple from a barrel and handed it to Marshal l's father as a peace offering." replied Deacon Davis.the common everyday virtues. after all this straining and struggling for the larger. delightful possible joys we trample under o ur feet in straining after something great. and often. accommodatin g attitude toward those about us. he could never have become one o f the world's merchant princes. Great scientists tell us that the reason why the secrets of nature have been hi dden from the world so long is because we are not simple enough in our methods o f reasoning. John." he asked himself. a g ood. We have seen people in the country in the summer time trampling down the daisie s and the beautiful violets. but I'm a blunt man. It is most unfortunate that so many young people get the impression that succes s consists in doing some marvelous thing. There is no great secret about success. In straining for effect. But when he went to Chicago and saw the marvelou s examples around him of poor boys who had won success. He weren't cut out for a merchant. cheering things we have lost in the useless struggle. "we are old friends. Davis?" asked Farmer John Field. but he wouldn't make a merchant if he stayed i n my store a thousand years. we miss them. what beauty. and then we discover to our horror what we have missed on t he way up--what sweetness. and air goin' to tell you the truth. accommodating. that the principles of nature's secrets are so extremely si mple that men overlook them in their efforts to see and solve the more intricate problems. something showy that we ca n wave before the world in order to get its applause. by holding a helpful. it is by always ringing true in our friendships. a kind. that investigators are always looking for unusual phenomena. how many exquisite experiences. it is by trying to do everything one does to a comp lete finish. would not compare in be auty and delicacy and loveliness to the things they trampled under their feet in trying to procure it. Take him back to the farm. all right. for the grander t hings. Massachusetts. what a lot of common. in the struggle to do something great and wonderful. It is just a natural persistent exercis e of the commonest every-day qualities. "Well. h omely. where he got his first position. helpful neighbor. that there must be some genius born in the man who achieves it. encouraging father. by trying to be the best possible citizen. steady boy. waiting upon a customer. you and I are old friends. Marshall. else he could not do such remarkable things. w e miss the little successes. Oh. as he watched his s on. "why cannot I?" . what loveliness. and teach him how to milk cows!" If Marshall Field had remained as clerk in Deacon Davis's store in Pittsfield. it aroused his ambition and fired him with the determination to be a great merchant himself. it is by all t hese simple things that we attain success. which. and I don't want to hurt yo ur feelin's. "If others can do such wonderful things. John. perhaps. the lovely wild flowers in their efforts to get a b ranch of showy flowers off a large tree. for so mething complicated. it is by trying to be scrupulously honest in every transaction.

all unconsciously. and it requires constant care and education. He is now sixty. and set his f eet in the path of self-development. or it will atrophy. while li stening to a hand organ on the street. Ho w can we expect our ambition to remain fresh and vigorous through years of inact ivity. This was wh at stirred the slumbering power within him. an d indifferent to everything around her most of the time until. If we do not try to realize our ambition.Of course. me do what I can. She was dreamy. Only a few things interested her. the owner of the fine st library in his city. or indifference? If we constantly allow opportunities to slip by us without making any attempt to grasp them. Almost in a day she passed from childhood to budding womanhood. her faculties were aroused. that it is not susceptible to improvement. had a great deal to do wi th stimulating his latent energy and bringing out his reserve force. of latent force . our inclination will grow duller and weaker. as it slumbered in this girl. and one whose highest endeavor is to help his fellow man. an illiterate blacksmith. She came to herself." as Emerson says. Everybody felt that there were great possibilities ther e. The best thing in them lies so deep that i t has never been awakened. But it is a passion that responds very quickly to cultivati on. that is my problem. it will not keep sharp and defined. and always beat the predictions of its most sanguine inhabitants. twenty- Everywhere we see people who have reached middle life or later without being ar oused. and yet had only attained the mental development of a small child.--whether I utilize five. going to waste wi thin them. "What I most need. slumbering within us. but circumstances. this marvelous city was just starting on its unpa ralleled career. or ninety per cent of my ability. inactive. that it is something thrust upon us which will take care of itself. Great possibil ities of usefulness and of achievement are. . not what a Napoleon or ut what I can do. with the reputation of being its best-read man. Some time ago there appeared in the newspapers an account of a girl who had rea ched the age of fifteen years. Success was in the air. and in a few days she leape d forward years in her development. But the city grew by lea ps and bounds. O ur faculties become dull and soon lose their power if they are not exercised. [Illustration: Marshall Field] Many people seem to think that ambition is a quality born within us. awakened his ambition. In 1856 . one day. Field from the start . one of the most highly esteemed jurists in his state. It makes all the difference in the world out the best thing in me or the worst. The judge of the municipal court in a flourishing western city. fifteen. before his latent pow er was aroused. It is doubt ful if he would have climbed so rapidly in any other place than Chicago. They have developed only a small percentage of their success possibilitie s. when young Field went there. They are still in a dormant state. A few years before it had been a mere Indian trading village. b to me whether I bring ten. just as the faculty for music o r art does. What caused the revolution in his life? The hearing of a single lecture on the value of education. Most of us have an enormous amount of power. indolence. she suddenly awakened to full consciousne ss. which could do marvels if we would only awaken it. an ambition-arousing environment. "is somebody to make do what I can." To a Lincoln could do. there was the making of a great merchant in Mr. It had then only about eighty-five thousand inhabitants. was in middle life. When we meet these people we feel conscious that they have a great deal of latent power that has never been exercised.

and who actually took on all the characteristics of the wolf. able to resist the downward-dragging tendencies about them. after struggling awhile to keep up their new standards. by re ading some inspiring. but th ese are strong characters. and encouraged them. If you interview the great army of failures. The chief probation officer of the children's court in New York. believed i n. personal initiative. No matter how independent. but the majority of those who go back to their tribes. blast ing your hopes. The poet's "I am a part of all that I have met" is not a mere poetic flight of fancy. it will.--who understood. people who believe in. has also come to the con clusion that environment is stronger than heredity. intelligent. photographs of the Indian y ouths as they come from the reservation and as they look when they are graduated . it is an absolute truth. The men had lost the desire to i mprove.--someone with high ideals. you will find that multitudes have failed because they never got into a stimulating. Everything--every se rmon or lecture or conversation you have heard. says: "Removing a boy or girl from improper environment is the first s tep in his or her reclamation. howled like a wolf. with no goal beyond the day's work. and let it be reared by savages.I have known several men who never realized their possibilities until they reac hed middle life.--just as Beecher was never the same man after reading Ruskin. and a marked degree of excellence in thei r work. and how many of its inherit ed tendencies will remain? If brought up from infancy in a barbarous. and. gradually drop back to t heir old manner of living. many notable exceptions. Some years ago a party of Russian workmen were sent to this country by a Russia n firm of shipbuilders." The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruel ty to Children.--modif ied somewhat from what you were before. We predic t great things for them. the deadening. as if from a long sleep. The ambiti on aroused by stimulating environment had sunk to sleep again. every person who has touched you r life--has left an impress upon your character. Even the strongest of us are not beyond the reach of our environment. we rise or fall according to the stronge st current in which we live. We naturally follow the examples about us. non-progr essive atmosphere about them had done its work. by listening to a sermon or a lecture. side by side. after thirty years of investigation of cases involving the socia l and moral welfare of over half a million of children. or whether you are with those who are forever breaking your idols. and determined our nature. being lost or abandoned as an infant. they were again plodders. There are. strong-willed. stimulating book. You are a little different. was suckled by a wolf with her own young ones. and ate like one. o r by meeting some friend. we are constantly be ing modified by our surroundings. in order that they might acquire American methods and ca tch the American spirit. Then they were suddenly aroused. individuality. of course. as a rule. It will make all the difference in the world to you whether you are with people who are watching for ability in you. with the greatest in herited advantages. beca . with the fire of ambition in their eyes. Within six months the Russians had become almost the eq uals of the American artisans among whom they worked. Our Indian schools sometimes publish. of course. and throwing cold water on your aspirations. and prai se you. and you are never quite the sam e person after the association or experience. The story is told of a well-born chi ld who. Take the best-born child.--well dressed. encourage. become brutal. brutal atm osphere. A year after their return to their own country. encouraging environment. It does not take much to determine the lives of most of us. in his report for 1905.--walk ed on all fours. They had developed ambitio n.

Ideas go booming through the world louder than cannon. The thoug ht of the sewing-machine haunted him night and day. a mere youth of twenty. the more desirable such a machine appeared to him." The words of Davis were uttered in a spirit of jest. A healthful hunger for a great idea is the beauty and blessedness of life. It is very stimulating to be with people whose aspir ations run parallel with your own. indolent. lofty ambition.--J. K eep close to people who understand you. plodding man. who believe in you.use their ambition was never aroused. of Boston. and with a wife and three children to support in a great city on a salary of nine dollar s a week. "What are you bothering yourselves with a knitting machine for?" asked Ari Davi s. Sti ck to those who are trying to do something and to be somebody in the world. if you are naturally lazy . and I'll insure you an independent fortune. over shadowing all his aims." said Davis. But Elias Howe was not so rattle-headed as he seemed. The success of those about you who are trying to climb upward will encourag e and stimulate you to struggle harder if you have not done quite so well yourse lf.--peo ple of high aims. Thoughts are mightier th an armies. make any sacrifice necessary to keep in an ambition-ar ousing atmosphere. A mbition is contagious. and guiding and contro lling his entire life. or inclined to take it easy. discouraging. that is. the light-hearted boy had become a thoughtful. Principles have achieved more victories than horsemen or chariots. STUART MI LL. "I wish I could. "why don't you make a sewing-machin e?" His advice had been sought by a rich man and an inventor who had reached the ir wits' ends in the vain attempt to produce a device for knitting woolen goods. "you do it." "Well. bu t the novel idea found lodgment in the mind of one of the workmen who stood by. Keep close to those who are dead-in-earnest. M. After months wasted in the effort to work a needle pointed at both ends. with t .--W . Most of the peopl e we find in prisons and poor-houses are pitiable examples of the influence of a n environment which appealed to the worst instead of to the best in them. who was thought not capable of a serious idea. Whatever you do in life. If you lack energy. This may make all the difference to you between a grand success and a mediocre existence. "I can ma ke one myself. you will be urged forward by the consta nt prodding of the more ambitious. yes it can. a great magnetic force which will help you to attract t he object of your ambition. and the more he reflected ." "Oh. of one great overmastering purpose. and he finally resolved to p roduce one. You will catch the spirit that dominates in your environm ent.--JEA N INGELOW. but it can't be done." the capitalist replied. A profound conviction raises a man above the feeling of ridicule. CHAPTER XXXVI THE MAN WITH AN IDEA He who wishes to fulfil his mission must be a man of one idea. or vicious surroundings.--BATE. a manufacturer of instruments. or because they were not strong enough to rally under depressing. There is a great power in a battery of individuals who are struggling for the a chievement of high aims. PAXTON. Four years passed. who will help you to discover yourself and encourage you to make the most of yourself. an environment that will stimulate you to self-development.

the greater would be the dem and for them. the young son of a poor mechanic. that should pass up and down through the cloth. suddenly t he thought flashed through his mind that another stitch must be possible. with no opportunities. and the contract was awarded to him." she wrote him while struggling in London. and wi th almost insane devotion he worked night and day. the machine was completed. He not only raised the blocks. he returned and built two cars which cost $18. uneduc ated Scotch boy. In his mind's eye he saw his idea. were insufficient to embody it in a working machine. one for Mr. a coal and wood merchant of Cambridge. Everybody laughed at "Pullman's folly. He then went to work on t he principle that the more luxurious his cars were. named George M. Watt suffered from pinching poverty and hardships which would have disheartened ordinary men. The sewing outlasted the cloth. as well as his magnificent cars." . and so the town of Pullman is a model of cleanliness. Never despair. but his own funds and those of his father. who had aided him more or less. It has ever been the man with an idea. but he was terribly in earnest. and while waiting for jobs he experimented with old vials for steam reservo irs and hollow canes for pipes. who at fifteen walked the streets of London in a vain search fo r work. In May. Fisher and the other for hims elf. Pullman was a great believer in the commercial value of beauty. order. The perfection of the modern engine is largely due to James Watt. He fitted up two old cars on the Chicago and Alton roa d with berths. This saved nearly three-four ths of the steam. There is not one of the mill ions of sewing-machines now in use that does not contain some of the essential p rinciples of this first attempt. George Fisher. But help came fro m an old schoolmate. appeared on the scene. and comfort. All this time he was re volving in his mind his pet project of building a "sleeping car" which would be adopted on all railroads. if the machine proved to be worth patentin g. for he could not bear to waste a moment. but his engine consumed thirty pounds of coal in producing one horse power. but did it in such a way that business within them was scarcely interrupted. and letting the steam already in the chamber expand and drive the piston the remaining distance. and in July Elias Howe sewed all the seams of two suits of woolen clothes. and soon found they would be in demand. and put in a bid for the great undertaking. and he had faith enough in his idea to risk his all in it. He impr oved Newcomen's engine by cutting off the steam after the piston had completed a quarter or a third of its stroke. He counts it a good investment to s urround his employees with comforts and beauty and good sanitary conditions." But Pullman believed that whatever relieved the tediousness of long trips would meet with speedy approval. for which h e was to have one-half of the patent. He ag reed to board Elias and his family and furnish five hundred dollars. "something el se will. wil l sew three hundred stitches a minute.000 each. Pull man. and is considered more nearly perfect tha n any other prominent invention at its first trial. who in the seven teenth century conceived the idea of moving a piston by the elastic force of ste am. It was an English blacksmith. but it was not developed until mo re than two thousand years later. The germ idea of the steam engine can be s een in the writings of the Greek philosophers. The wonderful t own which he built and which bears his name. which he puts into practical effect. a poor. and his brave wi fe Margaret begged him not to mind her inconvenience. nor be discouraged. who has changed the face of Christendom. A professor in the Glasgow University gave him the use of a room to work in. 1845. This machine. is an example of his belief in this principle. After spending three years in Colorado gold mines.he eye in the middle. until he had made a rough mod el of wood and wire that convinced him of ultimate success. "If th e engine will not work. When it was decided to try and elevate Chicago out of the mud by raising its im mense blocks up to grade. which is still preserved. Newcomen.

and if a communication were made between the cylinder and an exhausted vessel . Sir James Mackintosh places this poor Scotch boy who began w ith only an idea "at the head of all inventors in all ages and all nations." The "Perseverance" could make but six miles an hour. as steam is an elastic body. $150. He had picked up the fixed engines which the gen ius of Watt had devised. . when the idea came into my head that. "carriage makers and coachmen will starve for want of work. "smoke will pollute the air". People say he is crazy. thinking upon the engine at the time. which we entirely agree with Mr. On the eventful day. to earn a little money to attend a night school. the highest rate attained being twenty-nine. aga inst the most direful predictions of the foremost engineers of his day. then in process of construction. to his blind father to pay his debts. He only uttered the obvious truth when he said one day . indeed. and set them on wheels to draw men and merchandise. But Ste phenson persuaded them to test his idea by offering a prize of about twenty-five hundred dollars for the best locomotive produced at a trial to take place Octob er 6. this man was one." For three days the committee of the House of Commons plies questions to him. "What can be more palpably absurd and ridiculous than the prospect held out of locomotives traveling twice as fast as horses?" asked a writer in the English "Q uarterly Review" for March. it would rush into a vacuu m. We trust tha t Parliament will. lived poor. The "Novelty" did splendidly. his "roaring steam e ngine will set the house on fire with its sparks"." The idea was simple." and the "Sans pareil. Sylvester is as great as c an be ventured upon. as the conditions called for at least ten. who reported that steam would be desirable only when used in stationary engines one and a half miles apart. he would undertake to eat a stewed engine for breakfast. In all the records of invention there is no more sad or affecting story than th at of John Fitch. poor in spirit . it would rush into it. The "Sanspareil" made an average of fourteen miles an hour. "on a fine Sabbath afternoon. drawing the cars by means of ropes and pulleys." the "Perseverance. and was crowded out." This article referred to Stephenson's proposition to use h is newly invented locomotive instead of horses on the Liverpool and Manchester R ailroad. A government inspector said that if a locomotive ever went ten miles an hour. and might be there condensed without cooling the cylind er. This was one of them: "If a cow get on the track of the engine traveling ten miles an hour. and so fully vindicated his theory that the idea of stationary engines on a ra ilroad was completely exploded. very awkward. poor in appearance. and so was ruled o ut. He was born poor. for the coo. the "Novelty. but also burst a pipe. will it n ot be an awkward situation?" "Yes. leaving th e "Rocket" to carry off the honors with an average speed of fifteen miles an hou r. 1829. If there ever was a true inventor . in all the railways it may grant. but as it burst a water-pipe it lost its chance." replied S tephenson. "We should as soon expect the people of Woolwi ch to suffer themselves to be fired off upon one of Congreve's rockets as to tru st themselves to the mercy of such a machine. 1825. but in it lay the germ of the first steam engine of mu ch practical value. that if he could get one hundred pounds by cutti ng off one of his legs he would gladly give it to the knife. patching th e clothes and mending the boots of his fellow-workmen at night. and had p assed the old washing-house. in a crisis of his invention. working in the coal pits for sixpence a day." said Watt. Poor he was in many senses." See George Stephenson. He was one of those eager souls that would coin their own fl esh to carry their point. giving the first money he ever earned. The company decided to lay the matter before two leading English engineers. and died poor. going at such a rate. thousands of spectators assembled to watch the competition of four engines."I had gone to take a walk. limit the speed to eight or nine miles an hour." the "Rocket. This was Stephenson's locomotive .

dense columns of fire and smoke belched forth from her smoke-stack while she glided triumphantly up the river. and t he steam is turned on. Sailors forsook their vessels. a serv ice which has revolutionized the commerce of the world. forlorn. ridicule. 1807. in 1790. and eight miles with it.'" say s one. and a king's cutter wa . refused by the rich. and when he died. Did anybody ever hear of such a ridiculous idea as navigating against t he current up the Hudson in a vessel without sails? "The thing will 'bust." the spectators persis t. in all probability. ever heard of a boat going by st eam. having made this "impossible" passage. and minute guns were fire d as the long funeral procession passed to old Trinity churchyard. discouraged by the great. and when steamboats will cross the ocean. newspapers were marked with black lines . Lardner had "proved" to scientific men that a steamship could not cro ss the Atlantic. and the inhabi tants along the banks were utterly unable to account for the spectacle. and ought to be in an insane asylum. At noon.He tried in vain both in this country and in France to get money to build his s teamboat. and tried to run her down. Critics and cynics turned up their noses when Fulton was m entioned. he had the first vessel on the D elaware that ever answered the purpose of a steamboat. By this time his fame had spread all over the civ ilized world. He also built a diving boat for the government f or the discharge of torpedoes. Those on shore thought that a fire had broken out below the decks. Notwithstanding that Fulton had rendered such great service to humanity. but in 1810 the Savannah from New York appeared off the coast o f Ireland under sail and steam. He would say: "You and I will not live to see the day. the plank is pulled in. w hen steamboats will ascend the Western rivers from New Orleans to Wheeling. in 1815. Johnny Fitch will be forgotten. Others whose interests were affected denied Fulto n's claim to the invention and brought suits against him. and detraction has usua lly been in proportion to the benefit the victim has conferred upon mankind. but other men will carry out his ideas and grow rich and great upon them. had scored a great triumph." Poor. and the boy. The government employed Fulton to aid in building a powerful steam frigate. But the success of the Clermont soon led to the construction of other steamships all over the country. the legislature of New York wore badges of mourning. Very few priv ate persons were ever honored with such a burial. "It can never go up stream. but the time wi ll come when the steamboat will be preferred to all other modes of conveyance. But the passengers go on board. The severity of the world's censure. The Indians were as much frighte ned as their predecessors were when the first ship approached their hunting-grou nd on Manhattan Island. who in his youth said there is nothing impossible. jeered at. and had given to the world the first ste amboat that had any practical value. a crowd of curious people might have been s een along the wharves of the Hudson River. But it did go up stream. It was the opinion of everybody that the man who had tooled away his money and his time on the Clermont was little better than an idiot. ragged. he was looked upon by ma ny as a public enemy. Nobody present. As the Clermont burned pine wood. whi ch was called Fulton the First. and the Clermo nt floats out into the river. Dr. "it will burn up." says another. They had gathered to witness what the y considered a ridiculous failure of a "crank" who proposed to take a party of p eople up the Hudson River to Albany in what he called a steam vessel named the C lermont. as he sees vast columns of black smoke shoot up with showers of brilli ant sparks. True. and "they will all be drowned. he kept on till. It ran six miles an hour against the tide. They rus hed to the shore amazed to see a boat "on fire" go against the stream so rapidly with neither oars nor sails. pitied as a madman. The walking beam moves slowly up and down. August 4. on Friday. The noise of her great paddle-wheels increased the wonder." exclaims a third. and fishermen rowed home as fast as poss ible to get out of the way of the fire monster. The owners of sailing vessels were jealous of the Clermo nt.

he poured out his very soul into his immortal poem. giving his clot hes to his hired man because he could not pay him in money. An unexpected delay in fitting the engines led the projecto rs to charter the Sirius. when he had no money to bury a de ad child and when his other five were near starvation. Look at his starved features. irrepressible! See the great Dante in exile. when his neighbors were h arshly criticizing him for his neglect of his family and calling him insane. He simply defied and sent h ome every Diet which opposed him. all must bend to his mighty will . It mattered not what sto od in his way. Learning of this. agreed to build a steamship of two thousand tons . the historian and banker. Watch his sublime courage and devotion to his idea. a river steamer of seven hundred tons. it is said. "Wh y not cross the ocean regularly in steamships?" In New York and in London a deaf ear was turned to any such nonsense. imperious. What cared this hercu lean despot for the Diet chosen year after year simply to vote down every measur e he proposed? He was indifferent to all opposition. The very children. defiant of oppositi on. and he reaped his re ward. German unity was the idea engraven upon Bismarck's heart. until at last his great work was accomplished. of New Haven. building his furnaces with brick s carried on his back. but he never gave up his idea. the famous German naturalist. Germany must hold the deciding voice in the Areopagus of the world. a poor wander er. He could play the game alone. But . pawn ing his clothes and his wife's jewelry to get a little money to keep his childre n (who were obliged to gather sticks in the field for fire) from starving. An American was once invited to dine with Oken. whether people. worn to a skeleton himself. to make William of Prussia a greater potentate tha n Napoleon or Alexander. Diet. Smith's first encouragement came from Geor ge Grote. it was near ly twenty years before it was admitted that steam navigation could be made a com mercial success in ocean traffic. despised by his neighbors for neglecting his family.--he would risk no money in it. they had neither meats nor dessert. a pr ominent business man of London. his wife in rags and despair over her husband's "folly". but it wa s the same old story. to make India rubber of practical use! See him in prison for debt. What a pathetic picture was that of Palissy.000 employees. plodding on through want and woe t o rediscover the lost art of enameling pottery. What a sublime picture of determination and patience was that of Charles Goodye ar. being taught to regard him as a kind of m adman. who said the idea was practicable. At length Isaac Selby. He rode ro ughshod over everybody and everything that stood in his way. Although the voyage was made without accident. As Junius Smith impatiently paced the deck of a vessel sailing from an English port to New York. Oke . probably of starv ation. condemned to be burnt alive on false charges of e mbezzlement. To make Germany the greatest power in Europe. seeing his six children die of neglect. and both vessels arrived at New York the same day. or nation. T o his surprise. ever believing that right would at last triumph. Columbus was exposed to continual scoffs and indignities. faili ng steadily. the result of that heroic struggle. Soon af ter Smith made the round trip between London and New York in thirty-two days. but only baked potatoes. other parties started from Bristol four days later in the Great Western. and send her to New York. hoping always. buried in poverty and struggling with hardships for eleven lon g years. the British Queen. gaunt form. applied to o ver five hundred uses by 100. on a rough and tedious voyage in 1832. he said to himself. melancholy. being ridiculed as a mere dreamer and stigmatized as an adventurer. behold his vulcanized rubber.s sent to her relief. po inted to their foreheads as he passed. was his all-absorbing purpose.

Of course the world laughed at this poor unaided woman. Clark in his world-wide Christian Endeavor movement. Yet in every age and in every clime men and women have been willing to incur poverty. George Peabody. and too magnanimous for envy. he was not liberally educ ated. Dr. He hewed close to the chalk line and held his li ne plumb to truth. ho wever. Beecher. uncharitableness and envy even in hi s own church. which is loved by all nations. He never pandered for public favor nor sought applause. In all ages those who have advanced the cause of humanity have been men and wom en "possessed. if thereby they might shed light or comfort upon the path which all must walk from the cradle to the grave. no hunting for a middle ground between right and wron g. hardship. Young Dr. Harriet Beecher Stowe. but what could he do? He was not a chemist. Ther e was no shilly-shallying. sometimes five hundred drops of laudanum. he stood almost alone fighting popular prejudice. an d resulting in an improvement of the physical. Mos es in espousing the cause of the Israelites. incurred the pity and scorn of the rich and highly educated. Dr. given t o a patient to deaden the pain during a surgical operation.n was too great a man to apologize for their simple fare. but as soon as the instruments were applied the patient would revive. Noah in building the ark." in the opinion of their neighbors. Edison. He tri ed intoxicants even to the point of intoxication. and the enemy that aims a shot at the tent or building over which flies the white flag with the red cross has lost hi s last claim to human consideration. Other churches did no t agree with him nor his. in some cases a month. or even death. Amos Lawrence. Hoe. he did not know the properties of chemical substances. M rs. Morton did not resort to books. too charitable for re venge. Morton bel ieved that there must be some means provided by Nature to relieve human sufferin g during these terrible operations. and he went straight to his mark. or Christ in living and dying to sa ve a fallen race. Goodyear. His wife explained. each representing some great idea embodied in earnest action. But he never hesitated nor wavered when he once saw his duty. Beecher had to fight every step of the way to his triumph through obstacles whi ch would have appalled all but the greatest characters. that her husband's income was very small. He kept on experimenting with narcotics in this manner until at last he found what he sought in ether. of Morse. She noticed in our Civil War th at the Confederates were shelling the hospital. i n common with all great benefactors. to r ecover from the enormous dose. Bell. McCormick. but immediately began to experiment with well-known substances. no compromise on principles. Before the discovery of ether it often took a week. and bigotry. persecution . What tale of the "Arabian Nights" equals in fascination the story of such lives as those of Franklin. What a grand idea Bishop Vincent worked out for the young world in the Chautauq ua Circle. the Methodis t Church in the Epworth League. toil. narrowness. ridicule. and sc ores of others. Duty and truth were his goal. and she determined to have the barba rous custom stopped. Edward Everett Hale in his little bands of King' s Daughters and Ten Times One is Ten! Here is Clara Barton who has created the R ed Cross Society. and moral condition of th ose around them? . mental. Oftentimes in these grea t battles for principle and struggles for truth. Howe. but he was too broad for hatred. Gough. nor did he go to scientific men fo r advice. But her idea has been adopted by all nations. She thought it the last touch of cruelty to fight what couldn't fight back. and that they preferred to live simply in order that he might obtain books and instruments for his scientific r esearches. however. In fact it is doubtful whether a ma n can perform very great service to mankind who is not permeated with a great pu rpose--with an overmastering idea.

" When the assembled senate of Rome begged Regulus not to return to Carthage to f ulfil an illegal promise. sir." was Danton's noble defia nce to the enemies of France. but what are these to the shame of an infamou s act.--BYRON. It is my duty.--DRYDEN. June 23." said Mirabeau to De Breze. To stand with a smile upon your face against a stake from which you cannot get away--that.--BAYARD. and let the fire creep up to the heart. Everything has not been invent ed.--AGIS II. let's do it after the high Roman fashion. 1789. and each one challenges the independent soul. voice." cr ied the ensign. who brought an order from the king for them to dis perse. Fortune befriends the bold. nor right to speak. what's noble.There are plenty of ideas left in the world yet. or the wounds of a guilty mind? Slave as I am to Carthage. many of whom had to keep their word by thus obeying. ay. Let the gods take c are of the rest. I have sworn to return. as an overwhelming force of Russian cavalr y came sweeping down. Go. "We have heard the intentions that have been attributed to the king." "To dare.--you are not t he person to bring to us a message of his. Think! and when a noble image is indelibly impressed upon the mind--Act! CHAPTER XXXVII DARE The Spartans did not inquire how many the enemy are. held only by the high er claims of duty." The courage which Cranmer had shown since the accession of Mary gave way the mo ment his final doom was announced. men! Every man must die where he stands!" said Colin Campbell to the N inety-third Highlanders at Balaklava. There are thousands of abuses to rectify . "No.--you. The moral cowardice which had displayed itsel . shall find a stubborn foe. ROBERTSON. say to those who sent you that we are here by the power of the people. What's brave. and make death proud to take us. but where they are. To stand unchained. "bring up the men to the colors.--this is heroism. W. "But how shall I get ideas?" Keep your wits open! Observe! Study! But above all . "Bring back the colors. I still have t he spirit of a Roman. GEORGE ELIOT. "Ay. armed with a new idea." shouted a captain at the battle of the Alma. Let me die facing the enemy. and you. and again to dare.--SHAKESPEARE. No great deed is done By falterers who ask for certainty. "The Commons of France have resolved to deliberate . no doubt. when an e nsign maintained his ground in front. All good things have not been done. and that we will not be driven hence. with perfect liberty to go away. Who conquers me. is heroic. Sir Colin! we'll do that!" was the response from men.--F. although the men were retreating. and without end to dare. save by the power of the bayonet. who cannot be recognized as his organ in the National A ssembly. But the true glory is resignation to the inevit able. "Steady. he calmly replied: "Have you resolved to dishonor me? Torture and death are awaiting me. who have neither place.

and that is the setting abroad of writings contrary to th e truth. "Your Grace has not the organ of animal courage largely developed. was one of the most terrible on record. Mary at Oxfo rd on the 21st of March. "Oh. but a cry of horror bursts from the lips of every spectator as boy and man shoot over the falls and vanish in the seething waters below. sir." he a gain exclaimed at the stake." solemnly spoke the gratefu l woman. to s ave my life. the boy senseless. and Cranmer's strangely mingled nature found a po wer in its very weakness when he was brought into the church of St. the youth sprang to the edge of the bank. who was examining Wellington's head. he will save my child!" cried the mother." That first fight. "therefore it shall suffer first punishment". scanned for a m oment the rocks and whirling currents. "he never stirred nor cried till life was gone. a . and they will not l et me go!" "It would be madness. I thank Thee!" And sure enough. My boy. and in a few minutes reached a low place in the bank and were drawn up by their friends. Three times he was about to grasp the child." ended his address to the hushed congregation before him. and the men sprang through the undergrowth to learn thei r cause. The rush of waters here w as tremendous. Now it seemed as if he wou ld be dashed against a projecting rock.--"now I come to the great thing that troubleth my conscience more than any other thing that ever I s aid or did in my life. she will jump into the river. When General Jackson was a judge and was holding court in a small settlement. On e final effort he makes. my boy. my darling boy! How could I leave you?" But all eyes were bent upon the youth struggling with strong heart and hope ami d the dizzy sweep of the whirling currents far below. " A woman's piercing shriek suddenly startled a party of surveyors at dinner in a forest of northern Virginia on a calm. over which the water flew in foam. to repeat his recantation on the way to the stake." said one of the men who was holding her. even in a canoe. "Now . when some stronger eddy would toss it from him. they emerged unharme d from the boiling vortex.--my poor boy is drowning. "and the rapids would dash her to pieces in a moment!" Throwing off his coat. "God will give you a reward. if it might be. And. at sight of part of the boy's d ress. the child is held aloft by his strong right arm. forasmuch as my hand offended in writing contr ary to my heart." exclaimed the woman as she caught sight of a youth of eighte en. "He will do great things for you in return for this day's work." replied the Iron Duke. lest h e should be dashed to pieces. Twice the boy went out of sight. for if I come to the fire it shall be the first burned. "Thank God." "This was the hand that wrote it. but he had reappeared the second time. plunged into the roaring rapids. The cries were repeat ed in quick succession. "There they are!" shouted the mother a moment later. sunny day in 1750. on an Indian field. my hand therefore shall be the first punished. and no one had ever dared to approach it. and a non a whirlpool would drag him in. but a man in stature and bearing.f in his miserable compliance with the lust and despotism of Henry VIII displaye d itself again in six successive recantations by which he hoped to purchase pard on. and the blessings of thousands besides mine will attend you. "you will surely do something for me! Make these friends release me. "See ! they are safe! Great God. althou gh terribly near the most dangerous part of the river. "there he is! Oh. which here I now renounce and refuse as things written by a hand contra ry to the truth which I thought in my heart. in a delirium of joy. and written for fear of death. and the youth almost exhausted. and h olding it steadily in the flame. "and but for my sense of duty I should have retreated in my first fight." said a phre nologist. But pardon was impossible. "You are right. and then. from whose grasp escape would seem impossible ." The youth was George Washington. but still alive. The youth redoubled his exertions. and all rushed to the brink of the precipice.

This Napoleon had counted on in making the b old attack. walked straig ht up to the man. discovered that a trestle was on fire. and so he warned his companions that they must be ready to leave camp at a moment's notice. the column staggered and reeled backward. came into the court-room with brutal violence and interrupted the court." He left the bench. Ill could the st ruggling colony spare him at that time. The of ficer did not dare to approach him. was bound to Chicago and the World's Fair. wherever they may be found. and instead of rushing to the front and meeting the French onslaug ht. which was nearly due. 1796. The front ranks went down li ke stalks of grain before a reaper. the purpose of which is the honoring of bravery and merit. afterwards saying. The judge ordered him to be arrested. was the sending o f a medal of the French Legion of Honor to a little American girl who lives in I ndiana." said Jacks on. Napoleon carried the bridge at Lodi. Napoleon placed himself at their head. and the train stop ped. when o ne evening he received word that the chiefs of the Columbia River tribes desired to confer with him. scarcely a shot from the Austrians taking effect beyond the point where the platoons wheeled for the first leap. and th e result was the sending of the medal of this famous French society. Jennie Carey. carried the column ac ross two hundred yards of clear space. "this court is adjourned for five minutes. and his aides and g enerals rushed to his side. this time over heaps of dead that cho ked the passage. of France.border ruffian. and with his eagle eye actually cowed the ruffian. waved it back and forth across the track." was his bold reply. From his headquarters at Vancouver he had gone on an exploring expedition with two companions. when the train came in view. Without a word o r a look of reproach. counted by seconds only." But they also shrank in fear from the ruffian. While a train on the Pan Handle Railroad. Behind them were six thousand troops. Napoleon masse d four thousand grenadiers at the head of the bridge. "Call me." When Stephen of Colonna fell into the hands of base assailants. The contrast between Napoleon's slight figure and the massive grenad iers suggested the nickname "Little Corporal. On May 10. who was then ten years old. "Where is now your fortress?" "Here. From the messenger's manner he suspected that the Indians m eant mischief." One of the last official acts of President Carnot. the Frenchmen brought the occurrence to the notice of President Carnot. and a quick run. an d the valiant grenadiers were appalled by the task before them. "and arrest him. they asked him in derision. At the tap of the drum the foremost assailants whee led from the cover of the street wall under a terrible hail of grape and caniste r. and that if the t rain. . Fourteen cannon--some accounts say thirty--were trained upon the F rench end of the structure. "Call a posse. a murderer and desperado. their supports fled in a panic. When they returned to France . On board of it were seven hundred people. who dropped his weapons. having on board several distin guished Frenchmen." said the judge. After the Mexican War General McClellan was employed as a topographical enginee r in surveying the Pacific coast. when the powerful King Powhatan had decreed his death. It was the heroic devotion of an Indian girl that saved the life of Captain Joh n Smith. with a battalion of three hundred carbineers in front. Thereu pon she ran out upon the track to a place where she could be seen from some litt le distance. and attempted to pass the gateway to the bridge. Forward again. So sudde n and so miraculous was it all that the Austrian artillerists abandoned their gu ns instantly. entered it a dreadful wreck would take place. Then she took off her red flannel skirt and. then. a soldier and a servant. in the face of the Austri an batteries. many of whom must have suffered d eath but for Jennie's courage and presence of mind. "There was something in his eye I could not res ist. It was seen. placing h is hand upon his heart.

The post of danger. He sat motionless. McClellan st rode out of the tent with his revolver in his hand. He was familiar with the Chinook jargon. Flinging his left arm around the neck of Salt ese. He found the supports of the floor in so bad a condition that the sl ightest applause would be likely to bury the audience in the ruins of the buildi ng. apparently indifferent to his fate. with his fingers c licking the trigger. Butler.. and the c hiefs had vowed vengeance against the race.Mounting his horse. Without a word the general q uietly turned down all the glasses at his plate. until a sound of cracking timber below would have precipitated a stamp ede with fatal results but for the coolness of B. When the sentence was passed he acted like a flash. then vice-presi dent of the United States. " I must have your word that I can leave this council in safety. and could understand every word spoken in the council. he whipped out his revolver and held it close to the chief's temple. the headwaiter went first to Grant. and placed at the righ t hand of Saltese." said the Vice-President. and to his accurate knowledge of I ndian character. then he told the crowd that ther e was no immediate danger if they would slowly disperse. he added. he was a white man. decreed that McClellan should immediately be put to death. Without a single word be . he rode boldly into the Indian village. F." When Grant was in Houston many years ago. The revolver wa s lowered. and was not responsible for the forest executions. By his listlessness he had thrown his captors off their guard. They made lavis h preparations for the dinner. who presided. In 1856. Many distinguished foreign and American statesmen were present at a fashionable dinner party where wine was freely poured. The floor of the great hall began to sink. declined to drink from a proffered cup. he was given a rousing reception. About thirty chiefs were holding council. "I dare not. McClellan had been on friendly terms with them. No doubt many lives were saved by his c oolness." "You have the wo rd of Saltese. fairly livid from fear. "I revoke it!" exclaimed Saltese. McClellan was led into the circle. Saltese was released from the embrace of the strong arm. was on the platform. in the name of the head men of the tribes." was the quick response. He had known that argument and pleas for justice or mer cy would be of no avail. but they were equal to the occasion. in favor of the candidacy of James Buchanan for the presidency. which was most weakly supported. This movement was a great surpr ise to the Texans. Saltese made known the grievance of the tribe s. settling more and more as he proceeded with his address. "You are right. the Houstonites determined to go beyond any other Southern city in the way of a banq uet and other manifestations of their good-will and hospitality. McClellan said nothing. The council was prolonged for hours before sentence was passed. his courage. When the time came to serve the wine. but still. bu t had little to say. Two Indians had been captured by a party of white pioneers and hanged for the ft. He mounted his horse and rode to his camp. McClellan knew how sacred was the pledge which he had received. and then Saltese. or I shall kill you this instant!" he cried. The chiefs pondered long. and naturally inclined to like a man of Grant's make-up. Returning rather leisurely to the platform. Nat urally hospitable.in five minutes". the committee taking great pains to have the fine st wines that could be procured for the table that night. but Schuyler Colfax. Telli ng the people to remain quiet. He owed his life to his quickness of perception. he said that he would see if there were any cause for alarm. therefore he and th ose with him would be the last to leave. Not a hand was raised agains t him." sneered a Senator who had already taken too much. Retaliation for this outrage seemed imperative. "We shall all be in ---. he whispered to Choate as he pas sed. M ass. where his two followers were r eady to spring into the saddle and to escape from the villages. "Revok e that sentence. Rufus Choate spoke to an audience of nearly five thousand in Lowell. "Colfax dares not drink.

" "An honest man is not the worse because a dog barks at him." said a friend to Luther. It is 'Our Mothers. Dr. misjudged. C.ing spoken. beaten. How we shrink from an act of our own! We live as others live." It takes courage to do your duty in silence and obscu rity while others prosper and grow famous although neglecting sacred obligations . He replied: "I cannot sing. I am. Miner. Two French officers at Waterloo were advancing to charge a greatly superior for ce. "and they will burn your body to ashes as they did that of John Huss. everything must conform. and snap his fingers at Dame Grundy? . and there was not a drop of wine taken that night. a slight. scoffed. It takes courage to wear threadbare clothes wh ile your comrades dress in broadcloth. and they in turn dare not depart from th eir schools. I believe yo u are frightened. or your doctor or minister. and faces it." We live ridiculously for fear of being thought ridiculous. To his manhood. observing that the other showed signs of fear. was told that he could not go until he had drunk a toast." said Wellington. to stand alone with all the world against you. Dress. laughed at. when he saw a soldier turn pale as he ma rched against a battery. though it rain Duke Georges for nine days together. dictates. "Tis he is the coward who proves false to his vows." Luther replied : "Although they should make a fire that should reach from Worms to Wittenberg." was the reply. for a laugh or a sneer. to show your blemishes to a condemn ing world. his honor. It takes courage and pluck to be outvoted. told a story." "There are many cardinals and bishops at Worms. where w ine flowed freely and ribald jests were bandied.. It takes courage for a young man to stand firmly erect while others are bowing and fawning for praise and power." He replied: "It is my d uty to go. It takes courage to unmask your true self. ridicul ed." "Yes." "That's a brave man. said. S." The youth who starts out by being afraid to speak what he thinks will usually e nd by being afraid to think what he wishes." A Western paper recently invited the surviving Union and Confederate officers t o give an account of the bravest act observed by each during the Civil War. "and if you were half as much fri ghtened. One. living. Who dares conduct his household or business affairs in his own w ay. or we are ostracized. in the Lord's name I would pass through it a nd appear before them." He said to another: "I would enter Worms though there we re as many devils there as there are tiles upon the roofs of the houses. and that should flame up to heaven. but I will give a toa st.'" The men were so aff ected and ashamed that they took him by the hand and thanked him for displaying such admirable moral courage. boyish fel low who did not drink. Custom or fashion . "he knows his danger. carriages. and to pass for what you really are. Colo nel Thomas Wentworth Higginson said that at a dinner at Beaufort. servants. although I must drink it in water. and I will go. misunderstood. you would run away. every man along the line of the long tables turned his glasses down. It takes courage to remain in honest pove rty when others grow rich by fraud. but "They are slaves who dare not be In the right with two or three." Anothe r man said to him: "Duke George will surely arrest you. It takes courage to say "No" squarely when t hose around you say "Yes. "Sir. or sung a song. derided.

sent his horses at the smoldering breach and." said Grant. fresh from his flocks. but the flames rose fiercely ro und." Courage is victory. racked unti l her bones were dislocated. condemned to be burned alive in Rome. "The driver of th e first wagon. How much easier for a politician to prevaricate and dodge an issue than to stand squarely on his feet like a man! As the strongest man has a weakness somewhere." said Grant. which exploded in an instant. amid the deafening cheers of the g arrison. and raged more fiercely than ever. "I guess looking after your horse's legs can wait." Wellington said that at Waterloo the hottest of the battle raged round a farmho use. to confront the colossal Gol iath with his massive armor. Manly courage is always dignified and graceful. untwisted a piece of telegraph wire which had begun to cut the horse's leg. Don't be like Uriah Heep. and would perhaps have be en ruined for life." "To think a thing is impossible is to make it so. Bruno. "I don't know him. and climbed into his saddle. which was so important a point in the British position that orders were given to hold it at any hazard or sacr ifice. and he actually denied even the acquaintance of the Master he had declared he would die for. For a instant the driver of the second wag on paused. "if you don't want to see to it. beaten back for the moment by the explosion." said a rela tive who found the little boy Nelson wandering a long distance from home. That simple shepherd-lad. Behind him the flames closed u p. It takes courage to refuse to follow custom when it is injurious to his health and morals. with the reckless daring of an English boy. landed his terrible cargo safely within. observing that the flames. "Fear? " said the future admiral. A messenger had been sent for ammunition. nothing lovable in fear. said to his judge: "You are more a fraid to pronounce my sentence than I am to receive it. appalled by his comrade's fate. At last the powder and ball ran short and the hedges took fire. when he and Colonel Dent were riding through the thickest of a fi re that had become so concentrated and murderous that his troops had all been dr iven back. spurred his strugglin g and terrified horses through the burning heap. I wish you would get down and see what is the matter with that leg there ." said Dent." "All right. "Dent. If that wire had been left there for a little time longer he would have gone dead lame. begging everybody's pardon for taking the liberty of being in the world. timidity 's defeat. so the greatest hero is a coward somewhere. Both are deformities and are repulsive. surroundi ng the orchard with a wall of flame." He dismounted. Peter was courageous enough to draw his sword to defend his Master. but he could not stand the ridicule and the finger of scorn of the maidens in th e high priest's hall. "Dent. and caught the powder. but looked her tormentor calmly in the face and refused to adjure her faith. marching unattended and unarmed. the next. with an orchard surrounded by a thick hedge. I will. "I should have thought fear would have kept you from going so far. save with his shepherd's staff and sling. is the sublimest audacity the world has ever seen." . a nd soon two loaded wagons came galloping toward the farmhouse. There is nothing attractive in timidity. never flinched. sending wagon. examined it deliberately. David. you should never take any chances with him.It takes courage for a public man not to bend the knee to popular prejudice. and rider in fragments into the air. "it is simply murder for us to sit here. horses. afforded him one desperate chance." said he. "when you've got a horse that you think a great deal o f." Anne Askew.

and who. When Sir Walter Raleigh came to the scaffold he was very faint. "If. minutes. Com bat difficulty manfully. Execute your resolutions immediately. you perceive any weakness in me. I beseech you ascribe it to my sickness rather than to myself." After the great inward struggle was over. and he had determined to to his principles. Her request was granted. the poor girl begged it of the authorities. mark me. and th as if it were a review. even her mother. would in all probability have gone great lengths in the career of u sefulness and fame. yielded at once. sustain misfortune bravely. "No great deed is done. and requested that it be buried in the coffin with her. Napoleon looked at him and smili ngly said: "My friend. " At the battle of Trafalgar. encou nter disappointment courageously. Lieutenant Doughty and Sergeant Rees volunteered to examine the fuse. The influence of the brave man is contagious a nd creates an epidemic of noble zeal in all about him." He took the ax and kissed the blade. damp. and tens of minutes passed. for her death soon occurred. Does competition trouble you? work away. remain loyal wife called have his lib done. that those fighting might not know their chief had fallen. as some of the bishops had omas More preferred death to dishonor. They found the defect. . fired the train anew. and this day may be the last to any of us in a moment. endure poverty nobly. for all things serve a brave soul. when he was shot and was being carried below. if they could have been induc ed to begin. After his head ha d been cut off and exhibited on a pole on London Bridge. and said to the sheriff: "'T is a sharp medicine. though you were to bu rrow a hundred feet under ground it would be sure to find you there. and a young soldier instinctively dodged. wi thout a sound from the mine. while the enemy's guns were egiment. He and flogged four of the ringleaders under fire. therefore. But. But Th His daughter showed the power of love to drive away fear. To half will and to hang forever in the balance is to lose your grip on life." Don't waste time dreaming of obstacles you may never encounter. Through the long subterranea n galleries they hurried in silence. had forsaken him. Thoughts are but dreams until their effec ts be tried. and began his s peech to the crowd by saying that during the last two days he had been visited b y two ague fits. what is your competitor bu t a man? Conquer your place in the world. At the battle of Copenhagen." says George Eliot. filthy prison when he might erty by merely renouncing his doctrines. The men en marched three miles under a heavy cannonade as coolly pouring shot into his r at once ordered a halt. and the suspense became painful. Every day sends to the gr ave obscure men who have only remained in obscurity because their timidity has p revented them from making a first effort.At the battle of Friedland a cannon-ball came over the heads of the French sold iers. "by falterers wh o ask for certainty. Thomas More walked cheerfully to the block. or in crossing bridges you have not reached. he said: "This is warm work. not knowing but that they were advancing to a horrible death. Sir William Napier's men became disobedient." When the mine in front of Petersburg was finished the fuse was lighted and the Union troops were drawn up ready to charge the enemy's works as soon as the expl osion should make a breach. In a skirmish at Salamanca. he c overed his face. but a sound cure for al l diseases. and soon a terri ble upheaval of earth gave the signal to march to victory. But seconds. if that ball were destined for you. I would not be elsewhere for thousands. His him a fool for staying in a dark. She remained true to her father when all others. as Nelson walked the deck slippery with blood and covered with the dead.

Did Anna Dickins on leave the platform when the pistol bullets of the Molly Maguires flew about h er head? She silenced those pistols by her courage and her arguments. Doubting in his abject spirit. LOWELL." and the bloodstained crowd quailed befo re the courageous words of a single man in a city which Mayor Fernando Wood coul d not restrain with the aid of police and militia." But in thus ruining himself Chase had taken the first important step in a career in which he became Governor of Oh io. Butler went to the place where the crowd was most dense. and thus imperil what small reputation he had gained. to support Grant and Stanton against the clamor of the politicians and t he press. after t wo days and two nights without food. When at last he had begun the practice of law. it required no little courage to cast his fortune with the weaker side in polit ics. a man looked at him in surprise and said: "There goes a fi ne young fellow who has just ruined himself. Only the most sublime moral courage could have sustained him as President to hold his ground against hostile criticism and a long train of disaster. fiends from hell." people would say. if it's right. Lincoln never shrank from espousing an unpopular cause when he believed it to b e right." Were Beecher and Gough to be si lenced by the rude English mobs that came to extinguish them? No! they held thei r ground and compelled unwilling thousands to hear and to heed. "Go to Lincoln. Secretary of the United States Treasury. the blind saw. to issue the Emancipation Procla mation." said P enn. overturned an ash barrel. and no influential friends. an d Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. At the time when it almost cost a young lawyer his bread and butter to defend the fugitive slave. Ere her caus e bring fame and profit. returned a verdict of "Not guilty. the dead spake." Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust." At last the jury. said to the jury: "We will have a verdi ct by the help of God. and found the streets thronged with an an gry mob. till hi s Lord is crucified. who dares to preach on with a musket leveled at his head. As Salmon P." The rec order fined them forty marks apiece for their independence. not satisfied with the first verdict. What cared Christ for the jeers of the crowd? The palsied hand moved. "mind your privileges. Chase left the court room after an impassioned plea for the runawa y slave girl Matilda. United States Senator from Ohio. When General Butler was sent with nine thousand men to quell the New York riots . give not away your right. and 'tis prosperous to be just: Then it is the brave ma n chooses. Lincoln would alw ays plead the cause of the unfortunate whenever an opportunity presented. and hisses? In him "at last the scornful world had met its match. you have murdered your superiors. which had already hanged several men to lamp-posts." "You are Englishmen. What the world wants is a Knox. . or a mob. or a scaffold erec ted in front of his door. who is not afraid of a jail. a Garrison. the recorde r. Without waiting for his men. What cared Wendell Phillips for rotten eggs. and when other lawyers had refused. or you shall starve for it. with little educa tion.Abraham Lincoln's boyhood was one long struggle with poverty. At the trial of William Penn for having spoken at a Quaker meeting. the leper was made whole. stood upon it. "he's not afraid of any cause. he arrived in advance of his troops. while the coward stands aside. and began: "Delegates from Five Points. when these hounded fugitives were seeking protectio n. despite the ridicule and scoffs of the spectators. derisive scorn.

at Cannae. Wa shington was appointed adjutant-general at nineteen. Elizabeth Barrett Browning was proficient in Greek and Latin at twelve. But he whose noble soul its fear subdues And bravely dares the danger nature s hrinks from. Clive had established the British pow er in India. he dealt an almost annihilating blow at the republic of Rome. and still was a young man. It is astonishing what daring to begin and perseverance have enabled even you ths to achieve. Luther was but twenty-nine when he nailed his famous thesis to the door of the bishop and defied the pope. became a gre at orator and one of the greatest statesmen known." came the mes sage from Xerxes. What wonder that a handful of such men checked the march of the greatest host that ever trod the earth! "It is impossible." exclaimed the Spartans at Thermopylae. Lafayette was made general of the whole French Army at twenty." "Then we will fight in the shade. he outgeneraled and defeated. Begin! Begin! Begin!!! Whatever people may think of you." was the answer Leonidas sent back. the veteran marshals of Austria. Julius Caesar captured eight hundred c ities. was sent at twenty-one as a n ambassador to treat with the French." was the cool reply of Leonidas. often before reaching the prime of lif e. and at twenty-four he was Lord of the Treasury. Cowley. "Deliver your arms." "The brave man is not he who feels no fear. published a volume of poems at fifteen. Victor Hugo and Wellington were both in their prime after they had reached the age of threescore years and ten. who ascended the throne at twenty. Me n follow him. Men who have dared have moved the world. Robe rt Browning wrote at eleven poetry of no mean order. conquered three hundred nations. the greatest of military commanders. For that were stupid and irrational . defeated three million men. Equal courage and resolution are often shown by men who have passed the allotte d limit of life. one after another. "Impossible!" thundered the great commander. A Per sian soldier said: "You will not be able to see the sun for flying javelins and arrows. Be ali ke indifferent to censure or praise. Hannibal. "And we are before them. At thirty-six. De Quincey at eleven. Nelson was a lieutenant in the British Navy before he was twenty. Gladstone was in Parliament before he wa s twenty-two. was only thirty when . "impossible is the adje ctive of fools!" The courageous man is an example to the intrepid.--PYTHAGORAS. His influence is magnetic. Gladstone ruled England with a strong hand at eighty-four. on the plains of Italy. Charl emagne was master of France and Germany at thirty. Galileo was but eighteen when he saw the principle of the pendulum in the swing lamp in the cathedral at Pisa . He was but fo rty-seven when he received his death wound at Trafalgar." Many a bright youth has accomplished nothing of worth to himself or the world s imply because he did not dare to commence things." said a staff officer. and was a marvel of literary and scholarly ability."Our enemies are before us." replied a Lacedemonian. and N apoleon was only twenty-seven when. . who sleeps in Westm inster Abbey. had conquered the known world before dying at thirty-three. when Napoleon gave directions for a d aring plan. at thirty-two. "Come and take them. Peel was in Parliament at twenty-one. do that which you believe to be right. even to the death. Cortez w as the conqueror of Mexico. Shakespeare says: "He is not worthy of the honeycomb that shuns the hive becaus e the bees have stings. Alexander. and won his first battle as a colonel at twenty-two.

a joyous procession marched through the streets to found the University of Leyden. Can you believe it? He has the idea that he will one day be th e Emperor of France. For man's great actions are performed in minor struggles. and poverty are battlefields which have their heroes. The next day the wind changed. leaving the North Sea within its old bounds. The iron will of one stout heart shall make a thousand quail: A feeble dwarf. from the surface of Holland. m isfortune. abandonment.I dare to do all that may become a man: Who dares do more is none. SHAKESPEARE. But ever. "As well can the Prince of Orange pluck the stars from the sky. the garrison was starving. And rally to a nobler strife the giants that had fled. had issued the command: "Break down the dikes: give Holland back to ocean!" and the people had replied: "Better a drowned land than a lost land.--JOHN FOSTER. it is curious to see how the spa ce clears around a man and leaves him room and freedom. touching his own forehead with his finger. Quit yourselves like men. to the stranger. isolation. Life. no renown rewards. and amo ng them was a young and rather melancholy and reticent Frenchman. Professor Mors e was also one of the guests. in New Yo rk City. " They began to demolish dike after dike of the strong lines. "Yes. then a prominent statesman. d auntlessly resolved.--VICTOR HUGO. Gallatin. It was an enormous task . When a firm and decisive spirit is recognized. The outer d ikes were replaced at once. at the residence of Chancellor Kent." Nothing is impossible to the man who can will. will turn the tide of battle. as o f old. At a dinner party given in 1837. observing that his fore head indicated a great intellect. Heaven aids those who help themselves. There are noble and mysterious triumphs wh ich no eye sees. On the first and second of October a violent equinoctial gale rolled the ocean inland. There are obstinate a nd unknown braves who defend themselves inch by inch in the shadows against the fatal invasion of want and turpitude." was the derisive shout of the Spanis h soldiers when told that the Dutch fleet would raise that terrible four months' siege of 1574." replied Mr. in commemoration of the wonderful del iverance of the city. Can you conceive anything more absurd than that?" . and the besiegers laughed in scorn at the slow prog ress of the puny insects who sought to rule the waves of the sea. But from the parched lips of William.--BULWER. and a counter tempest bru shed the water. and no flourish of trumpets salutes. When th e flowers bloomed the following spring. tossing on his bed of feve r at Rotterdam. In the lexicon of youth which fate reserves for a bright manhood there is no su ch word as fail.--TUPPER. "there is a great deal in that head of his: but he has a strange fancy. but the besiegers had fled in terror under cover of the darkness. and swept the fleet on the rising waters almost to the camp of the Spaniards. some of the most distinguished men in the country were invited. with the fleet upon it. as bring the oc ean to the wall of Leyden for your relief. Gallatin. 9. CHAPTER XXXVIII THE WILL AND THE WAY "I will find a way or make one.--1 SAMUEL iv. and during the evening he drew the attention of Mr .--MIRABEAU. The next morning the garrison sallied out to attack their enemies. ranged one within another for fifteen miles to their city of the interior.

" One of the most pathe tic sights in London streets. for this reserved Frenchman was then a poor adventurer. the grander and more complete the success. place sons o f the rich at the head of immense corporations and large houses. such as Gladstone. strength. in the nature of things. long afterward. or it will only lead us to ru n our heads against posts. without fortune or powerful connections. and support it with knowledge and common sense. We must not expect to overcome a stubborn fact merely by a stubborn will. England.--the post of senior wran gler. other things being equal. "have rarely favored famous men. as a rule. and patient labor and hope. yet he is a remarkable example of what pluck and energy can do. Every schoolboy knows that circumstances do give clients to lawyers and patient s to physicians. "Circumstances. but in any direction we may reasonably hope and attempt to go we shall find that. place ordinary clergymen in extraordinary pulpits. while desiring to impress in the most forcible manner possible the fact th at will-power is necessary to success. When Mr. we can not ind orse the theory that there is nothing in circumstances or environments. was realized. led ever ywhere by a faithful daughter." says Milton. Obstacles permane ntly insurmountable bar our progress in some directions. dreary year s of imprisonment.It did seem absurd. to his grief-stricken father. a Webster. disaster.. was Henry Fawcett. an exile from his country. Does any one wonder that such a youth succeede d? Once he rose at two o'clock in the morning and walked to London to get some p apers because there was no post to bring them. There is scarcely anything in all biography grander than the saying of young He nry Fawcett. The strong-willed. exile. or that any man. M. which reaches back centuries. but he gained hi s ambition at last. intelligent. scarcely on the threshold of active life. He determined that his customers should not be disappointed. to s ay nothing of becoming one of the foremost men in a country noted for its great men! The courageous daughter who was eyes to her father was herself a marvelous exam ple of pluck and determination. This achievement had had no parallel in history up to that date." began life as a ne wsdealer at Nottingham. We must temper determination with discretio n. may become a Bonaparte. before he accomplished his purpose there were long. fourte en years later. For the first time in the history of Oxford Coll ege. his idea became a fact. blindness shall not interfere with my success in life.--his dream of becoming Napoleon III." The true way to conquer circumstances is to be a greater circumstance yourself. and attra cted the attention of the whole civilized world. Ingram. They have fought their way to triumph through all sorts of opposing obstacles. a way can be found or made. but with few exceptions it had only been held by men who in after life became highly distinguished. persistent man will find or make a way where. fathe r. True. Yet. and that. who had put out both his eyes by birdshot during a game hunt: "Never mind. a Pi tt. Gladstone's last Postmaster-General. and yet. and endurance. We only have the right to assume that we can do anything wi thin the limit of our utmost faculty. publisher of the "Illustrated London News. lifting himself into eminence in any direction. they are e ither not insurmountable or else not permanent. He was not scrupulous as to the means employed to accomplish his ends. simply because he has an indomitable will. who acted as amanuensis as well as guide to her p lucky father. P. the g reater the will-power. Not only had no woman ever held this position before. a Lincoln. a Beecher. he walked ten miles to deliver a single paper r ather than disappoint a customer. Think of a young man. when they have . she succeeded in winning the post which had o nly been gained before by great men. This is the kind of will that finds a way. su ddenly losing the sight of both eyes and yet by mere pluck and almost incomprehe nsible tenacity of purpose.

" "He who resolves upon any great end. The youth who starts out i n life determined to make the most of his eyes and let nothing escape him which he can possibly use for his own advancement. "they lack will. that there are things impossible even to h im that wills. Every one knows that there is not always a way where there is a will. and large experience. In other words. while poor young men with unu sual ability. however strongly. burning like fire within him. or making means. those who have towered high above their fellows.very ordinary ability and scarcely any experience. Believe in the power of will. our salaries. both in the city and in the coun try. that there are thousands of young men of superior ability." says Goethe. ra ther than his military skill. that we are underlings. often have t o fight their way for years to obtain even very mediocre situations. by that very resolution has scaled the gre at barriers to it. that there are limitations in our very natures which no amount of will-power or industry can overcome. and sol emnly resolves upon it. who keeps his hands open that he may clutch e very opportunity. good education. will find that idea. searching out. sentimental doctrin e of fatalism. Of Julius Caesar it was said by a contemporary that it was his activity and giant determination." "People do not lack strength. Ther e is always room for a man of force. the inflexible purpose. when others about them are raised by money or family influenc e into desirable places. that labo r does not always conquer all things. will find a way or make one. and I will show you one who has some unfortunate crooked twist of temperament that in vites disaster. But in ourselves." says Victor Hugo. but can't. that one can not always make anything of himsel f he chooses. lacks character. good character. giving courage for despondency . who is ever on the alert for everything which can help him to . and strength for weakness. who keeps his ears open for every s ound that can help him on his way. The fault. and can perform wonders. Give me the man who faces what he must. who seem to be compelled by circumstances to remain in very ordinary positi ons for small pay. As Sha kespeare says:-Men at some time are masters of their fates. and he who seizes the grand idea of self-cultivation. He will find it remov ing difficulties. and ever putting him upon his own improvement. that resolution. yet that it is almost omnipotent." The indomitable will. we all know that the best men do not al ways get the best places. ent husiasm. conceited. But while it is true that the will-power can not perform miracles.--you must. but it is impossible. or some other requisite for success. which annihilates the sickly. is not in our stars. our station in life. dear Brutus." Nearly all great men. A nd breasts the blows of circumstance. that won his victories. Disraeli said that man is not the creature of circumstances. all history goes to prove. "molds the world to himself. And grasps the skirts of happy chance. He is ill-tempered. but that circumsta nces are the creatures of men. "Who breaks his birth's invidious bar. or trifling. And grapples with his evil star. you ought. Show me a man who according to popular prejudice is a victim of bad luck. have bee n remarkable above all things else for their energy of will. circumstances do have a great deal to do with our posi tion. "He who has a firm will.

" History is full of such examples. deaf pauper. "The general of a large army may be defeated." "Send for him.--one hundred miles. the discouragement of early bankruptcy. Kitto. and he sometimes slept on the counter in the store where he wo rked. and walked to take his seat at Vandalia. liv ing on bread and water in a Dutch garret. to borrow a book to read before the sap-bush fire. through pove . He read law barefoot under the trees. "I know a young officer who has the courage and ability to quell this mob. it is the purpose.get on in the world.--that youth will be sur e to make his life successful. throu gh the rowdyism of a frontier town. The will can be educated. subjugated the authorities." said Confucius. and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither. See Heyne. hi s neighbors said. and whatever weakens or impairs it diminishes success. and that every man may. it is the will to labor." said they. according to his opportunities and industry. wrote in his journal. He had nothing in the world bu t character and friends. "but you can not defeat the determined mind of a peasant. to will decisively and strong ly. his enemies made fun of him. subjugated the m ob. The world always stands aside for the determined man. In came a man who said. He said he had not brains enough. like a withered leaf. flax and to w-linen trousers. When his friends nominated him as a candidate for the legislature. Success in life is dependent largely upon the will-power. No tyranny of circumstances can permanently imprison a determined will. who made shoes in the almshouse. the authorities were panic-stricken. See Locke. He had to borrow money to buy a suit of clothes to make a respectable appe arance in the legislature. who seizes every experience in life and grinds it up into p aint for his great life's picture. send for him. See Thurlow Weed. See Samuel Drew. send for him. When making his campaign speeches he wore a mixed jean coat so short that he could not sit down on it. Learn. defying poverty and wading through the snow two miles. with r ags for shoes. who keeps his heart open that he may catch ev ery noble impulse. render himself almost anything he w ishes to become. there are no "ifs" or "ands" about it." Lincoln is probably the most remarkable example on the pages of history. That which most easi ly becomes a habit in us is the will. he rose to the championship of union and f reedom. are mere rigmarole.. Paris was in the hands of a mob. thus fix your floating life. He who will pa y the price for victory need never fear final defeat." The poor. When his friends suggested law to him. on the threshold of manh ood: "I am not myself a believer in impossibilities: I think that all the fine s tories about natural ability. and the fluctuations of popular politics. by every wind that blows. "It is not talent that men lack." It was the insatiable thirst for knowledge which held to his task. and everything which may inspire him. and pot-metal boots. he laughed at the idea of his being a la wyer. nothing can keep him from final success. tightening his apro n string "in lieu of a dinner. for they did not dare to trust their underlings. From the poverty in which he was born. came. and who became t he greatest of Biblical scholars. Lincoln's will made his way. If he has his health. sleeping many a night on a barn floor with only a book for his pillow. showin g the possibilities of our country. Napoleon was sent for. ruled France and then conquered Europe. etc. then. straw hat.

are models of foresight and systematic planning. it was hard for him to get a start. The discovery of his blindness. Barefoot and alone . and with a repulsive face." What seemed to be luck followed Stephen Girard all his life. evidently thinking that he would never amount to anything. energy itself. as the War of 1812. While undo ubtedly he was fortunate in happening to be at the right place at the right time . would not help him to an education beyond that of mere reading and writing. He never left anything of importance to others. thi s poor shepherd boy with no chance had astonished the professors of Edinburgh by his knowledge of Greek and Latin. His letters written to his captains in foreign ports. He improved every leisure minute at sea. only increased his wealth. When he began business for himself in Philadelphia. blind in one eye. especially his jealous brother merchants. What seemed luck with h ." Yet he became one of the greatest men in the world. and he sailed f or India. It seemed to him that an opportunity to get at books and lectures was all that any man could need. from groceries to old ju nk.rty and discouragement. He bought and sold anything. John Leyden. but even peas a nd gravel-stones. No matter what he did. Sydney Sm ith said: "Webster was a living lie. Hearing that a surgeon's assistant in the Civil Service was wanted. and no obst acle could turn him from his purpose. short. Before he was nineteen. laying out their routes and giving detailed instructions. Nothing could discourage him from tr ying to improve himself by study. and many times that which brought financial ruin to many others. which was all the schooli ng he had. stout. His desire for an education defied the extremest poverty. perfectly oblivious of the scanty meal of bread and wa ter which awaited him at his lowly lodging. Everybody. method. an d he took his degree with honor. A friend sent hi m a recipe for greasing his boots. Webster was very poor even after he entered Dartmouth College. he bottled wine and cider." Carlyle said of him: "One would incline at sight to back him again st the world. a Scotch shepherd's son. H e used to say that while his captains might save him money by deviating from ins tructions once. Everything he t ouched prospered. and would not allow the slightest departure from them. yet they would cause loss in ninety-nine other cases. Webster wrote and thanked him. and added: "Bu t my boots needs other doctoring. although he knew nothing whatever of medicine. Being a foreigner. Walter Scott. But he was not the m an to give up. At the age of eight he had first discovered that he was blind in one eye. mastering the art of navigation. His f ather. yet he was precision. but sent his young er brothers to college. there seemed to be nothing he would not do for money. from which he made a good profit. the neglect of his fathe r. he determined to apply for it. There were on ly six months before the place was to be filled. He left nothing to chance. He was rigidly accura te in his instructions. and for nine years saile d between Bordeaux and the French West Indies. attributed his great success to his luck. who thought this one of the most remarkable illustrations of perseverance. but nothing would daunt him. because no man on earth could be as great a s he looked. accuracy. His plans and schemes were worked out with mathemati cal care. and the chagrin of his brothers' advancement soured his whole life. helped to fit him out. unable to speak English. and his thirsty soul would drink in the precious treasures from its pri celess volumes for hours. He was rich when he discovered a little bo okstore. He had begun as a cabin boy at thirteen. for they not only admit water. it always seemed to others to turn to his account. he walked six or eight miles daily to learn to read. He never lost a ship.

im was only good judgment and promptness in seizing opportunities, and the great est care and zeal in improving them to their utmost possibilities. The mathematician tells you that if you throw the dice, there are thirty chance s to one against your turning up a particular number, and a hundred to one again st your repeating the same throw three times in succession: and so on in an augm enting ratio. Many a young man who has read the story of John Wanamaker's romantic career has gained very little inspiration or help from it toward his own elevation and adv ancement, for he looks upon it as the result of good luck, chance, or fate. "Wha t a lucky fellow," he says to himself as he reads; "what a bonanza he fell into! " But a careful analysis of Wanamaker's life only enforces the same lesson taugh t by the analysis of most great lives, namely, that a good mother, a good consti tution, the habit of hard work, indomitable energy, determination which knows no defeat, decision which never wavers, a concentration which never scatters its f orces, courage which never falters, self-mastery which can say No, and stick to it, strict integrity and downright honesty, a cheerful disposition, unbounded en thusiasm in one's calling, and a high aim and noble purpose insure a very large measure of success. Youth should be taught that there is something in circumstances; that there is such a thing as a poor pedestrian happening to find no obstruction in his way, a nd reaching the goal when a better walker finds the drawbridge up, the street bl ockaded, and so fails to win the race; that wealth often does place unworthy son s in high positions; that family influence does gain a lawyer clients, a physici an patients, an ordinary scholar a good professorship; but that, on the other ha nd, position, clients, patients, professorships, managers' and superintendents' positions do not necessarily constitute success. He should be taught that in the long run, as a rule, the best man does win the best place, and that persistent merit does succeed. There is about as much chance of idleness and incapacity winning real success o r a high position in life, as there would be in producing a "Paradise Lost" by s haking up promiscuously the separate words of Webster's Dictionary, and letting them fall at random on the floor. Fortune smiles upon those who roll up their sl eeves and put their shoulders to the wheel; upon men who are not afraid of drear y, dry, irksome drudgery, men of nerve and grit who do not turn aside for dirt a nd detail. The youth should be taught that "he alone is great, who, by a life heroic, conq uers fate"; that "diligence is the mother of good luck"; that nine times out of ten what we call luck or fate is but a mere bugbear of the indolent, the languid , the purposeless, the careless, the indifferent; that, as a rule, the man who f ails does not see or seize his opportunity. Opportunity is coy, is swift, is gon e, before the slow, the unobservant, the indolent, or the careless can seize her :-"In idle wishes fools supinely stay: Be there a will and wisdom finds a way." It has been well said that the very reputation of being strong-willed, plucky, and indefatigable is of priceless value. It often cows enemies and dispels at th e start opposition to one's undertakings which would otherwise be formidable. It is astonishing what men who have come to their senses late in life have acco mplished by a sudden resolution. Arkwright was fifty years of age when he began to learn English grammar and imp rove his writing and spelling. Benjamin Franklin was past fifty before he began the study of science and philosophy. Milton, in his blindness, was past the age

of fifty when he sat down to complete his world-known epic, and Scott at fifty-f ive took up his pen to redeem a liability of $600,000. "Yet I am learning," said Michael Angelo, when threescore years and ten were past, and he had long attain ed the highest triumphs of his art. Even brains are second in importance to will. The vacillating man is always pus hed aside in the race of life. It is only the weak and vacillating who halt befo re adverse circumstances and obstacles. A man with an iron will, with a determin ation that nothing shall check his career, is sure, if he has perseverance and g rit, to succeed. We may not find time for what we would like, but what we long f or and strive for with all our strength, we usually approximate, if we do not fu lly reach. I wish it were possible to show the youth of America the great part that the wi ll might play in their success in life and in their happiness as well. The achie vements of will-power are simply beyond computation. Scarcely anything in reason seems impossible to the man who can will strong enough and long enough. How often we see this illustrated in the case of a young woman who suddenly bec omes conscious that she is plain and unattractive; who, by prodigious exercise o f her will and untiring industry, resolves to redeem herself from obscurity and commonness; and who not only makes up for her deficiencies, but elevates herself into a prominence and importance which mere personal attractions could never ha ve given her! Charlotte Cushman, without a charm of form or face, climbed to the very top of her profession. How many young men, stung by consciousness of physi cal deformity or mental deficiencies, have, by a strong, persistent exercise of will-power, raised themselves from mediocrity and placed themselves high above t hose who scorned them! History is full of examples of men and women who have redeemed themselves from disgrace, poverty, and misfortune by the firm resolution of an iron will. The co nsciousness of being looked upon as inferior, as incapable of accomplishing what others accomplish; the sensitiveness at being considered a dunce in school, has stung many a youth into a determination which has elevated him far above those who laughed at him, as in the case of Newton, of Adam Clark, of Sheridan, Wellin gton, Goldsmith, Dr. Chalmers, Curran, Disraeli and hundreds of others. It is men like Mirabeau, who "trample upon impossibilities"; like Napoleon, who do not wait for opportunities, but make them; like Grant, who has only "uncondi tional surrender" for the enemy, who change the very front of the world. "I can't, it is impossible," said a foiled lieutenant to Alexander. "Be gone," shouted the conquering Macedonian, "there is nothing impossible to him who will try." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes, I should say unhesitatingly, they l acked will-power. They could not half will. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam, a mere sport of chance, to be tossed about hither and thither, always at the mercy of those who have wills. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. Can he will strong enough, and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. "The truest wisdom," said Napoleon, "is a resolute d etermination." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon; but with character it would make a Wellington or a Grant, untarnished by ambition or ava rice. "The undivided will 'Tis that compels the elements and wrings A human music fro m the indifferent air."

CHAPTER XXXIX ONE UNWAVERING AIM Life is an arrow--therefore you must know What mark to aim at, how to use the b ow-- Then draw it to the head and let it go. HENRY VAN DYKE. The important thing in life is to have a great aim, and to possess the aptitude and perseverance to attain it.--GOETHE. "A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways." Let every one ascertain his special business and calling, and then stick to it if he would be successful.--FRANKLIN. "Why do you lead such a solitary life?" asked a friend of Michael Angelo. "Art is a jealous mistress," replied the artist; "she requires the whole man." During his labors at the Sistine Chapel, according to Disraeli, he refused to meet any one, even at his own house. "This day we sailed westward, which was our course," were the simple but grand words which Columbus wrote in his journal day after day. Hope might rise and fal l, terror and dismay might seize upon the crew at the mysterious variations of t he compass, but Columbus, unappalled, pushed due west and nightly added to his r ecord the above words. "Cut an inch deeper," said a member of the Old Guard to the surgeon probing his wound, "and you will find the Emperor,"--meaning his heart. By the marvelous po wer of concentrated purpose Napoleon had left his name on the very stones of the capital, had burned it indelibly into the heart of every Frenchman, and had lef t it written in living letters all over Europe. France to-day has not shaken off the spell of that name. In the fair city on the Seine the mystic "N" confronts you everywhere. Oh, the power of a great purpose to work miracles! It has changed the face of t he world. Napoleon knew that there were plenty of great men in France, but they did not know the might of the unwavering aim by which he was changing the destin ies of Europe. He saw that what was called the "balance of power" was only an id le dream; that, unless some master-mind could be found which was a match for eve nts, the millions would rule in anarchy. His iron will grasped the situation; an d like William Pitt, he did not loiter around balancing the probabilities of fai lure or success, or dally with his purpose. There was no turning to the right no r to the left; no dreaming away time, nor building air-castles; but one look and purpose, forward, upward and onward, straight to his goal. His great success in war was due largely to his definiteness of aim. He always hit the bull's-eye. H e was like a great burning-glass, concentrating the rays of the sun upon a singl e spot; he burned a hole wherever he went. After finding the weak place in the e nemy's ranks, he would mass his men and hurl them like an avalanche upon the cri tical point, crowding volley upon volley, charge upon charge, till he made a bre ach. What a lesson of the power concentration there is in this man's life! To succeed to-day a man must concentrate all the faculties of his mind upon one unwavering aim, and have a tenacity of purpose which means death or victory. Ev ery other inclination which tempts him from his aim must be suppressed. A man may starve on a dozen half-learned trades or occupations; he may grow ric h and famous upon one trade thoroughly mastered, even though it be the humblest. Even Gladstone, with his ponderous yet active brain, said he could not do two t hings at once; he threw his entire strength upon whatever he did. The intensest

energy characterized everything he undertook, even his recreation. If such conce ntration of energy is necessary for the success of a Gladstone, what can we comm on mortals hope to accomplish by "scatteration"? All great men have been noted for their power of concentration which makes them oblivious of everything outside their aim. Victor Hugo wrote his "Notre Dame" d uring the revolution of 1830, while the bullets were whistling across his garden . He shut himself up in one room, locking his clothes up in another, lest they s hould tempt him to go out into the street, and spent most of that winter wrapped in a big gray comforter, pouring his very life into his work. Abraham Lincoln possessed such power of concentration that he could repeat quit e correctly a sermon to which he had listened in his boyhood. A New York sportsman, in answer to an advertisement, sent twenty-five cents for a sure receipt to prevent a shotgun from scattering, and received the following : "Dear Sir: To keep a gun from scattering put in but a single shot." It is the men who do one thing in this world who come to the front. Who is the favorite actor? It is a Jefferson, who devotes a lifetime to a "Rip Van Winkle," a Booth, an Irving, a Kean, who plays one character until he can play it better than any other man living, and not the shallow players who impersonate all part s. The great man is the one who never steps outside of his specialty or dissipat es his individuality. It is an Edison, a Morse, a Bell, a Howe, a Stephenson, a Watt. It is an Adam Smith, spending ten years on the "Wealth of Nations." It is a Gibbon, giving twenty years to his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." It is a Hume, writing thirteen hours a day on his "History of England." It is a Web ster, spending thirty-six years on his dictionary. It is a Bancroft, working twe nty-six years on his "History of the United States." It is a Field, crossing the ocean fifty times to lay a cable, while the world ridicules. It is a Newton, wr iting his "Chronology of Ancient Nations" sixteen times. A one-talent man who decides upon a definite object accomplishes more than a te n-talent man who scatters his energies and never knows exactly what he will do. The weakest living creature, by concentrating his powers upon one thing, can acc omplish something; the strongest, by dispersing his over many, may fail to accom plish anything. A great purpose is cumulative; and, like a great magnet, it attracts all that i s kindred along the stream of life. [Illustration: Joseph Jefferson] A Yankee can splice a rope in many different ways; an English sailor only knows one way, but that is the best one. It is the one-sided man, the sharp-eyed man, the man of single and intense purpose, the man of one idea, who cuts his way th rough obstacles and forges to the front. The time has gone forever when a Bacon can span universal knowledge; or when, absorbing all the knowledge of the times, a Dante can sustain arguments against fourteen disputants in the University of Paris, and conquer in them all. The day when a man can successfully drive a doze n callings abreast is a thing of the past. Concentration is the keynote of the c entury. Scientists estimate that there is energy enough in less than fifty acres of sun shine to run all the machinery in the world, if it could be concentrated. But th e sun might blaze out upon the earth forever without setting anything on fire; a lthough these rays focused by a burning-glass would melt solid granite, or even change a diamond into vapor. There are plenty of men who have ability enough; th e rays of their faculties, taken separately, are all right, but they are powerle ss to collect them, to bring them all to bear upon a single spot. Versatile men,

universal geniuses, are usually weak, because they have no power to concentrate their talents upon one point, and this makes all the difference between success and failure. Chiseled upon the tomb of a disappointed, heart-broken king, Joseph II. of Aust ria, in the Royal Cemetery at Vienna, a traveler tells us, is this epitaph: "Her e lies a monarch who, with the best of intentions, never carried out a single pl an." Sir James Mackintosh was a man of remarkable ability. He excited in every one w ho knew him the greatest expectations. Many watched his career with much interes t, expecting that he would dazzle the world; but there was no purpose in his lif e. He had intermittent attacks of enthusiasm for doing great things, but his zea l all evaporated before he could decide what to do. This fatal defect in his cha racter kept him balancing between conflicting motives; and his whole life was al most thrown away. He lacked power to choose one object and persevere with a sing le aim, sacrificing every interfering inclination. He, for instance, vacillated for weeks trying to determine whether to use "usefulness" or "utility" in a comp osition. One talent utilized in a single direction will do infinitely more than ten tale nts scattered. A thimbleful of powder behind a ball in a rifle will do more exec ution than a carload of powder unconfined. The rifle-barrel is the purpose that gives direct aim to the powder, which otherwise, no matter how good it might be, would be powerless. The poorest scholar in school or college often, in practica l life, far outstrips the class leader or senior wrangler, simply because what l ittle ability he has he employs for a definite object, while the other, dependin g upon his general ability and brilliant prospects, never concentrates his power s. It is fashionable to ridicule the man of one idea, but the men who have changed the front of the world have been men of a single aim. No man can make his mark on this age of specialties who is not a man of one idea, one supreme air, one ma ster passion. The man who would make himself felt on this bustling planet, who w ould make a breach in the compact conservatism of our civilization, must play al l his guns on one point. A wavering aim, a faltering purpose, has no place in th e twentieth century. "Mental shiftlessness" is the cause of many a failure. The world is full of unsuccessful men who spend their lives letting empty buckets do wn into empty wells. "Mr. A. often laughs at me," said a young American chemist, "because I have but one idea. He talks about everything, aims to excel in many things; but I have l earned that, if I ever wish to make a breach, I must play my guns continually up on one point." This great chemist, when an obscure schoolmaster, used to study b y the light of a pine knot in a log cabin. Not many years later he was performin g experiments in electro-magnetism before English earls, and subsequently he was at the head of one of the largest scientific institutes of this country. He was the late Professor Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. We should guard against a talent which we can not hope to practise in perfectio n, says Goethe. Improve it as we may, we shall always, in the end, when the meri t of the matter has become apparent to us, painfully lament the loss of time and strength devoted to such botching. An old proverb says: "The master of one trad e will support a wife and seven children, and the master of seven will not suppo rt himself." It is the single aim that wins. history. They do not focus their y into the roll of honor. Edward ppointed the expectations of his Men with monopolizing ambitions rarely live in powers long enough to burn their names indelibl Everett, even with his magnificent powers, disa friends. He spread himself over the whole field

of knowledge and elegant culture; but the mention of the name of Everett does n ot call up any one great achievement as does that of names like Garrison and Phi llips. Voltaire called the Frenchman La Harpe an oven which was always heating, but which never cooked anything. Hartley Coleridge was splendidly endowed with t alent, but there was one fatal lack in his character--he had no definite purpose , and his life was a failure. Unstable as water, he could not excel. Southey, th e uncle of Coleridge, says of him: "Coleridge has two left hands." He was so mor bidly shy from living alone in his dreamland that he could not open a letter wit hout trembling. He would often rally from his purposeless life, and resolve to r edeem himself from the oblivion he saw staring him in the face; but, like Sir Ja mes Mackintosh, he remained a man of promise merely to the end of his life. The man who succeeds has a program. He fires his course and adheres to it. He l ays his plans and executes them. He goes straight to his goal. He is not pushed this way and that every time a difficulty is thrown in his path; if he can not g et over it he goes through it. Constant and steady use of the faculties under a central purpose gives strength and power, while the use of faculties without an aim or end only weakens them. The mind must be focused on a definite end, or, li ke machinery without a balance-wheel, it will rack itself to pieces. This age of concentration men, not for geniuses, not to do one thing as well as f his soldiers better than calls, not for educated men merely, not for talented for jacks-of-all-trades, but for men who are trained it can be done. Napoleon could go through the drill o any one of his men.

Stick to your aim. The constant changing of one's occupation is fatal to all su ccess. After a young man has spent five or six years in a dry goods store, he co ncludes that he would rather sell groceries, thereby throwing away five years of valuable experience which will be of very little use to him in the grocery busi ness; and so he spends a large part of his life drifting around from one kind of employment to another, learning part of each but all of none, forgetting that e xperience is worth more to him than money and that the years devoted to learning his trade or occupation are the most valuable. Half-learned trades, no matter i f a man has twenty, will never give him a good living, much less a competency, w hile wealth is absolutely out of the question. How many young men fail to reach the point of efficiency in one line of work be fore they get discouraged and venture into something else! How easy to see the t horns in one's own profession or vocation, and only the roses in that of another ! A young man in business, for instance, seeing a physician riding about town in his carriage, visiting his patients, imagines that a doctor must have an easy, ideal life, and wonders that he himself should have embarked in an occupation so full of disagreeable drudgery and hardships. He does not know of the years of d ry, tedious study which the physician has consumed, the months and perhaps years of waiting for patients, the dry detail of anatomy, the endless names of drugs and technical terms. There is a sense of great power in a vocation after a man has reached the point of efficiency in it, the point of productiveness, the point where his skill beg ins to tell and brings in returns. Up to this point of efficiency, while he is l earning his trade, the time seems to have been almost thrown away. But he has be en storing up a vast reserve of knowledge of detail, laying foundations, forming his acquaintances, gaining his reputation for truthfulness, trustworthiness, an d integrity, and in establishing his credit. When he reaches this point of effic iency, all the knowledge and skill, character, influence, and credit thus gained come to his aid, and he soon finds that in what seemed almost thrown away lies the secret of his prosperity. The credit he established as a clerk, the confiden ce, the integrity, the friendships formed, he finds equal to a large capital whe n he starts out for himself and takes the highway to fortune; while the young ma n who half learned several trades, got discouraged and stopped just short of the

point of efficiency, just this side of success, is a failure because he didn't go far enough; he did not press on to the point at which his acquisition would h ave been profitable. In spite of the fact that nearly all very successful men have made a life-work of one thing, we see on every hand hundreds of young men and women flitting abou t from occupation to occupation, trade to trade, in one thing to-day and another to-morrow,--just as though they could go from one thing to another by turning a switch, as though they could run as well on another track as on the one they ha ve left, regardless of the fact that no two careers have the same gage, that eve ry man builds his own road upon which another man's engine can not run either wi th speed or safety. This fickleness, this disposition to shift about from one oc cupation to another, seems to be peculiar to American life, so much so that, whe n a young man meets a friend whom he has not seen for some time, the commonest q uestion to ask is, "What are you doing now?" showing the improbability or uncert ainty that he is doing to-day what he was doing when they last met. Some people think that if they "keep everlastingly at it" they will succeed, bu t this is not always so. Working without a plan is as foolish as going to sea wi thout a compass. A ship which has broken its rudder in mid-ocean may "keep everlastingly at it," may keep on a full head of steam, driving about all the time, but it never arri ves anywhere, it never reaches any port unless by accident; and if it does find a haven, its cargo may not be suited to the people, the climate, or conditions. The ship must be directed to a definite port, for which its cargo is adapted, an d where there is a demand for it, and it must aim steadily for that port through sunshine and storm, through tempest and fog. So a man who would succeed must no t drift about rudderless on the ocean of life. He must not only steer straight t oward his destined port when the ocean is smooth, when the currents and winds se rve, but he must keep his course in the very teeth of the wind and the tempest, and even when enveloped in the fogs of disappointment and mists of opposition. A tlantic liners do not stop for fogs or storms; they plow straight through the ro ugh seas with only one thing in view, their destined port, and no matter what th e weather is, no matter what obstacles they encounter, their arrival in port can be predicted to within a few hours. On the prairies of South America there grows a flower that always inclines in t he same direction. If a traveler loses his way and has neither compass nor chart , by turning to this flower he will find a guide on which he can implicitly rely ; for no matter how the rains descend or the winds blow, its leaves point to the north. So there are many men whose purposes are so well known, whose aims are s o constant, that no matter what difficulties they may encounter, or what opposit ion they may meet, you can tell almost to a certainty where they will come out. They may be delayed by head winds and counter currents, but they will always hea d for the port and will steer straight towards the harbor. You know to a certain ty that whatever else they may lose, they will not lose their compass or rudder. Whatever may happen to a man of this stamp, even though his sails may be swept away and his mast stripped to the deck, though he may be wrecked by the storms o f life, the needle of his compass will still point to the North Star of his hope . Whatever comes, his life will not be purposeless. Even a wreck that makes its port is a greater success than a full-rigged ship with all its sails flying, wit h every mast and every rope intact, which merely drifts along into an accidental harbor. To fix a wandering life and give it direction is not an easy task, but a life w hich has no definite aim is sure to be frittered away in empty and purposeless d reams. "Listless triflers," "busy idlers," "purposeless busy-bodies," are seen e verywhere. A healthy, definite purpose is a remedy for a thousand ills which att

end aimless lives. Discontent and dissatisfaction flee before a definite purpose . What we do begrudgingly without a purpose becomes a delight with one, and no w ork is well done nor healthily done which is not enthusiastically done. Mere energy is not enough; it must be concentrated on some steady, unwavering a im. What is more common than "unsuccessful geniuses," or failures with "commandi ng talents"? Indeed, the term "unrewarded genius" has become a proverb. Every to wn has unsuccessful educated and talented men. But education is of no value, tal ent is worthless, unless it can do something, achieve something. Men who can do something at everything and a very little at anything are not wanted in this age . What this age wants is young men and women who can do one thing without losing their identity or individuality, or becoming narrow, cramped, or dwarfed. Nothin g can take the place of an all-absorbing purpose; education can not, genius can not, talent can not, industry can not, will-power can not. The purposeless life must ever be a failure. What good are powers, faculties, unless we can use them for a purpose? What good would a chest of tools do a carpenter unless he could u se them? A college education, a head full of knowledge, are worth little to the men who cannot use them to some definite end. The man without a purpose never leaves his mark upon the world. He has no indiv iduality; he is absorbed in the mass, lost in the crowd, weak, wavering, and inc ompetent. "Consider, my lord," said Rowland Hill to the Prime Minister of England, "that a letter to Ireland and the answer back would cost thousands upon thousands of m y affectionate countrymen more than a fifth of their week's wages. If you shut t he post-office to them, which you do now, you shut out warm hearts and generous affections from home, kindred, and friends." The lad learned that it cost to car ry a letter from London to Edinburgh, four hundred and four miles, one eighteent h of a cent, while the government charged for a simple folded sheet of paper twe nty-eight cents, and twice as much if there was the smallest inclosure. Against the opposition and contempt of the post-office department he at length carried h is point, and on January 10, 1840, penny postage was established throughout Grea t Britain. Mr. Hill was chosen to introduce the system, at a salary of fifteen h undred pounds a year. His success was most encouraging, but at the end of two ye ars a Tory minister dismissed him without paying for his services, as agreed. Th e public was indignant, and at once contributed sixty-five thousand dollars; and , at the request of Queen Victoria, Parliament voted him one hundred thousand do llars cash, together with ten thousand dollars a year for life. It is a great purpose which gives meaning to life; it unifies all our powers, b inds them together in one cable and makes strong and united what was weak, separ ated, scattered. "Smatterers" are weak and superficial. Of what use is a man who knows a little of everything and not much of anything? It is the momentum of constantly repeate d acts that tells the story. "Let thine eyes look straight before thee. Ponder t he path of thy feet and let all thy ways be established. Turn not to the right h and nor to the left." One great secret of St. Paul's power lay in his strong pur pose. Nothing could daunt, nothing intimidate him. The Roman Emperor could not m uzzle him, the dungeon could not appall him, no prison suppress him, obstacles c ould not discourage him. "This one thing I do" was written all over his work. Th e quenchless zeal of his mighty purpose burned its way down through the centurie s, and its contagion will never cease to fire the hearts of men. "Try and come home somebody," said his mother to Gambetta as she sent him off t o Paris to school. Poverty pinched this lad hard in his little garret study and his clothes were shabby, but what of that? He had made up his mind to get on in

He is bound to win. and took our Republic as the pattern for France. though he might easily have made himself a millionaire. was now virtually dicta tor of France.000 men. I consider a human soul without education like marble in a quarry. disaster. yesterday. which shows none of its inherent beauties until the skill of the polisher sketches out the c . poor and unknown. That night all the papers in Paris were so unding the praises of this ragged. cutting his way through difficulties. Had he not been equal to it. dangers only increase his courage. and the greatest orator in the Republic. This sudden rise was not due to luck or accide nt. the brave G ambetta went out of the besieged city in a balloon barely grazed by the Prussian guns. even in dissolute lives. sickness. he never turn s his eye from his goal. p urposeless man has who. and he was equal to it. neutrum capit. and by almost superhuman skill raised three armies of 8 00. and the great Republ ican leader! When Louis Napoleon had been defeated at Sedan and had delivered his sword to W illiam of Prussia. although but thirty-two years old. There is no grander sight in the world than that of a young man fired with a gr eat purpose. today. Jules Favre was to plead a great cause on a certain day. t o take his place. At last his opportunity came. When he died the "Figaro" said. He does not have one-half the opposition to overcome that the undecided. he chose this young man. and resolved to make his mark in the world. LIDDON. and will carry down Gambetta's name to remote posterity. For many years Gambetta had been preparing for such an opportu nity. it always makes way for the man with a will in him. absolutely unknown. He had been steadfastly working and fighting his way up against oppositions and poverty for just such an occasion. Nor did he lose his head in h is quick leap into fame. uncouth Bohemian. A German officer said: "This colossal energy is the most remarkable event of modern history. landed in Amiens. poverty. rough and uncouth. is somet imes called out by a great emergency or sudden sorrow. For years he was chained to his desk and worked like a hero. runs against all sorts of snags to which he must yield simply because he has no momentum to force them out of his way. What a striking example of the great reserve of personal power.--H. he was suddenly weaned from dissip ation. in the city of Marseilles. and what we are will be the result of previous years of self-discipline. b ut. for he lo ved our country." This youth who was poring over his books in an attic while other youths were promenad ing the Champs Elysées. living i n a garret. and remained a poor man. "The Republic has lost its greatest man. and when the Prussian army was marching on Paris. "Duos qui sequitur lepores. being ill. it would onl y have made him ridiculous.the world. deputy-elect. He still lived in the upper room in the musty Latin Qua rter. like driftwood. only gives him new power. which. and soon all France recogni zed him as the Republican leader. like a gymnasium. his great reserve rushed to the front. opposition only doubles his exertions. No matter what comes to him. and directed their military operatio ns. W hat a sublime spectacle it is to see a youth going straight to his goal." CHAPTER XL WORK AND WAIT What we do upon some great occasion will probably depend on what we already are . as though they were but stepping-stones! Defeat. without stain of dishonor. P ." American boys should study this great man. What a stride. and ever after leads the life to victory! When Gambetta found that his first speech had electrified all F rance. and surmounting obstacles which dishearten others . dominated by one unwavering aim. the world stan ds to one side and lets him pass. He made one of the greatest speeches that up to th at time had ever been made in France. provided for their maintenance.

speaking of his arrival in London in 1831. and then addi ng enough spiegel-eisen (looking-glass iron). At the public st amp office he was told by the chief that the government was losing 100. if published in its connection. Use your gifts faithfully. The result. Haste trips up its own heels. The more you know. and discovers every ornamental cloud. And the same little word. to change t he whole mass to steel. . realizing tha t the best capital a young man can have is a capital wife. "I was a mere cipher in that vast sea of human enterprise. an d without an acquaintance in the city. he told how it would prevent any one from taking a valuable stamp from a document a hundred years old and using it a second time. As a result his system of perforation was abandoned and he was deprived of his promised office. and do more work with less effort.--CHARLES KINGSLEY. if all stamps had a date put upon them they could not at a future time be used without detection.000 pound s a year through the custom of removing stamps from old parchments and using the m again. he at once entered in to a partnership which placed at his command the combined ideas of two very leve l heads. The chief also fully appreciated the new danger of easy counterfeiting. Having ascertained later that in this way the raised stamps on all official papers in England could easily be forged. was the Bessemer pro cess of making steel cheaply." said his betrothed. So Bessemer's financial prospects were not very encouraging.--SENECA.--ADDISON. he set to work and invented a perforat ed stamp which could not be forged nor removed from a document. and promptly suggested the improvement at the stamp office. and hastened to tell the good news to a young woman with whom he had agreed to share his fortune . In explaining his invention. spot. and you shall attain to higher knowledge. the government coolly making use from that day to this. he soon made work for himself by inventin g a process of copying bas-reliefs on cardboard. of the idea conveyed by that little insignificant word. So he o ffered Bessemer a definite sum for his process of perforation. Bessemer chose the office. or an office for life at eight hundred pounds a year." said Henry Bessemer . after years of thought and experiment. He felt proud of the young woman's ingenuity. an ore rich in carbon. "Yes. His method consists simply in forcing hot air from below into sev eral tons of melted pig-iron. would render Bessemer's perforation device of far less value than a last year's bird' s nest. surely. He discovered this simple process only after trying in vain much more difficult and expensive methods. fetters and stops itself.--ARNOLD.00 0 pounds a year. which has revolutionized the iron industry through out the world. His method was so simple that o ne could learn in ten minutes how to make a die from an embossed stamp for a pen ny. had for a long per iod saved the government the burden of caring for an additional income of 100. Although but eighteen years old. makes the surface shine. without compensation. the more you can save yourself and that which belongs to you . by keepin g out of the ponderous minds of the British revenue officers. like the schoolboy's pins which saved the lives of th ousands of people annually by not getting swallowed. "I understand that. but." This was a very short speech. but. that little word.olors. so as to produce intense combustion. practise what you know. and vein that runs throughout the body of it. and of no special importance if we omit a single word of four letters. but. and they shall be enlarged.

Think of Bishop Hall spending thirty years on one of hi s works! Owens was working on the "Commentary to the Epistle to the Hebrews" for twenty years.-A little learning is a dangerous thing. She works ages to bring a flower to perfection. and then they are read y for business. And drinking largely sobers u s again. deep foundations. a definite aim. and break down in middle life. Patience is Nature's motto. nor the youth a man. or taste not the Pierian sp ring: There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain. The weary years in preparator y school and college dishearten them. or college. At length he managed to get it into "Fraser's Magazine. Don't risk a life's superstructure upon a day's foundation. They only want a "smattering" of an educat ion. "Can't wait" is characteristic of the century. and fai thfulness will shorten the way. Carlyle wrote with the utmost difficulty and never executed a page of his great histories till he had consulted every known authority. on churches. so that every sentence i s the quintessence of many books. and is written on everything. a little smattering of books. on commerce. Today. feverish work." the editor of which conveyed to the author the pleasing information that his work had been received with "unqualifie d disapprobation. and many die of old a ge in the forties. on schools. asking him if he did not think she could teach elocution if sh e could come to the university and take twelve lessons." The great lack of the age is want of thoroughness. Everybody is in a hurry. a perfect man. and everything is made "to sell. The publi shers of the "Atlantic Monthly" returned Miss Alcott's manuscript. But the way to shorten the road to success is to take plenty of time to lay in your reserve power. The shifts to cover up ignorance."All things come round to him who will but wait. "Sartor Resartus" is everywhere. Drink deep. Y outh rush into business with no great reserve of education or drill. When an aut horess told Wordsworth she had spent six hours on a poem. You can get it for a mere trifle at almost any bookseller's. on society. Short cuts and abridged methods a re the demand of the hour. Moore spent several weeks on one of his musical stanzas which rea ds as if it were a dash of genius. Hard work. Our young people of to-d ay are not willing to lay broad. Buildings are rushed up so quickly t hat they will not stand. and consigned the young poet to temporary oblivion. but they were respectfully declined. But as Pope says. he replied that he wou ld have spent six weeks. Wha t will she not do for the greatest of her creation? Ages and aeons are nothing t o her. se minary. and hundreds of thousands of copie s are scattered over the world. suggesting th at she had better stick to teaching." Not long ago a professor in one of our universities had a letter from a young w oman in the West. But when Carlyle brought it to London in 1851. and "the constant trembling lest some blunder should expose one's emptiness. Only one . of course t hey do poor." Henry Ward Beecher sent half a dozen articles to the publisher of a religious p aper to pay for his subscription." are pitiable. Johnson said a man must turn over half a library to write one book. How seldom you find a young man or woman who is willing to take time to prepare for his life work! A little education is all they want. One of the leading magazines ridiculed Tenn yson's first poems. i t was refused almost contemptuously by three prominent publishers. out of them she has been carving her great statue. Can't wait for a high school. the product of many hours of drudging research in the great libraries. The boy can't wait to become a youth.

He saw in a moment that it was just like the blacksmith's case. to say noth ing of his time. "Most certainly not. he was co nsulted by Aaron Burr on an important but puzzling case then pending before the Supreme Court. destined to shake an empire. Think of an American youth spending ten years with Da Vinci on the model of an equestrian statue that he might master the anatomy of the horse! Most young Amer ican artists would expect. but it took me thirty years to learn how to do it in five minutes. As he followed the trail to Pike's Peak. to sculpture an Apollo Bel videre. "proceed". thus losing heavily on the books bought. working seven long years decorating the Sistine Chapel with his matchless "Creation" and the "Last Judgment. men whom neither pove rty. When a young lawyer Daniel Webster once looked in vain through all the law libr aries near him. and. debt. nor hunger could discourage or intimidate. when he had finished. a Farragut. fighting on in hero ic silence. making sketches for the paintings of Western scenes for which he had become famous. when denounced by his brother generals and politicians everywhere. whe ther the world applaud or hiss. who can struggle on for forty years before he has a chance to show the world his vast reserve. a Michael Angelo. to borrow the history of the French Revolution. as they go along.of Ralph Waldo Emerson's books had a remunerative sale. "I never heard of your case till this evening. Albert Bierstadt first crossed the Rocky Mountains with a band of pioneers in 1 859. "Yes. a Von Moltke. a Thacke ray. Going back to the time of Charles II he gave the law and precedents involved with such readiness and accuracy of sequence that Burr asked in great surprise if he had been consulted before in th e case." said Burr. a Mirabeau. just to "get through. Webster received a fee that paid him liberally for all the time and trouble he had spent for his early client. but." he replied. It wants men who can work and wait. on account of the poverty of his client. "But it took you only five minutes. as he was passing through New York City. A rich man asked Howard Burnett to do a little something for his album. Burnett complied and charged a thousand francs. just as a student crams for a particular ex amination. not daunted by privations. on ly charged fifteen dollars. in a quarter of that time. walking two miles through the snow with rags tied around his feet for shoes." "Very well. and then ordered at an expense of fifty dollars the necessary bo oks. Years after. In some respects it is very unfortunate that the old system of binding boys out to a trade has been abandoned." What the age wants is men who have the nerve and the grit to work and wait. to obtain authorities and precedents in a case in which his client was a po or blacksmith. a Milton." refusing all remuneration therefo r. a Grant. which he had solved so thoroughly that it was to him now as simple as the multiplication table. toiling and waiting in a lonely garret. He won his case. lest his pencil might catch the taint of avarice." ob jected the rich man. Washington Irving was n early seventy years old before the income from his books paid the expenses of hi s household. The thought haunted him and found its final embodiment in "The Last ." without any effort to see how much he may lear n on any subject. They pick up what they know. a Thurlow Weed. a Balzac. To-day very few boys learn any trade. struggling on cheerfully after his "Vanity Fair" was refused by a dozen pub lishers. a n intricate question of title. and thought of the time when they would have disappeared before the march of ci vilization. elaborating "Paradise Lost" in a world he could not see. and eagerly devouring it before the sap-bush f ire. who have the persistence to work and wait for half a century for their first great opportunities. he gazed in wonder upon the en ormous herds of buffaloes which dotted the plains as far as the eye could reach. not hindered by discouragements.

so deep must they dig to build on the living rock." Many an extraordinary man has been made out of a very ordinary boy: but in orde r to accomplish this we must begin with him while he is young. A chart is made out which sho ws just what must be done in the case of wars with the different nations. Success is the child of drudgery and perseverance and depends upon "knowing how long it takes to suc ceed. The accom plishments of such industry. solid foundation. would put to shame many a man wh o claims genius. which enables it to stand upright." "A similar event. "For years I was in my place of business by sunrise. The Gentleman Villain. The pianist Thalberg said he never ventured to perform one of his celebrated pi eces in public until he had played it at least fifteen hundred times. apparentl y thrown away. but he left therein an a rtistic thought for all time. such perseverance. sir. changes the mulberry leaf to satin. To perfect this great work he had spent twenty years. studying expression for a year and a half." said the former. "and often I did not leave it for fifteen or eighte en hours. There is a schedule of trains which will supersede all other schedules the moment war is declared. howev er noble. "that the Lord opened my mouth without any lea rning. and had come to say good-by. A large part of every successful life must be spent in laying foundation stones underground. It is simply asto . Everything which endures. Said Captain Bingham: "You can have no idea of the wonderful machine that the G erman army is and how well it is prepared for war. said he never looked upon so fearful and wicked a face." said the President . In Rome the foundation is often the most expensive part of an edifice. true to the plumb-line through all the tempests that lash its granite sides. Byron fainted. which will stand the test of time. Da Vinci spent four years on the head of Mona Lisa. As the great actor went on to delineate the terrible conseque nces of sin. Fifty feet of Bunker Hill Monument is under ground." A young man just graduated told the President of Trinity College that he had co mpleted his education. must have a deep. I presume?" "Yes. The giant oak on the hillside was detained months or years in its upward growth while its root took a great turn around some rock." Endurance is a much better test of character than any one act of heroism. Before Edmund Kean would consent to appear in that character which he acted wit h such consummate skill. Byron. When he appeared upon the sta ge." A learned clergyman was thus accosted by an illiterate preacher who despised ed ucation: "Sir. He laid no claim whatever to genius. he said it was all a question of hard work." said a wealthy banker who had begun without a dollar." Patience. unseen and unappreciated by those who tread about that historic shaft. "Indeed. "I am thankful. perhaps the most beautiful ever painted. who went with Moore to see him." retorted the clergyman. but it is this foundation. you have been to college. in order to gain a hold by which the tree was anch ored to withstand the storms of centuries. "happened in Balaam's time. and this is so arranged that the commander of the army here could telegraph to any officer to take such a train and go to such a place at a moment's notice. "I have just begun my education. and ev ery officer's place in the scheme is laid out beforehand.of the Buffaloes" in 1890." was the reply. he practised constantly before a glass. it is said.

he not only spent eleven terms more in the study of the law. every occasion. Even a few weeks' or months' drill of the rawest and roughest recruits in the l ate Civil War so straightened and dignified stooping and uncouth soldiers. in spite of the consciousness of marvelous natural endowments wh ich would have been deemed sufficient by many young men. Webst er once repeated with effect an anecdote which he had heard fourteen years befor e. was a remarkable example of that pluck and patience which can work and wait. my friends can see it. his "impro . what a miracle is possible in the lad who is taken early and put under a c ourse of drill and systematic training. every opportunity. Edison described his repeat ed efforts to make the phonograph reproduce an aspirated sound. His on ly inheritance was poverty and hard work. B ut I held firm. Horace Mann. or among the tramps. and that hi s mind should have broad and liberal culture. and notwithstanding he had gained the coveted prize of a seat in Parliament." Webster replied. and m ade them manly." replied hi s friend. when a book was presented to him. pecia. and comes under the tutelage of a skilled educator before his habits become fixed or confirmed. so determine d was he that his life should be rounded out to its fullest measure. if he has good material in him." Webster was once urged to speak on a subject of great importance. and moral! How of ten a man who is in the penitentiary. can not be overestimated. "If there be so much weight in my words. pecia.' It was enough to drive one mad. an ornament to the human race instead of a foul blot and ugly scar. the great public can see it. slovenly. but refused. yet he decided to make him self master of the situation. but also studied Greek co nstantly and read every well-written book or paper he could obtain. Although he had spent many years of preparation for his life work. "a very few words from you would do much to awaken public attention to it. Gladstone was bound to win. mental. and even dull lad. and added: "From eighteen to twenty hours a day for the last seven months I have worked on this single word 'specia. But he had an unquenchable thirst for knowledge and a determination to get on in the world. specia. Ole Bull said: "If I practise one day. uncouth. ha s slumbering within the rags possibilities which would have developed him into a magnificent man. had he only been fortunate enough early in life to have enjoyed the benefi ts of efficient and systematic training! Laziness begins in cobwebs and ends in iron chains." The road to distinction must be paved with years of self-denial and hard work. "It is an ill mason that rejects any stone. specia. and amid all his public and private duties. and courteous in their bearing. that their own friends sc arcely knew them. "But. I can see the result.nishing what training will do for a rough. and I have succeeded. erect.' I said into the phonograph 'specia.' but t he instrument responded 'pecia. You will find use for all of it. and grinding them all up i nto experience. If this change is so marked in the youth who has grown to matu rity. if I practise two days. or living out a miserable existence in the slums of our cities." On one occasion Webster made a remarkable speech before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard. He braided straw to earn m oney to buy books for which his soul thirsted. and which he had not thought of in the meantime. rough. the great author of the common school system of Massachusetts. no matter how insignificant it may seem at the time." The habit of seizing every bit of knowledge. it is because I do not allow myself to speak on any subject until my mind is imbued with it. saying he was very busy and had no time to master the subject. but after he had gone. both physical. if I practise three days. in the poorhouse. It exactly fitted the occasi on.

and s till find you have something left. Day and night it is before me. because you never are beaten. The easily discouraged. it is the fruit of labor and thought. "I am not prepared.--to do well always. Demosthenes was once asked to speak on a great and sudden emergency. when called upo n. Alexander Hamilton said. but best in the crisis on which all things turn. supplementin g what was considered a thorough military education by researches and reflection s which in later years enabled him easily to teach the art of war to veterans wh o had never dreamed of his novel combinations. he would take one minute to consider ho w best to do it. All the genius I have lies just in this: when I have a subject in hand I study it profoundly. Collyer declares that reserves mean to a man also achiev ement. he would never rise. "Men give me credit for genius. My mind becomes pervade d with it. or a fast horse. Then the effort which I make the people are pleased to call the fruit of genius. when the latter shall stand in the firm. the opera. Cuyler." We must not only work. but also wait. They who understand and practise Abraham Lincoln's homely maxim of 'pegging away' have achieved the solidest success. because he never allowed himself to speak on any s ubject without thorough preparation. "Many men. I explore it in all its bearings. without previously pr eparing himself. In any meeting or assembly." "I have been watching the careers of young men by the thousand in this busy cit y of New York for over thirty years. but was refused. Napoleon had applied for every vacant position for seven years bef ore he was recognized. "who thinks chiefly of his mustache and b oots and shiny hat. however brilliant." said Dr. dispensing benefits and acquiring fort une. "and I find that the chie f difference between the successful and the failures lies in the single element of staying power. it was thought by many that Demosthenes did not possess any genius whatever. when he will be glad to accept a situation from the fellow-clerk whom he now ridicules and affects to despise. Reserves which carry us through great emergencies are the result of long workin g and long waiting.mptu" speech. but p ull them up every now and then. even to make remarks. and so to never know you are beaten. but replie d. it was said." says Longfellow. or some precious thing will be lost. Nelaton. and talki ng about the theater. said that if he had four minutes in which to perfor m an operation on which a life depended. "do not allow their principles to take root. carefully written out. was found in the book which he had forgotte n to take away. the great surgeon." ." In fact. Permanent success is oftener won by holding on than by sudden dash." The Duke of Wellington became so discouraged because he did not advance in the army that he applied for a much inferior position in the customs department. "The spruce young spark. are all the time dropping to the rear--to perish or to be carried along on the stretcher of charity." says Sizer.--"the power to do the grandest thing possible to your nature when you fee l you must." The law of labor is equally b inding on genius and mediocrity. will see the day. ridiculing the faithful young fellow who came to learn the business and make a man of himself because he will not join in wasting his time in dissipation. who are pushed back by a straw. to stand the strain of a long fight. Dr. but meanwhile he studied with all his might. of getting along nicely and easily during the day. if his useless li fe is not earlier blasted by vicious indulgences. as children do flowers they have planted. to see if they are growing.

and asked him how he could give suc h a minute description of the man he had never seen. Still achieving. To vary the language of another. We tell the ve ry path by which gigantic creatures. He that despiseth small things shall fall by little and little. no British Empire. Small sands the mountain. life. and su perficiality--are the things acquired most readily and longest retained. but for life. Among the lofty Alps. giving instead to Europe and America models of the highest politica l freedom yet attained. It was little Greece that rolled back the overflowing tide of Asiatic luxury an d despotism. had been stolen. we learn".--EMERSON. Patience. and with a small bobtailed do g. lest the vibration of the voice bring down an avalanche. the guides sometimes demand absolute silence. and Perseverance. The power of observation in the American Indian would put many an educated man to shame. The man told him he had met such a man.--NAPOLEON. of Normandy.He only is independent in action who has been earnest and thorough in preparati on and self-culture. which had been hanging up to dry. And trifles. Men are led by trifles. then. Learn to labor and to wait. be up and doing. walked to the river's e dge to find their food." We may tell which way the wind blew before the Deluge by marking the ripple and cupping of the rain in the petrified sand now preserved forever. fickleness." "Arletta's pretty feet. YOUNG. It is but the littleness of man that sees no greatness in trifles. it is said. but was surprised to find that the In dian had not even seen the one he described. though it small appear. "Let us. or of tardiness. white man. Returning home.--ECCLESIASTICUS . and our habits--o f promptness." "The bad thing about a little sin is that it won't stay little. glistening in the brook. whom man never saw. and germs of limitless mental growth. moment s make the year. made her the mother of William the Conqueror. and thoroughness. but the greatest of these is Perseverance. old. with a short gun." CHAPTER XLI THE MIGHT OF LITTLE THINGS Think naught a trifle." "Had she not thus fascinated Duke Robert the Liberal. the three great essentials to success in menta l and physical labor are Practice. he asked him if he ha d seen a little. Harold would not have fal len at Hastings. After careful observation he started to trac k the thief through the woods. an Indian discovered that his venison. A different result at Plataea would have delayed the progress of the human race more than ten cent uries. The creation of a thousand forests is in one acorn. sti ll pursuing. earnestness. Meeting a man on the route. "Not for school. "A pebble on the streamlet scant Has turned the course of many a river." says Palgrave's "History of Normandy and England. no Anglo-Norman dynasty could have arisen. With a heart for any fate.--WENDELL PHI LLIPS. "I knew the thief was a lit .

He realized that the leak would rapidly become larger if the water were not checked. floating on the waves. too small to be c learly seen without the aid of a magnifying-glass. A trigger may be pulled in an instant. and fi nally reached the Gulf of St. Striking on opposite sides of the roof of a court-house in Wisconsin. Detro it River. while the other entered successively the Fox River. I knew he was an old man by his short steps." said the Indian. Agassiz could deduce the entire structure and habits of an animal which no man had ever seen so accurately that subsequent discoveri es of complete skeletons have not changed one of his conclusions. such as n o one had ever seen before. "has often depended upon the good or ba d digestion of a fine dinner. Lake Erie. What was so unlikely as that throwing an empty wine-flask in the fire should fu rnish the first notion of a locomotive. but the soul returns never. a war that . Niagara River. When the little insect scented the land. Clair River. "The fate of a nation. they would have been dashed upon a ledge o f rock had it not been for a cricket which a soldier had brought on board. By gnawing through a dike. t hrough the carelessness of the watch. I knew he had a short gun by the mark it left on the tree where he had stood it u p. Lawrence. so he h eld his hand over the hole for hours on a dark and dismal night until he could a ttract the attention of passers-by. The beetling chalk cliffs of England were built by rhizopods." Two drops of rain. the Straits of Mackinaw. Lake St. and. and from a single bone. A little boy in Holla nd saw water trickling from a small hole near the bottom of a dike. and thus warned them of their danger. A spark falling upon some combustibles led to the invention of gunpowder. it broke its long silence by a shrill note. I knew the dog was small by his tracks and short steps. I knew he was a white man by his turning out his toes in walking. St. even a rat may drown a nation. Lake Michi gan. Green Bay. now so useful in the arts and in transmitting vocal or written langu age. Who can calculate the future of the smalles t trifle when a mud crack swells to an Amazon and the stealing of a penny may en d on the scaffold? The act of a moment may cause a life's regret. Lake Huron. She gave the hint which led to the discovery of galvanic e lectricity. the St. one rolled southward through the Rock River and the Mississippi to the Gulf of M exico. Madame Galvani noticed the contraction of the muscles of a skinned f rog which was accidentally touched at the moment her husband took a spark from a n electrical machine. Dana could interest a class for hours on a grain of sand. which an Indian never does. were separated a few inches by a gentl e breeze. The commanding off icer and hundreds of his men were going to South America on a great ship. A cricket once saved a military expedition from destruction. How slight the influence of the breeze. Lake Ontario. yet such was the formation of the continent that a trifling cause was multiplied almost beyond the power of figures to express its momentous effect upon the des tinies of these companion raindrops. or that the sickness of an Italian chemi st's wife and her absurd craving for reptiles for food should begin the electric telegraph. falling side by side.tle man. enabled Columbus to stay a mutiny of his sailors which threatened to prevent the discovery of a new world . A few bits of seaweed and driftwood. Lawrence River. Clair. and that he had a bob -tail by the mark it left in the dust where he sat. His name is still held in grateful remembran ce in Holland. There are moments in history which balance years of ordinary life. "because he rolled up a stone to stand on in order to reach the venison." says Gladstone.000 pounds produced the American Revolution." A stamp act to raise 60.

some self-indulgence. He pulled the trigger and it went off the first time." What mighty contests rise from trivial thing s! A young man once went to India to seek his fortune. but they have wre cked many a career. telling them what I had discovered. and rendered homeless a hundred thousand people. That set me to thinking. He went to the window to point it in another di rection and try it again. That invisible fracture reduced the the ruby thousands of dollars. If I could record the motions of the point and send it over the same surface afterward. Henry Ward Beecher came within one vote of being elected superintendent of a ra ilway." Perhaps you turned a cold shoulder bu t once. A famous ruby was offered to the English government. The Parliament of Great Britain. he went to his room. yet it may have cost you a friend fore ver. "when the vibrat ions of my voice caused a fine steel point to pierce one of my fingers held just behind it. but that he "facets" was slightly fractured. . with but a handful of European soldiers. and gave m y assistants the necessary instructions. the fate of many a kingdom. Bentham says. the Congress of the United States. who. I determined to make a machine that would work accurately. but it laid Chicago in ashes. Tha t's the whole story. an d conceived the idea of thus measuring time. grew out of a quarrel as to which of two vessels should first be served with water. a quick temper. and represe ntative governments all over the world have come from King John signing the Magn a Charta.000 pounds. resolved that if the weapon went off he would regard i t as a Providence that he was spared. want of decision. The cackling of a goose aroused the sentinels and saved Rome from the Gauls. secured to the East India Company and afterwards to Great Britain a great and rich country with two hundred millions of people. What a little thing fixes destiny! Trifles light as air often suggest to the thinking mind ideas which have revolu tionized the world. and made but one stinging remark. But it did not go off. but in that steady swaying motion the boy Galileo saw the pendulum. you say. The report of the weler was that it was the finest he had ever seen or heard of. If he had had that vote America would probably have lost its greatest pre acher. but. and. Trembling with excitement he resolved to hold his life sacred. put the muzzle to his head. costing more than a hundred thousand lives. "I was singing to the mouthpiece of a telephone. an d the pain from a thistle warned a Scottish army of the approach of the Danes.cost England 100. I saw no reason why the thing would not talk. a re little things." It was a little thing for a cow to kick over a lantern left in a shanty. It was a little thing for the janitor to leave a lamp swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. and it was rejected from the regalia of crown je one of t value of England. This young man became General Robert Clive. for a ught we know. when placed beside great abilities. Some little weakness. The phonograph is the result of the pricking of a finger.000. to ma ke the most of it." said Edison. finding no opening. "The turn of a sentence has decided many a friendship. A war between France and England. and never again to cheapen it. loaded his pistol. and pulled the trigger. The quarrel of two Indian boys over a grassh opper led to the "Grasshopper War.

" Napoleon left nothing to chance. the exact day he was to arrive at a certain station. every officer had his orders as to the exact route wh ich he should follow." The absence of a comma in a bill which passed through Congress years ago cost o ur government a million dollars. Martin Alonzo Pinzon persuaded him t o follow a flight of parrots toward the southwest. little kindne sses. and our whole life but a day repeated." "But they are trifles!" exclai med the visitor." The children of a spectacle-maker placed two or more pairs of the spectacles be fore each other in play. A flight of birds probably prevented Columbus from discovering t his continent. the biscuits. and t he exact hour he was to leave. brought out that muscle. "But. To details which his inferior officers though t too microscopic for their notice he gave the most exhaustive consideration. He would often charge his absent officers t o send him perfectly accurate returns. and good de eds. "John. polished that. When he was growing anxious. The web of a spider sugge sted to Captain Brown the idea of a suspension bridge. From this hint came the telescope. and gave the Jews a lawgiver. When the bugle sounde d for the march to battle. those that dare misspend it. Everything was pl anned to a nicety before he attempted to execute it.The sight of a stranded cuttlefish led Cuvier to an investigation which made hi m one of the greatest natural historians in the world. good wishes." replied the great artist. A single misspelled word prevented a deserving young man from obtaining a situation as instructor in a New England college. . "Never. even to the smallest detail. nothing to contingency." said a gent leman to Michael Angelo. and gave a prophet t o many nations. and which seale d the fate of Europe for many years. It is said that nothing could be more perfectly planned than his memorable march which led to the victory of Austerlitz. "but trifles make per fection. given some expres sion to this lip. genial smiles. "I cannot see that you have made any progress since my last visit. Ye arl of Crawford. Every day is a little life. the camp kettles. makes all the difference between success and failure. and they were all to reach the point of destinati on at a precise moment. "had the flight of birds more importa nt consequences. No young girl e njoys her novel as much as I do these returns. The cry of the infant Moses attracted the attention of Pharoah's daughter. more energy to that limb. etc. He must know all about the provisions. and told their father that distant objects looked large r. bring us anither hod o' lime. with more vital fidel ity to truth. "I have retouched this part. Those that d are lose a day are dangerously prodigal. What is the happiness of your life made up of? Little courtesies. "It may be so. desperate. th e horse fodder. No thing was too small for his attention. and t o observe the difference between one monthly return and another. I give up every occupation in order to read them in detail. Napoleon was a master of trifles. A missing marriage certificate kept the hod-carrier of Hugh Miller from establi shing his claim to the Earldom of Crawford. One in a million--once in a lifetime--may do a heroic action. and perfection is no trifle. a friendly letter." That infinite patience which made Michael Angelo spend a week in bringing out a muscle in a statue. A bird alighting on the bough of a tree at the mouth o f the cave where Mahomet lay hid turned aside his pursuers." wrote Humboldt. The masons would call out. or Gerhard Dow a day in giving the right effect to a dewdrop on a cabbage leaf. so far as he could possibly avoid it. "When they a re sent to me. But for his change of course Columbus would have reached the coast of Florida. for to the Spanish seamen of that day it was good luck to follow in the wake of a flock of birds when on a vo yage of discovery. softened that feature. pleasant words. the shoes." said the sculptor.

and the blemish would have changed the history of the world. and often great losses! How m any wills are contested from the carelessness of lawyers in the omission or shad ing of words. has multiplied into food for millions. "Lack of detail. and a prism. and the poor people of Austerfield and Scrooby into perpetual exile. shrank from the political influence of one independent woman in private life. Had he not b who can tell what the history of Great Britain would have been? From the careful and persistent accumulation of innumerable facts. At that when he found een detained." "I give these books for the founding of a college in this colony"." He knew no such things as trifle s. An eminent foreign savant called on Dr. too. test papers. and the leaven is at work which will not cease its action until the whipping-post and bodily servitude are abolished forever. A pan of w ater and two thermometers were the tools by which Dr. Black discovered latent he at. Cromwell was tion. For want of a shoe the horse was lost. While other generals trusted to subordinates. Madame de Staël. but in the aggregate forming a mass of evidence. a Darwin extracts h is law of evolution. was beautiful enough to spare the tip of he r nose. but as Pilgrims they bec ame the founders of a mighty people. perhaps millions. a few poems from Lowell an d Whittier.Wellington. "and a small drop of ink. a small balance. having squandered all his property. F or want of a horse the rider was lost. and gave a nation an altered destiny." A hymn chanted by the barefooted friars in the t emple of Jupiter at Rome led to the famous "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ." "Words are things" says Byron. "For want of a nail the shoe was lost. Anne Boleyn's fascinating smile split the great Churc h of Rome in twain. about to sail for America when a law was passed prohibiting emigra time he was a profligate. and if Cleopatra's had been an inch shorter Mark Antony might never have become infatuated with her wonderful charms. and which involved his clients in litigation. and. it is said. driving famine from Ireland again and again. a lens. when the doctor took him into a little study. produces that which makes thousands. each trivial in itself. A single potato. on which st ood a few watch glasses. and all. Napoleon. think." says Poor Richard. pointing to an old tea tray on the table. and a sheet of pasteboard enabled Newton to unfold the composition of light and the origin of colors. A few immortal sentences from Garrison and Phillips. Wollaston. "for want of a horseshoe nail. and a Linnaeus constructs the science of botany. who feared n ot to attack the proudest monarchs in their capitols. or ambiguous use of language! Not even Helen of Troy. "T here is my laboratory. and asked to be shown over those laboratories of his in which science had been enriched by so many great discoveries. he gave his personal attention to the minutest detail. said. The history of many a failure could be written in three words. carried to England by Sir Walter Raleigh in th e sixteenth century." A single remark dropped by an unknown person in the street led to the successfu l story of "The Bread-winners. and a blow-pipe. was "great in little things." A burnt stick and a barn door served Wilkie in lieu of p encil and paper. John Robinson. the lack of little words which seemed like surplus age. It seemed a small thing to drive William Brewster. such were th e words of ten ministers who in the year 1700 assembled at the village of Branfo . falling like dew upon a thought." How many a lawyer has failed from the lack of details i n deeds and important papers. But that he could not leave England he reformed his life.

He did not forget the kindness of Sir Walter. The eye is a perpetual camera imprinting upon the sensitive mental plates and p acking away in the brain for future use every face. and shot it. in fact. greatest of all harvests. every scene upon the street. Yet it is our greatest weaknes s which measures our real strength. A Massachusetts soldier in the Civil War observed a bird hulling rice. Small things become great when a great soul sees them. and many a ship has survived the shocks of icebergs and the storms o f ocean only to founder in a smooth sea from holes made by tiny insects. every syllable we utter. It is the little rift within the lute That by and by will make the music mute. every plant. All life comes from microscopic beginnings. A ship-worm boring a piece of wood suggested to Sir Isa mbard Brunel the idea of a tunnel under the Thames at London. and registers foreve r the slightest enunciation. who became so enthusiastic in his study of sculpture that he walked fifty miles and back to se e a beautiful statue. Goethe once asked a monarch to excuse him. Sir Walter Scott once saw a shepherd boy plodding sturdily along. There is a phonograph in our natures which catches. mountain. threw his soul into the design of the magnificent monument erecte d in Edinburgh to the memory of the author of "Waverley. As he l eft the door. We are all inclined to be proud of our strong points. while w e are sensitive and neglectful of our weaknesses. All of nature's laws govern the smallest atoms. however thoughtless and transient. and. The microscope reveals as great a world below as the telescope above . however large and strong all the others may be. everything wh ich comes within its range. in all their beautiful or te rrible detail. . reproduced in our descendants. he picked up a pin. These notes may appear a t housand years hence. The strength of a chain lies in its weakest link." A poor boy applied for a situation at a bank in Paris. a few miles east of New Haven. he invented a hulling machine which has revolu tionized the rice business. taking its bill for a model. until it became red hot. but was refused. The bank president saw this. and renders it immortal. Hogarth would make sketches of rare faces and characteristi cs upon his finger-nails upon the streets." seems to be one of the great la ws of nature. stream. hill.rd. while he went to an adjoining room to jot d own a stray thought. a skillet containing a compound which he had befo re considered worthless. Tracks of extinct animals in the old red sandstone led Hugh Miller on and on until he became the g reatest geologist of his time. "Least of all seeds. Goodyear discovered how to vulcanize rubber by forget ting. A soldier who escapes the bullets of a thousand battles may die from the scratc h of a pin. This boy was George Kemp. Bits of glass arranged to amuse children led to the disc overy of the kaleidoscope. every tree. Trifles light as air suggest to the keen observer the solut ion of mighty problems. Each of the worthy fathers deposited a few bo oks upon the table around which they were sitting. flo wer. when th e latter died. such was the founding of Yale College. A single noble or heroic act of one man has sometimes elevated a nation. called the boy ba ck. during an interview. and gave him a situation from which he rose until he became the greatest ban ker of Paris. Many an honorable career has re sulted from a kind word spoken in season or the warm grasp of a friendly hand. In nature there is not hing small.--Laffitte. and a single drop of water is a miniature ocean. to a truly great mind there a re no little things. Indeed. and asked him to ride. Great men are noted for their attention to trifles.

my employee friend. He is cheating himself. and is actuated by no higher mo tive.And.' As she passed along the way. in expanding your exp erience. stretching the mind. It is life's school for practical training of the faculties. ever widening. and the best o f all. It is the opport unity. in increasing your skill. There is no estimating the value of such training. TENNYSON. the opportunity to become a larger. in enlarging and ennobling yourself. is the opportunity for growth. of always dema nding of yourself the highest. broader. The opportunity for growth in a disciplinary institution. or even to get beyond mediocrit y. w . vigorous exercis e at a definite time and for a definite number of hours. The other part. I would say: "Don't think too much of the amo unt of salary your employer gives you at the start. for in that position he absorbed the secrets of strategy and diplomacy which later were used so effec tively for his country. not a mere mill for grinding out a salary of dollars and cents. never accepting the lowest or second best. will make all the difference to you between fai lure and success. for mental expansion. he is chea ted. and strengthening and developing the intellect. is an advantage beyond computation. can never give him back. t ry as he may. "It was only a glad 'good-morning. That is necessity. is dishonest. so efficiently. no mat ter how small your remuneration." CHAPTER XLII THE SALARY YOU DO NOT FIND IN YOUR PAY ENVELOPE The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. I have never known an employee to rise rapidly. "If the laborer gets no more than the wages his employer offers him. slowly silence all. more efficient man. he might have remained a perpetual clerk. of the possib le salary you can give yourself. One part of this outside salary is the opportunity of the employee to absorb th e secrets of his employer's success. he cheats himself. and the one whom he most defrauds is himself. so vital to every young ma n starting on the journey of life." A man's or a boy's work is materi al with which to build character and manhood. in the quality of his daily work." "Only a thought in passing--a smile. and to learn from his mistakes. that Germany p rized his services more than those of the ambassador himself. for development. that will help you to make a large man of yourself. are brought into systematic. who could not see infinitely more in his wor k than what he found in the envelope on Saturday night. whose pay envelope was his goal. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. rather. where the practical f aculties. If I were allowed but one utterance on this subject. Think. or encouraging word. but t he larger part of the real pay of a real man's work is outside of the pay envelo pe." A boy or a man who works simply for his salary. of that which all the after years. the executive faculties. If Bismarck had ea rned only his salary. Bismarck was said to have really founded the German Empire when working for a s mall salary as secretary to the German legation in Russia. while he is being paid for learning his trade or profession. He worked so assiduously. Has lifted many a bur den no other gift could have stirred. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. and Germany a ta ngle of petty states.

" Do you think that kings of business like Andrew Carnegie. which he regarded . split hairs about salaries. By doing the thing at hand surpassingly well. He inspir es them with the possibility of doing something higher. th ey were paying themselves vastly more in the fine quality of their work. as if by magic. You can draw from the faithfulness of your work.--just as soon as it is p rofitable. and. from the grand spirit which yo u bring to it. you could not possibly do without being employed in some kind of an institution which has the motive. in the enthusiasm. And instead of paying for the opportunity of unfolding and developing from a green.hich. president of the Western Union Telegraph Company. determination. Then. while their employers were paying them but a few dollars a week. to a bsorb the secrets of the business. the patronage to give you th e disciplining and training you need to bring out your strongest qualities. more useful m an. they would now pro bably be working on comparatively small salaries for other people. W. The few dollars he finds in his pay envelope are to this larger salary as the c hips which fly from the sculptor's chisel are to the angel which he is trying to call out of the marble. a re compense so munificent that what your employer pays you will seem insignificant beside it. hardly enough to live on. while they were learning the lessons that m ade them what they are to-day. wor ked without pay as a messenger boy for months for experience. and high purpose they brought to their tasks. the ideal employer gives those who work for him a great deal that is not found in the pay envelope. Clowry. himself a remarkable example of success. that each wanted. and in making himself a better. Bourke Cockran. says: "Th e man who brings to his occupation a loyal desire to do his best is certain to s ucceed. too. better. in increased efficiency. It he is looking for efficient employees. he shows that it would be profitable to employ him in some higher form of occupation. sympathy. ignorant boy into a strong. when there is p rofit in his promotion. John Wanamaker. How small and narrow and really blind to his own interests must be the youth wh o can weigh a question of salary against all those privileges he receives in exc hange for the meager services he is able to render his employer. you pay yourself in valuable experience. Why? Sim ply because. in character building. He gives them encouragement. and other lesser powers in the commercial world would have attained their present commanding success had they hesitated and haggled about a dollar o r two of salary when they began their life-work? If they had. Colonel Robert C. at the start.--a chance to show what was in him. and in increased insight into business methods. the high purpose which emanates from you in its performance. It was not sa lary. perhaps. Ogden. he is pretty sure to secure it. on small salaries. little realizes how he is cheating himself by n ot looking at the larger salary he can pay himself in increasing his skill. Do not fear that your employer will not recognize your merit and advance you as rapidly as you deserve. efficient man. the boys who rise in the world are not those who. No. He pays you in dollars. in splendid discipline. in e xpanding his experience. into high and responsible positions. perhaps for years. Often we see bright boys who have worked. stronger.--and what emp loyer is not?--it will be to his own interest to do so. the machinery. suddenly jumping. level-headed. in f ine training. you are paid! The youth who is always haggling over the question of how many dollars and cent s he will sell his services for. They were satisfied with a dollar or two apie ce a week. but opportunity. in self-expressio n. Rober t C.

I had a proposit ion from another large concern in New York to act as its foreign representative at a salary of three thousand dollars a year. I accep ted an offer from the firm to remain for five years at a salary of seven dollars and a half a week. know . when it is not expected of you?" Would he then have ris en above them. and to abso rb every bit of knowledge that he could. and all that sort of thing. when my time should be completed. You have actuall y gotten an opportunity to get right into the very heart of the great activities of a large concern. leaving them in the ranks of perpetual employees? No. during a large part of this time. studying methods." When his contract was nearly up. to be somebody. they notified him. h e was called into the office of the head of the house. bu t remember that that is a very small part of the consideration. to get close to men who do things. a little late r. He never allowed anything of importance to escape hi s attention. or an inclination to shirk. I should be glad to talk with him in regard to his proposition. The young man told his employers that the manager of another house had offered him that am ount a year or more before. that they were prepared to enter into a ten-year contract with him at ten tho usand dollars a year.--this was his salary. however. I told the manager that I was then under contract. for he could not tell when fate might be taking his measure fo r a larger place. just think of yourself as actually starting out in business for yourself. for he was bound some day to be a partn er or to have a store of his own. they laid up $117. and he determined that he would be. and became a millionaire. They told him they would think the matter over and see what th ey could do for him. and a new contract with h im for a term of years at three thousand dollars a year was proposed. but the boy who walked one hundred miles to New York to get a job saw in every opportunity a great occasion. to work here overtime to do the thing s which others neglect! Why should you stay here nights and help pack goods. so eager was he to learn how everything was done. At the end of his co ntract. to absorb their processes. an opportunity to absorb knowledge and valuable secrets on every hand. to watch their methods. an opportunity to drink in. expansion. He told me that he and his wi fe lived on eight dollars a week in New York. by saving and investments. Long before this time had expired. "I walked fro m my home in New England to New York. When he was not working. he felt within him the ability to become a great merchant. Incredible as it may seem. enlargement. that he preferred to study the store. compared with which the three dollars and fifty cents looked contemptible. "where I secured a place to swee p out a store for three dollars and a half a week. He told me that he did not go out of N ew York City for twelve years. knowledge wherever you go in the establishment. He felt that the opportunity was the salary. He put himself into training. George. Get as much salary as you can. an am bition to rise. he was taken into the firm as a partner. to see the way in which princely merc hants do business. who probably said to him. to make th eir secrets his own. to do as little as p ossible for the largest amount of salary. as really working for yourself. but that he did not accept it because he wouldn't br eak his contract. The very first time he swept out the store. and the contract was closed. The chance actually to do with his own hands the thing which he wanted to learn. but that. When you get a job. always looki ng out for the main chance. many times: "What a fool you are. It is not difficult to see a proprietor in the boy who sweeps the store or wait s on customers--if the qualities that make a proprietor are in him--by watching him work for a single day. Suppose that this boy had listened to his associates. and asking questions of everybody he came in contact with in the store. A millionaire merchant of New York told me the story of his rise. You can tell by the spirit which he brings to his tas k whether there is in him the capacity for growth.as worth infinitely more than salary--and scores of our most successful men have cheerfully done the same thing. he was watching others. and that. throu gh your eyes and your ears." he said.000. At the end of a year.

your inventiveness . the eff iciency. more effective man. if favoritism puts some one into a position above you which you have justly ea rned. a divine sen se of justice and right that can not be blindfolded. There is something within you that you cannot bribe. a habit of adjusting means to ends . a habit of putting your best into everythi ng you do. of close observation. of giving the best thing in you to your employer. If you work with this spirit. acumen. all of which advantages you wi ll carry with you to your next position. Resolve that you will call upon all of your resourcefulness. and you will be surprised to see how quickly you will attract the attention of those above you. if you give your best to your employer. Don't say to yourself. it is impossible for you to rob your employer by clipping yo ur hours. up-to-date. the skill. Your employer may pinch you on salary. anyway. You will never again have the same confidence in your ability to succee d. "I am not paid for doing this extra work. shirking your work. every bit of knowledge y ou can absorb. he can not shut off your perceptive faculties. a habit of thoroughness. The constant stretching of the mind over prob lems which interest you. It will call out your resource s. On the other hand. larger. Then again. In the absence of money ca . which means the ultimate attainment of your maximum efficiency. but never when you have lost confidence in yourself." for this means a loss of selfrespect. but he can not close your eyes and ears. This striving for excellence will make you grow. to alter its verdict in your favor. of capital which is worth vastly more than money cap ital--the chance to make a man of yourself. call out the best thing in you. which are to mean everything to you in the future. never mind. if you do not believe in yourself. Every hint and every suggestion which you can pick up. your career is a t an end so far as its upward tendency is concerned. he can not keep you from absorbi ng the secrets of his business which may have been purchased by him at an enormo us cost of toil and sacrifice and even of several failures. an employee's reputation is his capital. whatever it may be. that you will enter into your work with a spirit of e nthusiasm and a zest which know no bounds. the power you have gained. I do not get e nough salary.ledge that will be invaluable to you in the future. If you do not respect yourself. a habit of reading human nature. and power. no one can rob you of your greatest reward. will help you expand into a broader. If you think you are being kept back. you should regard as a part of your future capital which will be worth more than money capital when you start out for yourself. your ingenuity. you will form a like habit of accuracy. the chance to have a clean record be hind you instead of a smirched one. and no amount of juggling with yourself can induce that inward monitor which says "righ t" to the well-done thing and "wrong" to the botched work. the consciousness of doing your level best. that you will b e progressive. the best possible comes back to you in skill. of system. you will always be conscious that you have done a little. mean thing. shrewdness. Just make up your mind that you are going to be a sponge in that institution an d absorb every particle of information and knowledge possible. by carelessness or indifference. In ot her words. Nothing will ever compensat e you for the loss of faith in yourself. without robbing y ourself of infinitely more. if you are working for too small a salary . to devise new and better ways of doing things. training. and it is perfectly right for me to shirk when my employer is not in sight or to clip my hours when I can. You may still succeed when others have lost confidence in you.

We fi nd it waiting at the bank when we try to borrow money. smarter man he was. he is starting out in life with a heavy handicap. He is backed up by the good opinion of everybody that knows him. square. and supported by a splendid past. and who has gone on the principle that the more he could get out of an employer--the more salary he could get with less effort--the shrewder. Employees sometimes think that they get no credit for trying to do more than th ey are paid for. his reputation means everything. and is always helping us. He must work all the harder to overcome the handicap of a bad reputatio n. and success. loyal. because they do not realize the tremendous power of a clean name. an untarnished past. and worked five years before he received thirty-five d ollars a week. and very soon advanced him to seventy-five. I know a young man who came to New York. and also with an interest in the business. never thinking of the salary. It is always backing us up and helping us in all sorts of ways . hard work.pital. Contrast the condition of a young man starting out for himself who has looked u pon his position as a sacred trust. not the salary. that in less than two years from the time he was receiving sixt y dollars a week. Young men are sometimes surprised at their rapid advancement. for such a small salary. . just because he was trying to earn a great deal more than he was paid for doing. and true to his employer's intere sts--with that of another young man of equal ability starting out for himself. he went to a third large publishing house at ten thousand doll ars a year. The very reputation of the first young man is splendid credit. a clean record. w ho has done just as little work for his salary as possible. according to its nature. but regarding the opportunity as everything. People are afraid of the other: they can not trust him. The result was. These are the great things. They can not unde rstand it. if it does not drag him down to failure. or at the jobber's when w e ask for credit. backed. why should not he beat others? Ev erybody knows that he has not been honest at heart with his employer. but it also follows him when he goes into business for hims elf. It not only follows him around from one employer to another. buttressed. will make his burden infinitely greater. of a good reputation which is backing them. a great opportunity. His work attracted the attention of a publisher who offered him sixty dollars a week. In other words. The salary is of very little importance to you in comparison with the reputatio n for integrity and efficiency you have left behind you and the experience you h ave gained while earning the salary. so much the harder to attain. but he told them that the opportunity was what he was after. an untarnished reputation--a reputation for being a dead-in-earnest hard worker. even a purely commercial success. a smirched record. substantial reputation. and is always either helping or hindering him. but here is an instance of a young man who attracted the attent ion of others even outside of the firm he worked for. solid. but he carried with him to th e new position the same habits of painstaking. which. The other employees and his friends called him a fool for staying at the office after hours and taking work home nights and holidays. got a position in a publishing house a t fifteen dollars a week. not loyal or true. It sticks to us through life. He beat his employer. There is nothing like a good.

Regard the living-getting. but you ca n be one yourself. of your ideals. Whether it is beautiful or hideous. No matter how mean and s tingy he may be. a burning zeal. Take no chances of marring your reputation by the picayune and unworthy endeavo r "to get square" with a stingy or mean employer. w hich are uncut diamonds sacredly intrusted to you for the polishing and bringing out of their hidden wealth and beauty. if they can only get through with it and get their salary for it. your way of doing your work. Look upon it as a man-builder. You may not be able to make him a gentleman. solid. Regard your work as a great life school for the broadening. de epening. will make all the difference to you between med iocrity or failure. money-ma king part of your career as a mere incidental as compared with the man-making pa rt of it. botched work into the foundation. beauty. that whether he is a man of high ideals or not. and you can not afford to ruin yourself and your whole future just because your employer is not what he ought to be. resolve that you will approach your task in the spirit of a master. these will ta ke the drudgery out of it and make it a delight. N ow the boy is paid for learning his trade. to shirk at every opportunity. whether you will make of it a stepping-st one or a stumbling-block. The fact is that your present position. but often when they try to get another place their reputat ion has gone before them. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. of always dema nding of yourself the highest. never accepting the lowest or second best. is the key that will unlock the door above you. they cut very sorry figures in life. and firm. to go to their work in the morning all used up from dissipation. to sneak away and hide during business hours. Slighted work. an absorbing enthusiasm. You c an not afford to strike false blows which may mar the angel that sleeps in the s tone. no mat ter how small your remuneration. Remember that you ar e a sculptor and that every act is a chisel blow upon life's marble block. Others excuse themselves for poor work on the ground that their employer does n ot appreciate their services and is mean to them. you will be one. your opportunity for the time is with him. and not as a mere living-getter. If you bring to your work the spirit of an arti st instead of an artisan. the image you evolve from the block must stand as an expression of yourself. My young friends. of your God-given faculties. a charact er-builder. rounding into symmetry. and slighted. There is nothing else so valuable to you as an opportunity to build a name for yourself. your superstr ucture will topple. and it rests with yo u whether you will use it or abuse it. and success. You may not be able to make him do what is right.In olden times boys had to give years of their time in order to learn a trade. and if you slip rotten hours. The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. with a chan ce to work without salary for years in order to learn their business or trade. botched work. you have nothing to do with your employer's character or his method of doing things. pay very dearly for their trifling. The foundation must be clean. . Those w ho do not care how they do their work. harmony. divine or brutal. and they are not wanted. Your reputation is the foundation for your future success. A youth might just as well exc use himself for his boorish manners and ungentlemanly conduct on the ground that other people were mean and ungentlemanly to him. will never ma ke a key to unlock the door to anything but failure and disgrace. to loiter when out on business for their employer. Many employees may not think it is so very bad to clip their hours. English boys used to thi nk it was a great opportunity to be able to get into a good concern. but yo u can do right yourself. Never mind what kind of a man he is. and often would pay their employer for the opportunity.

The smallest people in the world are those who work for salary alone. that you will express in your work the highest thing in you. Never mind whether your employer appreciates the high quality of your work or n ot. They deliberately adopt a shirking. if they will. their planning ability. Many young employees. with nothing large or magnanimous. low motive for which to work. to trip them up. they blight their own growth. full. rutty men and women. you will certainly think m ore of yourself after getting the approval of that still small voice within you which says "right" to the noble act. to be a man. for the sake of "get ting square" with their employer. but . complete men they might be. The great failure army is full of people who have tried to get square with their employers for the small salary and lack of appreciation. grand. trying to keep from working hard in the performance of their duties. These should speak so loud in you that the mere bread-and-butter quest ion will be insignificant in comparison. The effort always to do your best will enla rge your capacity for doing things. the l arge. the fa ir thing. The littl e money you get in your pay envelope is a pretty small. instead of the strong. inventiveness. narrow. and had given the largest. No matter how small your salary. shirking. do-as-litt le-as-possible policy. Everywhere we see people who are haunted by the ghosts of half-finished jobs. t he dishonest work done away back in their youth. has not learned the first principles of success or happiness. or how unappreciative your employer. by giving him pinched service. and instead of getting this larger. and will encourage you to push ahead toward larger triumphs. You can not afford to debase or demoralize yourself by bringing out your mean si de. but you have somethin g infinitely higher to satisfy than that. and go through life half men instead of full men--sma ll. the botched work. fling your life into it with all the ene rgy and enthusiasm you can muster. While trying to "get square" with their employer. bring the entire man to your task. These covered-up defects are al ways coming back to humiliate them later. remain undeveloped. than they would have worked if they had tried to do their best. grander re muneration possible for them outside of their pay envelope. The m an who has not learned to fling his whole soul into his task. and to bar their prog ress. Start out with a tacit understanding with yourself that you will be a man. Let ot her people do the poor jobs. their ingenuity and re sourcefulness. No one can respect himself or have that sublime faith in himself which makes fo r high achievement while he puts half-hearted. inefficient. just because they do not get quite as much salary as they think they should. Poor work injures your employer a little. The hardest work in the world is th at which is grudgingly done. nothing broad. complete man. which they can pay themselves. more important salary . be all there. or thinks more of you for your conscientiousness. the most liberal service possible to their employers. noble. to do the square thing. str angle their own prospects. larger. deliberately throw away all of the other. Keep your standard up. narrow. weak men. the demand in you to do your level best. and become small. the lowest and most despicable thing in you. progressive in their nature. that is. your sense of the right. I have known employees actually to work harder in scheming. Their leader ship faculties. mean service into his work. they prefer the consequent arrested development . the best thing in you. It may be necessary to secure your bread and butter. and all the qualities which make the leader. their initiative. It is a lofty ideal that redeems the life from the curse of commonness and i mparts a touch of nobility to the personality. who has not learne d the secret of taking the drudgery out of his work by putting the best of himse lf into it.

CHAPTER XLIII EXPECT GREAT THINGS OF YOURSELF "Why. A great success must have a great source in expectation. or of your ai ms. of your plans. your health. or a dreamer. It does not matter what other people think of you. You forsake yourself when you lose your confidence. of personal nobi lity and integrity which have never been tarnished. Napoleon dictated his answer a nd. is not half as important as what you think of yourself.it may ruin you. in your ability to do t he thing you have set your heart upon doing. in your own marvelous possibilities. a crank. There is no law by which you can achieve success in anything without expecting it. "should we call ourselves men. Others are with you comparatively littl e through life. but a sufficient caus e--a cause as large as the result. but ther e is always hope for you so long as you keep a firm faith in yourself. go to it in the spirit of a master. Your achievement will never rise higher than your self-faith. Never allow anybody or any misfortune to shake your belief in yourself. the achievement will never rise hig her than the confidence. or how splendid the education. or the thing will never come. Co unt that man an enemy who shakes your faith in yourself. their determination. ordered him to mount his own horse and deliver it with all possible speed. Determine to do your l evel best and never to demoralize yourself by doing your second best. in self-confidence. you must beli eve in yourself. then you will have a courage born of conviction. indisputable law. an d in persistent endeavor to attain it. but keep pushing on. The miracles of civilization have been performed by men and women of great self -confidence. your reputation. other people's confidence. A stream can not rise higher than its source. No matter how great the ability. What your employer thinks of you. There is no room for chance in God's world of system and supreme order. who had unwavering faith in their power to accomplish the tasks the y undertook." asked Mirabeau. handing it to the messenger. You may lose your p roperty. Be proud of your work and go to it every morning superbly equi pped. and he can't who thinks he ca n't. If you ne ver lose that. This is an inexorable. No matter if they call you a visionary. y our power is gone. There must be a strong. Everything must have not only a cause. assuming it. demanding it. as for you to hope to achieve anything significant in life while harboring grav e doubts and fears as to your ability. their persistence in finding and m aking real the thing they believed in and which the world often denounced as chi merical or impossible. Conduct yourself in such a way that you can always look yourself in the face wi thout wincing. You have to live with yourself day and night through your whole existence. of a conqueror. unless it be to succeed i n everything everywhere?" Nothing else will so nerve you to accomplish great thi ngs as to believe in your own greatness. It would be as reasonable for Napoleon to have expected to get his army over th e Alps by sitting down and declaring that the undertaking was too great for him. sooner or later. A soldier once took a message to Napoleon in such great haste that the horse he rode dropped dead before he delivered the paper. even. how larg e the genius. . and you can not afford to tie that divine thing in you to a scoundrel . The race would have been centuries behind what it is to-day had it not been for their grit. firm self-faith first. what the world thinks of you. for when your confidence is gone. He can who thinks he can. make way fo r you. the world will.

you must make a large program for your self. They have grown up under this conviction of their inferiority. because they do not expect or demand enough of themselves. We divinity. with its superb trappings. and of c ourse they will be inferior until they claim superiority as their birthright. who think that what others have is too good for them. who believes that he is going to win out. "Nothing is too good or too magnificent for a French soldier. "For unto every one that hath shall be given. something in his very a ppearance that wins half the battle before a blow is struck. One reason why the es. and assume the part it demands. to its promise. that the good and the beautiful things of lif e were not designed for them. will lower your whole standard of life and paralyze your abi lity. nor comprehend to what heights of sublimity we were intended and expected to rise. and playing it royall y. The model is the inward vision. or de mand enough of or for themselves. expect enough. You will never become a giant if you only make a pygmy's claim for yourself. ineffective being. We fail to see that we can control our own destiny: make ourselves do whatever is possible. that we are a part of the great causation principl We do not think highly enough of our superb birthright. t hat they are not expected to have as good things as those who are "more favored. He draws to himself the literal fulfilment of the promise. make ourselves become whatever we long to be. nor to what extent w e can really be masters of ourselves. The statue follows the model. Most people have been educated to think that it was not intended they should ha ve the best there is in the world. Things get out of t he way of the vigorous. that it does not fit their humble condition." Napoleon said. " They do not realize how they weaken themselves by this mental attitude of self -depreciation or self-effacement. "Nay. There is something in the atmosphere of the man who has a large and true estima te of himself. If you are ambitious to do big things." says Marie Corelli. A vast number of men and women who are really capable of doing great things. and undertakes his work with t he assurance of success. General. magnetizes conditions. "then we s hall be used as clods of clay for braver feet to tread on. and he shall have abundance. live mediocre lives. and said. They do not know how to call out their best.The messenger looked at the magnificent animal. too magnificent for a common sold ier. but this is too gorgeous. do sm all things." There is everything in assuming the part we wish to play. "If we choose to be no more than clods of clay. A man who is self-reliant. do not realize our e of the universe. optimistic. They do not claim enough. if you only expect small things of yourself." The world is full of people like this poor French soldier. positive. that you are a weak. affirmative man. There is no law which can cause a pyg my's thinking to produce a giant. human race as a whole has not measured up to its possibiliti one reason why we see everywhere splendid ability doing the is because people do not think half enough of themselves. which are always tripping the self-depr . work of mediocrity." The persistent thought that you are not as good as others. but were reserved for those especially favored by fortune.

so definitely . if you think that you lack positiveness. If there is no out-reach to your mind. Your own mental picture of yourself is a good measure of yourself and your poss ibilities. His friends and acquain tances affirm and reaffirm his ability to succeed. shrinking nature. he is reenforced not only by the power o f his own thought. As the savage Indian thought that the power of every enemy he conquered entered into himself. and put so much grit into your resolutio n. doubt. born of self-confidence. vigorous. if you fear to let yourself out and take chances. There is jus t uncertainty enough as to whether they will succeed to take the edge off their effort. in peaceful industry. The whole mental army waits until confidence leads the way. As time goes on. in invention. you can never win anything very great unti l you change your whole mental attitude and learn to have great faith in yoursel f. i n commerce. and make each successive triu mph easier of achievement than its predecessor. the affirmation of belief in yourself. parallel with the aim--the great life purpose. The reason why so many men fail is because they do not commit themselves with a determination to win at any cost. fear. aggressiveness. initiative. Even a race-horse can not win the prize after it has once lost confidence in it self. A man's confidence measures the height of his possibilities. the assumption of power. Power is largely a question of strong. is the prod which brings out the last ou nce of reserve force. A stream can not r ise higher than its fountain-head. so in reality does every conquest in war. no spirit of daring." or "Everyt hing he touches turns to gold. will strengthen the whole man and give power to a combination of facu lties which doubt. Courage. if you think that other s are better fitted to do it than you. A man who carries in his very presence an air of victory. that nothing on earth can turn you from your purpose until you attain it. into his career. ability. you will never accomplish much. all his power. Confidence is the Napoleon of the mental army. such a man wrings success from the most adverse circumstanc es. We often hear it said of a man. and timidity must be turned out of your mind. and a lack of confidence undermine. radiates assurance. which burns all bridges behind it. assurance. but also by that of all who know him. if you have a timid. Set the mind toward the thing you would accomplish so resolutely. Here is wher e power originates.eciating. if you lack boldness. If you doubt your ability to do what you set out to do. no firm s elf-faith. His self-poise. Fear. Confidence begets confidence. and with such vigorous determination. They do not have that superb confidence in th emselves which never looks back. the mental attitude that claims success as an inalienable b irthright. in science. "Everything he undertakes succeeds. and ability increase in a direct ratio to the number of his achievements." By the force of his character and the creative p ower of his thought. and imparts to others confidence that he can do the thing he attempts. and it is just this little difference between doing pretty well and flin ging all oneself. This very assertion of superiority. negative man. or in art add to the conqueror's power to do the next thing. that makes the difference betw een mediocrity and a grand achievement. . if the neg atives preponderate in your vocabulary. perpetual thinking along the l ine of the ambition. It doubles and trebles the power of all the other faculties. confi dence.

persistent thought of and belief in their ability to accomplish w hat they had undertaken. because there is no vim. the invincible purpose. the man of mighty fai th gets much. The very intensity of your confidence in your ability to do the thing you attem pt is definitely related to the degree of your achievement. and a st rong. habitual thinking. There mu st be vigor in our expectation. As it is the fierceness of the heat that melts the iron ore and makes it possib le to weld it or mold it into shape. in our endea vor. in our faith. and expects but little. there is no backbone in thei r endeavor--no grit in their ambition. of or for himself. positive. We are very apt to think of men who have been unusually successful in any line as greatly favored by fortune. We must resolve with the energy that does things. with no light in sight. There must be vigor of conception or an indifferent execution. If we were to analyze the marvelous successes of many of our self-made men. All the greatest achievements in the world began in longing--in dreamings and h opings which for a time were nursed in despair. that wins success. got out of their path. demands. No lukewarm energy or indifferent ambition ever accomplished anything. and we try to account for it in all sorts of ways but the right one. It is th eir mental attitude outpictured and made tangible in their environment. Many people make a very poor showing in life. One must have that determination which never looks back and which knows no defe at.The deed must first live in the thought or it will never be a reality. Nothing was ever accompli shed by a half-hearted desire. vigorous. in our determination. A thought that is timidly born will be timidly executed." Our faith is a very good measure of w hat we get out of life. Not only must the desire for the thing we long for be kept uppermost. We must not only believe we can succeed. The fact is that their success represents their expectations of themselves--the sum of their creative. Their resolutions are spineless. Their mental attitude was set so stubbornly toward thei r goal that the doubts and fears which dog and hinder and frighten the man who h olds a low estimate of himself. This lon ging kept the courage up and made self-sacrifice easier until the thing dreamed of--the mental vision--was realized. When a man ceases to believe in himself--gives up the f ight--you can not do much for him except to try to restore what he has lost--his . but we must believe it with all our he arts. and the world made way for them. who asks. vigorous concept of the thing we want to do is a tremendous initial step. We must have a positive conviction that we can attain success. "According to your faith be it unto you. we should find that when they first started out in active life they held the confid ent. but there must be strongly concentrated intensity of effort to attain our object. The man of weak faith gets little. no vigor in their efforts. They hav e wrought--created--what they have and what they are out of their constructive t hought and their unquenchable faith in themselves. that resolution which burns all bridges behind it and is willing to risk eve rything upon the effort. so it is the concen trated aim. as it is the intensity of the electrical fo rce that dissolves the diamond--the hardest known substance.

he moves with uncertainty. shows that there is something within him that make s him equal to the work he has undertaken. a mysterious destiny which decides things whether he will or not. and a man who "knows" he can do it. The fact that a man believes implicitly that he can do what may seem impossible or very difficult to others. We are held back by too much caution. has no projectile power. Faith walks on the mountain tops. There is no vigor in his initiative. every issue must be met wholly. and hold persistently in the min d. unstable mind. It was the sustaining power of a mighty self-faith that enabled Columbus to bea r the jeers and imputations of the Spanish cabinet. One reason why the careers of most of us are so pinched and narrow. Faith unites man with the Infinite. He can not do this with a wavering. hence its superior vision. that he has within himself a power mightier than any force outsi de of him. The man whose mind is set firmly toward achievement does not approp riate success. There or who nd" to equal is a great difference between a man who thinks that "perhaps" he can do. yearn for. b This difference between uncertainty sion. struggle for. A firm self-faith helps a man to project himself with a force that is almost ir resistible. ever gathering momentum agai nst the obstacles which confront him. then he is in a positio n to express power. It sees what is in visible to those who follow in the valleys." between "I'll try" es the distance between weakness and etween commonness and superiority. There is nothing which will multiply one's ability like self-faith. It can make a one-talent man a success. between the man who wavers and to" and "I can. between mediocrity and excellence. and no one can accomplish great things in l ife unless he works in oneness with the Infinite. We think ourselves into smallness. no positiveness in his energy. is because we do not have a large faith in ourselves and in our power to accomplish. who feels within himself a pulsating power. doubting. between vacillation and deci the man who decides things. Whatever we long for. an irresistible force. we tend to become just in exact proportion to the intensity and persistence o f the thought. We are timid about venturing. who is "bou do it. while a ten-talent man without it would fail. and it comes from the consciou sness of possessing the ability requisite for what one undertakes. that sustained him when his . unhesitati ngly. to any emergency. We ought to think upward. into inferiority by thinking d ownward. It is knowledge. a doubter. "will try" to do a thing. and certainty. Self-confidence is not egotism. If he starts at all. between "I hope and "I will"--this little difference measur power. Civilization to-day rests upon self-confidence. to fling the whole weight of his being into his work. A balancer. When a man lives so near to th e Supreme that the divine Presence is felt all the time. then we would reach the heights where superio rity dwells. he is success. We are not bold en ough.self-faith--and to get out of his head the idea that there is a fate which toss es him hither and thither. You can not do much with him until he comprehends that he is bigger than any fate. The man who does things must be able to project himself with a mighty force.

The only inferiority in us is what we put into ourselves. It has held innumerable heroes to their tas ks until the glorious deeds were accomplished. what he stands for in his community has come from his attitude toward life.sailors were in mutiny and he was at their mercy in a little vessel on an unknow n sea. the signs of ability to match them. Self-faith must lead the way. it led Nelson and Grant to victory. The Creator would not have mocked us with the yearning f or infinite achievement without giving us the ability and the opportunity for re alizing it. is always seeking you. Were we to think upward we should reach the heights where superiority dwells. of power t o make them real. We think ourselves into smallness. who had gathered to howl and jeer at his expected failure. ult imate end. because there is something inside you that attracts it. lashed to the rigging. No man gets very far in the world or expresses great power until self-faith is born in him. it carried Farragut. Self-faith has been the miracle-worker of the ages. Your own comes to you. until he rea lizes that his ambition. If only we better und erstood our divinity we should all have this larger faith which is the distincti on of the brave soul. any more than he would have mocked the wild birds with an instinct t o fly south in the winter without giving them a sunny South to match the instinc t. nobler self. in his own grandeur. They are the stirrings of the divinity within us. It has enabled the inventor and the discoverer to go on and on amidst troubles and trials which otherwise w ould have utterly disheartened them. remem ber that he has usually thought himself into his position. Whenever you see a person who has been unusually successful in any field. to go higher. until he catches a glimpse of his higher. It comes because there is an affinity within you for it. are proofs of his ability to reach the ideal which haunts him. b y their foolish convictions of inefficiency. in fact. Perhaps there is no other one thing which keeps so many people back as their lo w estimate of themselves. The cause of whatever comes to you in life is within you. it has won a thousand triumphs i n war and science which were deemed impossible by doubters and the faint-hearted . and art. discovery. it has been the great tonic in the world of invention. which was our course. toward his vocation. You can not go beyond the limits you set for yourself. They are more handicapped by their limiting thought. past the defenses of the enem y in Mobile Bay." It was this self-faith which gave courage and determination to Fulton to attemp t his first trip up the Hudson in the Clermont. that enabled him to hold steadily to his purpose. toward his fellow men. What miracles self-confidence has wrought! What impossible deeds it has helped to perform! It took Dewey past cannons. The thing you long for and work for comes to you because your thought h as created it. There is where it is created. to believe that his yearnings and hungerings and aspirations for higher. toward himsel . nobler things have any basis in reality or any real. his mental attitude a nd energy have created it. his aspiration. the call to something better. torpedoes. and mines to victory at Manil a Bay. for t here is no power in the universe that can help a man do a thing when he thinks h e can not do it. But they are. It is one of the most difficult things to a mortal to really believe in his own bigness. He believed he could do the thing he attempted though the whole world was against him. before thousands of his fellow c itizens. than by almost anything else. entering in his diary d ay after day--"This day we sailed west.

m ade imprudent investments. but knows. Then there will be no poverty in the world. recognizes the power that means accomplishment. If we had faith enough we could cure all our ills and accomplish the maximum of our possibilities. and our lives would be one triumphal march to the goa l of our ambition. because faith sees. CHAPTER XLIV THE NEXT TIME YOU THINK YOU ARE A FAILURE If you made a botch of last year.f. potencies which our doubts and fears veil from us. All through the Bible we find emphasized the miracle-working power of faith. but will also make you successful and happy. our animal natures can not see. if you feel that it was a failure. Above all else. the result of his estimate of his powers and possibilities. If we had faith in God and in ourselves we could remove al l mountains of difficulty. the divine messenger appointed to accompany man through life to guide and direct and encourage him. If I could give the young people of America but one word of advice. and gotten a glimpse of the great source of things. from quitting his upward life struggle. It gives him a glimpse of his possibiliti es to keep him from losing heart. tran scends all limitations. Faith is assured. and the discords of life will all vanish. if you were gullible. that we are not only encouraged to go on. Faith opens the door that enables us to look into the soul's limitless possibil ities and reveals such powers there. it is the outcome of his self-faith. of his inward vision of himself. It looks beyond all boundaries. because it sees the way out. timidity and cowardice. wasted your time and money. It is doubt and fear. is never a fraid. no failures. if awakened. that hold us down and keep us in mediocrity--doing petty things when we are capable of sublime deeds. and matched with honest effort. It is the prophet within us. Faith never fails. Fa ith in himself indicates that a man has a glimpse of forces within him which eit her annihilate the obstacles in the way. It sees resources. Our faith knows because it sees what we can not see. It knows bec ause it sees what our coarser selves. It has dip ped in the realms of our finer life our higher and diviner kingdom. arou sed. don't drag these ghosts a long with you to handicap you and destroy your happiness all through the future." That is. such unconquerable forces. powers. it would be this--"Believe in yourself with all your might. The men who have done the great things in the world have been profound believer s in themselves. penetrates all obstacles and sees the goal. will not only make a noble man o r woman of you. If we had faith enough we should travel Godward infinitely faster than we do. developed. believe that your des tiny is inside of you. but feel a great consciousness of added power because we have touched omnipotence. Faith is that something within us which does not guess. sees the solution of its problem. The time will come when every human being will have unbounded faith and will li ve the life triumphant. or make them seem insignificant in comp arison with his ability to overcome them. that there is a power within you which. All things a re possible to him who has faith. it is a miracle worker. that you f loundered and blundered and did a lot of foolish things. .

to keep going when things looked da rk and when seemingly insurmountable obstacles confronted us. and often lose all we gain. that we are underlings." to drop the yesterdays. Enter upon to-morrow with a clean slate and a free mind. outside of our own mentality. optim istic outlook. and never allow the hideou s pictures of distressing conditions to enter our minds again. There is only one thing to do with a disagreeable. a loss or any misfortune. and never look back. te ar through our mentalities. The man is inferior who admits that he is inferior. We control our own des tiny. keeps you ba ck and makes you unhappy. Most people are their own worst enemies. Every one ought to make it a life-rule to wipe out from his memory everything t hat has been unpleasant. drop everything that i s a drag. tearing-down thoughts and unfortunate moods. in our holding a hopeful. has been disagreeable. blunders and unfortunate mistakes. bury them! To-day is a good time to "leave the low-vaulted past. or with memories that worry us and which kill our efficiency. . indecision or discouragement. and tha t is to forget them. One of the worst things that can ever happen to a person is to get it into his head that he was born unlucky and that the Fates are against him.Haven't you wasted enough energy worrying over what can not be helped? Don't le t these things sap any more of your vitality. like a bull in a china shop. Everything d epends upon our courage. Throw away all useless baggage. that hinders your progress. If there is anything we ever feel grateful for. We work and live like the frog in the well. who voluntarily ta kes an inferior position because he thinks the best things were intended for som ebody else. it is that we h ave had courage and pluck enough to push on. and which have a bad influence upon you. We should never leave any bridges u nburned behind us. we climb up only to fall back. "It is not in our stars. and that is--forget it! There are many times in the life of a person who does things that are worth whi le when he gets terribly discouraged and thinks it easier to go back than to pus h on. we let the tearing-down thought. Resolve that you will close the door on everything in the past that pains and c an not help you. any way open for retreat to tempt our weakness. Free yourself from everything which handicaps you. There is only one thing to do with bitter experiences. whenever we have a dis couraging day or an unfortunate experience. fear. waste any more of your time or des troy any more of your happiness." He only is beaten who a dmits it. and we have to start all over again. and yet. Form a habit of expelling from your mind thoughts or suggestions which call up unpleasant subjects or bitter memories. But there is no victory in retreating. We are our own Fates. despondency. We are all the time "queering" our lif e game by our vicious. to forget bitter memories. perhaps breaking up and destroying the work of years of building up. but in ourselves. We ought to forget everything that has kep t us back. There is no use in castigating yourself for not having done better. unfortunate. There is no fate or destiny which puts one man down and another up. doubt. There are no F ates. whenever things go wrong with us. harmful experience. our faith in ourselves. has made us suffer. Don't be mortgaged to the past.

"Now. overcoming our deficiencies. No matter what other people may think about your ability. to focus the mind closely. inefficient. I've got to make good. as seeing objects o f nature makes a more lasting impression upon the mind than thinking about them. a certain force. They make a more lasting impression upon the mind. makes a much deeper impression upon us . If you repeat a firm resolve to yourself aloud. handle yourself without gloves. and that you are goi ng to fill it like a man. these are thoughts and ide als that make a strong man. but as perfect. They are for those who have never disc overed themselves and their God-like qualities. Nev er admit. who has been in touch with divinity. It is marvelous what mental strength can be developed by the perpetual affirmat ion of vigorous fitness. power. even by your manner. capable. Increase your self-confiden ce in every possible way. never allow yourself to doubt that you can do or become what you long to. A vividness. this thing is right up to me. This form of suggestion--talking to oneself vigorously. even vehemently. There is a force in words spoken aloud which is not stirred by going over the s ame words mentally. diseased. your ability will increa se. strength. complete. Stoutly assert that there is a place for you in the world. you are more likely to carry it to reality than if you mere ly resolve in silence. j ust as words which pass through the eye from the printed page make a greater imp ression on the brain than we get by thinking the same words. There is no backing out. vehemently uttered--which is not apparent to many in merely thinking about what the words express.You will find that just in proportion as you increase your confidence in yourse lf by the affirmation of what you wish to be and to do. poorly of yourself. Never allow yourself to think meanly. We become so accustomed to our silent thoughts that the voicing of them." You will be surprised to see how quickly this sort of self-suggestion will brac e you up and put new spirit in you. Failure and misery are not for the man who has seen the God-side of hims elf. Train yourself to expect great things of yourself. to show the man in me or the coward. that you think you are destined to do little thin gs all your life. narrowly. the gi ving audible expression to our yearnings. Never regar d yourself as weak. and you can do this to a remarkable degree by the powe r of self-suggestion. accompanies the spoken word--especially if earnes tly. earnestly--seems to aro use the sleeping forces in the subconscious self more effectually than thinking the same thing. and talk to yourself as you would to a son of yo urs who has great ability but who is not using half of it. . vigorous ly. When you go into an undertaking just say to yourself. Ne ver even think of the possibility of going through life a failure or a partial f ailure. The way to get the best out of yourself is to put things right up to yourself. The audible self-encouragement treatment may be used with marvelous results in correcting our weaknesses. They sometimes arouse slumbering energies within us which th inking does not stir up--especially if we have not been trained to think deeply. efficiency.

man. This lethargy. You must make this a red-letter day. that you are going to hold your head up and go about as though yo u were a king. and does not allow h imself to skip hard problems. "You are capable of something much better than what you are doing. however great or small. "In short." as he calls it . in order to force himself up to a higher standard and put himself in tune for the day. Nobody ever amo unts to much who lets his energies flag. think. or are careless about your dress and indifferent in your manner. which will not succumb to persistent audible suggestion. get the cobwebs out of your head. Assu re yourself that there is no reason why you should be timid. brush off the brain ash. You will have to watch yourself very closely or you will be left behind. You like to take things easy. think to some purpose! Do not mull and mope like this. If so. he goes off alone to the country. you are the embodiment of courage and bravery. You are not making good. I have never known any one else who carried on such a vigo rous campaign in self-victory. Bestir yourself. This take-it-easy sort of policy will never land you at the go al you started for. He forces himself to do the most disagreeable tasks first.I have a friend who has helped himself wonderfully by talking to himself about his conduct. you will be greatly helped by assuring yourself in your daily self-talks that you are not t imid. on the contrary. I am going to keep right after you. and you may distrust your own ability. that he ha s made some foolish mistake or has failed to use good sense and good judgment in any transaction. When he feels that he is not doing all that he ought to. your ideals are getting dull. you do not feel as troubled as you used t o. He began as a poor boy living in the slums of New York with no one to take an inter est in him. you ar . It is the very first thing he attends to. self-culture as this young man has. to the woods if possible. instead of crawling about like a whipped cur. For example. because you are not as progressive and up-to-date a s you ought to be. you may be naturally timid and shrin k from meeting people. you are becoming lazy. his standards droop and his ambition oo ze out. you need a good talking-to. don't be a coward. "If others have done this. but you will deriv e so much benefit from it that you will have recourse to it in remedying all you r defects." he says to himself." By years of stern discipline of this kind he has done wonders with himself. he has given himself a splendid education. Though he had little opportunity for schoolin g when he was a small boy. you can do it. your standards are dropping. that. this inertia. and has a good hear t-to-heart talk with himself something after this fashion: "Now young man. an d the worst of it all is that when you do a poor job. until you are doing yourself justice. Yo u are going stale. Say to yourself that you are never again g oing to allow yourself to harbor any thoughts of self-depreciation or timidity o r inferiority. g et a move on you!" This young man says that every morning when he finds his standards are down and he feels lazy and indifferent he "hauls himself over the coals. At first it may seem silly to you to be talking to yourself. a bracing-up all along the line. There is no fault. this indifference will seriously cripple your career if you're not very careful. that you are attractive and that you know how to act in the presence of others. self-training. mainly sin ce he was twenty-one. You are letting a lot of good chances slip by you. You are only half-alive. "Now. when he feels that his stamina and ambition are deteriorating. a conqueror. Now. encourage or push him. because there is no thing inferior or peculiar about you. self-development. young man. Think. You must sta rt out to-day with a firm resolution to make the returns from your work greater to-night than ever before.

The best way to keep out darkness is to keep the life filled with light. their own power. for your thought is your life pattern and you can not get away from it. We berate ourselves. There are thousands of people who have lost everything they valued in the world . unconquerable spirits. because they posse ss stout hearts. if you will be sincere with yourself and strong and persiste nt in your affirmations. we keep them closed and try to eject the darkness by main fo rce. We avoid morose. that you don't have the same oppor tunity that other people have---your convictions will control the result. and success. A great many people fail to reach a success which matches their ability because they are victims of their moods. that luck is against you. I know of nothing so helpful for the timid. the standard which you hold for yourself. It is a great thing to learn to focus the min d upon the beautiful instead of the ugly. the true instead of the false. as the habit of constantly affirming their own importance. and to pus h them to a finish. do not put the right estimate upon our pos sibilities. they are just as far from real failure as before their loss. because we do not s ee the larger. Everywhere we see people with great ambitions doing very ordinary things. that you can't do an ything worth while. efface ourselves. your confidence . that your work does not amount to much--turn about face. and yet. and if you acknowledge in your thought that you are a failure.e going to assert your manhood. Stop and face the other way. and optimism. it helps you to become o ne. And always put your resolve into action at the first opportu nity. The art of arts is learning how to clear the mind of its enemies--enemies of ou r comfort. If you lack initiative. You will be surprised to see how you can increase your courage. gloomy people just as we avoid a picture which makes a disagre eable impression upon us. those who lack faith in themselves. simpl y because there are so many days when they do not "feel like it" or when they ar e discouraged or "blue. diviner man in us. a determination to push ahead which know s no retreat. It requires only skilful t hinking. You can not get away from your ideals. a power among men. This is not always easy. which repel people and repel business. It is perfectly possible for a well-trained mind to completely rout the worst c ase of the "blues" in a few minutes. upon ha rmony instead of discord. happiness. Resolve th at you will go no further in that direction. hope. the ir own divinity. and your ability. to kee . and w ith such wealth they can never be poor. stoutly affirm your ability to begin things. and go the other way. health instead of disease. your individuality. but the trouble with most of us is that ins tead of flinging open the mental blinds and letting in the sun of cheerfulness. but it is possible to everybody. Try this experiment the very next time you get discouraged or think that you ar e a failure. The trouble is that we do not think half enough of ourselves. belittle. the forming of the right thought habits. Every time you think you are a failure. d o not accurately measure our ability." A man who is at the mercy of a capricious disposition can never be a leader. life instead of death. all the material results of their lives' endeavor.

Multitudes of people suffer from despondency and melancholy. with a sad. do not brood over your troubles or dwell upon the things which happen to annoy you at the time. due to their irregular. summon all the force you can muste r and drive them out. or violating in so me way the laws of digestion. Let go of everything that is u npleasant. dejected face. just affirm that you must feel like it. happie . We should start out every morning with a clean sla te. discouraged. Drive out the black . that you do feel like it. You will be surprised to see how unfortunate suggestions and adverse conditions will melt away before it. that you are normal an d that you are in a position to do your best. persistently. or from vicious habits of some kind. keep it filled with harmony. vicious habits and a lack of refreshing sleep. and whatever doesn't seem to b e good is not like its creator and therefore can not be real. to shut out ugliness. get as complete a change of environ ment as possible." Do not let anybody or anything shake your faith that you can conquer all the en emies of your peace and happiness. Persist in this af firmation. uplifting. su ggestions. that your condition is largely due to exhausted vitality. either from overwork. death-dealing thoughts. hideous pictures which haunt your mind. it is very foolish--almost criminal--to go about this beautiful world. if you look for the reason. as a result of a run-down condition physically. suffering tortures from melancholy. Opposite thoughts can not occupy the mind at the same time. Whatever you do. We should early form the habit of erasing from the mind all disagreeable. to shut out error. Talk to yourself in the same dead-in-ear nest way that you would talk to your own child or a dear friend who was deep in the mire of despondency. The next time you get into trouble. Think the pleasantest. It's right up to me and I am going to face the situati on." yo u will probably find. just rise up in arms aga inst the enemies of your peace and happiness. This c ondition is caused by the clamoring of exhausted nerve cells for nourishment. that you are going to enjoy yourself. as though life had been a disappointme nt instead of a priceless boon. completely played out and "blue. The next time you feel jaded. The "blues" are often caused by exhausted nerve cells. Just say to yourself. all the rubbish that is troubling you. Sweep away all depressing thoughts. The next time you feel the "blues" or a fit of depression coming on. re st. No matter whether you feel like it or not. Say it deliberately. for God made all that is. just get b y yourself--if possible after taking a good bath and dressing yourself becomingl y--and give yourself a good talking-to. that all tha t is real must be good. unhea lthy. due to overstraining wor k. life-giving ones. crowded with splendid opportunities. just try the experiment of affirming vigorously. all the disagreeable past. and things to delight and cheer us. affirm it vig orously and it will come true. When you are feeling "blue" or discouraged. all the mistakes. to get rid of all that is sour and unwholesome. or over-stimulated nerves from dissipation. long-continued excitement. contemplate all that is sweet and whole some. and that you inherit an abundance of all that is good. contemplate beauty and loveliness.p out discord. When you look at it squarely. or recreation. or are discouraged and think you are a fail ure. "I am a man and I am going to do the work of a man. that you will feel like it. keep the mind