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Chapter 15 Transformer Design

Some more advanced design issues, not considered in previous


chapter:
n1 : n2
• Inclusion of core loss
+ + i2(t)
• Selection of operating flux i1(t)
density to optimize total loss v1(t) v2(t)

• Multiple winding design: as in – –


the coupled-inductor case, R1 R2
allocate the available window
area among several windings
+ ik (t)
• A transformer design
procedure vk(t)
• How switching frequency –
affects transformer size : nk Rk

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 1 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Chapter 15 Transformer Design

15.1 Transformer design: Basic constraints


15.2 A step-by-step transformer design procedure
15.3 Examples
15.4 AC inductor design
15.5 Summary

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 2 Chapter 15: Transformer design


15.1 Transformer Design:
Basic Constraints

Core loss
P fe = K fe(∆B) β A c l m

Typical value of  for ferrite materials: 2.6 or 2.7


B is the peak value of the ac component of B(t), i.e., the peak ac flux
density
So increasing B causes core loss to increase rapidly

This is the first constraint

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 3 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Flux density
Constraint #2

v1(t)
Flux density B(t) is related to the
applied winding voltage according area λ1
to Faraday’s Law. Denote the volt-
seconds applied to the primary
winding during the positive portion
of v1(t) as 1: t1 t2 t
t2
λ1 = v1(t)dt
t1

This causes the flux to change from


its negative peak to its positive peak. To attain a given flux density,
From Faraday’s law, the peak value the primary turns should be
of the ac component of flux density is chosen according to
λ1 λ1
∆B = n1 =
2n 1A c 2∆BA c
Fundamentals of Power Electronics 4 Chapter 15: Transformer design
Copper loss
Constraint #3

• Allocate window area between windings in optimum manner, as


described in previous section
• Total copper loss is then equal to
with
2 2
ρ(MLT)n I 1 tot k nj
Pcu = I tot = Σ
WAK u j=1 n1 I j

Eliminate n1, using result of previous slide:

ρ λ 21 I 2tot (MLT ) 1 2
Pcu =
4K u W A A 2c ∆B

Note that copper loss decreases rapidly as B is increased

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 5 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Total power loss
4. Ptot = Pcu + Pfe

There is a value of B Power


that minimizes the total loss
power loss

Co
Ptot

fe
ss P
ppe

o
r lo

re l
ss P c

Co
Ptot = Pfe + Pcu

u
P fe = K fe(∆B) β A c l m
Optimum ∆B ∆B

ρ λ 21 I 2tot (MLT ) 1 2
Pcu =
4K u W A A 2c ∆B

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 6 Chapter 15: Transformer design


5. Find optimum flux density B

Given that
Ptot = Pfe + Pcu
Then, at the B that minimizes Ptot, we can write
dPtot dP fe dPcu
= + =0
d(∆B) d(∆B) d(∆B)

Note: optimum does not necessarily occur where Pfe = Pcu. Rather, it
occurs where

dP fe dPcu
=–
d(∆B) d(∆B)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 7 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Take derivatives of core and copper loss

P fe = K fe(∆B) A c l m β ρ λ 21 I 2tot (MLT ) 1 2


Pcu =
4K u W A A 2c ∆B
dP fe
= βK fe (∆B) β–1
Aclm dPcu ρλ 21 I 2tot (MLT) –3
d(∆B) =–2 (∆B)
d(∆B) 4K u W A A 2c

dP fe dPcu
Now, substitute into =– and solve for B:
d(∆B) d(∆B)

1
β+2 Optimum B for a
ρλ 21 I 2tot (MLT ) 1 given core and
∆B =
2K u W A A c l m βK fe
3
application

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 8 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Total loss

Substitute optimum B into expressions for Pcu and Pfe. The total loss is:
β
β 2
β+2
2 ρλ 21 I 2tot (MLT ) β –
β+2 β β+2
Ptot = A c l m K fe β+2 +
4K u W A A 2c 2 2

Rearrange as follows:
β+2

β β 2/β
WA Ac
2(β – 1)/β
β –
β+2 β
2
β+2 ρλ 21 I 2tot K fe
+ =
(MLT )l m2/β 2 2 β + 2 /β
4K u Ptot

Left side: terms depend on core Right side: terms depend on


geometry specifications of the application

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 9 Chapter 15: Transformer design


The core geometrical constant Kgfe
β+2

β β
2(β – 1)/β – 2
Define
WA Ac β β+2 β β+2
K gfe = +
(MLT)l m2/β 2 2

Design procedure: select a core that satisfies


2/β
ρλ 21 I 2tot K fe
K gfe ≥
β + 2 /β
4K u Ptot
Appendix D lists the values of Kgfe for common ferrite cores
Kgfe is similar to the Kg geometrical constant used in Chapter 14:
• Kg is used when Bmax is specified
• Kgfe is used when B is to be chosen to minimize total loss

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 10 Chapter 15: Transformer design


15.2 Step-by-step
transformer design procedure
The following quantities are specified, using the units noted:
Wire effective resistivity  (-cm)
Total rms winding current, ref to pri Itot (A)
Desired turns ratios n2/n1, n3/n1, etc.
Applied pri volt-sec 1 (V-sec)
Allowed total power dissipation Ptot (W)
Winding fill factor Ku
Core loss exponent 
Core loss coefficient Kfe (W/cm3T)

Other quantities and their dimensions:


Core cross-sectional area Ac (cm2)
Core window area WA (cm2)
Mean length per turn MLT (cm)
Magnetic path length le (cm)
Wire areas Aw1, … (cm2)
Peak ac flux density B (T)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 11 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Procedure
1. Determine core size

2/β
ρλ 21 I 2tot K fe
K gfe ≥ 10 8
β + 2 /β
4K u Ptot

Select a core from Appendix D that satisfies this inequality.


It may be possible to reduce the core size by choosing a core material
that has lower loss, i.e., lower Kfe.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 12 Chapter 15: Transformer design


2. Evaluate peak ac flux density

1
β+2
ρλ 21 I 2tot (MLT )
8 1
∆B = 10
2K u W A A 3c l m βK fe

At this point, one should check whether the saturation flux density is
exceeded. If the core operates with a flux dc bias Bdc, then B + Bdc
should be less than the saturation flux density Bsat.
If the core will saturate, then there are two choices:
• Specify B using the Kg method of Chapter 14, or
• Choose a core material having greater core loss, then repeat
steps 1 and 2

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 13 Chapter 15: Transformer design


3. and 4. Evaluate turns

Primary turns:
λ1
n1 = 10 4
2∆BA c

Choose secondary turns according to


desired turns ratios:
n2
n2 = n1
n1
n3
n3 = n1
n1

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 14 Chapter 15: Transformer design


5. and 6. Choose wire sizes

Fraction of window area Choose wire sizes according


assigned to each winding: to:

n 1I 1 α 1K uWA
α1 = A w1 ≤
n 1I tot n1
n 2I 2 α 2K uWA
α2 = A w2 ≤
n 1I tot n2

n kI k
αk =
n 1I tot

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 15 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Check: computed transformer model

Predicted magnetizing n1 : n2
inductance, referred to primary:
i1(t) iM (t) i2(t)
µn 21 A c
LM =
lm LM
Peak magnetizing current:
λ1 R1 R2
i M, pk =
2L M
Predicted winding resistances: ik(t)
ρn 1(MLT)
R1 =
A w1
ρn (MLT)
R2 = 2 : nk
A w2 Rk

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 16 Chapter 15: Transformer design


15.4.1 Example 1: Single-output isolated
Cuk converter
Ig
+ vC1(t) – – vC2(t) + I
4A 20 A
+
– +
Vg + v1(t) v2(t) V
– 5V
25 V
+ –

i1(t) n:1 i2(t)

100 W fs = 200 kHz


D = 0.5 n=5
Ku = 0.5 Allow Ptot = 0.25 W
Use a ferrite pot core, with Magnetics Inc. P material. Loss
parameters at 200 kHz are
Kfe = 24.7  = 2.6

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 17 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Waveforms

v1(t) Applied primary volt-


VC1 Area λ1
seconds:
D'Ts λ 1 = DTsVc1 = (0.5) (5 µsec ) (25 V)
DTs – nVC2 = 62.5 V–µsec

Applied primary rms


i1(t)
I/n current:
2
D nI
2
I1 = + D' I g =4A
– Ig
Applied secondary rms
i2(t) current:
I I 2 = nI 1 = 20 A

Total rms winding


– nIg current:
I tot = I 1 + 1n I 2 = 8 A
Fundamentals of Power Electronics 18 Chapter 15: Transformer design
Choose core size

(1.724⋅10 – 6)(62.5⋅10 – 6) 2(8) 2(24.7) 2/2.6 8


K gfe ≥ 10
4 (0.5) (0.25) 4.6/2.6
= 0.00295
Pot core data of Appendix D lists 2213 pot core with
Kgfe = 0.0049
Next smaller pot core is not large enough.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 19 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Evaluate peak ac flux density

1/4.6

(1.724⋅10 – 6 )(62.5⋅10 – 6 ) 2(8) 2


8 (4.42) 1
∆B = 10 3
2 (0.5) (0.297)(0.635) (3.15) (2.6)(24.7)

= 0.0858 Tesla

This is much less than the saturation flux density of approximately


0.35 T. Values of B in the vicinity of 0.1 T are typical for ferrite
designs that operate at frequencies in the vicinity of 100 kHz.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 20 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Evaluate turns

–6
(62.5⋅10 )
n 1 = 10 4
2(0.0858)(0.635)
= 5.74 turns
n1
n 2 = n = 1.15 turns
In practice, we might select
n1 = 5 and n2 = 1
This would lead to a slightly higher flux density and slightly higher
loss.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 21 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Determine wire sizes

Fraction of window area allocated to each winding:


4A (Since, in this example, the ratio of
α1 = = 0.5
8A winding rms currents is equal to the
turns ratio, equal areas are
1 20 A
5 allocated to each winding)
α2 = = 0.5
8A
From wire table,
Wire areas:
Appendix D:
(0.5)(0.5)(0.297)
A w1 = = 14.8⋅10 – 3 cm 2 AWG #16
(5)
(0.5)(0.5)(0.297) AWG #9
A w2 = = 74.2⋅10 – 3 cm 2
(1)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 22 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Wire sizes: discussion

Primary
5 turns #16 AWG
Secondary
1 turn #9 AWG

• Very large conductors!


• One turn of #9 AWG is not a practical solution
Some alternatives
• Use foil windings
• Use Litz wire or parallel strands of wire

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 23 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Effect of switching frequency on transformer size
for this P-material Cuk converter example

4226

3622 0.1

0.08
Pot core size

Bmax , Tesla
2616 2616
2213 2213
0.06
1811 1811

0.04

0.02

0
25 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 200 kHz 250 kHz 400 kHz 500 kHz 1000 kHz
Switching frequency

• As switching frequency is • As switching frequency is


increased from 25 kHz to increased from 400 kHz to
250 kHz, core size is 1 MHz, core size
dramatically reduced increases

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 24 Chapter 15: Transformer design


15.3.2 Example 2
Multiple-Output Full-Bridge Buck Converter

Q1 Q3 T1 I5V
D1 D3
n1 : : n2 i2a(t) 100 A
+
+ D5

Vg + i1(t) v1(t)
– 5V
160 V
– D6 i2b(t) –
: n2 I15V
D2 D4
Q2 Q4 : n3 i3a(t) 15 A
+
D7
Switching frequency 150 kHz
15 V
Transformer frequency 75 kHz D8 i2b(t) –
Turns ratio 110:5:15 : n3

Optimize transformer at D = 0.75

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 25 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Other transformer design details

Use Magnetics, Inc. ferrite P material. Loss parameters at 75 kHz:


Kfe = 7.6 W/Tcm3
 = 2.6
Use E-E core shape
Assume fill factor of
Ku = 0.25 (reduced fill factor accounts for added insulation required
in multiple-output off-line application)
Allow transformer total power loss of
Ptot = 4 W (approximately 0.5% of total output power)
Use copper wire, with
 = 1.724·10–6 -cm

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 26 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Applied transformer waveforms

v1(t) Area λ1
T1 Vg
D3 = Vg DTs
n1 : : n2 i2a(t)
0 0
+ D5
– Vg
i1(t) v (t)
1
i1(t) n2 n
I 5V + 3 I 15V
– n1 n1
D6 i2b(t)
0
: n2
D4
n2 n
: n3 i3a(t) – I 5V + 3 I 15V
n1 n1
D7 i2a(t)
I5V
0.5I5V
0
i3a(t) I15V
D8 i2b(t) 0.5I15V
: n3 0
0 DTs Ts Ts+DTs 2Ts t

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 27 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Applied primary volt-seconds

v1(t) Area λ1
Vg = Vg DTs

0 0

– Vg

λ 1 = DTsVg = (0.75) (6.67 µsec ) (160 V) = 800 V–µsec

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 28 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Applied primary rms current

i1(t) n2 n
I 5V + 3 I 15V
n1 n1

n2 n
– I 5V + 3 I 15V
n1 n1

n2 n3
I 1 = n I 5V + n I 15V D = 5.7 A
1 1

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 29 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Applied rms current, secondary windings

i2a(t) I5V
0.5I5V
0
i3a(t)
I15V
0.5I15V
0
0 DTs Ts Ts+DTs 2Ts t

I 2 = 12 I 5V 1 + D = 66.1 A
I 3 = 12 I 15V 1 + D = 9.9 A

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 30 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Itot

RMS currents, summed over all windings and referred to primary

nj n2 n3
I tot = Σ
all 5 n1 I j = I 1 + 2 n1 I 2 + 2 n1 I 3
windings

= 5.7 A + 5 66.1 A + 15 9.9 A


110 110
= 14.4 A

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 31 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Select core size

(1.724⋅10 – 6)(800⋅10 – 6) 2(14.4) 2(7.6) 2/2.6 8


K gfe ≥ 10
4 (0.25) (4) 4.6/2.6
= 0.00937

From Appendix D

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 32 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Evaluate ac flux density B

1
2 2 β+2
Eq. (15.20): 8 ρλ 1I tot (MLT) 1
Bmax = 10
2K u WAA 3c l m βK fe
Plug in values:
1/4.6

(1.724⋅10 – 6 )(800⋅10 – 6 ) 2(14.4) 2


8 (8.5) 1
∆B = 10 3
2(0.25) (1.1)(1.27) (7.7) (2.6)(7.6)

= 0.23 Tesla

This is less than the saturation flux density of approximately 0.35 T

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 33 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Evaluate turns

Choose n1 according to Eq. (15.21):


Rounding the number of turns
λ1
n1 = 10 4 To obtain desired turns ratio
2∆BA c
of
4 (800⋅10 – 6) 110:5:15
n 1 = 10
2(0.23)(1.27)
= 13.7 turns we might round the actual
turns to
Choose secondary turns 22:1:3
according to desired turns ratios:
Increased n1 would lead to
5
n2 = n = 0.62 turns • Less core loss
110 1
15 • More copper loss
n3 = n = 1.87 turns
110 1 • Increased total loss

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 34 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Loss calculation
with rounded turns

With n1 = 22, the flux density will be reduced to


(800⋅10 – 6 )
∆B = 10 4 = 0.143 Tesla
2(22)(1.27)
The resulting losses will be

Pfe = (7.6)(0.143) 2.6(1.27)(7.7) = 0.47 W


(1.724⋅10 – 6)(800⋅10 – 6) 2(14.4) 2 (8.5) 1 8
Pcu = 10
4 (0.25) (1.1)(1.27) 2 (0.143) 2
= 5.4 W
Ptot = Pfe + Pcu = 5.9 W
Which exceeds design goal of 4 W by 50%. So use next larger core
size: EE50.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 35 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Calculations with EE50

Repeat previous calculations for EE50 core size. Results:


B = 0.14 T, n1 = 12, Ptot = 2.3 W
Again round n1 to 22. Then
B = 0.08 T, Pcu = 3.89 W, Pfe = 0.23 W, Ptot = 4.12 W
Which is close enough to 4 W.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 36 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Wire sizes for EE50 design

Window allocations Wire gauges

I1 α 1K uWA (0.396)(0.25)(1.78)
α1 = = 5.7 = 0.396 A w1 = =
(22)
= 8.0⋅10 – 3 cm 2
I tot 14.4 n1
⇒ AWG #19
n 2I 2 αKW (0.209)(0.25)(1.78)
α2 = = 5 66.1 = 0.209 A w2 = 2 u A =
(1)
= 93.0⋅10 – 3 cm 2
n 1I tot 110 14.4 n2
⇒ AWG #8
n 3I 3 αKW (0.094)(0.25)(1.78)
α3 = = 15 9.9 = 0.094 A w3 = 3 u A =
(3)
= 13.9⋅10 – 3 cm 2
n 1I tot 110 14.4 n3
⇒ AWG #16

Might actually use foil or Litz wire for secondary windings

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 37 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Discussion: Transformer design

• Process is iterative because of round-off of physical number of


turns and, to a lesser extent, other quantities
• Effect of proximity loss
– Not included in design process yet
– Requires additional iterations
• Can modify procedure as follows:
– After a design has been calculated, determine number of layers in
each winding and then compute proximity loss
– Alter effective resistivity of wire to compensate: define
eff =   Pcu/Pdc where Pcu is the total copper loss (including proximity
effects) and Pdc is the copper loss predicted by the dc resistance.
– Apply transformer design procedure using this effective wire
resistivity, and compute proximity loss in the resulting design.
Further iterations may be necessary if the specifications are not
met.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 38 Chapter 15: Transformer design


15.4 AC Inductor Design

Window area WA
i(t) + Core mean length Core
per turn (MLT ) Core area
Ac
v(t) L
n
turns Air gap
lg

Wire resistivity ρ
v(t)
Area λ Fill factor Ku

t1 t2 t

Design a single-winding inductor, having


i(t) an air gap, accounting for core loss
(note that the previous design procedure of
this chapter did not employ an air gap, and
inductance was not a specification)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 39 Chapter 15: Transformer design


Outline of key equations

Obtain specified inductance: Total loss is minimized when


µ0 Acn2 1
L= β+2
lg
2 2
ρλ I (MLT ) 1
∆B =
2K u W A A c l m βK fe
3

Relationship between
applied volt-seconds and Must select core that satisfies
peak ac flux density:
2/β
ρλ 2I 2K fe
∆B = λ K gfe ≥
2nA c 2K u Ptot
β + 2 /β

Copper loss (using dc


resistance):
ρn 2(MLT ) 2 See Section 15.4.2 for step-by-step
Pcu = I design equations
K uW A

Fundamentals of Power Electronics 40 Chapter 15: Transformer design