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# Chapter 15 Transformer Design

## Some more advanced design issues, not considered in previous

chapter:
n1 : n2
• Inclusion of core loss
+ + i2(t)
• Selection of operating flux i1(t)
density to optimize total loss v1(t) v2(t)

## • Multiple winding design: as in – –

the coupled-inductor case, R1 R2
allocate the available window
area among several windings
+ ik (t)
• A transformer design
procedure vk(t)
• How switching frequency –
affects transformer size : nk Rk

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 1 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Chapter 15 Transformer Design

## 15.1 Transformer design: Basic constraints

15.2 A step-by-step transformer design procedure
15.3 Examples
15.4 AC inductor design
15.5 Summary

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 2 Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.1 Transformer Design:
Basic Constraints

Core loss
P fe = K fe(∆B) β A c l m

## Typical value of  for ferrite materials: 2.6 or 2.7

B is the peak value of the ac component of B(t), i.e., the peak ac flux
density
So increasing B causes core loss to increase rapidly

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 3 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Flux density
Constraint #2

v1(t)
Flux density B(t) is related to the
applied winding voltage according area λ1
to Faraday’s Law. Denote the volt-
seconds applied to the primary
winding during the positive portion
of v1(t) as 1: t1 t2 t
t2
λ1 = v1(t)dt
t1

## This causes the flux to change from

its negative peak to its positive peak. To attain a given flux density,
From Faraday’s law, the peak value the primary turns should be
of the ac component of flux density is chosen according to
λ1 λ1
∆B = n1 =
2n 1A c 2∆BA c
Fundamentals of Power Electronics 4 Chapter 15: Transformer design
Copper loss
Constraint #3

## • Allocate window area between windings in optimum manner, as

described in previous section
• Total copper loss is then equal to
with
2 2
ρ(MLT)n I 1 tot k nj
Pcu = I tot = Σ
WAK u j=1 n1 I j

## Eliminate n1, using result of previous slide:

ρ λ 21 I 2tot (MLT ) 1 2
Pcu =
4K u W A A 2c ∆B

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 5 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Total power loss
4. Ptot = Pcu + Pfe

## There is a value of B Power

that minimizes the total loss
power loss

Co
Ptot

fe
ss P
ppe

o
r lo

re l
ss P c

Co
Ptot = Pfe + Pcu

u
P fe = K fe(∆B) β A c l m
Optimum ∆B ∆B

ρ λ 21 I 2tot (MLT ) 1 2
Pcu =
4K u W A A 2c ∆B

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 6 Chapter 15: Transformer design

5. Find optimum flux density B

Given that
Ptot = Pfe + Pcu
Then, at the B that minimizes Ptot, we can write
dPtot dP fe dPcu
= + =0
d(∆B) d(∆B) d(∆B)

Note: optimum does not necessarily occur where Pfe = Pcu. Rather, it
occurs where

dP fe dPcu
=–
d(∆B) d(∆B)

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 7 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Take derivatives of core and copper loss

## P fe = K fe(∆B) A c l m β ρ λ 21 I 2tot (MLT ) 1 2

Pcu =
4K u W A A 2c ∆B
dP fe
= βK fe (∆B) β–1
Aclm dPcu ρλ 21 I 2tot (MLT) –3
d(∆B) =–2 (∆B)
d(∆B) 4K u W A A 2c

dP fe dPcu
Now, substitute into =– and solve for B:
d(∆B) d(∆B)

1
β+2 Optimum B for a
ρλ 21 I 2tot (MLT ) 1 given core and
∆B =
2K u W A A c l m βK fe
3
application

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 8 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Total loss

Substitute optimum B into expressions for Pcu and Pfe. The total loss is:
β
β 2
β+2
2 ρλ 21 I 2tot (MLT ) β –
β+2 β β+2
Ptot = A c l m K fe β+2 +
4K u W A A 2c 2 2

Rearrange as follows:
β+2

β β 2/β
WA Ac
2(β – 1)/β
β –
β+2 β
2
β+2 ρλ 21 I 2tot K fe
+ =
(MLT )l m2/β 2 2 β + 2 /β
4K u Ptot

## Left side: terms depend on core Right side: terms depend on

geometry specifications of the application

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 9 Chapter 15: Transformer design

The core geometrical constant Kgfe
β+2

β β
2(β – 1)/β – 2
Define
WA Ac β β+2 β β+2
K gfe = +
(MLT)l m2/β 2 2

## Design procedure: select a core that satisfies

2/β
ρλ 21 I 2tot K fe
K gfe ≥
β + 2 /β
4K u Ptot
Appendix D lists the values of Kgfe for common ferrite cores
Kgfe is similar to the Kg geometrical constant used in Chapter 14:
• Kg is used when Bmax is specified
• Kgfe is used when B is to be chosen to minimize total loss

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 10 Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.2 Step-by-step
transformer design procedure
The following quantities are specified, using the units noted:
Wire effective resistivity  (-cm)
Total rms winding current, ref to pri Itot (A)
Desired turns ratios n2/n1, n3/n1, etc.
Applied pri volt-sec 1 (V-sec)
Allowed total power dissipation Ptot (W)
Winding fill factor Ku
Core loss exponent 
Core loss coefficient Kfe (W/cm3T)

## Other quantities and their dimensions:

Core cross-sectional area Ac (cm2)
Core window area WA (cm2)
Mean length per turn MLT (cm)
Magnetic path length le (cm)
Wire areas Aw1, … (cm2)
Peak ac flux density B (T)

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 11 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Procedure
1. Determine core size

2/β
ρλ 21 I 2tot K fe
K gfe ≥ 10 8
β + 2 /β
4K u Ptot

## Select a core from Appendix D that satisfies this inequality.

It may be possible to reduce the core size by choosing a core material
that has lower loss, i.e., lower Kfe.

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 12 Chapter 15: Transformer design

2. Evaluate peak ac flux density

1
β+2
ρλ 21 I 2tot (MLT )
8 1
∆B = 10
2K u W A A 3c l m βK fe

At this point, one should check whether the saturation flux density is
exceeded. If the core operates with a flux dc bias Bdc, then B + Bdc
should be less than the saturation flux density Bsat.
If the core will saturate, then there are two choices:
• Specify B using the Kg method of Chapter 14, or
• Choose a core material having greater core loss, then repeat
steps 1 and 2

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 13 Chapter 15: Transformer design

3. and 4. Evaluate turns

Primary turns:
λ1
n1 = 10 4
2∆BA c

## Choose secondary turns according to

desired turns ratios:
n2
n2 = n1
n1
n3
n3 = n1
n1

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 14 Chapter 15: Transformer design

5. and 6. Choose wire sizes

## Fraction of window area Choose wire sizes according

assigned to each winding: to:

n 1I 1 α 1K uWA
α1 = A w1 ≤
n 1I tot n1
n 2I 2 α 2K uWA
α2 = A w2 ≤
n 1I tot n2

n kI k
αk =
n 1I tot

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 15 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Check: computed transformer model

Predicted magnetizing n1 : n2
inductance, referred to primary:
i1(t) iM (t) i2(t)
µn 21 A c
LM =
lm LM
Peak magnetizing current:
λ1 R1 R2
i M, pk =
2L M
Predicted winding resistances: ik(t)
ρn 1(MLT)
R1 =
A w1
ρn (MLT)
R2 = 2 : nk
A w2 Rk

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 16 Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.4.1 Example 1: Single-output isolated
Cuk converter
Ig
+ vC1(t) – – vC2(t) + I
4A 20 A
+
– +
Vg + v1(t) v2(t) V
– 5V
25 V
+ –

i1(t) n:1 i2(t)

## 100 W fs = 200 kHz

D = 0.5 n=5
Ku = 0.5 Allow Ptot = 0.25 W
Use a ferrite pot core, with Magnetics Inc. P material. Loss
parameters at 200 kHz are
Kfe = 24.7  = 2.6

Waveforms

## v1(t) Applied primary volt-

VC1 Area λ1
seconds:
D'Ts λ 1 = DTsVc1 = (0.5) (5 µsec ) (25 V)
DTs – nVC2 = 62.5 V–µsec

## Applied primary rms

i1(t)
I/n current:
2
D nI
2
I1 = + D' I g =4A
– Ig
Applied secondary rms
i2(t) current:
I I 2 = nI 1 = 20 A

## Total rms winding

– nIg current:
I tot = I 1 + 1n I 2 = 8 A
Fundamentals of Power Electronics 18 Chapter 15: Transformer design
Choose core size

## (1.724⋅10 – 6)(62.5⋅10 – 6) 2(8) 2(24.7) 2/2.6 8

K gfe ≥ 10
4 (0.5) (0.25) 4.6/2.6
= 0.00295
Pot core data of Appendix D lists 2213 pot core with
Kgfe = 0.0049
Next smaller pot core is not large enough.

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 19 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Evaluate peak ac flux density

1/4.6

## (1.724⋅10 – 6 )(62.5⋅10 – 6 ) 2(8) 2

8 (4.42) 1
∆B = 10 3
2 (0.5) (0.297)(0.635) (3.15) (2.6)(24.7)

= 0.0858 Tesla

## This is much less than the saturation flux density of approximately

0.35 T. Values of B in the vicinity of 0.1 T are typical for ferrite
designs that operate at frequencies in the vicinity of 100 kHz.

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 20 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Evaluate turns

–6
(62.5⋅10 )
n 1 = 10 4
2(0.0858)(0.635)
= 5.74 turns
n1
n 2 = n = 1.15 turns
In practice, we might select
n1 = 5 and n2 = 1
This would lead to a slightly higher flux density and slightly higher
loss.

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 21 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Determine wire sizes

## Fraction of window area allocated to each winding:

4A (Since, in this example, the ratio of
α1 = = 0.5
8A winding rms currents is equal to the
turns ratio, equal areas are
1 20 A
5 allocated to each winding)
α2 = = 0.5
8A
From wire table,
Wire areas:
Appendix D:
(0.5)(0.5)(0.297)
A w1 = = 14.8⋅10 – 3 cm 2 AWG #16
(5)
(0.5)(0.5)(0.297) AWG #9
A w2 = = 74.2⋅10 – 3 cm 2
(1)

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 22 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Wire sizes: discussion

Primary
5 turns #16 AWG
Secondary
1 turn #9 AWG

## • Very large conductors!

• One turn of #9 AWG is not a practical solution
Some alternatives
• Use foil windings
• Use Litz wire or parallel strands of wire

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 23 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Effect of switching frequency on transformer size
for this P-material Cuk converter example

4226

3622 0.1

0.08
Pot core size

Bmax , Tesla
2616 2616
2213 2213
0.06
1811 1811

0.04

0.02

0
25 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 200 kHz 250 kHz 400 kHz 500 kHz 1000 kHz
Switching frequency

## • As switching frequency is • As switching frequency is

increased from 25 kHz to increased from 400 kHz to
250 kHz, core size is 1 MHz, core size
dramatically reduced increases

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 24 Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.3.2 Example 2
Multiple-Output Full-Bridge Buck Converter

Q1 Q3 T1 I5V
D1 D3
n1 : : n2 i2a(t) 100 A
+
+ D5

Vg + i1(t) v1(t)
– 5V
160 V
– D6 i2b(t) –
: n2 I15V
D2 D4
Q2 Q4 : n3 i3a(t) 15 A
+
D7
Switching frequency 150 kHz
15 V
Transformer frequency 75 kHz D8 i2b(t) –
Turns ratio 110:5:15 : n3

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 25 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Other transformer design details

## Use Magnetics, Inc. ferrite P material. Loss parameters at 75 kHz:

Kfe = 7.6 W/Tcm3
 = 2.6
Use E-E core shape
Assume fill factor of
Ku = 0.25 (reduced fill factor accounts for added insulation required
in multiple-output off-line application)
Allow transformer total power loss of
Ptot = 4 W (approximately 0.5% of total output power)
Use copper wire, with
 = 1.724·10–6 -cm

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 26 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Applied transformer waveforms

v1(t) Area λ1
T1 Vg
D3 = Vg DTs
n1 : : n2 i2a(t)
0 0
+ D5
– Vg
i1(t) v (t)
1
i1(t) n2 n
I 5V + 3 I 15V
– n1 n1
D6 i2b(t)
0
: n2
D4
n2 n
: n3 i3a(t) – I 5V + 3 I 15V
n1 n1
D7 i2a(t)
I5V
0.5I5V
0
i3a(t) I15V
D8 i2b(t) 0.5I15V
: n3 0
0 DTs Ts Ts+DTs 2Ts t

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 27 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Applied primary volt-seconds

v1(t) Area λ1
Vg = Vg DTs

0 0

– Vg

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 28 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Applied primary rms current

i1(t) n2 n
I 5V + 3 I 15V
n1 n1

n2 n
– I 5V + 3 I 15V
n1 n1

n2 n3
I 1 = n I 5V + n I 15V D = 5.7 A
1 1

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 29 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Applied rms current, secondary windings

i2a(t) I5V
0.5I5V
0
i3a(t)
I15V
0.5I15V
0
0 DTs Ts Ts+DTs 2Ts t

I 2 = 12 I 5V 1 + D = 66.1 A
I 3 = 12 I 15V 1 + D = 9.9 A

Itot

## RMS currents, summed over all windings and referred to primary

nj n2 n3
I tot = Σ
all 5 n1 I j = I 1 + 2 n1 I 2 + 2 n1 I 3
windings

110 110
= 14.4 A

Select core size

## (1.724⋅10 – 6)(800⋅10 – 6) 2(14.4) 2(7.6) 2/2.6 8

K gfe ≥ 10
4 (0.25) (4) 4.6/2.6
= 0.00937

From Appendix D

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 32 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Evaluate ac flux density B

1
2 2 β+2
Eq. (15.20): 8 ρλ 1I tot (MLT) 1
Bmax = 10
2K u WAA 3c l m βK fe
Plug in values:
1/4.6

## (1.724⋅10 – 6 )(800⋅10 – 6 ) 2(14.4) 2

8 (8.5) 1
∆B = 10 3
2(0.25) (1.1)(1.27) (7.7) (2.6)(7.6)

= 0.23 Tesla

Evaluate turns

## Choose n1 according to Eq. (15.21):

Rounding the number of turns
λ1
n1 = 10 4 To obtain desired turns ratio
2∆BA c
of
4 (800⋅10 – 6) 110:5:15
n 1 = 10
2(0.23)(1.27)
= 13.7 turns we might round the actual
turns to
Choose secondary turns 22:1:3
according to desired turns ratios:
5
n2 = n = 0.62 turns • Less core loss
110 1
15 • More copper loss
n3 = n = 1.87 turns
110 1 • Increased total loss

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 34 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Loss calculation
with rounded turns

## With n1 = 22, the flux density will be reduced to

(800⋅10 – 6 )
∆B = 10 4 = 0.143 Tesla
2(22)(1.27)
The resulting losses will be

## Pfe = (7.6)(0.143) 2.6(1.27)(7.7) = 0.47 W

(1.724⋅10 – 6)(800⋅10 – 6) 2(14.4) 2 (8.5) 1 8
Pcu = 10
4 (0.25) (1.1)(1.27) 2 (0.143) 2
= 5.4 W
Ptot = Pfe + Pcu = 5.9 W
Which exceeds design goal of 4 W by 50%. So use next larger core
size: EE50.

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 35 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Calculations with EE50

## Repeat previous calculations for EE50 core size. Results:

B = 0.14 T, n1 = 12, Ptot = 2.3 W
Again round n1 to 22. Then
B = 0.08 T, Pcu = 3.89 W, Pfe = 0.23 W, Ptot = 4.12 W
Which is close enough to 4 W.

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 36 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Wire sizes for EE50 design

## Window allocations Wire gauges

I1 α 1K uWA (0.396)(0.25)(1.78)
α1 = = 5.7 = 0.396 A w1 = =
(22)
= 8.0⋅10 – 3 cm 2
I tot 14.4 n1
⇒ AWG #19
n 2I 2 αKW (0.209)(0.25)(1.78)
α2 = = 5 66.1 = 0.209 A w2 = 2 u A =
(1)
= 93.0⋅10 – 3 cm 2
n 1I tot 110 14.4 n2
⇒ AWG #8
n 3I 3 αKW (0.094)(0.25)(1.78)
α3 = = 15 9.9 = 0.094 A w3 = 3 u A =
(3)
= 13.9⋅10 – 3 cm 2
n 1I tot 110 14.4 n3
⇒ AWG #16

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 37 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Discussion: Transformer design

## • Process is iterative because of round-off of physical number of

turns and, to a lesser extent, other quantities
• Effect of proximity loss
– Not included in design process yet
• Can modify procedure as follows:
– After a design has been calculated, determine number of layers in
each winding and then compute proximity loss
– Alter effective resistivity of wire to compensate: define
eff =   Pcu/Pdc where Pcu is the total copper loss (including proximity
effects) and Pdc is the copper loss predicted by the dc resistance.
– Apply transformer design procedure using this effective wire
resistivity, and compute proximity loss in the resulting design.
Further iterations may be necessary if the specifications are not
met.

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 38 Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.4 AC Inductor Design

Window area WA
i(t) + Core mean length Core
per turn (MLT ) Core area
Ac
v(t) L
n
turns Air gap
lg

Wire resistivity ρ
v(t)
Area λ Fill factor Ku

t1 t2 t

## Design a single-winding inductor, having

i(t) an air gap, accounting for core loss
(note that the previous design procedure of
this chapter did not employ an air gap, and
inductance was not a specification)

## Fundamentals of Power Electronics 39 Chapter 15: Transformer design

Outline of key equations

## Obtain specified inductance: Total loss is minimized when

µ0 Acn2 1
L= β+2
lg
2 2
ρλ I (MLT ) 1
∆B =
2K u W A A c l m βK fe
3

Relationship between
applied volt-seconds and Must select core that satisfies
peak ac flux density:
2/β
ρλ 2I 2K fe
∆B = λ K gfe ≥
2nA c 2K u Ptot
β + 2 /β

## Copper loss (using dc

resistance):
ρn 2(MLT ) 2 See Section 15.4.2 for step-by-step
Pcu = I design equations
K uW A