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Unidade II

ESTUDOS DISCIPLINARES
READING TECHNIQUES
AND TEXT COMPREHENSION (II)

Profa. Silvana Rocha


Reading Techniques

 When we read a text, depending on the purpose of reading, we


can distinguish three levels of understanding:
 General understanding;
 Understanding of specific parts;
 More detailed and complete understanding of the text.

Figura 1
Figura 1: http://g04.a.alicdn.com/kf/HTB14H5VKVXXXXXcXXXXq6xXFXXX1/5X-100mm-Hand-Held-
Reading-Magnifier-Magnifying-Glass-Lens-Jewelry-Loupe-Zoomer.jpg. Acesso em: 25 de abr. 2016.
Text Comprehension

Brazil gives Amazon dams go-ahead


By Gary Duffy
BBC News, São Paulo

Análise do título:
 It implies the government has given the green light.

 Brazil has given the initial go-ahead for the construction of


two hydro-electric dams to be built on the longest tributary of
the Amazon River.
Análise do trecho:
 Mostra que o Brasil deu o sinal verde inicial para a construção
de duas barragens hidroelétricas que serão construídas no
afluente mais longo do Rio Amazonas.
Text Comprehension

 Madeira River projects have divided opinion even within


government and in recent years have been one of the most
environmentally sensitive issues.
 The river is said to have one of the most diverse fish stocks in
the world.
 Análise do trecho:
 Diz que o projeto do Rio Madeira dividiu opinião mesmo
dentro do governo e, recentemente, tem sido um dos assuntos
mais sensíveis, pois o rio tem um dos mais diversos estoques
de peixe do mundo.
Text Comprehension

 Environmentalists fear they could be threatened by the


development of the dams costing billions of dollars.
 Such have been the sensitivities surrounding this decision that
Brazil's environmental agency IBAMA took two years to reach
this initial conclusion and even now has attached 33 conditions
to the project.
Análise do trecho:
 Mostra que ambientalistas temem que as espécies de peixes
possam ser ameaçadas pelo desenvolvimento das barragens,
que custarão bilhões de dólares. Essas têm sido as
sensibilidades ao redor da decisão que o IBAMA tomou há dois
anos e que agora já alcançam 33 condições para o projeto.
Text Comprehension

 The project still needs final approval before any work can go
ahead.
Análise do trecho:
 Diz que o projeto ainda precisa da aprovação final antes que
qualquer trabalho possa ser levado adiante.
Text Comprehension

(CETRO – 2014)

 The Curriculum Guidelines for Primary Education proposes


to train subjects by building senses to the world leading to a
critical understand of the context and social history in which
they are involved and through this access to knowledge, to
be able to insert a citizen and transforming society.
Interatividade

On the assessment of learning, is correct to say that:


I. there is no sense in evaluative processes that only establish
what the student shall learn or not learn.
II. the assessment objectives must be defined by the intention
that guides the teaching and display purposes, and the
dimension of what is assessed.
III. the repeated and exclusive use of a single type of instrument
increases the possibility to observe the cognitive processes
of students.
IV. a single evaluative activity represents only a certain time and not
the whole process of teaching and learning. The evaluation of
teaching-learning process, understood as a methodological matter,
is determined by the prospect of investigating to intervene.
Interatividade

The correct assertion(s) is (are):


a) I, only.
b) I, II and IV, only.
c) II, III and IV, only.
d) I and III, only.
e) II and IV, only.
Resposta

On the assessment of learning, is correct to say that:


I. there is no sense in evaluative processes that only establish
what the student shall learn or not learn.
II. the assessment objectives must be defined by the intention
that guides the teaching and display purposes, and the
dimension of what is assessed.
III. the repeated and exclusive use of a single type of instrument
increases the possibility to observe the cognitive processes
of students.
IV. a single evaluative activity represents only a certain time and not
the whole process of teaching and learning. The evaluation of
teaching-learning process, understood as a methodological matter,
is determined by the prospect of investigating to intervene.
Resposta

The correct assertion(s) is (are):


a) I, only.
b) I, II and IV, only.
c) II, III and IV, only.
d) I and III, only.
e) II and IV, only.
Text Comprehension

(UFRJ - 2007).
Here are things we can do to help reduce global warming:
Just say no to plastic bags
 The plastic bag you bring home from the supermarket
probably ends up in a landfill. Every year more than 500 billion
plastic bags are distributed and less than 3% of those bags
are recycled. They are typically made of polyethylene and
can take up to 1,000 years to biodegrade in landfills that emit
harmful greenhouse gases. Reducing your contribution to
plastic-bag pollution is as simple as using a cloth bag
(or one made of biodegradable plant based materials)
instead of wasting plastic ones.
Text Comprehension

Análise do trecho:
 Sobre as coisas que podem ser feitas para reduzir o
aquecimento global:
 A primeira é dizer não às sacolas plásticas, pois essas
sacolas que são trazidas de supermercados terminam em
aterros de lixo. Todos os anos mais de 500 bilhões de sacolas
plásticas são distribuídas e menos de 3% são recicladas.
Como são feitas de polietileno, demoram até 1000 anos para
se biodegradar nos aterros e emitem gases de efeito estufa.
Portanto, a redução de seu uso é simples. Basta usar uma
sacola de tecido ou de materiais biodegradáveis, em vez de
desperdiçar sacolas plásticas.
Text Comprehension

 Plant a bamboo fence


 Bamboo makes a beautiful fence, and because it grows so
quickly (as much as 30cm a day or more, depending on the
species), it absorbs more CO2 than, say, a rosebush. Most
homeowners have to restrict its growth, lest it get out of
control. Do this, however, and you reduce bamboo’s
capacity as a carbon sink.
Text Comprehension

Análise do trecho:
 A segunda é fazer uma cerca de bambu (de 30cm por dia ou
mais, de acordo com a espécie), pois ela absorve mais CO2 do
que as roseiras.
 Ressalta que a maioria dos proprietários das casas devem
restringir seu crescimento para que não percam o controle.
 Incentiva essa prática (de controlar a planta), mas mostra
que, ao fazer isso, você reduz a capaciade do bambu na
absorção do gás carbônico.
Text Comprehension

End the paper chase


 Americans recycled 38 million tons of paper last year – 50% of
what they used – but still pulverized the rest. Paper does grow
on trees: 900 million of them every year become pulp and
paper. We can reduce that number by buying more recycled
paper. It uses 60% less energy than virgin paper. Each ton
purchased saved 4,400kWh of energy, 30,000 liters of water
and 19 trees, and a tree has the capacity to filter up to 27kg
of pollutants from the air.

Adapted from Time Magazine, April 9, 2007, pp. 70-74.


Text Comprehension

Análise do trecho:
 A terceira é eliminar o consumo de papel.
 Mostra que os americanos reciclaram 38 milhões de toneladas
de papel em 2006 (50% do que usaram, mas ainda pulverizaram
o resto). Alerta que papel cresce em árvores, mostrando que
900 milhões se tornam pulpa e papel todos os anos.
 Diz que é possível reduzir esse número, comprando mais papel
reciclável, que gasta 60% menos energia do que o papel virgem.
Cada tonelada comprada economizou 4.400kw/h de energia,
30.000l de água e 19 árvores.
 Alerta que uma árvore tem capacidade de filtrar até 27kg de
poluentes do ar.
Interatividade

(CETRO – 2014). Regarding the reading SKIMMING strategy, it is correct


to affirm that it is:
a) a careful deepening in which the reader is able to identify the
specific information within the text. A further type of reading that
can vary according to the goals of the reader.
b) a cursory reading which enables the reader to obtain the largest
possible amount of information in the first contact with a text.
c) a kind of reading that seeks a complete understanding of the text
with the smallest possible amount of information, since this method
seeks the most detailed understanding of the text.
d) a thorough detailing of the text seeking to interpret its content
in the shortest time possible.
e) a more detailed and in-depth reading, in which the reader will need
more strategies to reach that level of understanding.
Resposta

(CETRO – 2014). Regarding the reading SKIMMING strategy, it is correct


to affirm that it is:
a) a careful deepening in which the reader is able to identify the
specific information within the text. A further type of reading that
can vary according to the goals of the reader.
b) a cursory reading which enables the reader to obtain the largest
possible amount of information in the first contact with a text.
c) a kind of reading that seeks a complete understanding of the text
with the smallest possible amount of information, since this method
seeks the most detailed understanding of the text.
d) a thorough detailing of the text seeking to interpret its content
in the shortest time possible.
e) a more detailed and in-depth reading, in which the reader will need
more strategies to reach that level of understanding.
Text Comprehension

(FAPESPA – 2014)
ISM Principles of Sustainability and Social Responsibility
(* ISM: Institute of Supply Management)

 ISM firmly believes the supply management profession is a


strategic contributor in the development and implementation of
sustainability and social responsibility programs and behavior.
Análise do trecho:
 Mostra que o ISM acredita que a profissão de administrar /
gerenciar o abastecimento é um contribuinte estratégico no
desenvolvimento e implementação da sustentabilidade e
programas e comportamento de responsabilidade social.
Text Comprehension

 Supply professionals are in a unique, critical position to


impact the global supply chain and therefore should
supplement their organization's work in sustainability and
social responsibility by promoting sustainability and social
responsibility through leadership and participation on
appropriate committees, boards and panels of
governmental and nongovernmental organizations.
Análise do trecho:
 Mostra que os profissionais do abastecimento estão em uma
posição crítica para impactar a cadeia de abastecimento
global. Por causa disso, devem suplementar o trabalho de
sustentabilidade e responsabilidade social, por meio de
liderança e participação em comitês de organizações
governamentais e não governamentais.
Text Comprehension

 Creating principles across social, industry, public and private,


profit and nonprofit, political and country boundaries is both
a challenge and an opportunity. This diversity presents a
particular challenge in the area of sustainability and social
responsibility, which does not have a lengthy history resulting
in the development of well-known and universally acceptable.
Análise do trecho:
 Mostra algumas medidas que devem ser tomadas por eles,
dizendo que são um desafio na área de sustentabilidade e
responsabilidade social, que não têm uma longa história
no sentido de que possam resultar no desenvolvimento
de melhores práticas universalmente aceitáveis.
Text Comprehension

 Laws, regulations, trade agreements, customs and practices


pertinent to sustainability and social responsibility must also
be considered in the development and implementation of
business strategies, policies and procedures.
Análise do trecho:
 Diz que leis, regulamentações, acordos, costumes e práticas
pertinentes à sustentabilidade e responsabilidade social
devem também ser consideradas no desenvolvimento e
implementação das estratégias de negócios, políticas e
procedimentos.
Text Comprehension

 In addition, the advent of new technologies that enable a


"virtual" world influence the evolution of sustainability
and social responsibility in a supply chain context.
Análise do trecho:
 Ressalta a importância do advento de novas tecnologias
que capacitam o mundo virtual em influenciar a evolução
da sustentabilidade e responsabilidade social no contexto
da cadeia de suprimentos.
Text Comprehension

 Principles: Anti-corruption; Diversity and inclusiveness-


workforce and supply base; Environment; Ethics and
Business Conduct; Financial Integrity and Transparency;
Global Citizenship; Health and Safety; Human Rights; Labor
Rights; and Sustainability.
Análise do trecho:
 Princípios: anticorrupção; diversidade e força-tarefa inclusiva;
meio-ambiente; ética e conduta comercial (nos negócios);
integridade e transparência financeira; cidadania global;
saúde e segurança; direitos humanos; direitos trabalhistas e
sustentabilidade.
Adapted from www. ISM – Social Responsibility - ISM Principles of Sustainability and Social
Responsibility.htm. Accessed on Sep. 18, 2013.
Interatividade

“This diversity presents a particular challenge in the area of


sustainability and social responsibility, which does not have a
lengthy history resulting in the development of well-known and
universally acceptable best practices.”

Considering the paragraph taken from the text, words that can
be classified as head of noun phrases are:
a) diversity, particular, social, resulting.
b) challenge, area, history, practices.
c) presents, particular, sustainability, have.
d) challenge, responsibility, lengthy, well-known.
e) presents, have, resulting, practices.
Resposta

“This diversity presents a particular challenge in the area of


sustainability and social responsibility, which does not have a
lengthy history resulting in the development of well-known and
universally acceptable best practices.”

Considering the paragraph taken from the text, words that can
be classified as head of noun phrases are:
a) diversity, particular, social, resulting.
b) challenge, area, history, practices.
c) presents, particular, sustainability, have.
d) challenge, responsibility, lengthy, well-known.
e) presents, have, resulting, practices.
Text Comprehension

(UNEMAT – 2006)
(…) An educative view of teacher education is dynamic, calling
for permanent attitude of acceptance of change when needed. It
is revolutionary, because it has to face established educational
systems and received ideas about training and learning;
because it has to bring about change sometimes in a
sudden, “violent” way.
Análise do trecho:
 Ressalta a importância do dinamismo, atitudes pemanentes
e aceitação de mudanças na formação de professores. Mostra
que isso é revolucionário, porque é necessário enfrentar
sistemas educacionais estabelecidos e ideias recebidas sobre
formação e aprendizagem (às vezes, de forma súbita
e violenta).
Text Comprehension

 By violent I don’t mean that it involves using guns, although


unfortunately weapons have become part of teachers’ lives in
some areas, but I mean a kind of violence that is sometimes
not easily apparent, because it is inside people’s brains and
feelings.
Análise do trecho:
 Esclarece que o termo usado “forma violenta” não significa
usar força física, apesar de que as armas já se tornaram parte
das vidas de professores em algumas áreas. Mas quer
ressaltar que essa forma “violenta” não é aparente, pois está
no interior das pessoas: no cérebro e em seus sentimentos.
Text Comprehension

 This is a kind of change that certainly runs counter to the


attitude of following teacher-proof recipes successfully
without being aware of what is involved in their success. The
concept of educative teacher education is one that sees the
teacher as learner and that is felt as a career-long proposition,
really a continuum of learning (Fullan, 1991:289). Hence, the
permanent revolution.
Análise do trecho:
 Ressalta que é um tipo de mudança que vai contra a atitude
de “seguir receitas prontas”, sem ter consciência do que está
envolvido no seu sucesso. O conceito de formação de
professores da educação é aquele que vê o professor
como um aprendiz, um contínuo de aprendizagem.
Text Comprehension

 This quotation from Paulo Freire seems to sum up what is


involved in this idea of educative teacher education: “There
are those who ask, those who try to find answers and those
who keep on searching” (Freire, P. 1985. The Politics of
Education. Bergin & Garvey. P.2-4).
 Our revolution aims at educating teachers to become “those
who keep on searching”. (…).
Análise do trecho:
 Mostra uma citação de Paulo Freire, que resume o que está
envolvido nesta ideia: “Há os que perguntam, os que tentam
achar respostas e os que continuam procurando”.
Celani, M. A. A. “An arena of struggle and contradiction”: where’s the driving force in ELT? VII
BRAZ-TESOL National Conference, 2000. São Paulo, 2000.
Interatividade

“By violent I don’t mean that it involves using guns,


although unfortunately weapons have become part of
teachers’ lives in some areas.”, Celani suggests that:

a) teachers must carry guns to the class.


b) there is a great number of crimes at schools in the big cities.
c) students are becoming more violent through the years.
d) teachers are being hurt by their students.
e) teachers who work on schools in some areas face problems
with violence.
Resposta

“By violent I don’t mean that it involves using guns,


although unfortunately weapons have become part of
teachers’ lives in some areas.”, Celani suggests that:

a) teachers must carry guns to the class.


b) there is a great number of crimes at schools in the big cities.
c) students are becoming more violent through the years.
d) teachers are being hurt by their students.
e) teachers who work on schools in some areas face problems
with violence.
ATÉ A PRÓXIMA!

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