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Ans. Census of India had been collecting, compiling, tabulating and disseminating caste data right from
the first census of 1871 till 1931, in 1941 too it was collected but tabulation was dropped as a money
saving measure because of the Second World War.

Advantages of caste census-

y It will give reliable data on the socio-economic status of different communities. It will enable us to
identify the extent to which affirmative action policies help them to enhance their socio-economic
life as well as the quality of life they enjoy.
y There is no reliable data about the percentage of population of different communities, Supreme
court and various High courts often asked central government to provide reliable data on the
OBCs and the government so far could not provide it. Hence it is said that caste census will help
government to provide empirically validated data which could be made use of by the courts to
examine the legality of reservation policies.
y Caste census will help to identify the most backward classes among OBCs, it is assume that
OBCs comprise 52% of population of which 30% belong to most backward classes. It is brought
out by many studies that the middle class or the upper class among OBCs as represented by the
castes like Jats, Yadavs, Kurmis , Gujjarsetc have got extremely benefited by the affirmative
action policies by the State, thus caste census will enable the government to know the socio-
economic status of these backward classes. So as to re-oriented its affirmative policies for the
betterment of these groups.
Points of objection-
y It is the challenging task for census of India to make people enumerate or reveal their
caste identities , the last caste census conducted n 1931 reveals that 1.88 million people
did not want to reveal their caste identity.
y Caste data may be made use by political leaders for their better electoral outcome , it
might enhance the role of caste in politics leading to the politics of vote bank, it might
further divide the society .
y Similarly the newly revealed census data might force certain communities to demand
higher reservation in public jobs and over represented communities might not be willing
to part with the fruits of reservations they enjoy .this can potentially lead to social conflict.
Caste census provide an empirical data to understand the society better , it will provide
data which will reveal the socio-economic status of various communities as also their
numerical strength.




Ans. One of the biggest challenges facing governments as the new century unfolds is how to balance
environmental protection with the demands of powerful multinational corporations. Environment vs.
development can be called one of today¶s dilemmas. On the one hand, the humanity is concerned with all
those environmental problems that we face today like global warming, greenhouse effect, air pollution,
and so on ± all these are the results of human activity.On the other hand, human activity is something that
makes our society and world in general to develop. The main problem is that our development harms
nature and environment greatly. Ecology and Economics are closely related issues. Inclusive
  is not possible without adequate emphasis on 
. Development
and environment need to be seen as 
  , not antagonistic terms. After all, if there is no
Earth left, where will development take place?

Today, when the world is facing the harmful consequences of global warming and depletion of resources,
environment conservation has become a topic of global significance, not just an issue with local
importance. The matter is of paramount relevance in a developing economy like ours, as environment
degradation drastically offsets improvements achieved by economic prosperity, apart from having serious
implications for distributive justice.Although the issue has gained more importance in today¶s grave
scenario, environment conservation is still a neglected sector, with   

 "  Improper implementation
of policies, coupled with indifferent attitudes of authorities has accentuated the ineffectiveness of
environment strategy in India.

This has led to a host of problems like mounting pressures on depleting resources and poor waste
management resulting in deplorable conditions and health hazards. Thus it is imperative to frame
environment policy with holistic considerations of health, sanitation and overall development of the

More awareness & sensitivity towards the environment is the key to environmental conservation. A
possible measure for this would be to inculcate awareness among students. Providing infrastructure for
waste management, water harvesting and paper recycling in schools and colleges can go a long way in
sowing the seeds of environment consciousness in young minds.

Concurrently, it is also crucial for the government and policy makers to µwalk the talk¶ by adopting water
harvesting & waste management and using efficient energy sources in government offices, in addition to
having laws that reinforce other initiatives; for example, to make a µSay no to crackers¶ drive by students
successful, the government can play an important role to reduce consumption of crackers, possibly by
higher taxes.

Thus, positive encouragement for judicious use (concessional rates of solar equipment and efficient
appliances) and negative incentives for misuse of resources (higher taxes for inefficient cars and high
energy consuming buildings) should be provided. Apart from this, at the micro level, each one of us can
contribute towards the betterment of the environment, simply by living by the principle of ³REDUCE,
REUSE and RECYCLE´. Really, it does not take much time or effort to be judicious about the usage of
precious resources like electricity, water and paper. Small steps do have a profound impact-and the
sooner we realize this, the better it will be for our Earth and our future generations.



Ans. $     combined with tourism has come into effect from which the concept of  

 is derived. $  
is a concept where a patient travels to another country for obtaining
health care. The reason patient travel for treatment varies. They may take this option if the facilities in
their own country are not up to the standard of what they would like to have, many come for medical
treatment because the costs are considerably lower in the destination country. Some tourists are here
because the insurance systems in their countries require them to wait for months, even years for
surgeries, or some cannot afford the exorbitant costs of health care in their own land. For others,
becoming a medical tourist isa chance to combine a tropical vacation with elective or plastic surgery.

India is considered as the leading country promoting medical tourism. This is due to the fact that the
medical facilities and healthcare professionals in India are of international standard and health care
facilities are available at drastically lesser cost than in Western countries. Since, it is also one of the most
favorable tourist destinations in the world. An additional advantage is the fact that the English language is
widely spoken and understood by the local people. Apart from visitors from Western and European
countries, India also has medical tourists coming in from neighboring countries as well as Middle East.
The majority of medical tourists are visiting to avail of services that the Allopathic system has to offer.The
most common treatment that are provided to them by hospitalsin India are heart surgery, knee, liver and
kidney transplants, cosmetic surgery and dental care.

India has over 150000 medical tourists each year and this figure is rising at a high pace. Currently the
medical tourism market in India is estimated to be worth over US $300 million with approximately 170000
foreign patients coming in every year. The reports estimate that medical tourism to India is growing by
30% a year. This industry is enjoying such a massive growth that it is moving into a new area of ³medical
outsourcing´, where subcontractors provide services to the overburdened medical care system in western


Ans.There is no doubt that the earth is warming up. Eleven of the hottest years in the last half century
have been recorded after 1990. This is certain to impact the way our agriculture is managed. It has been
reported that wheat yield declined by 5 percent when average temperature during March increased by 1°
C in Punjab. At the same time the rice yield increased to the tune of 12%. In Rajasthan 2 degree Celsius
rise in temperature is projected to reduce the production of grains by 15%. Studies conducted by the
ICAR project a loss of 4.5 billion tons of overall wheat production with each degree rise in temperature
throughout the growing period. Evidence also shows that most of the warming that is bringing about such
changes in agriculture can be attributable to human activities. As per the report of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the net increase in temperature is likely to be 5.8 degrees Celsius by
AD 2100. This is likely to impact a series of inter-related environmental systems like global hydro-eco-
systems, sea level, crop production and related agricultural activities.



Ans. All India Goods and Services Tax(GST) which has been recommended by Kelkar Task Force on
implementation of a FRBM Act 2004 are to roll out by way of a model worked out through consensus
between Centre and the states. GST is one single uniform levy which clubs in itself large no of central
and state indirect taxes, including cess and surcharge, which have brought about major distortions in the
Indiaµs indirect tax structure leading to a huge cascading burden and making the tax structure more
complex in the process also giving rise to problems of evasion, administration and disputes. The model
GST is to be implemented over a three year period beginning from April 2011. So that by the terminal
year 2013-2014 there shall be one uniform levy.

While GST is for all purposes a consumption based tax and in the nature of a final point retail tax it is
expected to increase demand and consumption particularly in better of states because of reduced overall
burden of indirect taxation which on an average amounted anywhere between 20-24% tax ranges. The
fact that ultimately tax rate is going to be 16% in itself is expected to boost demand, promote exports by
way of reduced rates.But some people doubt about the GST regime because as of now services are
taxed at 10%, but under GST regime it is going to be 16%, which means that services become more
costly. Same as under VAT the standard rate is 12.5%, while merit rate i.e. rate for essential goods is 4%,
whereas under GST regime the essentials and non-essentials both would be taxed on same rate .

The major objective of GST is that by doing away with cascading burden it will moderate the overall
prices and lead to rise in consumption and demand and thereby GDP. But this would happen only if the
benefits of lower rates of GST are cost on to the final customer.

 * ) 

Ans.Our children's lives are already getting influenced by technology ± and this is just the beginning.
Computers and Internet are here to stay and software titles targeting young children continue to increase.
Computer science has become a compulsory subject in Indian schools. Today, we find computers in use
everywhere, whether we go to reserve a train ticket or to a Bank. This is because it is faster and helps us
complete our work without mistakes/errors. So Parents too have realized the need to help their children
develop strong computer skills.

Children are learning to read and write with computer games instead of homemade flash cards. They are
reading their bedtime stories online instead of in bed with their parents. Slowly traditions are being broken
and the computer is becoming a child¶s learning tool. Many parents are buying computer learning games
instead of board games and pop-up books.

Parents are leaving the learning up to the computers and spending less quality time with their children.
The most important learning step for children is interaction with others. If they are sitting in front of the
screen all day, they do not learn to share, wait their turn, or even something as simples as manners.
Children need to be in contact with other children, adults, and animals. They need to experience things
first hand not off a computer screen.

When children log on to the computer their innocence is noticeable. Children are an easy target for adults
who pose to be other children with similar interests. Sexual offenders often chat online with children and
then make plans to meet them or slowly filter information about them.

Children are innocents and honesty on the computer can pose some huge problems. They do not know
any better and usually it will only harm them in the end.

One benefit of the computer age is that children are becoming smarter. They are growing up computer
literate and will have that as a huge advantage. Computer literacy is becoming a huge job qualification
and feeling comfortable with one will put them a step ahead.

Children will also be able to complete homework online. In some places, if you miss school you can find
out the assignments that you miss and catch up. This is very helpful if your child comes down with the flu,
but do you want them to feel like it is okay to miss school because they can catch up with their computer?
Overall, children can benefit from computers if they are used wisely. Parents that supervise their children
when they are on the computer can ensure that everything is happening safely.

Computers are the wave of the future, but old fashioned learning techniques should not be forgotten. A
child needs to interact physically with other people and not learn everything from computers.

 + ,

Ans. . " / 

0   (./c) is a recently finalized initiative by the Government of India to
create and manage a centralized identification system for all the adult citizens and residents of India,
which can be utilized for a variety of identification purposes the ID is fundamentally being prepared to
identify Indian citizens so that better security can be provided by identifying illegal immigrants and other
anti-social activities. However, the real power of the ID is in its ability to provide ease of identity
establishment to Indian citizens when accessing a variety of governmental and private-sector services.

The likely benefits of the new ID system to the citizens will be as below:

1) Subsidies on food, energy, education, etc. to people who are entitled to receive them;

2) Opening bank accounts;

3) Getting new telephone, mobile or internet connections;

4) New light or gas connections;

5) Getting a passport;

6) The same card may act as a driving license and store your traffic violation records;

7) It may act as your electoral card;

8) Family genealogy may be traced

 1 (   

Ans. Education builds the man so it builds the nation. Today we claim to be the biggest human resources
supplier for the world, but are we concerned what quality of human capital we are building and for whose
needs?A revolution means big changes. We expect the revolution in education to bring lots of changes.
These changes will result into:



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    - /    

Answer.There should be a common all India exams for all banks, which aims at reducing recruitment-time
and the hassles associated with recruitment - for both banks and candidates.The recruitment process
which now takes about a year to be completed will drop drastically by a third, reducing the mental tension
candidates presently go through after an exam.
"Thecommon all-India entrance test which will help in reducing recruitment-time by almost a third of what
it takes now," this would be a great if it is implemented.As of now, for officers(PO) all banks conduct their
exams separately resulting in same set of people getting shortlisted for most of the banks however they
join only one bank depending on their location and bank preference. Due to this banks are unable to fill all
their openings as advertised by them and the attired positions go as back log.Also the people lying in the
mid quartile of the merit list always fail to secure a call.

 6/      7       





Ans. 8   /  is key for socio-economic progress,and many steps has been taken by our
government to increase the literacy rate and because of these efforts ,the Indian literacy rate grew to 68%
in 2007 from 12% at the end of British rule in 1947. But it is very low compare to other Western countries.
Poverty, child labor, unemployment are the major problems in this area. Because of poor economic
condition of the people, children need to work and can't be spared for school.
The high drop-out rate has been a matter of major concern, that is why, one of the most popular schemes
adopted to attract children to schools is the · ·
 , launched in 1995 The Mid-Day Meal
(MDM) scheme grew out of the National Programs of Nutritional Support to Primary Education, which
sought to increase primary school enrolment and attendance rates by offering meals to improve the
nutritional levels of children. By providing a nutritious meal at school, the scheme seeks to improve child
health, improve their ability to concentrate, and incentivize parents to send their children to school. MDM
supports the goal of universalization of elementary education by providing one cooked meal to children in
primary levels, which improves the nutritional status of children thereby encouraging enrolment,
attendance and retention. Several other special programs have also been launched with varying degrees
of success. Recently government has enacted Right To Education Act under which ,every child in the age
group of 6-14 years will be provided 8 years of elementary education in an age appropriate classroom in
the vicinity of his/her neighborhood. But all programs need proper implementation otherwise there is no
use of any schemes only then we can tackle the problem of illiteracy and achieve the complete literacy




Answer. The Finance Ministry wants to bring all the existing regulatory bodies in the country under one
supreme regulator. It floated a note on the subject at a meeting the Finance Minister had with the heads
of public sector banks in January 2010.The note suggests the merger of the functions of the Reserve
Bank of India, the Securities and Exchange Board of India, the Insurance Regulatory and Development
Authority and the yet to be formed Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority under one
unified command. It draws its inspiration from the U.K. model of the Financial Services Authority. While
floating the note, the Ministry was perhaps unaware or dismissive of the views of the Finance Minister
had expressed at a conference organized by the IRDA. They also argued that India was too vast a
country to have a single regulator, but added that there was need to strengthen the existing regulators
and ensure that they worked together. It is likely that in its zeal to reform, the Ministry is concerned with
the complexities of the present financial market, the blurring of areas between sectors such as banking
and insurance, and more importantly, the inadequacy of regulation by the various agencies.

Dealing specifically with regulatory structure, "Focusing entirely on regulatory structures may not be an
adequate response to the current weaknesses, the changes needed in the objectives and coverage of
regulation, and the emerging challenges to growth as well as greater openness in the external sector.
Perhaps, the debate has to go beyond the single or multiple regulators or hybrid arrangements, while
recognizing some urgency for putting in place effective arrangements for regulatory coordination." As he
put it, "designing and managing all these changes require a combination of political will and professional
skill." In short, a country has to choose a model having regard to its own needs and may not implicitly
adopt a model evolved by another country. Surprisingly, there is a smorgasbord of models to choose



Ans. India¶s population, which stands at roughly 1.1 billion today, is expected to touch 1.5 billion by 2025
and stabilize at around 1.7 billion by 2060, according to the United Nations.
By 2020, it appears that the US will be short of 17 million people of working age, China by 10 million,
Japan 9 million and Russia 6 million. India in contrast will have a surplus of around 47 million.
Around 35 per cent of India¶s population today is in the 15-59 year age bracket or the prime working-age
group. By 2020, 64 per cent of the population will belong to this category.

So growing population is a bane for India, because of population growth which hamper the economic
growth. It leads to problems in areas unemployment, hunger, poverty, sanitation problems, education,
health, food and transport etc.


       9  : (  

Ans.,   , more commonly referred to as "  ", is the small-scale emigration of a
large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge. The reasons usually include two aspects
which respectively come from countries and individuals. In terms of countries, the reasons may be social
environment (in source countries: lack of opportunities, political instability, economic depression, health
risks; in host countries: rich opportunities, political stability and freedom, developed economy, better living
conditions). In terms of individual reasons, there is family influence (overseas relatives, and personal
preference: preference for exploring, ambition for an improved career, etc.).

The biggest  

   is that all those individual brains will get the opportunity to nurture in
another atmosphere where they get more support as well as have more freedom to boom and this is why
they leave. From a universal point of view, it will help talents develop and not be shattered. Furthermore,
the knowledge that those young brilliant people gain overseas will be very helpful if they choose in a later
phase to go back as well as settle down or engage in their country. The fact that young cultured people
leave the country in the present situation is not only good for them, however it is good for the world.

However on the other side, 3  is a    

 due to the flow of the competent and effective
sector of the country particularly oil producing states which are now in terrible need for trained and highly
skilled employees. Brain drain influences all level of education in the world which suffers  


 . The economy can also be affected due to expenditure on study
whether state funded or privately. The migration even broadens the gap between the rich and poor
countries. Brain drain is advantageous to the beneficiary countries as well as loss to countries of origin,
because it deprives these countries from the innovations of their subjects. Such countries as a result have
become culturally and technologically dependent on the West.

An answer to this would be to encourage entrepreneurs to produce employment. The Government is

supposed to give concessions in tax as well as decrease the hassles concerned in setting up an industry.
In this way we could make India¶s workforce one of its major asset

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Ans.since the time of independence unemployment is one of the biggest challenge in front of our
government. There are various schemes like ; $  ' (<
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eradication of unemployment attempt to solve the problem, by providing financial assistance for setting up
businesses, skill honing, setting up public sector enterprises, reservations in governments, etc. but
despite all these attempts the unemployment rate is still very high in our country. There are various
reasons for this situation e.g.corruption- the wide spread corruption in our administration is one of the
major problem, lack of awareness, lack of participation, Lack of education, red-tapism and procedural
difficulties etc.

  c      -

Ans.Poverty is the lack of basic human needs, such as clean water, nutrition, health care, education,
clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them. This is also referred to as absolute poverty or
destitution.Relative poverty is the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a
society or country, or compared to worldwide averages. About 7 billion people live in absolute poverty.
The effects of poverty, as listed above, creating a "poverty cycle" operating across multiple levels,
individual, local, national and global.

, 7Hunger, disease, and less education describe a person in poverty. One third of deaths - some 18
million people a year or 50,000 per day - are due to poverty-related causes: in total 270 million people,
most of them women and children, have died as a result of poverty since 1990.Those living in poverty
suffer disproportionately from hunger or even starvation and disease. Those living in poverty suffer lower
life expectancy. According to the World Health Organization, hunger and malnutrition are the single
gravest threats to the world's public health and malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child
mortality, present in half of all cases.

 ( 7  , who make up a third of the world's urban population, live in a poverty no better,
if not worse, than rural people, who are the traditional focus of the poverty in the developing world,
according to a report by the United Nations.Most of the children living in institutions around the world
have a surviving parent or close relative, and they most commonly entered orphanages because of
poverty. Experts and child advocates maintain that orphanages are expensive and often harm children's
development by separating them from their families. It is speculated that, flush with money, orphanages
are increasing and push for children to join even though @ 
@  show that even the poorest
extended families usually take in children whose parents have died.

7Research has found that there is a high risk of educational underachievement for children
who are from low-income housing circumstances

   according to a UN report on modern slavery, the most common form of human trafficking is for
prostitution, which is largely fueled by poverty. In Zimbabwe, a number of girls are turning to prostitution
for food to survive because of the increasing poverty. In one survey, 67% of children from disadvantaged
inner cities said they had witnessed a serious assault, and 33% reported witnessing a homicide.

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         "   -

Ans. corruption is, behavior which deviates from the normal duties of a public role because of private-
regarding (family, close private clique), pecuniary or status gains; or violates rules against the exercise of
certain types of private-regarding influence. This includes such behavior as bribery (use of rewards to
pervert the judgment of a person in a position of trust); nepotism (bestowal of patronage by reason of
ascriptive relationship rather than merit); and misappropriation .Some political scientists view corruption
as being a, µsecond best, or µgrease the wheels¶ solution, particularly in the inefficient, inapt, and
mismanaged bureaucracies in developing countries. Huntington suggests, "..in terms of economic growth,
the only thing worse than a society with a rigid, over-centralized dishonest bureaucracy is one with a rigid,
over centralized honest bureaucracy."Those willing and able to pay the highest bribes are likely to be
those able to use it most productively.

Some contends that introducing competition into an otherwise uncompetitive economy can be beneficial
to development; ³corruption brings an element of competition with its attendant pressure for efficiency to
an underdeveloped economy.´

However, there is little evidence to support these arguments. In response to the argument for corruption
being µgrease¶ which lubricates the µsqueaky wheels¶ of a bureaucratic and rigid administration, Corruption
leads to economic inefficiency and waste, because of its effect on the allocation of funds, on production,
and on consumption. Gains obtained through corruption are unlikely to be reinvested within the country
but transferred to foreign bank accounts. These transfers represent a capital leakage from the domestic
economy.Corruption encourages competition in bribery, rather than in quality and in the price of goods
and services. It inhibits the development of a healthy marketplace and distorts economic and social

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Answer. Most of the classical thinkers agree with this statement money is the prime motivator. But
modern motivational theorists don¶t consider money as the prime motivator for achieving higher goals.
Motivator is that which impels or compels an individual to act toward meeting a need. Human is a social
animal, he has diversified needs and all cannot be satisfied with money. Although money is a powerful
motivator it is important because of its purchasing power .it is what money can buy, not money itself that
gives it value. Money is a also important as an indication of status. But money is more important to people
who are seeking to establish an initial standard of living rather than those who have met their basic
needs. Social status, challenging nature of work,self-actualization become more important, when basic
needs are satisfied in an organization.

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Ans. Use of IT is a pre-condition for the good governance. It helps to enhance the transparency and
accountability in the administration. It provides a tool to citizens for enforcement of their rights. It also
enhances the efficiency of administration .work become speedier and error free. It enhances the
productiveness and efficiency of organizations. In developing countries good governance is a challenge,
because a majority of the governed is educationally and socio economically challenged. Hence the
solution to the foresaid lies in providing a mechanism that is fast and transparent.

But there are not only the positives of E-Governance, there are some problems also related with this , in a
country like India where most of the population is IT- illiterate , it is not possible to make use of
computers compulsory in all government institutions .only 5% of Indian speaks English and others use
Hindi and diverse regional language hence mandatory use of computer technology in all government
departments will create havoc in government functioning more over computer technology need
uninterrupted power supply which is still a dream in major part of India. It maybe also increases the
unemployment rate. So the use of computer should only be based on priority basis.

 5 @     


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Ans.Democracy means government by thepeople; a form of government in which the supreme power is
vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral
system. Elections are the medium through which people choose their representatives, free and fair
elections are precondition for the genuine democracy. Elections remain central to broader strategies for
promoting democracy. First, competitive elections can catalyze profound political change in a society.
Elections in societies in transition or crisis can be seminal events that, if successful, not only
conferlegitimacy on governments but also can profoundly influence institutions, powerarrangements, and
citizens¶ expectations. Second, elections provide significant newopportunities for citizen involvement in
public affairs. They are an opportunity to engagecivic organizations and citizens in democratic politics
through voter education, electionmonitoring, policy research, and advocacy. They can provide an avenue
for theparticipation of women, minorities, and disadvantaged groups, who traditionally have had
less access to politics and governance. Finally, competitive elections offer a means ofestablishing
accountability, channeling political competition, and determining leadership succession. In India
constitution provides an independent body µElection Commission¶to conduct free and fair elections but
the electoral system is not free from short comings .there are problems like boothcapturing, use of money
and muscle power in electionsand also use of other unfair means .Which are the basic hurdle in
conducting free and fair elections. Many committees gave their recommendations to these problems,
which need to be implemented.

 6 8               


Ans. Fundamental Duties of citizens serve a useful purpose. In particular, no democratic polity can ever
succeed where the citizens are not willing to be active participants in the process of governance by
assuming responsibilities and discharging citizenship duties and coming forward to give their best to the
country. Some of the fundamental duties enshrined in article 51A have been incorporated in separate
laws. The most important task before us is to reconcile the claims of the individual citizen and those of the
civic society. To achieve this, it is important to orient the individual citizen to be conscious of his social
and citizenship responsibilities and so shape the society that we all become solicitous and considerate of
the inalienable rights of our fellow citizens. Therefore, awareness of our citizenship duties is as important
as awareness of our rights. Every right implies a corresponding duty but every duty does not imply a
corresponding right. Man does not live for himself alone. He lives for the good of others as well as of

It is this knowledge of what is right and wrong that makes a man responsible to himself and to the
society and this knowledge is inculcated by imbibing and clearly understanding one¶s citizenship duties.
The fundamental duties are the foundations of human dignity and national character. If every citizen
performs his duties irrespective of considerations of caste, creed, colour and language, most of the
malaise of the present day polity could be contained, if not eradicated, and the society as a whole
uplifted. Rich or poor, in power or out of power, obedience to citizenship duty, at all costs and risks, is
the essence of civilized life.


Ans. The great Indian political leader Mahatma Gandhi once said that ³poverty is the worst kind of
violence against a nation.´ And he was right. For him violence is synonymous with exploitation it is
violence in, more passive form as discrimination, oppression or exploitation. Violence is seen to occur in
three waysthrough, first omission, failing to provide assistance to people in need. second as a result of
repression, or a violation of civil, political, economic and social rights or through , third alienation or
severely limiting people¶s emotional, cultural or intellectual growth. Social system legal, economic,
political, traditional often exclude the poor from rights, resources and relationships. Poverty is humiliation
the sense of being dependent on others. Poverty is lack of freedom enslaved by crushing daily burden by
depression and fear of what the future will bring. Hence it is called a violence of extreme form.


Ans. India is a vast countrywith diverse geographical and cultural settings. It is a right example of unity in
diversity in which diverse culture is bounded with a common national feeling. Any reorganization of India
must take into account three broad principles-

ï It should take into account geographical and cultural homogeneity.

ï It should take into account administrative convenience.
ï It should maintain national integrity.

Dividing India into four East, West, North, South states will not serve any purpose. Because it will create
four vast region which will be geographically and culturally heterogeneous, resulting in the political and
administrative inconvenience .second it will not satisfy cultural and regional needs of any region which will
result in clashes and will create danger to national integration.


The rights to life, liberty and happiness are assumed by our nation's founding fathers. But never did they
intend that liberty to include suicide. Many today are insisting on "liberty" in many areas in which it never
existed before. This reminds us that the Judeo-Christian ethic upon which this country was founded is
being eroded away with each passing day. The Bible tells us that life is a gift from God (Genesis 2:7).
Thus, we abhor the taking of our own life no matter what the circumstances!
People are seeking "death with dignityDignity is defined as "proper pride and self-respect, honor." Where
is the honor in taking one's own life? Can we only respect ourselves if we can kill ourselves? How is a
physician who swore to keep his or her patient alive supposed to turn around and hasten a patient's

People want to be independentnot a burdenWe all feel that we can do it ourselves--even from little on.
But a religion teaches us that we need help from God. We are also taught to help others when they are in
need. Eliminating all those who need help makes a cruel and selfish world for those who are left.

Some in extreme pain wish to shorten the sufferingThere are painkillers that allow the dying to be
comfortable until the end.Suffering can cause us to rely more fully on God. It can be a blessing in
disguise. We ought to fear the possibility of suffering eternally in hell for taking our own life more than we
fear suffering in this life!

Many argue that "terminal" patients be allowed assisted suicideAs human beings, doctors may incorrectly
diagnose a patient's condition. If we base our decision solely on human rights, then how can we deny
suicide to the very depressed? "You shall not murder"--yourself or others!

The Constitution of India provides a long list of fundamental rights under Part-III. Article 21 of our
Constitution is one of the important fundamental rights among those rights. This article 21 of our
constitution deals with ³Protection of Life and Personal Liberty.´The Article 21 reads as followsD90



A question may arise, in case of a dying man, who is, seriously ill or has been suffering from virulent and
incurable form of disease he may be permitted to terminate it by a premature extinction of his life in those
circumstances. This category of cases may fall within the ambit of µRight to Die¶ with dignity as a part of
life with dignity. According to the court these are not cases of extinguishing life but only of accelerating
the process of natural death which has already commenced.



Answer. The c
 or c
  4  >cc4? is the current trade-
negotiation round of the World Trade Organization(WTO) which commenced in November 2001. Its
objective is to lower trade barriers around the world, which allows countries to increase trade globally. As
of 2008, talks have stalled over a divide on major issues, such as agriculture industrial tariffs and non-
tariff barriers, services, and trade remedies. The most significant differences are between developed
nations led by the European Union (EU), the United States (USA), and Japan and the major developing
countries led and represented mainly by Brazil, China, India, South Korea, and South Africa. There is also
considerable contention against and between the EU and the USA over their maintenance of agricultural
subsidies²seen to operate effectively as trade barriers.The Doha Round began with a ministerial-level
meeting in DohaThe most recent round of negotiations, 2008, broke down after failing to reach a
compromise on agricultural import rules. After the breakdown, major negotiations were not expected to
resume until 2009. Nevertheless, intense negotiations, mostly between the USA, China, and India, were
held in the end of 2008 in order to agree on negotiation modalities. However, these negotiations did not
result in any progress.

 /  E C  

1-There are gaps and unresolved issues on agriculture and non-agriculture market access (NAMA). The
center point of talks involves efforts to open up trade in agriculture and industrial goods.
2-The involves rich countries to open their protected markets for agriculture produce and cutting their
heavy subsidies they provide to their farmers & agro exporters , as they are able to wipe out the farmers
in poor / developing countries out of the market.

3-The richer developing countries will also cut industrial tariffs in return so that it opens up their markets
for industrial goods to do business with both rich and poor countries.

1. There are some exceptions to these cuts which are called    The flexibilities are the
major difficulty.
2. The developing countries are being led by Brazil. Developing countries say that rich nations
are using these flexibilities to protect farmers and prevent any competition at their domestic
market in such commodities like farm produces which are politically sensitive everywhere.
3. The developed countries also see that developing nations may use some flexibility to shield
some sectors. The United States says it would not move further until it has a better idea how
the developing nations like India, China, Brazil will use the flexibilities.

.(       D

1. This is an agreement that would allow developing countries to raise agricultural tariffs temporarily
to help their farmers cope with a sudden flood of imports.
2. US and some developing countries such as Costa Rica which exports food said that the safeguard
must not be used to choke off the normal growth in trade, and that tariffs must not rise above "pre-
Doha" levels.
3. India and other big countries such as Indonesia said they needed a quick and powerful safeguard
to protect their millions of subsistence farmers from the unforeseen impact of market opening,
even if that meant big rises in tariffs.
4. The United States wants to push for agreements that would go beyond any general cut in
industrial tariffs to eliminate duties altogether in some sectors, such as chemicals or electronic
5. China and India say they are resisting efforts to strong arm them into sector deals, which they
insist must be purely voluntary.
6. African countries want the United States to make bigger cuts in its cotton subsidies than in other
agricultural products. They say that U.S. cotton subsidies make it uneconomic for their farmers to
produce, and they cannot afford similar state aid.



Ans.The word laundering is used for cleaning dirty clothes. Money Laundering is used to clean the dirty
money. Money laundering is the disguising or concealing of illicit income in order to make it appear
legitimate. Indian anti-money laundering law encompasses the money generated from numerous
different crimes e.g., drug trafficking, murder for hire, racketeering, and embezzlement.


1. Money laundering may look like a polite form of white collar crime, but it is the companion of brutality,
deceit and corruption.

2. Money laundering deprives governments of some tax revenues, thereby raising the relative burden of
honest citizens.

3. Because of rapid movements of large amounts of money, normally stable financial institutions become
destabilized, threatening savings accounts and retirement funds of innocent citizens.
4. Estimates of the size of the money laundering problem total more than $500 billion annually worldwide.

 * (

Ans. Agriculture in India is the means of livelihood of almost two thirds of the work force in the country. It
has always been INDIA'S most important economic sector. The question of introducing agriculture tax on
various farm incomes has been a contentious issue for years. Tax on farm income will inspire the farmer
to face the state of affairs optimistically. The Indian farmer is pessimistic and believes that he is caught in
a vicious circle of underdevelopment and that agriculture is a gamble with the monsoon. Like other sector
agriculture is a business activity hence it should be taxed. Many businessmen are misdeclaring their
incomes as from agriculture and non-agriculturalsources, perhaps the time has come for the government
to seriously consider fixing, a threshold beyond which their income from agricultural sources could be
brought under the tax.

But this move should be strongly opposed on the following grounds:

Agriculture income falls within the jurisdiction of the state governments. It will only end in the harassment
of poor and marginal farmers who have already lost all will to fight a government mechanism. Agriculture
is not a business activity for majorityof farmers it is a life sustaining activity. For many years fertilizer costs
are exorbitant inspite of the subsidy. Power supply is erratic and it is almost impossible for plan lift
irrigation due to various infrastructural bottlenecks and vagaries of monsoon .agriculture is not a profitable
business in India. Farmer¶s suicides and large rural to urban migration is the best evidence for it. Taxing
agriculture will demoralize industrious farmers endangering India¶s food security.

 + (
 - ' 

Ans.Capital Account Convertibility (CAC) for Indian Economy refers to the abolition of all limitations with
respect to the movement of capital from India to different countries across the globe. In fact, the
authorities officially involved with CAC (Capital Account Convertibility) for Indian Economy encourage all
companies, commercial entities and individual countrymen for investments, divestments, and real estate
transactions in India as well as abroad. It also allows the people and companies not only to convert one
currency to the other, but also free cross-border movement of those currencies, without the interventions
of the law of the country concerned.The Tarapore Committee appointed by the Reserve Bank of India
(RBI) was meant for recommending methods of converting the Indian Rupee completely. The report
submitted by this Committee in the year 1997 proposed a three-year time period (1999-2000) for total
conversion of Rupee. However, according to the Committee, this was possible only when the following
few conditions are satisfied:


 C4C  /  


In 1994 August, the Indian economy adopted the present form of Current Account Convertibility,
compelled by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Article No. VII-the article of agreement. The primary
objective behind the adoption of CAC in India was to make the movement of capital and the capital
market independent and open. This would exert less pressure on the Indian financial market. The
proposal for the introduction of CAC was present in the recommendations suggested by the Tarapore
Committee appointed by the Reserve Bank of India.


 C4C  / D

The logic for the introduction of complete capital account convertibility in India, according to the
recommendations of the Tarapore Committee, is to ensure total financial mobility in the country. It also
helps in the efficient appropriation or distribution of international capital in India. Such allocation of foreign
funds in the country helps in equalizing the capital return rates not only across different borders, but also
escalates the production levels. Moreover, it brings about a fair allocation of the income level in India as

    /  C4C   


y A prescribed average inflation rate of 3% to 5% will exist for a three-year time period, from1997-
98 and 1999-2000.
y The non-performing assets will experience a decline to 12%, 9% and 5% by the years 1997-98,
1998-99 and 1999-2000 respectively, with respect to the total or aggregate advances.
y By the years 1997-98, there will be a complete deregulation of the structure of interest rate.
y The gross fiscal deficit will fall from 4.5% in 1997-98 to 4.0% in 1998-99 and further to 3.5 % in
1999-2000, with respect to the GDP.


To sum up, CAC is concerned about the ownership changes in domestic or foreign financial assets and
liabilities. It also represents the formation and liquidation of financial claims on or by the remaining world.
It enables relaxation of the Capital Account, which is under tremendous pressure from the commercial
sectors of India. Along with the financial capitalists, the reputed commercial firms in India jointly derive
and enjoy the benefits of the CAC policy, which speculate the stock markets through investments. In fact,
the CAC policy in India is pursued primarily to gain the speculator's and the punter's confidences in the
stock markets.

However, CAC does not serve the purposes of the real sectors of Indian economy, like eradication of
poverty, escalation of the employment rates and other inequalities.In spite of CAC being present in Indian
economy, there will be a co-existence of financial crises. Despite several benefits, CAC has proved to be
insufficient in solving the Indian financial crises, the complete solution of which lies in having a regulated
inflow of capital into the economy.


  >  ?-       -

Answer.It is a legal entity (usually a limited companyof some type or, sometimes, a limited
partnershipcreated to fulfill narrow, specific or temporary objectives. SPEs are typically used by
companies to isolate the firm from financial risk. A company will transfer assets to the SPE for
management or use the SPE to finance a large project thereby achieving a narrow set of goals without
putting the entire firm at risk.Special purpose entity may be owned by one or more other entities and
certain jurisdictions may require ownership by certain parties in specific percentages. Often it is important
that the SPE not be owned by the entity on whose behalf the SPE is being set up (the sponsor)

Reasons for creating special purpose entities are:

y Securitization: SPEs are commonly used to securities loans (or other receivables). For example, a
bank may wish to issue a mortgage-backed security whose payments come from a pool of loans.
However, to ensure that the holders of the mortgage-back securities have the first priority right to
receive payments on the loans, these loans need to be legally separated from the other obligations of
the bank. This is done by creating an SPE, and then transferring the loans from the bank to the SPE.
y Risk sharing: Corporate may use SPEs to legally isolate a high risk project/asset from the parent
company and to allow other investors to take a share of the risk.
y Finance: Multi-tiered SPEs allow multiple tiers of investment and debt.
y Asset transfer: Many permits required to operate certain assets (such as power plants) are either
non-transferable or difficult to transfer. By having an SPE own the asset and all the permits, the SPE
can be sold as a self-contained package, rather than attempting to assign over numerous permits.
y For competitive reasons: For example, when Intel and Hewlett-Packard started developing IA-64
(Itanium) processor architecture, they created a special purpose entity which owned the intellectual
technology behind the processor. This was done to prevent competitors like AMD accessing the
technology through pre-existing licensing deals.
y Financial engineering: SPEs are often used in financial engineering schemes which have, as their
main goal, the avoidance of tax or the manipulation of financial statements. The Enron case is
possibly the most famous example of a company using SPEs to achieve the latter goal.
y Regulatory reasons: A special purpose entity can sometimes be set up within an orphan structure to
circumvent regulatory restrictions, such as regulations relating to nationality of ownership of specific
y Property investing: Some countries have different tax rates for capital gains and gains from property
sales. For tax reasons, letting each property be owned by a separate company can be a good thing.
These companies can then be sold and bought instead of the actual properties, effectively converting
property sale gains into capital gains for tax purposes

 1 / 



Ans. Slow agricultural growth is a concern for policymakers as some two-thirds of India¶s people depend
on rural employment for a living. Current agricultural practices are neither economically nor
environmentally sustainable and India's yields for many agricultural commodities are low. Poorly
maintained irrigation systems and almost universal lack of good extension services are among the factors
responsible. Farmers' access to markets is hampered by poor roads, rudimentary market infrastructure,
and excessive regulation.

The low productivity in India is a result of the following factors-

y India's large agricultural subsidies are hampering productivity-enhancing investment.

Overregulation of agriculture has increased costs, price risks and uncertainty. Government
intervenes in labor, land, and credit markets. India has inadequate infrastructure and services.
World Bank also says that the allocation of water is inefficient, unsustainable and inequitable. The
irrigation infrastructure is deteriorating. The overuse of water is currently being covered by over
pumping aquifers, but as these are falling by foot of groundwater each year, this is a limited
y Illiteracy, general socio-economic backwardness, slow progress in implementing land reforms
and inadequate or inefficient finance and marketing services for farm produce.
y Inconsistent government policy. Agricultural subsidies and taxes often changed without notice for
short term political ends.
y The average size of land holdings is very small (less than 20,000 m ) and is subject to
fragmentation due to land ceiling acts, and in some cases, family disputes. Such small holdings
are often over-manned, resulting in disguised unemployment and low productivity of labor.
y Adoption of modern agricultural practices and use of technology is inadequate, hampered by
ignorance of such practices, high costs and impracticality in the case of small land holdings.
y Irrigation facilities are inadequate, as revealed by the fact that only 52.6% of the land was
irrigated in 2003±04, which result in farmers still being dependent on rainfall, specifically the
Monsoon season. A good monsoon results in a robust growth for the economy as a whole, while
a poor monsoon leads to a sluggish growth Farm credit is regulated by NABARD, which is the
statutory apex agent for rural development in the subcontinent. At the same time over pumping
made possible by subsidized electric power is leading to an alarming drop in aquifer levels.

 5         /      -

Answer.The Reserve Bank of India is responsible for issuing coins and notes to the public on demand
and for maintaining the quality of the notes issued. Several agencies are involved in the printing and
distribution of the currency (notes and coins of various denominations). Some of them are Govt. mint, RBI
press, Government press and banks designated as currency chests.
In order to satisfactorily discharge this duty without recourse, the RBI maintains currency chests of its own at
treasuries and branches of the banks at all important centers. The currency notes printed at the press flow to
the RBI offices and from the RBI office to these currency chests before they reach the public. The same is for
coins which are minted in 4 mints then taken to 4 mint related RBI offices from where they are taken to
currency chests to distribute in the market.
In summary: Distribution of notes and coins throughout the country is done through designated bank
branches, called chests. Chest is a receptacle in a commercial bank to store notes and coins on behalf of the
Reserve Bank. Deposit into chest leads to credit of the commercial bank¶s account and withdrawal, debit.

The Functions of the Currency Chests are:

1. To meet currency requirement of public;

2. To withdraw unfit notes;

3. To provide exchange facility from one denomination to another;

5.To make payment requirement of the Government;

6.To exchange the mutilated notes;

7. To avoid frequent movement of cash;

Apart from having its own chests at certain places, RBI also have arrangements with other banks which are
entrusted with custody of the currency notes and coins for the same purpose.



Ans. Switch any television channel, open a newspaper or magazine, advertisements carrying faces of our
cricketers endorsing one product or the other are present. The question that many are asking and
is worth debating is, should the cricketers be allowed by the BCCI to get so involved in the
endorsement brigade that the game takes a back seat? It is a known fact that cricket has become
commercialized but with players sparing little time for the game seems to have taken a toll on
Indian cricket and a very bad one at that. Should BCCI take strict action on Indian cricketers and
disallow them from engaging in endorsements? BCCI should not at least ban but restrict the
INDIAN cricket team from coming into endorsements, at present situation if any player gets a
chance to endorse after every four or sixes then they would like to run for the endorsements than
for the runs. The BCCI should restrict the no. of endorsements to be taken in a year by the



Ans. In the period 1990-2007, grain yields in India grew at an average rate of 1.2% per annum, less than the
corresponding population growth rate of 1.9% per annum. The amount of daily food grain available per capita
is lower than in the 1950s.Falling productivity reflects both the lack of government investment in agriculture
and the legacy of policies relating to the ³green revolution´. This critical boost to food security dating from the
1970s and 1980s involved subsidies for fertilizer, water, fuel and electricity which have proved difficult to
reverse .about 15% of agricultural land has been degraded through excessive application of subsidized
chemicals. And almost a third of India¶s groundwater aquifers are now classed as critical or semi-critical.

Furthermore, in the absence of micro-credit and technical support, the richer farmers have proved more adept
at exploiting opportunities. The subsidy model has therefore disadvantaged the 75% of farms which cover
less than two hectares. The majority of these smallholdings are rain-fed, vulnerable to drought and flooding
associated with the vagaries of a monsoon climate.
This uneasy state of food security in India will be further stressed by a structural pincer movement over
coming decades. A projected population rise from 1.2 billion to 1.7 billion by 2050 will exacerbate rather than
resist the demands for alternative use of farmland from an industrializing economy.
One third of cultivable land in the state of Uttar Pradesh is already deemed to be at risk. Seemingly oblivious
to the squeeze on land, the government announced at the end of 2009 a target to resource 20% of India¶s fuel
consumption with biofuels by 2017.

The government favors direct investment in household food security rather than rural infrastructure. It
proposes fundamental reform of the long established Public Distribution System (PDS) which offers 180
million poor families the opportunity to purchase food and cooking essentials at discounted prices.A new Food
Security billunder consideration by parliament proposes to issue coupons direct to BPL families. The intention
is to bypass the corruption and fraud within the PDS distribution system which may misdirect up to 70% of its

 #6 (  


Ans. India is facing the problem of inflationary pressure because of the increase in Aggregate Demand while
Aggregate Supply is respectively constant. The inflationary pressure faced by Indian Economy is due to
Demand-Pull inflation i.e. Aggregate Demand > Aggregate Supply.

Thus to curb inflation need to fill the gap between Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply. For this either
need to increase AS or decrease AD that can hamper economic development. Thus to increaseAggregate
Supply is the best tool which can be used. To increaseAggregate Supplyeither needs to increase production
capacity of all current production unit of to build new production plants. But as quoted in a survey done by RBI
that all the production plants are running at their full production capacity thus all resources all-full employed
the other way is to build new plant but to do this will take at least 18months to 2years. Thus meanwhile need
to decrease Money Supply, which is opted by RBI.

As in short run it¶s not possible to meet the gap between AD and AS thus RBI is planning to decrease liquidity
by reducing Money Supply from the market. For this it has been planned that by decreasing CRR, repo rate
and reverse repo rate Liquidity from the market will be drained.

CRR i.e. Cash Reserve Ratio is the percentage of deposit that a commercial bank need to keep with RBI by
which RBI control liquidity in the market and create Money Supply.
Currently CRR is 6.5% in the Indian Context.

Repo Rate: is the rate at which RBI lends money to other commercial Banks.RBI planned that Liquidity from
the market can be drained by decreasing money supply and to do so it is increasing CRR, repo rate, reverse
repo rate and taking other measure like that. But interest is that whether hike to CRR and other factors will
curb inflation and what are the other factors, which are influencing inflation.




Ans.By inflation mean a process of rising prices. A situation is described as inflationary when either the prices
or the supply of money are rising, but in practice both will rise together. In the Keynesian sense True inflation
begins when the elasticity of supply of output in response to increase in money supply has fallen to zero or
when output is unresponsive to changes in money supply. If there is full employment then condition will of
clearly inflationary, if there is increase in the Money SupplyDepending upon the reason of inflation, it can be
divided in many types as

> ? c  7;   

: This represents a situation where there is increase in Aggregate Demand for
resources either from the government or the entrepreneurs or the households. Result of this is that the
pressure of Demand can¶t be met by the currently available Aggregate Supply which result in Aggregate
Demand > Aggregate Supply which is bound to generate inflationary pressure in the economy.

>? C
: This represents the condition where even though there is no increase in Aggregate
Demand, prices may still rise. This may happen if the costs of especially wage cost rise.

>#? (    

: This type of inflation occurs because of change in structure of economies as
happened in India from Agricultural Structure.

It attributes the inflation to the demand side effects of high growth. If people are richer because of an 8-9
percent growth rate they are bound to demand more. Since supply does not adjust, prices are bound to rise
.Besides there are other structural factors also, as the tendency where corporate consolidation in production
and trade decontrol that permits profiteering, a reduced role for public agencies and public sector firms and
the withdrawal of subsidies on a range of inputs have pushed up costs and prices.

The other one is the role that speculations has to play what with liberalized trade , the presence of large
corporate players in the wholesale and retail trade, and the growing role of futures and derivatives trading in a
host of commodities.

 # c




Ans. There is disparity between certain groups that suffers from exclusion and the other sections of society.
This is the situation with literacy rate, higher education and other indicators of women's development
including infant mortality. So the problem that exists today is that despite policy, progress all these social
groups are not growing at the rate at which they ought to grow. Poverty declined over a period of time but the
problem is that there are inequalities between this group and the rest of the society. For example if you take
any indicator like poverty - in 2004-05, the poverty of ST is close to 40%, SC is 38% while in OBCs it is 30%
or so, while in the case of others it is 15%.

 ## 3

Ans. in May 2005, a smoking ban that prohibited films and television shows from displaying actors or
actresses smoking went into effect on October 2, 2005.Claimed that the ban would "protect the lives of
millions of people who could become addicted to smoking under the influence of movies.

Smoking causes various disease s like ulcer, mouth and throat cancer, larynx cancer, pulmonary
diseases etc. Human beings learned their most of the behavior by imitating others and people imitate
those, whom they find in better position from themselves and considered them as role model. They think
that whatever these people do, that is good and they want to become like them. When they see them
doing smoking they also want to smoke .it has bad impact on the young generation and especially on the
innocent children. No doubt that ban on smoking scenes would help directly or indirectly in reducing the
smoking cases especially in increasing the new cases .But government should take some more steps to
tackle the problem of smoking. Just ban on smoking scenes and warning on packets are not enough.
There is need to educate people about the harms caused by the smoking.





Answer.Now it¶s very often to hear about the agitation of acommunity to get the reservation in government
jobs and educationalinstitutions. Recently a Gujjar community in Rajasthan was agitatedagainst
the state government for the reservation. Whether it isRajasthan, Haryana, North Eastern states.
The demands of all are samethat is development of these communities by getting reservation.
These communities belong to various social and economic backward classesand the data shows
that most of these communities have very low oralmost negligible representation in the
government services. Thesecommunities are feeling ignored since independence and they think
thatthey fulfill their demands of development only through this way i.e. agitation. Sometimes
opposition parties also use these opportunities against the governmentto fulfill their own motives.
But when doing agitation these peoplemake the life of other people measurable by blocking the
roads ,railways and the supply of various commodities which is not just for acommon man. The
demands of these people genuine are but the means ofagitation is not appropriate, if they want
development for their communities thenthey should adopt some peaceful measures which are
lawful andacceptable.Government of these states should also think for their development andnot
restrict themselves only to get the votes of these communities andshould do some work for their
development through various schemes andprograms and if necessary then by providing
reservation to thesecommunities.

 #& / /   




Ans.The lack of homogeneity in the Indian population causes division between different sections of the people
based on religion, region, language, caste and race. This has led to the rise of political parties with agendas
catering to one or a mix of these groups, it also cause for the coalition era and hung parliament in Indian
politics. The narrow focus and vote-bank politics of most parties, even in the central government and central
legislature, sidelines national issues such as economic welfare and national security. Moreover, internal
security is also threatened as incidences of political parties instigating and leading violence between two
opposing groups of people is a frequent occurrence.At present almost all political parties are indulged in vote
bank politics. In fact voters are themselves divided and they are not at all concerned with national issues
.voters are confine to their local issues , their caste and communities and hence regional parties use their
weak point and create vote bank . National problem of inflation or unemployment or illiteracy is not of so much
concern for Indian voters. India will rise with equity and uniformity only when national issues become agenda
of mass voters and politicians discard their greed. It looks obvious on the part of voters that they give more
preference to their regional issues but they must think about the national issues also and should vote for
those parties who can think about the regional and national issues bath. Otherwise it hampers the national





Ans. Corruption is a term with many meanings, but generally it entails misusing one¶s office for a private gain
or unofficial end. It involves both a monetary and non-monetary benefit. Bribery, extortion, influence peddling,
nepotism, scams, fraud, µgrease money¶, and opportunism readily spring to mind. Usually, the very work
environment and culture either foster or discourage corrupt practices as the following two scenarios
indicate.Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index
(CPI)ordering the countries of the world according to "the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist
among public officials and politicians".The 2010 O      shows that India has slipped
three places in global rankings of most corrupt countries, from 84 in 2009 to 87 this year.

Eradication of corruption should be the nation¶s number-one priority in view of the ever-increasing horizon of
political and administrative corruption and its baneful multifarious effects on the society-at-large. It needs to
be understood by all that eradication of corruption is only possible if strong political commitment exists.
Committed political leadership, reoriented bureaucracy and an organized and vocal civil society - other policy
measures need to be adopted to effectively contain as well as control corruption.
First, the basic institution of good governance needs to be strengthened. At the headof this list is the judiciary,
which is itself the guardian of laws and integrity. But if thejudiciary is itself corrupt, the problem is
compounded and the public at large withoutrule of law.

Second, the capacity and integrity of enforcement need to be enhanced. The best lawhas no value if it is not
enforced. The best judges and magistrates are wasted if casesare never brought to them. Good
investigations are wasted effort if the judge ormagistrate is corrupt.

Third, a government needs to put in place a solid set of preventive tools. Codes ofConduct and strong
independent oversight bodies can help ensure that the acceptablestandards of behavior are respected in both
the private and public sector. Politicalleaders in all branches of government, legislative and judiciary can be
required tohave transparency in their own financial dealings through asset disclosure forthemselves and their
family members.

Fourth, the public needs to be educated on the advantages of good governance andparticipate in promoting
it. The public itself bears a large share of responsibility forinsisting on honesty and integrity in government and
business. The public needs tolearn: (a) not to let anybody buy their vote; (b) not to pay bribes themselves; (c)
toreport incidents of corruption to the authorities; and (d) to teach their children theright values;




Ans. Financial liberalization in small countries may lead to opportunities to embezzle more public funds and at
the same time raise efficiency in capital production.Associated with such instances of the possible misuse of
powers held by state functionaries for substantial private gain is huge profit for some of the richest individuals
and for leading domestic and foreign business groups. This leads to surplus accumulation among two groups.
The first is among those serving the state apparatus in high positions. The suspicion that this could be
occurring is strengthened by the growing nexus between politics and business and the huge increases over
time in the assets reported by individuals contesting elections to parliament and the legislatures. The second
set of potential beneficiaries consists of the business groups which derive gains from the purchase of
pecuniary benefits for a small price.It is to be expected that such instances would increase under liberalization
since the state increasingly dilutes or gives up its role as an agent influencing and regulating the nature and
scale of private activity to take on that of being a facilitator of private investment. In fact, the very process of
transition to a more ³liberal´ regime is fraught with potential instances of corruption, as the allegations of
under-pricing of public assets in the process of disinvestment of public enterprises illustrates. The process of
decontrol and deregulation is also accompanied by efforts at promotion of private investment, involving public-
private partnerships and help to the private sector to acquire land and material and financial resources. As a
result, besides the old type of corruption where state functionaries demand a price for favoring individual firms
with purchase orders or permissions and exemptions, there is a new form in which those benefiting from state
support could be called upon to share the transfers they receive with the decision makers involved.

Advocates of liberalization have argued that by reducing state intervention and increasing transparency
economic reform would reduce corruption. The allegations of large scale corruption suggest that this is not
true. Liberalization does not mean that the state withdraws from intervention but merely that there is a change
in the form of state intervention, which also enables the state to deliver illegitimate gains to individuals and
private players.

 #1 /                 



Ans. Rail services in India, first introduced in 1853, are provided by the state-run Indian Railways, under the
supervision of the Ministry of Railways. Indian Railways provides an important mode of transport in India,
transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2 million tonnes of freight daily across one of the
largest and busiest rail networks in the world. Indian Railways is divided into sixteen zones, which are further
sub-divided into sixty seven divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. The railway mostly continues to
rely on manual system of signaling that is clearly far from foolproof. There is range of technological solutions
that can remove the scope for human error and make system foolproof.

4 7C

c  - the ACD Network is a Train Collision prevention system patented by Konkan Railway
Corporation Limited.ACDs have knowledge embedded intelligence. They take inputs from GPS satellite
system for position updates and network among themselves for exchanging information using their data radio
modems to take decisions for timely auto-application of brakes to prevent dangerous 'collisions'

) 4      - the Auxiliary Warning System (AWS) is a track magnet based system ,
which sparks off a µhooter¶ warning alarm inside the driver¶s cabin if he jumps a signal or over speeds. Even if
the driver fails to respond the train is automatically brought to a stop. This system does not require very high

) ;
     ( - it operates through two or three transmitters fitted on the tracks. So
in case the driver is over speeding, the first sensor tries to cut the speed .the second one placed slightly
closer to the signal cuts down the speed even further, in case the driver hasn¶t done so. And finally, the third
sensor , acts as an emergency braking system for a train.


- it consisting of a secure network in which the train driver, station guard
and the station master can hold a conversation about the respective train¶s position and speed can act as a
good warning system.Extended track circuiting- these are electric devices that helps detect the location of a
train on a particular stretch of the track.



Answer.Second generation biofuel technologies have been developed because first generation biofuels
manufacture has important limitations. First generation bio fuel processes are useful, but limited in most
cases: there is a threshold above which they cannot produce enough biofuel without threatening food supplies
and biodiversity. Second generation biofuels can help solve these problems and can supply a larger
proportion of our fuel supply sustainably, affordably, and with greater environmental benefits.First generation
bio ethanol is produced by fermenting plant-derived sugars to ethanol, using a similar process to that used in
beer and wine-making . This requires the use of 'food' crops such as sugar cane, corn, wheat, and sugar
beet. These crops are required for food, so if too much bio fuel is made from them, food prices could rise and
shortages might be experienced in some countries. Corn, wheat and sugar beet also require high agricultural
inputs in the form of fertilizers, which limit the green-house gas reductions that can be achieved.

The goal of second generation biofuel processes is to extend the amount of biofuel that can be produced
sustainably by using biomass consisting of the residual non-foodparts of current crops, such as stems, leaves
and husks that are left behind once the food crop has been extracted, as well as other crops that are not used
for food purposes such as switchgrass, jatropha, miscanthus and cereals that bear little grain, and also
industry waste such as woodchips, skins and pulp from fruit pressing, etc.

The problem that second generation biofuel processes are addressing is to extract useful feedstocks from this
woody or fibrous biomass, where the useful sugars are locked in by lignin and cellulose. All plants contain
cellulose and lignin. These are complex carbohydrates (molecules based on sugar). Lignocellulosic ethanol is
made by freeing the sugar molecules from cellulose using enzymes, steam heating, or other pre-treatments.
These sugars can then be fermented to produce ethanol in the same way as first generation bioethanol
production. The by-product of this process is lignin. Lignin can be burned as a carbon neutralfuel to produce
heat and power for the processing plant and possibly for surrounding homes and businesses.


  -    F       

Ans. Women Empowerment refers to increasing the spiritual, political, social or economic strength of Women.
It often involves the empowered developing confidence in their own capacities. Empowerment is probably the
totality of the following or similar capabilities:

1. Having decision-making power of their own.

2. Having access to information and resources for taking proper decision.
3. Having a range of options from which you can make choices (not just yes/no, either/or.).
4. Ability to exercise assertiveness in collective decision making.
5. Having positive thinking on the ability to make change.
6. Ability to learn skills for improving one's personal or group power.
7. Ability to change others¶ perceptions by democratic means.
8. Involving in the growth process and changes that is never ending and self-initiated.
9. Increasing one's positive self-image and overcoming stigma.

The Constitution of India guarantees to all Indian women equality (Article 14), no discrimination by the State
(Article 15(1)), equality of opportunity (Article 16), and equal pay for equal work (Article 39(d)). In addition, it
allows special provisions to be made by the State in favor of women and children (Article 15(3)), renounces
practices derogatory to the dignity of women (Article 51(A) (e)), and also allows for provisions to be made by the
State for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief (Article 42).


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Ans. Under the latest census which commenced on 1 May 2010, a National Population Register with photographs
and fingerprints of every resident will be prepared. All usual residents of India will also be provided with their
Unique ID numbers and National Identity Cards .the creation of NPR of usual residents of the country is an
ambitious project. It involves the collection of specific information on each person residing in the country. It would
cover an estimated population of 1.2 billion .this is for the first time that NPR is being prepared. The data base will
be built by the registrar General of India .it will include the items of information such as the name of the person ,
father¶s name, mother¶sname, spouse¶s name, sex, date of birth, place of birth, current marital status, education,
nationality as declared, occupation , present address of usual resident and permanent residential address. It will
also contain photograph and finger biometry of persons above the age of 15 years.


y NPR would provide a standard identity database and facilitate the allotment of Unique
Identification (UID) number to each individual.
y NPR acts as a credible identification system for the country as a whole. It helps to keep a check
on illegal migration and also to the issue of national security.
y t would strike off the need for producing multiple documentary proofs of identity by an individual.
y The creation of an identity database would help enhance the targeting of various beneficiary
oriented schemes.

 % /         



Ans. Plastic bags are banned because of many problems related with them and which causes certain
dangerous consequences to environment .if plastic bags are not dispose properly, may find their way into
the drainage system resulting into choking of drains, creating un hygienic environment and causing water
borne diseases. Recycled plastic bags may contain certain chemicals, which can leach to the ground and
contaminate soil and sub soil and water. Units not equipped with environmentally sound techniques for
recycling may create environmental problems due to toxic fumes generated during reprocessing. Some of
the plastic bags which contain leftover food or which mixed up with other garbage are eaten by animals
resulting in harmful effects. Because of the non-biodegradable and impervious nature of plastics, if
disposed in the soil, they could arrest the recharging of ground water aquifers. Further, to improve the
properties of plastic products and to inhibit degradation reactions, additives and plasticizers, fillers, flame
retardants and pigments are generally used, these may have health impacts. Alternatives to plastic bags-
the use of jute or cloth bag as alternatives to plastic paper bag should be popularized and prompted
through fiscal incentives; however, it needs to be noted that paper bags involve cutting of trees and their
use is limited. Ideally bio-degradable plastic bags alone should be used and research work is on to
develop biodegradable plastics.

 %# 0



Ans. . 2

is the degree of or increase in  character or nature. It is the physical growth of
urban areas as a result of global change. Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as
movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. It is
considered as a social problem due to limited resources and growing pressure on them in the urban
areas. Urbanization means the concentration of population in the big cities of a country. These big cities
causing serious problems, even in the very advanced countries of the world. The big cities are full of
congestion and environmental pollution. The modern cities are growing in a very unsystematic manner
due to fast industrialization. In reality, the concentration of industries is also causing the problems of

The population of big cities is always on the increase, because the villagers migrate in large numbers to
the cities in search of employment. In the villages there are not many opportunities to get work due to lack
of industries. The people of villages also come to the cities in search of higher standard of living and
better livingconditions.

But on the other hand, due to overpopulation the cities become the centers of all the vices and crimes.
Thus big cities create many social and criminal problems.

In the big cities there is also the serious problem of housing. The authorities are always failing in their
efforts to meet the housing demands of the people. The shortage of houses leads to overcrowding;
insanitary conditions and it result in slums. The huge population of cities also leads to many transport
problems like traffic jams, accidents, etc. The inhabitants of the cities also become very self-seeking and
self-centered. They lack social feeling and sympathy for others.

Over population and overcrowding in cities always create so many problems for the Municipal authorities
such as water shortage, electricity breakdowns etc. In certain big cities water is not available all the 24
hrs. Sometimes the water gets contaminated. It is also a problem to keep the streets, roads, etc. properly
cleaned. The high sky scrapers which are constructed in the big cities cause many problems. If by
chance, a fire breaks out in these multi-storybuildings, it is not easy to extinguish it.

Of course, there are certain merits of city life also. The urban people do not believe in superstitions. They
work hard to lead a higher standard of living. There is no doubt that most of the achievements of the
modern world like the scientific and technological inventions and discoveries all have been made in the
cities. There are many means of the entertainment in the cities. Even the best hospitals, schools, colleges
and universities are located in the cities.


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Ans. Adopted by world leaders in the year 2000 and set to be achieved by 2015, the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) provide concrete, numerical benchmarks for tackling extreme poverty in its
many dimensions. The MDGs also provide a framework for the entire international community to work
together towards a common end ± making sure that human development reaches everyone, everywhere.
If these goals are achieved, world poverty will be cut by half, tens of millions of lives will be saved, and
billions more people will have the opportunity to benefit from the global economy.

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Ans. Some people are saying now, after the recent controversy and lack of preparedness
involving Commonwealth Games in Delhi, that India is quite poor and not ready for hosting major events
like CWG. Moreover, according to them, the hosting of such events (CWG etc.) should be left to
countries like UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealandand India should instead concentrate on feeding its
hungry population.

First of all, the present mess (controversy and lack of timely preparation etc. for these games) is the result
of corruption and inefficiency in high circles and organizers and not due to ³poverty" in the country or
people starving in India or even the caste system (for which politicians usually promote and increase
caste quotas).

Secondly, if smaller countries (UK and New Zealand with lesser manpower base and fewer natural
resources, and Canada and Australia with smaller population base) seem ready and are able to host such
international events very easily and efficiently, then why not India which has a huge population /
manpower base and is quite rich in natural resources?

Thus the difficulty for India for hosting such events seems to be due to corruption and inefficiency on the
part of organizers and planners and not because India is poor or lacking people / manpower to do the
necessary work properly and in time


       - (      


Ans. Base rate means the minimum rate charged by a bank. This regime came into force in India from
2010 replacing the prime lending rate(PLR). Base rate regime had the following merits which score over
the arbitrary PLR regime.

y It is determined on the basis of overall costs of a bank which include cost of deposits, operational
cost, administrative costs, statutory costs etc. thus unlike PLR it is not arbitrary
y It promotes competition among banks as it is based on costs.
y It excludes sector like agriculture, exports and others eligible for concessions.
y In the PLR regime banks overwhelmingly favored corporate borrowers as banks would generally
lend them below the PLR at the cost of consumersat large. This cannot be done under the base
rate regime.
y Changes in the liquidity in market, changing demands would be adequately reflected as the part
of market conditions in the determination of base rate. This would also help RBI in taking account
of changing market conditions while framing its overall monetary policy.
 %+  /        

Ans.The Central Government has convened a meeting of the Chief Ministers of the eastern States for
³extending the green revolution to eastern India.´ A special budgetary allocation of Rs.400 crore was last
year to invigorate farming in the region. West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and
Orissa have been invited for the meeting, which will be hosted by West Bengal in Kolkata, chaired by
Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee and attended, among others, by Union Agriculture Minister
Sharad Pawar. In consultation with the Central government's technological agencies over the past few
weeks, these States have prepared strategies for reviving farm production and productivity. They have
identified soil degradation, mono-cropping culture, water salinity and lack of seeds, fertilizer and
technology as the major drawbacks.

The Union Agriculture Ministry has suggested that these States shift to pulses, oilseeds and maize, or
diversify upland rice areas that are less productive to such crops as millets, pulses and oilseeds; develop
on-farm irrigation resources; improve drainage; and repair irrigation channels.

In West Bengal, for instance, special strategies will be considered for areas with arsenic problem and
those plagued by salinity and inundation. Propagation of salt-tolerant varieties, especially for small
landholdings, will be examined.In the flood-prone Bihar, promotion of hybrid rice and submergence-
tolerant rice varieties, reclamation of problematic soils and zero tillage technology for timely sowing of
wheat in low-level areas are some of the strategies under consideration.

Chhattisgarh is being advised to go in for low-water requiring and upland crops such as maize, millets
and pulses to be grown on forestland. It should construct water storage facilities and irrigation tanks.

%1 (   



Ans. Pollution of coastal waters may arise from various sources, such as: the discharge of sewage and
industrial waste from coastal outfalls; the dumping of wastes at sea; the discharge of sewage and rubbish
from ships; the handling of cargo; the exploration and exploitation of the sea bed and ocean floor;
accidental pollution by oil and other substance of pollutants from the land by air and other routes.
Undoubtedly the most frequent cause of coastal pollution problems is the discharge of municipal sewage
and industrial wastes into coastal waters or into estuaries through unsatisfactory disposal facilities. If
wastes contain persistent pollutants, discharge into rivers even at considerable distances upstream from
the mouth can result in substantial quantities reaching the sea. The major classes of pollutant reaching
coastal waters are decomposable organic materials, heavy metals and other toxic matter, dissolved and
suspended non-toxic inorganic substances, and pathogenic organisms
Many factors, such as dilution, temperature, adsorption, sedimentation and nutrient deficiencies influence
self-purification of the sea. The marine environment is generally unfavorable to the survival of most
pathogenic organisms. However, under special circumstances, particularly in temperate and warm coastal
waters near large cities, pathogenic agents may be found in marine waters in the proximity of the coast-
line and in estuaries
The many people living in coastal zones, and even those located far inland, generate large quantities of
wastes and other polluting substances that enter the seas directly or through coastal watersheds, rivers
and precipitation from polluted air. While coastal pollution is gradually being controlled in many
industrialized countries, it is still rising rapidly as a result of population growth, urbanization and industrial
development in developing regions. For example, 38 per cent of Africa's coastline and 68 per cent of its
marine protected areas are under a high degree of threat from development.

The coastal marine environment is clearly being affected by the modification and destruction of habitats,
over-fishing and pollution. Many of these impacts can be traced back to land-based human activities
located far from the sea. Many coastal waters carry excessive sediment and are contaminated by
microbes and organic nutrients. Nitrogen, resulting from sewage discharges, agricultural and urban run-
off, and atmospheric precipitation, is a particular problem. The destruction of wetlands and mangroves,
which act as natural filters for sediment, excessive nitrogen and wastes, has also accelerated nutrient
build-up. Additional pollution sources are oil leaks and accidental spills from shipping, discharge of bilge
water, oil drilling and mineral extraction. Some persistent pollutants are even reaching deep ocean waters
Bio-remediation-Bio remediation play vital role in recent years to minimize the coastal pollution. Sewage
from the cities, industrial wastes and effluents should be treat with different marine micro-algae.

4  India has for quite some time pursued GHG friendly policies in her own interest. India¶s obligation to
minimize energy consumption - particularly oil consumption - and to deal with its environmental problems
prompts it to follow many such policies. Directly or indirectly these efforts are made by Government aswell
as by people to reduce energy consumption. These include: -
a) Emphasis on energy conservation.
b) Promotion of renewable energy sources.
c) Abatement of air pollution.
d) Afforestation and wasteland development.
e) Economic reforms, subsidy removal and joint ventures in capital goods.
f) Fuel substitution policies.
Some of these efforts are on-going for several decades and are institutionalized in a number of
waysthrough policies, programs and the creation of specific institutions. These are government efforts;
inaddition there are a number of measures taken by people themselves. Some because of resource
minimizingcultural traditions as well as good practices that exist in India and some due to sheer
povertyand deprivation. We discuss each of the above separately.
While some of the energy savings are due to conscious resource utilization practices in a positive
sense,the dark side has to do with human drudgery and deprivation. These include ³compulsory Forced
energy savings´ by the poor due to deprivation. These ranges from-
a) Lack of electricity connections and if connected, then a lack of electric appliances and even ofadequate
light bulbs in rural households.
b) Lack of piped water or pumps that require long trips by women and children on foot to obtain
c) Lack of even cooking fuels due to which the poor depend on biomass rather than clean and
convenientfossil fuels.
d) Lack of fans and heating devices for a large percentage of households that are necessary for
comfortand productivity.
e) Lack of basic infrastructure such as schools, hospitals, and roads that are essential elements for
human development.
All of the above save energy at the cost of human welfare. Clearly, it is not recommended to continue
theexisting state of affairsIf India is committed to human development, poverty eradication should take
place. This may result in anincreased energy use. This may be considered a due right of the poor, even if
it increases India¶s GHGemissions.

Apart from energy conservation and efficiency improvements, the need to find, develop and exploit
nonconventional energy sources, many of them clean and renewable, has long been recognized by
theGovernment of India. An aggregate installed capacity of 2302 MW through various renewable energy
sources, namely, wind farms, micro-hydroelectric plants, biomass & cogeneration power plants, biomass
based gasifies systems etc.
&6  /   
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Answer.Indians should be concerned about climate change since this phenomenon might have
substantial adverseimpacts on them. Not all possible consequences of climate change are yet fully
understood, but the three main µcategories¶ of impacts are those on agriculture, sea level rise leading to
submergence of coastalareas, as well as increased frequency of extreme events. Each of themposes
serious threats to India.However, these are long term issues. The overriding immediate concern for India
should be the fast pace at which negotiations are taking place on the climate front. India¶s main energy
resource is coal. With thethreat of climate change, India is called upon to change its energy strategy
based on coal, its mostabundant resource, and to use other energy sources (e.g. oil, gas, renewable and
nuclear energy) instead,which may turn out to be expensive. Thus, an immediate issue is to come up with
a better negotiationstrategy such that we have more freedom to decide which type of energy we use, how
we generate power,how to reduce methane emissions by agricultural practices or forestry and so on.
Negotiations areimportant for us as a means to reduce or postpone future vulnerability by getting the
developed countries to reduce their emissions.
 &        /           

Ans.The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, and soil types as
well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc.
Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million square km Land use data, however, is available only for 93
per cent of the totalgeographical area because the land use reporting for most of the north-east states
except Assam has not been done fully. Moreover, some areas of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by
Pakistan and China have also not been surveyed.The land under permanent pasture has also decreased.
How are we able to feed our huge cattle population on this pasture land and what are the consequences
of it? Most of the other than the current fallow lands are eitherof poor quality or the cost of cultivation of
such land is very high. Hence, these lands are cultivated once or twice in about two to three years and if
these are included in the net sown area then the percentage of NSA in India comes to about 54 per cent
of the total reporting area. The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over
80 per cent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh,
Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands.

Forest area in the country is far lower than the desired 33 per cent of geographical area, as it was
outlined in the National Forest Policy (1952). It was considered essential for maintenance of the
ecological balance. Thelivelihood of millions of people who live on the fringes of these forests depends
upon it. A part of the land is termed as waste land and land put to other non-agricultural uses. Waste land
includes rocky, arid and desertareas and land put to other non-agricultural uses includes settlements,
roads, railways, industry etc. Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate
measures to conserve and manage it, has resulted in land degradation. This, in turn, has serious
repercussions on society and the environment.
We have shared our land with the past generations and will have to do so with the future generations too.
Ninety-five per cent of our basic needs for food, shelter and clothing are obtained from land. Human
activities have not only brought about degradation of land but have also aggravated the pace of natural
forces to cause damage to land. At present, there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in
India. Approximately, 28 per cent of it belongs to the category of forest degraded area, 56 per cent of it is
water eroded area and the rest is affected by saline and alkaline deposits. Some human activities such as
deforestation, over grazing, mining and quarrying too have contributed significantly in land degradation.

Q &,




Ans. Technology is exploited for production of goods & services with optimal utilization of resources. This
is the process of technical development. The fruits of this activity will eventually lead to economic
development as more and more people will be brought into the net of 'affordability' of goods & services.
With the raised standards, consumers' expectations and demand rise leading to more consumption.
Technology once again plays the role of keeping the activity moving with 'cheap and affordable' pricing.
Plenty of examples can be given.
Centuries ago, making of cloth and garments were meager as per the low technology levels. Only rich
could afford fine clothes and garments and they used to show off, like kings to their subjects. Now, with
technology proliferating, the range and diversity is prolific and anyone can afford decent, well-cut
garments. Another instance is 'mobile' communications. Proliferation of this technology (the technology
per se, the goods on offer and the low cost) has embraced billions of users that makes the industry
profitable. That in turn leads to lowering of costs and/or more features per given price. The bolt that
fastens all these aspects is 'standardization'. This alone transitions a Science to Technology. Technology
is the end-product that strives to put in the consumers hands a device of which the consumers need to
know nothing about, like its scientific principle of operation. The via media is 'Engineering' that actually
does the nuts & bolts part. The final outcome, the aim of all this activity is 'more consumption'. But now
the worrying factor is the disposal of this technological debris!



Ans. The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion. The
processes of soil formation and erosion go on simultaneously and generally there is a balance between
the two. Sometimes,this balance is disturbed due to human activities like deforestation, over-grazing,
construction and mining etc., while natural forces like wind, glacier and water lead to soil erosion. The
running water cuts through theclayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies. The land becomes unfit
for cultivation and is known as bad land. In the Chambal basin such lands are called ravines. Sometimes
water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases the top soil is washed away.This is
known as sheet erosion. Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land known as wind erosion. Soil erosion
is also caused due to defective methods of farming. Ploughing in a wrong way i.e. up and down the slope
which forms channels for the quick flow of water leading to soil erosion.Ploughing along the contour lines
can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes. This is called contour ploughing. Steps can be cut out
on the slopes making terraces. Terrace cultivation restricts erosion. Western and central Himalayas have
well developed terrace farming. Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow
between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as strip cropping. Planting
lines of trees to create shelter also works in a similar way. Rows of such trees are called shelter belts.
These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in stabilizing the
desert in western India.

Ans. Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is the medium of plant growth and supports
different types of living organisms on the earth. The soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to
form soil up to a few cm in depth. Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of
life and time are important factors in the formation of soil. Various forces of nature such as change in
temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc. contribute to the
formation of soil. Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important. Soil
also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.

Ans. Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire
planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Greater biodiversity implies greater health.
Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas
Polar Regions support fewer species.
We share this planet with millions of other living beings, starting from micro-organisms and bacteria,
lichens to banyan trees, elephants and blue whales. This entire habitat that we live in has immense
biodiversity. We humans along with all living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which
we are only a part and very much dependent on this system for our own existence. For example, the
plants, animals and micro-organisms re-create the quality of the air we breathe, the water we drink and
the soil that produces our food without which we cannot survive. Forests play a key role in the ecological
system as these are also the primary producers on which all other living beings depend. Biodiversity
supports ecosystem services including air quality, climate, water purification, pollination, and prevention
of erosion. Non-material benefits include spiritual and aesthetic values, knowledge systems and the value
of education.


Ans. The term "wildlife", it generally refers to large ferocious animals living in jungles and forests such as
tigers, lions, elephants, wolves, etc. But in fact, "wildlife" implies to any living organism in its natural
habitat which includes all plants, animals and microorganisms except cultivated plants and domesticated
animals. From ecological view point, wildlife is a renewable resource.




1. The wildlife helps us in maintaining the 'balance of nature'. Once this equilibrium is disturbed it
leads to many problems. The destruction of carnivores or insectivores often leads to the increase
of herbivores which in turn affects the forest vegetation or crops.
2. The wildlife can be used commercially to earn more and more money. It can increase our
earning of foreign exchange, by tourism.
3. The preservation of wildlife helps many naturalists and behavior biologists to study morphology,
anatomy, physiology, ecology, behavior biology of the wild animals under their natural
4. The wildlife provides best means of sports and recreation.
5. The wildlife of India is our cultural asset and has deep-rooted effect on Indian art, sculpture,
literature and religion.



1. Proper management and planning should be made to preserve wildlife in their natural habitat (in
situ) and in zoos and national parks (ex situ).
2. A wide range of varieties of livestock, animals for aquaculture and their wild varieties should be
preserved, and priority should be given to those that are most threatened and needed for national
and international breeding program.
3. Each country should locate the habitats of wild relatives of the economically valuable and useful
animals and ensure their preservation in protected areas.
4. The feeding, breeding, nursery and resting areas of species should be safeguarded.
5. In case of migratory animals, a network of protected areas should be established to preserve their
habitats. For those species which migrate from one national jurisdiction to another, bilateral or
multilateral agreements should be made to meet out the required network.
6. Unique ecosystems should be protected as a matter of priority.
7. The national protection programs should be coordinated with the international programs like
UNESCO's Man and Biosphere project 8 and national parks and protected areas of International
Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. This would safeguard the genetic
diversity and their continuing evolution.
8. The productive capacities of species should be determined, so that, their utilization should not
exceed those capacities.
9. Proper legislative and administrative measures should be taken to regulate the International trade
of wild animals.



Ans. Several measures have been prescribed for the conservation of the forests. They are as follows:

1. The trees cut down for timber or other uses, should be matched with planting of more trees, so
that, there is no scarcity.
2. The use of fuel wood and wood charcoal should be discouraged. The conventional sources of
energy should be tapped. Biogas should be employed for cooking, to lessen the consumption of
fuel wood.
3. Modern methods of forest management should be practiced. A forest is a very vulnerable
asset. The slight neglect or unscientific working can rapidly deplete and may even annihilate it
after which reforesting of the area may not be economically feasible.
4. The silivicultural practices should be adopted. Cultivation of forest crops consists of regeneration,
that is, renewal of forest crop, and tending, that is carrying on operations from time to time for the
benefit of the growing forest crop during its lifetime. The silivicultural practices include use of
irrigations, fertilizers, bacterial and mycorrhizal inoculations, disease and pest management,
control of weeds, cleaning, thinning, breeding of elite trees and use of tissue culture techniques.
5. The Social Forestry Programme (1976) should be encouraged. Under this program me, the so
called waste lands should be utilized to produce fire wood, fodder and small timber for the use of
agricultural implements. This program includes raising, planting and protecting trees for various
purposes. This program is a boon for rural community.
6. The annual deforestation must be followed by annual reforestation of the deforested areas. Thus
the forest is conserved. There should be intensification of afforestation or reforestation rates to
nearly three times of existing rate.
7. The agroforestry program should be encouraged. Under this program the attempt should be
made to use the same land for farming, forestry and animal husbandry.
8. The urban forestry program should also be encouraged. Under this program, the small gardens
and house compounds should be well maintained by planting flower and fruit trees. The trees of
aesthetic value should also be planted along the road side. The ornamental trees should be
grown in the parks and other wasteland. Such forestry program will give nice look to the town,
land mitigate the foul environment.

 &1             -

Ans. "scarcity" is a situation where there is insufficient water to satisfy normal

requirements.  is a more relative concept describing the relationship between demand for
water and its availability. The demands may vary considerably between different countries and different
regions within a given country depending on the sectorial usage of water. A country with a high industrial
demand or which depends on large scale irrigation will therefore be more likely to experience times of
scarcity than a country with similar climatic conditions without such demands. Countries such as Rwanda,
for example, would be classified by most standards as suffering water shortage but, because of low
industrial and irrigation utilization would not be classified as water scarce.

The causes of water scarcity are varied. Some are natural and others are as a result of human activity.
The current debate sites the causes as largely deterministic in that scarcity is a result of identifiable cause
and effect. However, if water scarcity is the point at which water stress occurs (the point at which various
conflicts arise, harvests fail and the like), then there are also less definable sociological and political
causes. Many of the causes are inter-related and are not easily distinguished.


y Population growth
y Food production
y Climatic change and variability
y Land use
y Water quality
y Water demand
y Sectorial resources and institutional capacity
y Poverty and economic policy
y Legislation and water resource management
y International waters
y Sectorial professional capacity
y Political realities
y Sociological issues


 8 2


Ans. Liberalization helps developing countries achieve growth: 'when a country lowers trade barriers,
reduces government intervention in the market in order to allow market forces to operate freely, increases
competition and attracts foreign investment, it will increase productivity and reduce inefficiency, which will
lead to economic growth, and in a few generations, if not less, the poor will become rich, illiteracy will
disappear, and poor countries will catch up with the rich.' This argument is an economic rationalist one,
which views government intervention with profound suspicion, and has equally profound faith in
unfettered market forces. But rich countries which now preach liberalization protected their 'infant
industries' at the time they began to industrialize, till they were strong enough to compete globally. The
US government, for example, had a protectionist trade policy in the late nineteenth century to help US
companies become competitive in the world. Besides, apart from wool, the US, Germany, Britain and
France were all almost self-sufficient in the raw materials that they needed for industrialization, and took
off from that platform, a luxury that India and other developing countries do not have. Some economist
assumes that from the adoption of these values (of liberalization) all countries are at the same starting
place, which is clearly not the case. In fact, it is this very reason that has brought about the crisis that
Indian agriculture is facing today. Most farmers in India were already in a position of minimum security,
with no education system, credit facilities, access to alternative employment, or efficient technology. Their
only support was government subsidy and regulation. Liberalization policies came in and dismantled their
only support structure. It halted the sharp reduction in rural poverty from 55% in the 1970s to 34% in the

The second most popular argument of the economic rationalists in favor of liberalization is that
competition will weed out the inefficient, and in the growth that ensues, employment will be provided in
other areas of the economy, thus lifting the poor out of poverty. This argument however assumes that the
poor will be able to take advantage of the opportunities presented to them. 'The Globalization Gap',
Globalization encourages the well positioned to use tools of economics and politics to exploit market
opportunities, boost technical productivity, and maximize short-term material interests. This is
compounded in India, where the gap between one who is 'well positioned' and one who is not can be
extreme. With a lack of investment, chances of generation of rural employment are slim. Unemployment
and underemployment are chronic problems in India, with the rate of unemployment being close to 10%
in 2004. Primary education in rural areas is mismanaged and bad quality, and there is no system which
helps agricultural workers find alternate employment, or develop alternate skills. In the face of such
obstacles, it is nearly impossible to expect agricultural workers to shift to alternate fields.

The final argument that supporters of globalization have is the much touted 10% reduction in poverty (60
million declines in poor) in India in the year 2000. However, this figure was challenged by experts.
Poverty is defined according to how many people consume less than the nutritional minimum prescribed.
(2400 calories for rural areas, and 2100 for urban areas) Major changes in survey design in 1999-2000
not only made the resultant estimates incomparable to previous years' estimates, but an over-estimation
of consumption (meaning people were getting enough food, hence were not considered poor) meant a
sharp reduction in poverty figures. After experts challenged it, the Planning Commission of India accepted
that the figure was inaccurate, and could not be compared to previous years¶ estimates; hence the 10%
drop in poverty is incorrect. With adjusted figures, experts have determined that the decrease in poverty
was a mere 2.3%, and that the number of poor increased by nine million in 2002 as compared to 1999.



/  4   -

Ans. Agriculture in India is the means of livelihood of almost two thirds of the work force in the country. It
has always been INDIA'S most important economic sector. The 1970s saw a huge increase in India's
wheat production that heralded the Green Revolution in the country. The increase in post -independence
agricultural production has been brought about by bringing additional area under cultivation, extension of
irrigation facilities, use of better seeds, better techniques, water management, and plant protection.


/  4   7The liberalization of India's economy was adopted by
India in 1991. Facing a severe economic crisis, India approached the IMF for a loan, and the IMF granted
what is called a 'structural adjustment' loan, which is a loan with certain conditions attached which relate
to a structural change in the economy. The government ushered in a new era of economic reforms based
on these conditions. These reforms (broadly called Liberalization by the Indian media) can be broadly
classified into three areas: Liberalization, privatization and globalization. Essentially, the reforms sought
to gradually phase out government control of the market (liberalization), privatize public sector
organizations (privatization), and reduce export subsidies and import barriers to enable free trade
(globalization). There was a considerable amount of debate in India at the time of the introduction of the
reforms, it being a dramatic departure from the protectionist, socialist nature of the Indian economy up
until then. However, reforms in the agricultural sector in particular came under severe criticism in the late
1990s, when 221 farmers in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh committed suicide. The trend was
noticed in several other states, and the figure today, stands at 100,000 across the country. Coupled with
this was a sharp drop in agricultural growth from 4.69% in 1991 to 2.06% in 1997.

It is clear that the liberalization policies adopted by the government of India played a
dominant role in the agrarian crisis that is now being played out. However, this is not to say that
privatization, liberalization and globalization are per say bad, or inherently inimical to an economy. It is the
'one size fits all' brand of liberalization adopted by the IMF and the World Bank which forces countries to
privatize, liberalize and globalize without exception which has failed. Without taking into account the state
of an economy, and in this case, the state and nature of the agricultural sector in India, the IMF and the
World Bank, with the cooperation of the Indian government, embarked on mismatched reforms, which
have caused misery and despair among millions of Indian farmers, driving large numbers of them to
suicide. It is also essential to break the link between aid and liberalization, which caused India in the first
place to accept the conditions of the IMF. Remember that India was on the brink of a financial crisis in
1991 when it applied for the IMF loan and accepted its conditions-perhaps the course of economic reform
in India would have taken a very different course if there was no urgent need to borrow from the IMF. The
start to this process may have already occurred: recognizing the failure of its liberalization policies, the
Blair government of Britain announced in 2004 that it will no longer make liberalization and privatization
conditions of aid.

*  )      
 "  -

Ans. If the land under cultivation reduces day by day then it consequences are:

1.Scarcity of food items.

2. Price rise of crops and other dependent products.
3.Overuse of manures and pesticides and insecticides to boost the productivity of the available land area.
4.Side effects of above chemicals.
5. Use of high quality seeds and machines to boost productivity and hence rendering farmers


Ans. Wheat and Rice are staple foods of India. Staple food is defined as the main food. Other foods may
accompany the staple foods. In India, the accompaniments are: dairy products, legumes, vegetables, and
meats. Accompaniments revolve around the staples of cooked rice, or Roti.Rice production inIndia is an
important part of the national economyIndia is the world's second largest producer of white rice,
accounting for 80% of all world rice production. Rice is India's preeminent crop, and is the staple food of
the people of the eastern and southern parts of the country. With a production reaching ten times in past
five years, India is today the second largest   
   in the whole world. Various studies and
researches show that wheat and   
 play an increasingly important role in the management of
India¶s food economy. Wheat production is about 70 million tonnes per year in India and counts for
approximately 12 per cent of world production. Being the second largest in population, it is also the
second largest in wheat consumption after China, with a huge and growing wheat demand.

The major rice growing area in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar,
Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Haryana, Gujarat, Kerala,
Jammu- Kashmir, Tripura, Meghalaya, Manipur, Rajasthan, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal
Pradesh, Mizoram, Goa, Pondicherry, Sikkim, A & N Island and D & N Haveli.


Major wheat growing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh,
Gujarat and Bihar. All of north is replenished with wheat cultivation. Wheat has a narrow geographic land
base of production as compared to rice or pulses. Wheat is a temperate crop requiring low temperatures
and most of the country is tropical.


         / -

Ans: India is a tropical country. It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. Photovoltaic
technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. Solar energy is fast becoming popular in rural and
remote areas. The largest solar plant of India is located atMadhapur, near Bhuj, where solar energy is
used to sterilize milk cans. It is expected thatuse of solar energy will be able to minimize the dependence
of rural households on firewood and dung cakes, which in turn will contribute to environmental
conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.Solar energy refers primarily to the use of
solar radiation for practical ends. However, all renewable energies, other than geothermal and tidal,
derive their energy from the sun.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they
capture, convert and distribute sunlight. Active solar techniques use photovoltaic panels, pumps, and fans
to convert sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable
thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air, and referencing the position of a building
to the Sun. Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side
technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce the need for alternate resources and are generally
considered demand side technologies.



Ans: The total volume of workable mineral deposits is an insignificant fraction i.e. one per cent of the
earth¶s crust. We are rapidly consuming mineral resources thatrequired millions of years to be created
and concentrated. The geological processes of mineral formation are so slow that the rates of
replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption. Mineral resources
are, therefore, finite and non- renewable. Rich mineral deposits are our country¶s extremely valuable but
short-lived possessions. Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as mineral extraction
comes from greater depths along with decrease in quality.A concerted effort has to be made in order to
use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner.

*& ,

Ans. Factories pollute the air by pumping out chemicals that are harmful for all the living things.That is
why there is acid rain and going to be global warming. Factories can pollute the environment through
thermal pollution, chemical pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, for a few examples.
Thermal pollution is when hot water is dumped into cool water in a river, lake, pond or bay. The difference
in temperatures can promote algae growth, kill of native fish or wildlife, or it might cause disruptions in the
water that causes the water to change temperature, also causing major problems with wildlife.

Chemical Pollution is when chemicals are exposed to the environment, either by dumping them into
sewage plants, where excess waste ends up in the ground. A good example of this is nuclear waste. This
needs to be treated carefully or else it could completely destroy an area.
Air pollution is when pollution is mixed in with the air. (Self-Explanatory) Look on dictionary.com for smog.

Noise pollution is when a factory causes a lot of noise... enough to effect the surrounding environment.




4  Rail transportTransportation of goods and passengers on rail lines through trains is called rail
transport. It occupies an important place in land transport system of our country and is the most
dependable mode of transport to carry goods and passengers over a long distance. Besides long
distance,local transport of passengers is also provided by local trains or metro-rail in some
metropolitancities. Rail transport is available throughout the country except some hilly or
mountainousregions. In India two types of trains are found. One is passenger train and other is
goodstrain. While passenger trains carry both human beings and a limited quantity of goods, thegoods
trains are exclusively used for carrying goods from one place to another. These trainsare driven by rail
engines and they use steam, diesel or electric power to move. Let us nowdiscuss the advantages and
limitations of rail transport.

(i) It is a convenient mode of transport for travelling long distances.
(ii) It is relatively faster than road transport.
(iii) It is suitable for carrying heavy goods in large quantities over long distances.
(iv) Its operation is less affected by adverse weathers conditions like rain, floods, fog, etc.


(i) It is relatively expensive for carrying goods and passengers over short distances.
(ii) It is not available in remote parts of the country.
(iii) It provides service according to fixed time schedule and is not flexible for loading orunloading of
goods at any place.
(iv)It involves heavy losses of life as well as goods in case of accident.





Answer. Arguments in Favor

y The reason for pushing the children hard today is to nurture them to face the competitive world
y Developing talent is not a sin; it will help the child in his future.
y It is a trickledown effect from the kind of competition experienced for entry into engineering colleges,
graduation and others.
y As Darwin said that most eligible can survive it is only the way to make the children able so that they
can survive in the sea of humans.

Argument in Against-

y The basic needs of childhood are, time to play, place to play and explore the world through his eyes.
y In the name of competition we are raising fatigues children.
y The stress is resulting into children engaging in all kinds of derogative acts.


y It is true that competition is growing day by day but child hood is age for playing making friends
so parents should let their kids to do the same.

 *1 (
      / ! 

Ans. Arguments in Favor Democracy definitely hampered the progress because the people who have
chosen by the Indian people are not educated enough and capable enough to run the government

y Democracy putting forward lot of restrictions on business to run it as profitable enterpriserather

then it is becoming more like running for social causes.
y In some sense yes. You know, because of the way the system is built, lot of regulations and
formalities come into picture. The bureaucracy leads to delays.
y Yes,as all can see from the TV news and read the papers,everything is being molded according
to the wishes of the so called protectors of the democracy.
y Why separate scales are being used for same kind of work/service.

Arguments in Against

y Democracy is the only reason of India's progress. There is no greater system for a country than a
vibrant democracy. There may be problem, but then what system does not have the problem.
There will always be problem in any system, but we have to overcome that and keep trying to do
so. No system can ever be foolproof because no two men always can think alike.
y Just look to Pakistan for a reference. Or if you have China in mind, there bubble will burst one
day like USSR did.
y At the time of Independence, the average income of Pakistanis was higher than that of Indians.
Today after almost 60 years of democracy in India (bloody and violent democracy at time I will
admit) and 60 years of dictatorships, military rule and religious control in Pakistan, the average
income of Indians is about 300% higher than Pakistan and India is now in the process of
becoming a genuine world "superpower."


y There might be some problem with the democracy but no system is full proof we can rectify them.

 *5 ) 
     //)    //$           


Ans. advantages-

y India is not a developed country here literacy ratio is very less so government should concentrate
on make more people literaterather than concentrating on small group of population
y Students from IIT IIM are moving out of India serving other nation's organization that is really
y India is democratic country.Democracy can only be successful in only one situation that everyone
should literate that could be achieved by concentrating on primary education
y Spending huge amount of money on IIT &IIM is dividing the nation in two different communities
one community is not even having primary education where other community is having higher
y The most of the people going for the IIT IIM are self- capable so government should make all this
institutes self -financed and stop funding.


y Still India in development mode so need of these institutes to promote our young talent to
international platform.
y It¶s true that students from IIT IIM are moving out but they are sending back money to the country
eventually that money is getting utilized in India itself.
y The phase of development through which India is passing by needs more recognition of Indian
talent pool, which surely needs the better higher education for young Indians.
y For democracy we need policy makers so we needs few people who are Indians who can create
better systems for us IIT's IIM's producing such kinds of brains.
y Students from other countries are coming to India so eventually revenue coming back to
government pocket.


y We can¶t compare the primary education, which is veryvast area with IIT IIM which is
concentrated to small area.
y Funding to IIT IIM can be self- financed but there should be proper mechanism and student
should get scholarships in case of fees hike

 +64            ' 



Ans. Arguments in Favor

y The stars promoting the product most of the time don¶t take its responsibility moreover they not
even use the product.
y Advertisers have to depict what the customers like, enjoy keeping in mind the client¶s
y As the products increase and so the ads, glitter is a way to ensure brand recall, a very important
factor for the advertising firms.
y Most of the time companies over showcase their product qualities which is not fair.
y There are lot of examples like a person eat a chew gum and become so cool that girls start
following him or take example of a famous perfume where if guys use that perfume girls start
running behind them all these are totally fake.
y Advertising is a business and not charity. Companies hire advertisers for their promoting their
products and it is not vice versa.

Arguments in Against

y Advertising firms carry responsibility of providing customers with unbiased information about
y In order to have a healthy bottom line the ad firms cannot shun their responsibility towards the
y Ad firms have to develop the ethical content into their processes to ensure fair deals.


y Advertisements are somewhat made to attract the customers and some time they might only
glitter but sometimes they are also true

 +  /         

  / - (   




Ans. In Favor

y The system in which these bureaucratswork includes the politicians and other factors which is
affecting the decisions made by the bureaucrats in a huge way. As basically as human being
everybody is thinking about himself.They are taking decisions of their own benefits.
y As the laws have not changed significantly, bureaucrats still play a major role in the process of a
y The way to successfully implement the reforms is to reduce the amount of paperwork and red
tape involved.

In Against

y Bureaucracy is not at all hindrance because someone has to play this role. It is necessity.
y Bureaucracy is a necessity no doubt, to have control over the activities of the private sector.
y Rules and regulations that are laid down have to be implemented and the masses have to be
looked after which is not possible without the help of bureaucrats.
y As a company requires people to run the business, government also requires bureaucrats to run
its affairs.


y Bureaucracy is not a problem but the problem is the system in which these bureaucrats work
makes the corrupt and problematic for the business.Need is to make process more transparent
and decision making should be lottery based or based on a group of people rather depending on
single person.

 + @7          



Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Movie released in theaters is a result of what the producer and director along with his crew put
together. The producer being the investor and the director the creator it is left to them to decide
what they want to create and produce.
y The producer and the director take a gamble trying to woo the crowd by showing what they want.
y Current trend in movies is towards folk culture, which may fade away soon.
y The producers are distorting the history and represent in wrongly in front of viewers for sake of

Arguments in Against

y Film makers are promoting our values and traditions by these movies.
y If the movie is on folk culture then it should elucidate the beauty of the culture and there should
not be any masala added to lure the audience.
y Folk culture is to be preserved in its natural and an inheritance should not be used to make
money out of it by depicting the same in movies.


y It should ok if filmmakers are making folk movies but one thing they should kept in mind they
must not present wrong facts in front of viewers.


   .   /     


Ans. Arguments in Favor

y The fundamental principles of democracy preach to ensure balanced regional development.

y Uniform representation in the Lower House by MPs from all over the country is to bring out
regional problems and demands of people from across the country.
y Constitution is completely unbiased for any kind of regional growth

Arguments in Against

y The government tends to be biased towards vote banks while making and implementing policies.
y The minorities are usually left out in the power game and all the agitation by various minorities is
an example of the lopsided development.
y Most of the important people of our country stays in metros or frequently visits metros so they
expect the better facilities there so they themselves take such decisions which promote the
growth of only metros whereas rest of India being untouched with growth.


y The Democracy and constitution don¶t support any kind of regional bias but politician themselves
only biased.




Ans. Arguments in Favor

y The fact that the system provides equality to everyone ,from whatsoever background and
competency makes it easier to play around loopholes in the Indian Statute
y Democracy does not play a direct role to promote the corruption but it gives power to the people
who could be not capable and have their own aims and selfishness.
y Democracy does not play a direct role to promote the corruption but it gives power to the people
who could be not capable and have their own aims and selfishness.
y In democratic system a person is chosen by other people.This procedure could be faulty because
human being can be motivated trough the means of greed, or fear.

Arguments in against

y The risk of Democracy is a systemic risk; corruption is a personal equation and holds good or bad
depending on an individual's and organizations personal value systems. The two should therefore
not be construed/ read as a cause- effect relationship.
y Democracy gives choice to people to select the leaders on the basis of theircapability and
goodness. If people choose the wrong leaders then that is not the problem with democracy that is
the problem with people.


y The democracy doesn¶t support the corruption at all.But the people themselves are greedy and
selfish who are motivated for corruption.



Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Forcing human mind to follow the rules which are unnecessary and biased make them
revolutionary and they move towards revenge and corruption is one of the way to take that
revenge form government.
y Few people believe laws are made to be broken so this is case of the economic phenomenon of
regulatory arbitrage.

Arguments in Against

y Corruption is a personal equation and holds good or bad depending on an individual's and
organizations personal value systems.Regulations, like democracy are a systemic phenomenon;
both have nothing to do with each other.


y Over regulating simple things of daily life can create problem in daily life but regulations are must
to run the complex modern life.

 +1 @






Ans. Advantages

-China is biggest example of success of state controlled economy.

y In liberaleconomies richer become richer and poor¶s are getting poorer.

y A controlled economy will result in proper flow of benefits towards the rural masses.
y The state has control over the production and the markets helping the poorer sections to avail
benefits which they otherwise would have been deprived of.

y The state controlled economies are big problem in the path of growing business in country which
will surely affect the country's growth which eventually affects poor.
y Russia is biggest example of failure of state controlled economy
y The communist countries are a bright example that state controlled economies do not result in
uplifting the poor.
y As history stands a proof state controlled economies have higher rates of corruption and
mismanaged economies.
y A liberalized economy with sound regulatory framework will ensure employment and a healthy


State controlled economy is having few benefits but from evidences from history the conclusion is that
state controlled economy is big failure.

 +5 c



- ' 

Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Every sponsor is running behind cricket getting sponsored to other sports is difficult, and the
players could not have the latest equipment (sport gears).
y Cannot not compete with other countries
y The money flowing in to cricket attracting all the young population less people interested in
making career in other sports.

Arguments in Against

y Department of sports or the Sports ministry has a fixed budget and has to allocate the same to
productive use. If the demands from cricket are high the dept. has no other option but to fund
y The number of aspiring cricketers speaks for itself how popular a game it is in the nation.
y A lot of funding also comes from sponsors who will fund the game that gives them maximum
publicity and in India cricket is no doubt the game.


y It seems true that money in cricket is harming other games because the youths only want to play
cricket due to this money.

 16 ) 

/ G   c

      - ' 

Ans. Arguments in Favor

y This may be read in light of trading equations with our biggest partners USA, UK and Germany
where we had miserably failed to bargain given that most of our trade consumables have import
exposures from these nations; the European Union will further augment this situation.
y EU-India trade talks began well in June 2007. India¶s rapidly expanding role in the world economy
as a buyer and seller make this an important free trade agreement for the EU, as recent research

Arguments in Against
y The EU-India negotiations began well in June 2007. But the hard issues are always left to last in
such discussions. The benefits of an agreement for the two nations are especially hard to quantify
given the importance that each places on hard-to-measure gains in areas like investment and
y The EU would mean more exposure to a more stable currency vis-à-vis the presently volatile
dollar tranche; this would mean healthier earnings and repatriation.


y India¶s rapidly expanding role in the world economy as a buyer and seller make this an important
target for the EU. It would be an agreement well worth having. Of course, such bilateral progress
should come in addition to, rather than in place of progress in the WTO¶s current multilateral talks
(the Doha Round) but such progress depends only partly on the EU¶s stance. From the Indian
side, the free trade agreement would be a move from its reliance on a unilateral liberalization
policy with extreme reluctance to commit multilaterally.

 1  c




Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Woman is the base of a family.When you empower women, you empower a family.
y Major influence on the children and thus the society.
y Empowerment of woman will give new workforce for society.

Arguments in Against

y No direct connection.
y Empowerment of woman will lead to nuclear families and split homes.


y Women are most important part of society her empowerment is must for development.




Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Computers replace a lot of jobs.

y A developing country like India cannot afford to have computerization at the cost of
y Computers making lot of jobs complex unnecessarily which was going on easily in past in manual

Arguments in Against

y In a Knowledge and service economy computers are a necessity and a must for development.
y They create more jobs and types of jobs and also have multiplier effect.
y Computer can¶t work in isolation most of the time still they needs human handling so basically
they are facilitating human beings.

y Computers are not increasing unemployment actually they are helping humans to making
complex jobs simple.

 1# 9 /)           : 



Ans. In Favor

y As a software person is having analytical skills which can be utilized in the management job very
y In software onsite opportunities makes the income and growth bigger then management people.
y MBA's can¶t get exposure and benefits of working Onsite.

In Against

y Software jobs are not lucrative like the MBA's average income of software middle level employee
is 10 lakhs per annum but an MBA can make around 15 to 20 lakhs per annum.
y People who want to manage other people not having scope in the software field.


y MBA and software both having there advantages it depends on the ,what kind of opportunity we
are getting.

 1# c


Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Communication between people of different languages will be faster and easier.

y No politicization of language base issues.
y No discrimination on the basis of ascent.

Arguments in against

y Loss of traditions.
y With different languages in India, it is difficult to have same accent.
y It is a personal issues, everybody has a right to speak his mother tongue.
y Hindi and English are serving as the bridge for the variety of languages we have and there is no
need to force a common language.


y It would surely make the communication easier but need to analyze its impact in broadways.




Ans. Argument in Favor

y Males want to dominate women in every part of society and work because of their traditional male
y Its common doubt in society whether woman can become good mangers.

Argument in Against
y Its women who avoid power and responsibility in the work area.
y Its woman mentally who feels that.


y In past surely men are not giving the same place to woman in different areas of life but now
situation is changing very fast.

 1& 9<
      : c


Ans.Argument in Favor

y Surely the young generation is becoming greedy every one running behind easy money and don¶t
want to put the efforts to earn it by hard work.
y The youth is getting so much opportunities ,still they want to go to Onsite and earn money from
there they don¶t want to contribute in nations growth but want more benefits from government.
y Youth don¶t want to stay in India they want to settle abroad.

Arguments in Against

y Ambition is being misunderstood for greediness.

y The way youth behaved in last decade in India the way they have worked and shown there
qualities made the India one of the biggest contenders for next super power.


y The youth somehow running behind money but there ambitions and dreams are accelerated by
their own hard work.

 1* (




Ans. Arguments in Favor

y By dividing the problem in small parts and concentrating on the problems region vise there are
more chances of better growth
y We need governance at small level so that we can manage and regulate the life more
y By recognizing the India into smaller states on the basis of problems(illiteracy, poverty)can give
the chance to government to resolve those problems on those portions of India

Arguments in Against

y Dividing India into not the solution of the problem.Because it creates hatred and bifurcation
between people of two states.
y More over dividing on the basis of caste and religion is creating more issues like minor ,major
population with in newly created state
y Even if we divide on the basis of problem we can resolve that particular problem but that state
again left in total growth.
y The resources of the India become property of that state so other states become insecure and
only people of that particular reason become richer.

y Recognizing the India into smaller states is not a good idea

y We can recognize few more states on the basis of problem in that area so that those problem
could be resolved but proper laws should be there
y Dividing the India into smaller states on the basis of caste and religion is not worthy.

 1+ 9$       



Ans. Arguments in favor -

y In class rooms a student only can read books and read case studies which are not the experience
of him so it not imprints in his mind and forget it soon.
y It is a fact that text books can cover only few situations where as real life is combination of many
other difficult situations
y Reading books is just giving students glimpse how they should react in particular situation but
when that particular situation comes in real life it depends on his personality that how he reacts.
y In real life a situation and its memory is combination of reaction,result and feelings like sad,
happiness ,winning loss which become part of human mind forever which not happens in

Arguments in Against

y Books cover all the basic situation to describe all the complex situations so basically a manager
face one of the situation allmost all the time
y Institutes providing the same experience to students by using techniques of drama and role play
in classroom which is a great way of learning real life problems in real time scenarios


y Real time experience is always more important than the classroom studies.
y In classroom studies one can learn more using modern techniques of learning.

 11 93   

Ans. Argument in Favor

It is indeed a right decision it has been troublesome for everyone who is not smoking

y Due to passive Smoking cancer and asthma are part of Indian society.Why should one pay for
other people bad habit
y On the name of personal freedom we can¶t allow people to smoke publically.Nicotine kills more
people than other drugs like marijuana or snort coke.
y This is extremely unfair for those people who are forced to be passive smokers.

Arguments in against

y Banning smoke in public places is diminishing act for our personal freedom.
y Its choice of the people who are standing beside smokers that they want to stay there or go.

y It should be banned completely because it is cause of dangerous diseases like heart problem and
y Government should implement the rule strictly
y Government should raise the price of TOBACO products.



- ' 


Ans. Arguments in Favor

The good form of criticism is known as constructive criticism; it offers valid feedback both positive and

y A constructive criticism can lend much needed assistance to an individual by giving them
feedback on things that can be improved and issues that can be avoided.
y A constructive criticism can also help establish your credibility and expertise by ensuring that you
know what you¶re talking about, and the people who benefit from your constructive criticism will
be more likely to credit you in some way or form for playing a part in their success.
y Constructive criticism can also keep feelings from being hurt by focusing on things that can be
improved while avoiding personal attacks or insults.

Arguments in against

y Criticism can demotivate the person from moving forward

y Few people use the criticism to humiliate the people and influence their image in bad way.
y Sometimes a criticism can lower the confidence of a person so the criticizer should be fair
y Deliberate criticism is very popular in modern society to achieve the selfish motives.


y Every form of criticism constructive or destructive affects a person one way or another, it will
either motivate him to try harder or deflate his enthusiasm, so it depends upon the person to
whom that criticism is directed how he takes it. But it calls for introspection on his part to do that
with justice. If you have someone who's trying to take you away from your path to success and
intentionally trying to just ruin your chances for success you can label it constructive and if
someone is criticizing you for your betterment and asking you to quit your bad habits them you
can label it otherwise.
y Lord Gautama Buddha was in deep meditation. At that time, a person came near him and starts
abusing him. He starts criticizing and abusing Buddha badly. But he was surprised to see that
there was not even an iota of change in Buddha's expressions. He was as calm and smiling as
before. That person gave up and started apologizing for his mistake. He then asked Buddha,
"Lord, how is it that you were not offended by my abuses and criticism?" On this, Buddha said,
"Dear, I never accepted what you said. So that way your abuses and bad criticism was back to
you. Then why should I feel offended?" So true, isn't it? Anyway, we're nowhere close to Lord
Buddha. But we can definitely follow what he said. Often we get offended by others' bad remarks
and destructive criticism and feel bad for no reason. If we don't accept their words, see how
insulted the other one will feel!


  ; :

Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Definitely India should stop trade & all other relation with Pakistan unless they don¶t any positive
step against the terrorism.
y As we can see India is not able to take any actions against Pakistan. so at least they should take
such kind of actions
y What is the use to make good relation with such country which is playing such kind of conspiracy
and eager to kill our people

Arguments in against

y Stop talking or trading is not the solution of the problem we should help the people who are still
peace loving in Pakistan
y Our fight is with few people of Pakistan (Politicians, Extremists,ISI).not with all the people of
Pakistan so we should not punish those people.


y Pakistan should be punished for whatever it did with Indian people in last threedecades.If not on
war level we can take action on diplomatic level and try to isolate it.



Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Culture is not any hard n fast rule, changes are law of nature, so if Indian want to adopt some
good things of western ,,soit¶s totally acceptable..
y Western culture has various practices and knowledge which are very important to update our
knowledge with this fast changing world
y Adopting the good practices of any culture is always fruitful

Arguments in against

y There is a big difference between modernization and westernization.People wear Jeans, T-shirts,
Gals wear short skirts, tops, jeans etc. and feel that they are modernization. What they are doing
is Westernization - copying what people are doing there... this is not modernization.Modernization
takes place in Mind rather than in clothes.
y Adopting western culture is bad, I say that its good if we adopt the good things of that.. Copy their
way of living, their way of conducting themselves
y Adopt the culture but don¶t forget your own culture. like the people rarely care for the old ones'
there, albeit we do, but nowadays people are getting busy and they are adopting the means of
keeping their old parents in Old Age Home, which is not our culture


y Adopting the western culture is not a problem but one should be very careful whatever they are
adopting is good or bad as per the current social standards
y Just copying western culture won¶t work .We should find out the pitfalls of our culture and try to
remove them like dowry etc.
y One's personal freedom always matters.It's his own choice to adopt or not.

 5 4 


Ans. Arguments in favor

y As the religion is one's personal choice .So he /she should not accept any returns from
government on the basis of religion.
y State should see each and every person equally not take decisions on the basis of religion.
y Involving the religion in government can slowdown the growth of the nation.
y Bifurcation of people on the basis of religion could increase the dissatisfaction between other
y If state really feels that a particular community is having poor or less empowered.NGOs and
socials organizations can play the role in that case.

Arguments in against

y If one religious community is poor and in terrible state the state should provide them the more
y It¶s not the matter of the religion but if the community is poor state should help them.
y Religion is the basis of the whole society so state should make the religion part of its activities.


y Religion is completely the matter of personal choice. State should not concern the religion .State
should only concerned about the growth of the people .If state find any communities are not in
proper shape it can give the reservation on the basis of personal level not on religious level




Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Corrupt but efficient politician can sure make a difference in Indiangovernment.Currently most of
our politicians are corrupt and inefficient.
y The politicians are not able to take care of citizen's benefits because they are inefficient.If we
have the efficient politicians who are bit corrupt but able to serve the nations that would change
the scenario.
y The in efficiency of politicians came out in recent Mumbai terror attacks. If we have slightly
efficient people we would never such kind of attacks.

Arguments in against

y A corrupt politician cannot fulfill his duties even he is efficient because he will use his efficiency in
only his selfishness
y Whereasa honest politician might not be able to perform but at least he can improve the current
dirty politics and social corruption problem by his honesty.
y How one can be inefficient if he is performing his duties with honesty.
y Corruption is deteriorating the Indian society we cannot allow a corrupt person as our leader.


y A person who has chosen by the thousands and lakhs of people must be efficient but he should
not be corrupt.
y Sometimes he may take some benefits out of the system but he should be honest towards the
befits of the society and people who have chosen him
y Inefficiency or efficiency cannot be measured But if a person is corrupt it is legally un avoidable





Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Beauty pageants, in general (both adult/children), are pretty much stereotypical, conceded, and
even vain at times. Plus they seem to go against a lot of minorities. You never see or hear of any
overweight beauty pageants
y It¶s up to the women who want to be famous its fine .The real question is how it is affecting the
women's status and answer is very little.Because society is treating them as showpiece in this
y Now same kinds of competitions for men are there so no need to ask this question because it is
only for money and business nothing to do with woman stature.


y It all depends on what type of pageant the woman is in. scholarship pageants because not
everyone has the money to pay for college and competing in a scholarship pageant just shows
that the girl is trying to make something of her.They can use that money to study in the colleges.
This type of pageants are present in western countries like USA
y It helps the girls from all over society to come forward and make a career in the fashion industry


y WE cannot link the beauty contests to status of women in present scenario.Because it¶s up to the
woman who want to be famous to join and enjoy such contests.
y Such kinds of contests are organizing all over the world for men and women both for making

 5& 9H   
: ' 



Ans. Arguments in favor

y Having two super powers leads to a situation of constant tension between the two nations and a
fight to be on the top. This leads to a cloud of fear covering the world. The World Wars have been
an evidence of the extent to which the human breed can go to stay in power and to suppress
other nations. Be it the Pearl Harbor or the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the game of
Power has adverse effects.

If two superpowers exist then they can indulge in wasting their resources in WAR and other destructive

Arguments in against

y IF you say if we have only one superpower, there will be no nuclear arms race and terrorism
could be controlled, but as we have witnessed since the past century, after US emerging as the
sole power, terrorism has increased.
y If there is one superpower, and it collapses, all other economies across the world get badly
affected, because of the dependency of all countries on one country. However, this impact can be
mitigated, if we have more than one superpower.Like what is happening in current recession.

y Having two super power is very necessary for world because it put us in balanced situation
otherwise one power could hurt other countries.
y The competition between two superpowers can innovate lot of things the race to moon between
US and Russia has given lot of invention during cold war.
y The existence of one superpower leads to a natural monopoly wherein the leader becomes
complacent to the point of becoming unabashedly cruel, as demonstrated by USA in Iraq.

„ Having 2 3 4 Super power not matters what matters super powers are putting their
resources in development of humanity rather wasting them in destructive activities.

 5* c

   / -

Ans. Favor

y Women empowerment stands for empowering women with the legal and social rights, education,
awareness about self and the world.
y The increased divorce rate can be attributed in part to women empowerment since women being
more aware of their legal rights would not mind walking out of a violent or unfulfilling relationship.
y As women become more independent financially, there is a lesser probability that a women stays
in a relationship out of sheer necessity and obligation.
y On the other hand with women doing as well as men if not better the traditional Indian male might
find it difficult to have a more successful second half.


y Previously, males in India might be embarrassed to ask for divorces due to family pressures and
guilt of leaving his wife and children without proper financial support.
y Laws have broadened the definition of domestic violence to include not just physical, but mental
and emotional abuses as grounds of divorce. These laws have contributed too many unilateral
decisions to walk out of abusive relationships. Although these laws apply to both sexes, these
were meant to be a step towards women empowerment.
y Influence of Western Culture.. With globalization, increased communication and more issues
breached on television, increased divorces may have been encouraged
y Lifestyle change: Increased work hours, inter-action between colleagues of the opposite sex..
These may also lead to divorces although not only from the women¶s end. It would be interesting
to note whether increased divorce rates are in cities only or villages also


y Women empowerment is not the only cause for the increase in the divorce rate. It is also the
change in the social and family structure. Inclination to nuclear families, work pressure, lesser
adjustment and a declining trust to the institution of marriage.

 5+ / $



Ans. Arguments in Favor

y Everyone is available to others for every time.

y People say mobiles made life miserable by providing unlimited connectivity but they don't
understand the fact it also provide limited connectivity options like you can switch of the mobiles.
y Mobile proved life saver for human beings in many areas related with human health.
y Mobile proved boon for businesses as well where crucial information is at reach for corporate
y Mobile phones made life easy for people who are going to distant areas for expeditions to be in
touch with rest of world.

y Mobile phone is hazard for human life as due to electromagnetic waves many people are
suffering health problems of cancer etc.
y Mobile phones give unlimited connectivity for human life which made the life miserable for people
who have been over using the mobile phones.
y Few people claim that user can control mobile usage but in many cases switching of mobile
phones considered as unprofessional so people not able to cope up with this requirement and
over utilizing the mobiles.
y Over utilizing of mobile is ruining social life of people by communicating on phones rather be in
touch personally with friends and relatives.
y Mobile phones also deterring the traditions because people are more busy on talking on phones
on various ceremonies and rituals.
y Mobile phones also deterring the office atmosphere as many employees spending more time on
mobiles rather on work.
y Mobile phones causing accidents because people are using them while driving.


Mobile phone is a great invention but usage of it should be controlled.



Ans .The media is a lifeline of a nation. It provide not only information on what may affect the normal
human being in his day-to-day functioning, but also by other features keeps him informed of
developments, national and international. The reach of the media and the effect it can have on general
public has always been recognized and never been challenged. It should supply information in true and
unbiased form and let the public choose, what may be the best intheir interest. It may be right in educated
democracies like UK, but in a country like India where most of the people are illiterate non-participant in
asking questions, question arises whether the role of media can be limited to supplying information alone.


$    c 

Ans. A democracy is a government of the people, for the people and by the people. Thus, the public
opinion is an important aspect. The people in turn could hold the government accountable and change it,
if they knew what is was doing. So, there is a need to inform the people of things around them so that
there is a check on the government. And media is the one who informs them.

In an uneducated democracy, public opinion has to be generated and some agency is required to do
work. An instrument of mass communication can serve the requirement of effective mobilization of
national opinion. This is the only way a democracy can survive.

The media, exercise influence and authority over us. And there is no doubt that money and muscle power
is getting control over the media and it is becoming an economic exercise rather than driven by public
spirit. This situation gives rise to certain questions. In a democratic country media should play very
responsive role and should act as the facilitator and promoter of democratic values.

 66 /   

Ans.In a democratic country, like India, all adults irrespective of what religion they belong to,how much
education they have had, and what caste they are, or whether they are rich or poor are allowed to vote.
This is called       and is an essential aspect of all democracies. The idea of
universal adult franchise is based on the idea of equality because it states that every adult in a country,
irrespective of their wealth and the communities she/he belongs to, has one vote. Everyone is excited to
vote and happy that he/she is equal to all of the others because each of them has one vote.

 6    " -   "   /   




 " -
Ans. Equality means every person as equal Equality is a key feature of democracy and influences all
aspects of its functioning. It is important in a democracy, and whether or not everyone is equal. The key
elements of a democratic government are, include people¶s participation, the resolution of conflict, and
equality and justice.
The Indian Constitution recognizes every person as equal. This means that every individual in the
country, including male and female persons from all castes, religions, tribes, educational and economic
backgrounds are recognized as equal. This is not to say that inequality ceases to exist. It doesn¶t. But at
least, in democratic India, the principle of the equality of all persons is recognized. While earlier no law
existed to protect people from discrimination and ill-treatment, now there are several that work to see that
people are treated with dignity and as equals.
The provisions in the Indian constitution of recognition of equality Includes following provisions in the
@ that every person is equal before the law. What this means is that every person, from the President
of the country to, a domestic worker, has to obey the same laws.
, no person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, and caste, place of
birth or whether they are female or male.
), every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops and markets. All
persons can use publicly available wells, roads and bathing Ghats.
, untouchability has been abolished

 6 /    

    " -

Ans.The two ways in which the government has tried to implement the equality that is guaranteed in the
Constitution is  through laws and  
 through government programs or schemes to help
disadvantaged communities. There are several laws in India that protect every person¶s right to be treated
equally. In addition to laws, the government has also set up several schemes to improve the lives of
communities and individuals who have been treated unequally for several centuries. These schemes are,
To ensure greater opportunity for people who have not had this in the past.

- C 
- ,


    " -
Ans.The midday meal scheme refers to the program introduced in all government elementary schools to
provide children with cooked lunch. Tamil Nadu was the first state in India to introduce this scheme, and
in 2001, the Supreme Court asked all state governments to begin this program in their schools within six
months. This program has had many positive effects. These include the fact that more poor children have
begun enrolling and regularly attending school. Teachers reported that earlier children would often go
home for lunch and then not return to school but now with the midday meal being provided in school, their
attendance has improved. Their mothers, who earlier had to interrupt their work to feed their children at
home during the day, now no longer need to do so.
This program has also helped reduce caste prejudices because both lower and upper caste children in
the school eat this meal together, and in quite a few places, Dalit women have been employed to cook
the meal. The midday meal program also helps reduce the hunger of poor students who often come to
school and cannot concentrate because their stomachs are empty. While government programs play an
important role in increasing equality of opportunity, there is much that still needs to be done. While the
midday meal program has helped increase the enrolment and attendance of poor children in school, there
continues to be big differences in our country between schools that the rich attend and those that the poor
attend. Even today there are several schools in the country in which Dalit children, are discriminated
against and treated unequally. These children are forced into unequal situations in which their dignity is
not respected. This is because people refuse to think of them as equal even though the law requires it.
One of the main reasons for this is that attitudes change very slowly. Even persons are aware that
discrimination is against the law, they continue to treat people unequally on the basis of their caste,
religion, disability, economic status and because they are women. It is only when people begin to believe
that no one is inferior, and that every person deserves to be treated with dignity, that present attitudes
can change. Establishing equality in a democratic society is a continuous struggle and one in which
individuals as well as various communities in India contribute to it.

 6%    7  - ,

  F   - '
Ans. It is human nature to focus on ourselves. From childhood, we have those basic desires -- to be
loved, to receive approval, to get things. Children quickly become unhappy when things are not focused
on them -- what they didn¶t get, who hasn¶t noticed them, who has infringed on their rights, who didn¶t give
them respect. It is disgraceful to live at the cost of one's self-respect. Self-respect is the most vital factor
in life. Without it, man is a cipher. To live worthily with self-respect, one has to overcome difficulties. It is
out of hard and ceaseless struggle alone that one derives strength, confidence and recognition.

Man is mortal. Everyone has to die some day or the other. But one must resolve to lay down one's life in
enriching the noble ideals of self-respect and in bettering one's human life. Nothing is more disgraceful for
a brave man than to live life devoid of self-respect.´



       / -
Ans. The health service is called µpublic¶ for many reasons. In order to fulfill its commitment of providing
healthcare to all citizens, the government has established these hospitals and health centers. Also, the
resources needed to run these services are obtained from the money that we, the public, pay to the
government as taxes. Hence, such facilities are meant for everyone. One of the most important aspects
of the public health system is that it is meant to provide quality healthcare services either free or at a low
cost, so that even the poor can seek treatment.Public health system in India suffers from many problems
which includes insufficient funding, shortage of facilities leading to overcrowding and severe shortage of
trained health personnel. There is also lack of accountability in the public health delivery mechanisms.
These are some of the reasons which have placed India at the lowest rank in the Human

- c

 /   -
Ans.Inclusive growth by its definition implies an allocation of resources with benefits accruing to every
section of society. India¶s post 1990¶s economic growth has made it one of the world¶s fastest growing
economies in the world. With the rapid growth rates, however, come new challenges and new questions.
One such challenging question concerns the spread of the benefits of the growth across different sections
of the society.
To ensure that growth has been well distributed, India¶s Planning Commission has made Inclusive growth
their explicit goal in the eleventh five year plan. Despite all the attention that Inclusive Growth has
received in the last few years, India¶s performance against inclusive growth seems more lackluster. Gini
coefficient, a measure of income inequality, indicates that income inequality in India has increased both at
an overall level as well in almost all the states both for urban and rural areas. A fruit of globalization,
which is often touted as the insurer of inclusive growth in India hence remains a mirage.

 6+ c       


/ -

Ans. The continuous increase in price of essential commodities is a major concern of economy today.
Prices are increasing continuously without any increase in income; this situation is creating dissatisfaction
among people against government policies on one hand and poverty on the other hand. Therefore this
situation needs to be tackled in time. The following steps can be taken ±

y By decreasing the gap between demand and supply- there is a direct relationship between
demand and price as the demand of a particular commodity increase the price will also increase if
the supply of that particular commodity would not increase. So if there is equilibrium in the
demand and supply then the price of commodities would not increase.
y By making public distribution system more effective- under PDS people living below poverty line
are provided food products and essential commodities at lower prices. This system is run through
rationing shops by the government but there are various complaints about black marketing,
corruption prevailing in this system. Government should take some steps to make it more
y Formulation and implementation of better policies for agriculture- decrease in production of
agriculture products is one of the major reasons for increasing prices. Government should make
policies for the agriculture sector which help to increase the agriculture production.
   (I / /      



Ans. A (  

((I) is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that
are more free-market-oriented than a country's typical or national laws. "Nationwide" laws may be
suspended inside a special economic zone. In India, SEZs are the special zones created by the
Government and run by Government-Private or solely Private ownership, to provide special provisions to
develop industrial growth in that particular area. The government of India launched its first SEZ in 1965, in
Kandla, Gujarat. The incentives and facilities offered to the units in SEZs for attracting investments into
the SEZs, including foreign investment include:-

y Duty free import/domestic procurement of goods for development, operation and maintenance of
SEZ units

y 100% Income Tax exemption on export income for SEZ units under Section 10AA of the Income
Tax Act for first 5 years, 50% for next 5 years thereafter and 50% of the ploughed back export
profit for next 5 years.

y Exemption from minimum alternate tax under section 115JB of the Income Tax Act.

y External Commercial Borrowing by SEZ units up to US $ 12500 billion in a year without any
maturity restriction through recognized banking channels.

y Exemption from Central Sales Tax.

y Exemption from Service Tax.

y Single window clearance for Central and State level approvals.

y Exemption from State sales tax and other levies as extended by the respective State

. 65C 

Ans. There are various ways in which advertising links to issues of equality in a democratic society.
Advertising a product costs a lot of money. Usually, billions of rupees are spent advertising a brand.
Producing and showing advertisements in the media is very expensive. Because there are so many
advertisements in the market today, companies have to show the advertisement again and again to have
it stick in people¶s minds. What this often means is that only large companies can advertise. If you own a
small business, you will not have the money to show your product on TV or national newspapers and
magazines. So, persons who sell papad, pickles, sweets and jams that they have made at home are not
considered as fashionable as brand products. They often have to sell their products in weekly markets
and neighborhood shops. It also makes us believe that things that are packaged and have a brand name
are far better than things that do not come in packets. We forget that the quality of a product has little to
do with the packaging that it comes in. This shift to packaged products negatively affects the sales of
several small businesses forcing people out of their livelihoods.

In a democracy in which all people are equal and should be able to lead a life of dignity, advertising tends
to promote a certain lack of respect for the poor. They are not the faces we most often see in
advertisements and so we tend to dismiss their lives as worthless.
Advertising, because it appeals to personal emotions also tends to make people who cannot afford
certain brands feel bad. They feel that they are unable to give their loved ones the best care that brand
products appear to offer.
Advertising by focusing on the lives of the rich and famous persons, help us toforget about issues of
poverty, discrimination and dignity, all of which are central to the functioning of equality in a democracy.
More than just selling us products, advertisements tell us how we should live our lives, what we should
aspire and dream for, how we should express our love, what
it means to be smart, successful and beautiful. As citizens of a democratic society, it is important for us to
be aware of the strong influence that advertising has on our lives. By critically understanding what
advertisements do, we can make better decisions about whether we wish to buy a product or not.

 0   C
Ans. Today most countries in the world have a Constitution. While all democratic countries are likely to
have a Constitution, it is not necessary that all countries that have a Constitution are democratic. The
Constitution serves several purposes. First, it lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of
country that we as citizens aspire to live in. Or, put another way, a Constitution tells us what the
fundamental nature of our society is.
A country is usually made up of different communities of people who share certain beliefs but may not
necessarily agree on all issues. A Constitution helps serve as a set of rules and principles that all persons
in a country can agree upon as the basis of the way in which they want the country to be governed. This
includes not only the type of government but also an agreement on certain ideals that they all believe the
country should uphold.

 0   ; -
Ans. We in India pride ourselves on being a democracy. We will try and understand the relation between
the ideas of participation in decision-making and the need for all democratic governments to have the
consent of their citizens. It is these elements that together make us a democracy and this is best
expressed in the institution of the Parliament. The Parliament enables citizens of India to participate in
decision making and control the government, thus making it the most important symbol of Indian
democracy and a key feature of the constitution.Main function of parliament is to make and pass laws
based on the subjects of any of the three lists, viz., Union List - 97 subjects; State List - 66 subjects and
Concurrent List - 47 subjects. Parliament also possesses 'Residuary Powers', i.e., it can make laws on
the miscellaneous subjects also, that are not there in any of the three lists, if it thinks that law is for the
welfare of the country.

 #     -  


Ans. Like water, there are other essential facilities that need to be provided for everyone, are known as
   . The important characteristic of a public facility is that once it is provided, its benefits can
be shared by many people. For instance, a school in the village will enable many children to get
educated. Similarly, the supply of electricity to an area can be useful for many people:

Given that public facilities are so important, someone must carry the responsibility of providing these to
the people. This µsomeone¶ is the government. One of the most important functions of the government is
to ensure that these public facilities are made available to everyone.
A private company will probably not be interested in undertaking such work. But, for other public facilities
such as schools and hospitals, private companies may well be interested. We have many of these,
particularly in large cities. Similarly, if you are living in a city, you will have seen private companies
supplying water through tankers or supplying drinking water in sealed bottles. In such cases, private
companies provide public facilities but at a price that only some people can afford. Hence, this facility is
not available to all at an affordable rate. If we go by the rule that people will get as much as they can pay
for then many people who cannot afford to pay for such facilities will be deprived of the opportunity to live
a decent life. Clearly, this is not a desirable option. Public facilities relate to people¶s basic needs. Any
modern society requires that these facilities are provided so that people¶s basic needs are met.
The Right to Life that the Constitution guarantees is for all persons living in this country. The responsibility
to provide public facilities, therefore, must be that of the government.
Ans. Every year you must have heard the government budget being presented in the Parliament. This is
an account of the expenses the government has made on its programs in the past year and how much it
plans to spend in the coming year. In the budget, the government also announces the various ways in
which it plans to meet these expenses. The main source of revenue for the government is the taxes
collected from the people, and the government is empowered to collect these taxes and use them for
such programs. For instance, to supply water, the government has to incur costs in pumping water,
carrying it over long distances, laying own pipes for distribution, treating the water for impurities, and
finally, collecting and treating waste water. It meets these expenses partly from the various taxes that it
collects and partly by charging a price for water. This price is set so that most people can afford a certain
minimum amount of water for daily use.

 & / 



Ans. An exit poll is a sample survey conducted by any organization in order to analyze voting behavior of
citizens in an election after they cast their ballots, on the basis of the analysis the exit poll projects the
election results.The Election commission favors a ban on publication of exit poll results on the ground that
it tends to undermine the fair nature of elections in the country. Like all opinion polls, exit polls by nature
do include a margin of error.

Problems related to exit poll-

1. There are chances that people may be influence by the exit poll.

2. Media affiliated to different political parties tend to influence the voters.

3. The numbers of people selected for exit poll is very small when compared to actual numbers of voters
hence the trend can be very misleading.

4. The actual trend can change on the polling day when compared to exit poll day.

So because of the above problems people want a complete ban on the exit poll. But complete ban on the
exit poll will affect the freedom of media. So there should be some rules and regulations followed by media, in
conducting the exit poll.

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Ans.The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act aims at enhancing the livelihood
security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to
a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. MGNREGA has given
people, the largest economic resource in our country, some amount of work, and plenty of dignity. In state
after state, workers have testified that guaranteed employment has enabled them to fight many battles
including a system of oppression where they have no choice but to acquiesce to forced labor,
indebtedness and the indignity of having to beg for survival. The unemployed are becoming workers, and
workers are raising issues of citizenship.
There is no doubt that corruption threatens and undermines the MGNREGA, but it is being fought with
courage and determination by some of the most disadvantaged people in our country. In fact, it has given
birth to more anti-corruption activists than any other program in India. In guaranteeing provisions for
transparency and accountability, it has empowered the ordinary worker to question and demand answers
from the local power structure.
The popular image of MGNREGA is of millions of people across the country busy digging holes and filling
them up. Several-thousand water harvesting structures have been built in the most eco- friendly manner
possible, rural roads have connected some of the poorest, most inaccessible hamlets, millions of Dalit¶s,
land allotters and BPL families have converted wasteland into productive plots through MGNREGA work.
Undoubtedly, all of this could have been done better, more efficiently, with better planning and
implementation. If only the policy makers and the implementation agencies had carried out this mandate,
including the initiation of a bottom- up effort to appropriately expand the category of permissible works.


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Ans. Microfinance is the provision of financial services to low-income clients or solidarity lending groups
including consumers and the self-employed, who traditionally lack access to banking and related
Microfinance in India started in the early 1980s with small efforts at forming informal self-help groups
(SHG) to provide access to much-needed savings and credit services. From this small beginning, the
microfinance sector has grown significantly in the past decades. National bodies like the Small Industries
Development Bank of India (SIDBI) and the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
(NABARD) are devoting significant time and financial resources to microfinance. This point is to be the
growing importance of the sector. The strength of the microfinance organizations (MFOs) in India is in the
diversity of approaches and forms that have evolved over time. In addition to the home-grown models of
SHGs and mutually aided cooperative societies (MACS), the country has learned from other microfinance
experiments across the world, particularly those in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand, and Bolivia, in terms
of delivery of micro financial services. Indian organizations could also learn from the transformation
experiences of these microfinance initiatives.
Micro finance sector emerged enormously, from merely $12 million in 2003; the market for lending tiny
amounts of money mainly to groups of women has grown to more than $7 billion now. And analysts
expect this to grow to a staggering $50 billion soon. It¶s easy to understand why. Many people in rural
India don¶t have access to loans from formal banks. In any case, procedures are cumbersome, paperwork
intimidating. That explains why people go to moneylenders, who charge them upwards of 50% for loans.
Microfinance, based on a model borrowed from Bangladesh, was supposed to change all that.
Microfinance does not directly address some structural problems facing Indian society and the economy,
and it is not yet as efficient as it will be when economies of scale are realized and a more supportive
policy environment is created.
Loan products are still too inflexible, and savings and insurance services that the poor also need are not
widely available due to regulatory barriers. Insufficient data exists on client-level impact, though new tools
such as the Poverty Progress Index of Garmin Foundation and the work of Sa-Dhan (the association of
Indian MFIs) on measuring client satisfaction are addressing this gap.



Ans. Indian agriculture is under policy reforms. One of the issues it faces is that of lack of viability of
smallholdings and lack of international competitiveness of its produce. In this regard new initiatives of
reorganizing the production system are being attempted in the form of contract and corporate farming.
Corporate farming is a term that describes the business of agriculture, specifically, what is seen by some
as the practices of would-be mega corporations involved in food production on a very large scale. In India
the National Agricultural Policy (NAP) of Govt. of India announced in 2000 envisaged that ³Private sector
participation in Agriculture shall be promoted through Contract Farming and Land-leasing arrangements
(Corporate Farming) to allow accelerated technology transfer, capital flow and assured markets for crop
production. This is a system for the production and supply of agricultural / horticultural produce under
forward contracts between producer / supplier and buyers. Essential to this is the commitment of the
producer/seller to provide an agricultural/horticultural commodity of a certain type, at a specified time and
a price and in the quantity and quality required by a known and committed buyer. There are various
reasons to introduce corporate farming e.g. Consolidation of small farm lands into larger, land holdings
Increase in agricultural productivity, Introduction of value added products etc.

  9; :  


Ans. Khap is a cluster of villages united by caste and geography. It is as old as 14th century started by
upper caste jats to consolidate their power and position. The main rule is that all boys and girls within a
khap are considered siblings. Khap panchayat governs the khap formed by same gotra (clan) families
from several neighboring villages. Khap panchayats are prevalent in Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh
and Parts of Rajasthan .Love marriages are considered taboo in areas governed by Khap panchayats.
Those living in a Khap are not allowed to marry in the same gotra or even in any gotra from the same
village. Many young couples have been killed in the past defying khaprules.

Khap panchyat imposes its writ through social boycotts and fines and in most cases end up either killing
or forcing the victims to commit suicide. All this is done in the name of brotherhood and its honour. It is
due to the inherent weakness of democratically elected Panchayati Raj institutions, khap panchayats
have been powerful. Even the government has not done much to control their power. The 10-15 men who
constitute a Khap settle disputes and control the lives of young people. Many village people also defend
these caste panchayats as they deliver the verdict in one sitting whereas court cases drag for year¶s
.According to them,in many cases innocent people get harassed in the court and by police. Here as
everyone is known so they cross check everything to ensure neutrality. In some Haryana villages, the
young girls are routinely threatened, abused and killed all under Khap verdicts. It is acceptable for the
families to feed pesticide pills to the teenage girls and then dispose of their bodies by burning them
without any police records. The entire onus of siblinghood rests on the girl. She is the keeper of village
honor. Sometimes rules are bending for the boys but a girl is never allowed to bend the rules. If a couple
run away then the families risk the boycott and hefty fines in lakhs of rupees. Even the other women of
the house can suffer abuse.

In keeping with the khap rules ,older villages try to keep the young people apart .Some schools are also
forced to have separate timings for the boys and girls .Fearing their daughters would go astray ,many
parents marry them off at an early age .People have unquestionable faith in the justice of khap. The
question of rights for women does not exist anywhere in the territories ruled by Khap panchayats. There
must be some law made by the government to control the working of these Khap Panchayats.





Ans.genetically engineered to carry the gene from the soil bacterium G 
   . The bacteria
produce a protein that is toxic when ingested by certain Lepidopteron insects. Crops containing the BT
gene are able to produce this toxin, thereby providing protection throughout the entire plant )here are
several advantages in expressing Bt toxins in transgenic Bt crops:The level of toxin expression can be
very high thus delivering sufficient dosage to the pest, The toxin expression is contained within the plant
system and hence only those insects that feed on the crop perish, The toxin expression can be
modulated by using tissue-specific promoters, and replaces the use of synthetic pesticides in the
environment. The latter observation has been well documented worldwide

The genetically modified foods controversy is a dispute over the relative advantages and disadvantages
of genetically modified (GM) food crops and other uses of genetically-modified organisms in food
production. The dispute involves biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental
organizations and scientists. The dispute is most intense in Japan and Europe, where public concern
about GM food is higher than in other parts of the world such as the United States. In the United States
GM crops are more widely grown and the introduction of these products has been less controversial.

The five key areas of political controversy related to genetically engineered food are food safety, the
effect on natural ecosystems, and gene flow into non GE crops, moral/religious concerns, and corporate
control of the food supply. To date, not a single instance of harm to human health or the environment has
been documented with GM crops. Several benefits have been widely accepted and are uncontested in
the scientific literature. These include reductions in insecticide use on GE cotton;enhanced biological
diversity in GE cotton fields (compared to non-GE fields, enhanced farmer income and communal
benefits, increased yields for poor farmers and improved health of farm workers. Although the use of
herbicide tolerant crops remain controversial, because of the need to spray herbicides, it is clear that the
use of these crops has promoted a shift to less toxic herbicides





Ans. India¶s food security and nutrition indicators are among the worst in the world. Worse, some of these
indicators have barely improved in recent years. For instance, the proportion of underweight children was
much the same in 1998-99 and 2005-06, according to National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data. The
recent recommendations of the National Advisory Council (NAC) have to be seen in the context of India
being home to 40 per cent of the world¶s malnourished children with hunger. It is a country that aspires to
be taken seriously as an economic superpower and yet manages to rank 64 out of 88 countries in the
Global Hunger Index. On the credit side, the NAC proposals include a legal guarantee ² well, sort of ²
for cereals for 75 per cent of India¶s population. It includes legal guarantees for mid-day meals in schools,
supplementary feeding in ICDS (Integrated Child Development Service) centers, and destitute feeding for
people on the edge of starvation and an ambitious program of community kitchens in urban areas for
subsidized meals for the urban poor. It also has a maternity entitlement program that would give direct,
unconditional cash support to all pregnant and lactating mothers in the country. Legislating this would
hopefully make these programs more accountable and bring in greater transparency. More importantly, it
promises a slew of reforms in the Public Distribution System (PDS) and a fundamental restructuring of the
ICDS program, which is the only institutional mechanism of the government to reach the 160 million
children under the age of six with supplementary nutrition and five other essential services.

On the other side of the ledger, the NAC proposals are disappointing because they squander an
opportunity to create a universal PDS, do not deal with nutritional security and exclude the direct cash
transfer program for the aged, disabled and single women, who form the most vulnerable section of our
population. A food security program without a universal PDS is like a staging Hamlet without the Prince of
Denmark. Food security that, by definition, excludes nutritional security is a delusion that will not take us
very far in the battle against malnutrition. The most damaging aspect of the NAC proposal is that it casts
into legislative stone the artificial distinction between the Above Poverty Line (APL) and Below Poverty
Line (BPL) and the deeply flawed poverty estimates of the Planning Commission that have been the bane
of poverty alleviation programs in the last two decades. Politically, the main challenge is to ensure that
the RTF Act is not trivialized by reducing it to the electoral promise of ³twenty-five kilograms at three
rupees per kilogram for below poverty line households.´ The ultimate shape of the RTF Act will depend on
whether the government merely seeks to gain ³political capital´ from it, or whether it is guided by its
responsibility to the people of India. The government's eagerly-awaited draft will help to clarify whether
the government¶s commitment to the ³  ´ (common man, and presumably women and children
too) goes beyond electoral rhetoric.






Ans. The Union government¶s draft Right to Food (Guarantee of Safety and Security) Act insists on ³the
physical, economic and social right of all citizens to have access to safe and nutritious food, consistent
with an adequate diet necessary to lead an active and healthy life with dignity´ The proposed law offers a
quantity of cereal at a modest cost each month to a broad range of beneficiaries: in principle, all those
living under the poverty line and a range of others. The recognition of a right to food (and therefore to
freedom from undernourishment and hunger) is a landmark measure and deserves great credit. However,
there is an imbalance between the expansive vision expressed by the Act in principle and the narrow
means it seeks to achieve it in practice; reflected, for instance, in its focus only on calories from
foodgrains and on direct distribution rather than on the provision of means for commanding food and on
complementary policies. It appears that the Act may not add much to the existing Public Distribution
System or State and Central programs to provide subsidized cereals.

It appears very important to address the poor functioning of the existing system, and to remedy both the
apparent discrepancies across States and the general non-transparency in the definition of the
beneficiaries (in particular, the ambiguities in the understanding of what is a µBelow Poverty Line¶
household). It is also unclear how the Act will be truly rights-based, in the sense that an individual may
make a binding demand for the satisfaction of the right.

A contrast can be drawn between an approach to further economic and social rights which centers on the
direct provision of essential goods and one which ensures access to such goods through the creation of
an economy and society which produces and distributes these adequately in the normal course. It is
possible to fulfill such basic rights even at a relatively low per-capita income by employing public action,
but there are advantages to combining both means in order to fulfill them in a sustained way.

An approach focused on the provision of subsidized resources can play a vital role in protecting the poor
and the vulnerable from catastrophic outcomes, and can contribute to the establishment of a more
productive and healthy population that is capable of bringing about a higher level of national
development. It can serve ends which are both intrinsically and instrumentally important.

However, such an approach is, in isolation, likely to be more costly, less effective and face more political
challenges to its maintenance, than one which is supported by a larger program to generate remunerative
livelihoods and inclusive growth.



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Ans. Minimum wages under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
will rise between 17% and 30% from the current 100 a day, with effect from 1stJanuary, 2011. The new rate
will come into effect from January 1st this year and will require an additional Rs. 3,500 crore spend in the
current year itself. This money will come in circulation in the form of wages, and increase the aggregate
demand in the economy, so it contribute to increase inflation rate in the country, which is already a matter of
concern for authorities. There is continues rise in rate of inflation especially in the food articles, and so it is
necessary that the wage rate of workers should also increase. Many studies shows that the Act has shown
great results in the rural areas in fields of economic empowerment, teamwork, encouraged women in villages
to come out of their veil and work, it has also made a difference by bridging the caste bias in rural areasa

Government should work to find out the ways to bring down the inflation rate for example by increasing the
production level of economy and by monetary and fiscal policy measures. These schemes are necessary for
the development and empowerment of various disadvantageous sections of society.


      - ,

Ans Fiscal deficit is the difference between what the government spends and what it earns. It is
expressed as a percentage of GDP. Fiscal deficit is an economic phenomenon, where the Government's
total expenditure surpasses the revenue generated. It is the difference between the government's total
receipts (excluding borrowing) and total expenditure. Fiscal deficit gives the signal to the government
about the total borrowing requirements from all sources. In India, the fiscal deficit is financed by obtaining
funds from Reserve Bank of India, called deficit financing. The fiscal deficit is also financed by obtaining
funds from the money market (primarily from banks).

The primary component of fiscal deficit includes revenue deficit and capital expenditure.
Revenue deficit: It is an economic phenomenon, where the net amount received fails to meet the
predicted net amount to be received.
Capital expenditure: It is the fund used by an establishment to produce physical assets like property,
equipment or industrial buildings. Capital expenditure is made by the establishment to consistently
maintain the operational activities.
Would Fiscal deficit lead to inflation?
According to the view of economist J. M. Keynes, fiscal deficits facilitate nations to escape from economic
recession. From another point of view, it is believed that government needs to avoid deficits to maintain a
balanced budget policy.
In order to relate high fiscal deficit to inflation, some economists believe that the portion of fiscal deficit,
which is financed by obtaining funds from the Reserve Bank of India, directs to rise in the money stock
and a higher money stock eventually heads towards inflation.
Financial advisors recommend that the Government should not promote disinvestment to reduce fiscal
deficits. Fiscal deficit can be reduced by bringing up revenues or by lowering expenditure.
Fiscal deficit reduction has an impact over the agricultural sector and social sector. Government's
investments in these sectors will be reduced.


    '   ' ' 

Ans. Agender gap is a disparity between genders involving quality or quantity. A gender gap favoring the
male sex is called a     , while the opposite is called a     . In the
latest gender gap index report released by the World Economic Forum (WEF) India keeps company with
the worst in the world. Among the 128 countries that have been evaluated by the WEF India ranked 114.
Even China, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Botswana fare much better than us. The survey considers the
proportion of resources and opportunities made available to women on educational, economic, political
and health parities.

India is still largely a feudal and patriarchal society. In many parts of our country especially in UP, Bihar,
Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab women are often treated as if they were a piece of property. In these
parts the sex-ratio is most skewed because families often snuff out the lives of girl children before or
immediately after they are born. In many parts of India women are viewed as an economic liability despite
contributing in several ways to our society and economy.

India's policies and projects for women are woefully inadequate. For instance the literacy rate for females
is merely 48% against 73% for males. Public health is another area of failure. Hundreds of women in rural
India die every year during child birth for want of medical attention. There are thousands more who do not
even have access to a primary health Centre. Importantly reforming property laws more vigorously so that
gender parity becomes a reality must rank among the government's priorities.

While these changes are necessary they will amount to nothing if we as a society continue to deny our
women the dignity, liberty and opportunities that are rightfully theirs. No society will ever prosper as a
whole as long as half of it is constantly treated as somehow less than the other half.

- ,

Ans. Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or

listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideas, or services. It includes the name of a
product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target
market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. These messages are usually paid for by
sponsors and viewed via various media. Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a large
number of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action. Advertisements draw our
attention to various products and describe them positively so that we become interested in buying them.
Advertising is all about building brands. At a very basic level, µbranding¶ means stamping a product with a
particular name or sign. This is done in order to differentiate it from other products in the market. These
brand values are conveyed through the use of visuals and words to give us an overall image that appeals
to us. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services
through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate
related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend
money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest
groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free
modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.