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Escritas da vida: narrativas culturais

Rosani Úrsula Ketzer Umbach*

RESUMO: O presente artigo tece considerações em torno da


escrita (auto) biográfica, baseando-se em reflexões teóricas como
as de Peter Alheit (2011), Jerome Bruner (1997), Ansgar
Nünning (2004) e James Olney (1998). Tendo em vista
perspectivas antropológicas e sociológicas, de acordo com as
quais as escritas da vida constituem “uma nova forma social do
conhecimento” (ALHEIT2011, p. 34), nota-seem O Diário de
Anne Frank uma tentativa de resistir ao totalitarismo nazista ao
mesmo tempo em que se evidencia a percepção de uma
jovemsobre a perseguição aos judeus, os horrores da guerra e a
necessidade de transmitir a experiência vivenciada por meio de
seu diário.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Diário; Testemunho; Resistência;
Nazismo.

ABSTRACT: This articlepresents considerations about (auto)


biographicalwriting, based on theoretical studies as of Peter
Alheit (2011), Jerome Bruner (1997), AnsgarNünning (2004)
and James Olney (1998). In view of anthropological and
sociological perspectives, according to which the writings of life
constitute "a new social form of knowledge" (Alheit 2011, p. 34),
it is noted in The Diary of Anne Frank an attempt to resist the
Nazi totalitarianism while it shows the perception of a young
woman about the persecution of Jews, the horrors of war and
the need to convey the lived experience through its dairy.
KEYWORDS: Diary; Testimony; Resistance; Nazism.

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também do pessoal e privado [...], mostram oembrião de


uma nova visão do mundo” (ALHEIT 2011, p.33).
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Nesse caso, caberia a indagação epistemológica: de


qual “realidade” se trata? Estudos do campo da filosofia
são necessários para examinar essa questão, que diz
respeito às escritas de si, às memórias, enfim a todo o
gênero (auto) biográfico. Por ser uma questão tão antiga
como a própria literatura e gerar controvérsias até hoje,
reflexões acerca do assunto são necessários, quando o
foco central diz respeito às escritas da vida2 e seus
elementos intrínsecos: a subjetividade e a autoria.
Ao se referir às escritas da vida, James Olney (1998, p.
xiv-xv) observa o que considera um verdadeiro emblemado
nosso tempo: “uma angustiada busca de si por meiodos
atos mutuamente reflexivos de rememorar e narrar,
acompanhados do medo assombroso de que é impossível
desde o princípio, mas também de que é impossível
desistir”.3 Segundo a perspectiva histórica de Olney sobreR
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Agora voltei ao ponto que me levou a escrever um


diário: não tenho um amigo. [...] aparentemente parece
que eu tenho tudo, exceto um único amigo de
verdade. [...] De qualquer modo, é assim que as coisas
são, e não devem mudar, o que é uma pena. Foi por
isso que comecei o diário. Para destacar em minha
imaginação a imagem da amiga há muito tempo esperada
[...] quero que o diário seja minha amiga, e vou chamar
esta amiga de kitty. (FRANK, 2013, p. 19)

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Nossa liberdade foi gravemente restringida com uma série
de decretos antissemitas: os judeus deveriam usar uma
estrela amarela; os judeus eram proibidos de andar nos
bondes [...] de andar de carro [...] deveriam fazer suas
compras entre três e cinco horas da tarde [...] só deveriam
frequentar barbearias e salões de beleza de proprietários
judeus [...] eram proibidos de frequentar teatros, cinemas
ou ter qualquer outra forma de diversão [...] ‘Eu não
ouso fazer mais nada, porque tenho medo de ser
proibido’. (FRANK, 2013, p. 21)
Escritas da vida: narrativas culturais 

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O Hotel Carlton foi destruído. Dois aviões


ingleses carregados de bombas incendiárias caíram bem
em cima do Clube dos Oficiais Alemães. Todo o
quarteirão pegou fogo. O número de ataques aéreos
sobre cidades alemãs cresce a cada dia. Não temos uma
boa noite de descanso há séculos, e estou com olheiras
profundas por falta de sono. (FRANK, 2013, p. 117)

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Nota-se nesse excerto e em outras descrições de Anne


a forte presença do medo da morte. Tal sentimento
é intensificado com as notícias que chegavam ao
Anexo sobre as ações da Gestapo, a polícia secreta
nazista, e, principalmente, sobre os transportes em
 Revista Brasileira de Literatura Comparada, n.24, 2014

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Referências

ADORNO, Th. Teoria estética. Trad. Artur Morão.


Lisboa: Edições 70; São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1988.
ALHEIT, P. “Biografização” como competência-chave
na modernidade. Revista da FAEEBA – Educação
e Contemporaneidade, Salvador, v. 20, n. 36, p.31-41,
jul./dez. 2011.
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