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Cardiovascular System

The cardiac cycle is an event which makes up one heart beat and can last
around 0.8 seconds. The cycle consists of relaxation of the heart muscles
called diastole, when the heart muscles contract is it called systole. When
the heart fills with blood the heart relaxes this is diastole stage. It is when
the atria and ventricle relaxes due to the pressure of the blood in the
arteries. Then when the blood is emptying this is the systole stage, which
is when the ventricles contract because of the blood pressure.
The cardio vascular system is made up of four major components.
• The heart - Which is a pumping
unit to pump blood around the
• Arteries - This is a high
pressure distribution system
which carries blood away and to
the heart.
• Capillaries - which exchange
• Veins - which are a low
pressure, return system.
The conduction system functions as
the bodies own pacemaker and keeps
the heart beating at a normal rate of 60
to 100 beats per minute. The heart
contains tissue that produces and
sends electrical impulses to the heart
muscle. These impulses trigger the
heart to make it contract. Each time
the heart beats, it sends out an electric-
like signal. It starts at the sinoatrial
node which is located within the wall
of the right atrium. It generates
electrical impulses that are carried by
special conducting tissue to the atrioventricular node. If the activity of
this system is interrupted due to heart damage or other medical
conditions, it can cause the heart to beat at an abnormal rate or with an
irregular rhythm.
The blood travels from the lungs to the left atrium. The pulmonary vein
carries the oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart. The blood
then leaves the left atrium by the aorta which originates in left ventricles,
and goes to the body tissue through the capillaries. The blood then flows
back through the veins when the vena cava receives the deoxygenated
blood, and takes it to the right atrium. The pulmonary artery then carries
the deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart. (Examining
physical education- Kirk Bizley).Atria diastole fills with blood, whilst the
atrioventicular valves close. The atria then contracts forcing the
remaining blood down into the ventricles. The atrivonentricular valves
are opened by the atria pressure and the ventricles fill with blood. For the
duration of this time, the semi- lunar valves close. This is to prevent the
blood being pushed into the pulmonary artery.
The ventricles pressure increases and the semi lunar valves open so the
blood is ejected into the pulmonary artery and aorta, the ventricles now
contracts. Once this is
completed the semi lunar
valves close and the veins
carry deoxygenated blood
back to the lungs to be re
oxygenated and the cycle
starts again.
In the pulmonary circuit, the
pulmonary artery goes
through the lungs to deposit
any carbon dioxide and waste produces for example lactic acid and this is
exchanged for oxygen. The pulmonary vein then carries oxygen back into
the heart via the left atrium and ventricle.
In the systemic circuit, blood leaves the heart through the aorta, goes to
all the organs of the body through the systemic arteries, and then returns
to the heart through the systemic veins.
• Examining Physical Education- Kirk Bizely

• http /heartdisease/Conduction-System.

• Sport level 3 – Mark Adams/ Ray Barker/ Adam Gledhill/ Chris

Lydon/ Chris Muligan/ Pam Phillippo/ Louise Sutton

• http://biology.about.com/library/organs/blcircsystem5.htm

Amy Howarth