Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions

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Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions
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From: lloyd@abs.net (Lloyd Taylor) Newsgroups: comp.client-server, comp.object.corba Subject: Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions Sender: lloyd@u1.abs.net Message-ID: <client-server-faq-1-903359771@abs.net> Reply-To: lloyd@abs.net (Client/Server FAQ Maintainer) Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Client/Server Computing. Please read it before you post questions to the comp.client-server newsgroup. Keywords: FAQ CLIENT SERVER DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING Date: 17 Aug 1998 09:16:12 -0400 Posted-By: auto-faq 3.1.1.2 Archive-name: client-server-faq

Revision: 1.12 1998/08/17 13:15:27 Posting-frequency: Monthly, on the 17th Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions Information about this document Contained below is a list of commonly asked questions in comp.client-server. Before posting a question to comp.client-server, check to see if your question(s) are already answered below. Additional questions (and answers!) may be emailed to lloyd@abs.net. If the question is of general interest, it may be added to the CS-FAQ. Questions that relate to specific client/server implementation issues may be answered in one or more of the books listed in the FAQ. If answers cannot be found there, consider posting your question to comp.client-server. Due to the volume of email I receive, I cannot respond to individual questions. Vendors of client/server products and services are welcome to submit *brief* summaries of their offerings for inclusion in a separate portion of this FAQ. A single paragraph which includes pointers to additional information (www, ftp, email, or voice telephone) is welcome. The most recent (authoritative) version of this FAQ is always available at: http://www.abs.net/~lloyd/csfaq.txt In addition, this FAQ is archived at many sites, including the following. Any site which mirrors "rtfm.mit.edu" should have a current copy as well. If you did not receive the entire posting, please check here: ftp://ftp.uu.net/usenet/news.answers/client-server-faq.Z ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-group/news.answers/

-- Lloyd Taylor comp.client-server FAQ maintainer Home Page: <http://www.wp.com/Lloyd.Taylor> Changes since last release: Updated contact info for Talarian

3 4.9 What is Client-server Computing? What What What What What What What What is is is is is is is is a Client Process? a Server Process? a Two-Tier Architecture? a Three-Tier Architecture? Middleware? Cooperative Processing? Distributed Processing? an "Intranet"? Part 3: 3.3 3.6 2.8 3.7 2.2 2.1 What archives/FTP sites carry client-server related material? Part 2: Client/Server Definitions 2.6 3.5 2.5 3.3 2.5 4.1 4.8 2.12 3.11 3.7 3.4 2.6 Client/Server Business Issues Business-Focused Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Business Application Architectures Business Drivers Business Benefits What does business expect from IT? What is Business Process Reengineering? .2 3.1 3.10 3.4 3.Subject: Table of Contents Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions List Last Revision: 8/17/98 Part 1: Introduction and Miscellaneous questions 1.2 4.13 3.4 4.1 2.14 Client/Server Technical Issues are the characteristics of a Client/Server architecture? are the different types of Servers? are the different client/server processing styles? is Distributed or Remote Presentation? is Remote Data Management? is Distributed Function Processing? is IBM's System Application Architecture? is APPLE's VITAL architecture? What What What What What What What What What is Sun's Open Network Computing Architecture? What is Digital's Network Application System (NAS) architecture? What is OSF-DCE? What are DOMS (Distributed Object Management Systems)? What is CORBA? What is DAE? Part 4: 4.9 3.

org/ DCE Questions and Answers: http://www.Taylor@jhuapl.net/~jtmalone/ Subject: Part 2: Definitions .3 Introductory/Overview Books Detailed Technical Books Other Books Part 6: Vendor Information 6.org/dce/faq-mauney.1 What sites carry client-server related material? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.omg.osf.2 5.de/~cetus/software.4 Middleware Vendors Test Software Vendors Development Tool Vendors Other Client/Server Vendors Subject: 1.rhein-neckar.au/pub/DCE/ Object-Oriented Links at Cetus (Germany) http://www.1 5.1 6.3 6.edu.2 6.html ftp://ftp.osf.html Client/Server Computing Page http://www.org/dce/qna OSF/DCE FAQ http://www.dstc.wenet.Part 5: Books and Articles on Client/Server computing 5.edu> Object Management Group: http://www.

With this architecture.Subject: 2. The client process contains solution-specific logic and provides the interface between the user and the rest of the application . or file servers running on platforms with special elements for managing files. The client-based process is the front.edu> The client is a process (program) that sends a message to a server process (program). Client/server computing takes this a step farther by recognizing that those modules need not all be executed within the same memory space. It is this latter perspective that has created the widely-believed myth that client/server has something to do with PCs or Unix machines. validate data entered by the user. database management system servers running on platforms specially designed and configured to perform queries. and the called module becomes the "server" (that which provides the service).2 What is a Client process? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. The long answer: Client/server computing is the logical extension of modular programming. Client programs usually manage the user-interface portion of the application.rochester. The logical extension of this is to have clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and software platforms for their functions. Subject: 2.end of the application that the user sees and interacts with.ibm.cc. and sometimes execute business logic. For example. dispatch requests to server programs. Modular programming has as its fundamental assumption that separation of a large piece of software into its constituent parts ("modules") creates the possibility for easier development and better maintainability.com> The short answer: Client/server is a computational architecture that involves client processes requesting service from server processes. the calling module becomes the "client" (that which requests a service).1 What is Client-server Computing? From: Steve Hultquist <ssh@vnet. requesting that the server perform a task (service).

It is typically used in small environments (less than 50 users).cc. Subject: 2. printers.rochester. A common error in client/server development is to prototype an application in a small. another desktop machine provides the application services. This approach will usually result in an ineffective system. as the server becomes overwhelmed. Normally a part of operating system i. Sometimes server programs execute common or complex business logic. This server could be the host operating system or network file server.system. properly scale to hundreds or thousands of users. The client process also manages the local resources that the user interacts with such as the monitor.3 What is a Server process? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. The server-based process "may" run on another machine on the network. communication links. Or in some cases.4 What is a Two-Tier Architecture? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. or high powered-processors.Taylor@jhuapl. with no intervening server. The server process performs the back-end tasks that are common to similar applications. execute database retrieval and updates. manage data integrity and dispatch responses to client requests. Subject: 2. workstation CPU and peripherals. keyboard.e. it is usually necessary to move to a three-tier architecture. One of the key elements of a client workstation is the graphical user interface (GUI).edu> A server process (program) fulfills the client request by performing the task requested. two-tier environment. Server programs generally receive requests from client programs.edu> A two-tier architecture is where a client talks directly to a server. The server process acts as a software engine that manages shared resources such as databases. the window manager detects user actions. and then scale up by simply adding more users to the server. To . manages the windows on the display and displays the data in the windows. the server is then provided both file system services and application services.

rochester. regardless of their location. Sockets. collating the results. RPC. The protocols are divided into three groups: media. The role of the agent is manyfold. NOS provides services such as routing. coaxial and twisted-pair). metering services (as in acting as a transaction monitor to limit the number of simultaneous requests to a given server). Transport Level Interface (TLI) and Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX)). distribution. It can provide translation services (as in adapting a legacy application on a mainframe to a client/server environment). A client-server protocol dictates the manner in which clients request information and services from a server and also how the server replies to that request (some examples of clientserver protocols are NetBIOS. or intellegent agent services (as in mapping a request to a number of different servers. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). Subject: 2. A transport protocol provides the mechanism to move packets of data from client to server (some examples of transport protocols are Novell's IPX/SPX. The key element of connectivity is the network operating system (NOS). Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC). and network management services. Once the physical connection has been established and transport protocols chosen. messaging. and returning a single response to the client. . Apple's AppleTalk. Media protocols determine the type of physical connections used on a network (some examples of media protocols are Ethernet. Named Pipes. transport and client-server protocols.Taylor@jhuapl. a client-server protocol is required before the user can access the network services. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).edu> Connectivity allows applications to transparently communicate with other programs or processes.6 What is Middleware? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura.5 What is a Three-Tier Architecture? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. Token Ring. NOS rely on communication protocols to provide specific services. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile(GOSIP)). file and print.edu> A three-tier architecture introduces a server (or an "agent") between the client and the server.cc.Subject: 2.

these programs interact and execute concurrently on different processors. each process performs part of an application in a sequence.e. and markup language (HTML).Subject: 2. Usually.edu> The explosion of the World Wide Web is due to the world-wide acceptance of a common transport (TCP/IP).9 What is an "Intranet"? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.Taylor@jhuapl.rochester.edu> Cooperative processing is computing which requires two or more distinct processors to complete a single transaction. Often the data used in a distributed processing environment is also distributed across platforms.8 What is Distributed Processing? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. Distributed processing implies that processing will occur on more than one processor in order for a transaction to be completed. Cooperative processing can also be considered to be a style of client/server processing if communication between processors is performed through a message passing architecture. Thus was born the concept of the "Intranet": the use of Internet technologies for implementing internal client/server applications.rochester. It is a form of distributed computing where two or more distinct processes are required to complete a single business transaction.7 What is Cooperative Processing? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. i.edu> The distribution of applications and business logic across multiple processing platforms.cc. server standard (HTTP). processing is distributed across two or more machines and the processes are most likely not running at the same time. Subject: 2. Many corporations have discovered that these same technologies can be used for internal client/server applications with the same ease that they are used on the Internet. In other words. .cc. Cooperative processing is related to both distributed and client/server processing. Subject: 2.

2) the front-end task and back-end task have fundamentally different requirements for computing resources such as processor speeds. With the release of code tools such as Java and JavaScript. memory.rochester.cc. and input/output devices. or high powered processors. To the user. A second advantage is that if the corporation is already using the Internet. the internal and external information servers appear integrated. In the early days of the Web. disk speeds and capacities. modems.edu> The basic characteristics of client/server architectures are: 1) combination of a client or front-end portion that interacts with the user. The Web was essentially "read-only". this limitation is no longer a major issue. The hardware platform and operating system of client and server are not usually the same.One key advantage of Web-based intranets is that the problem of managing code on the client is greatly reduced. all changes to user interface and functionality can be done by changing code on the HTTP server.000 desktops. printers.1 What are the characteristics of client/server architecture? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. The server process acts as a software engine that manages shared resources such as databases. 3) the environment is typically heterogeneous and multivendor. there were limited ways of interacting with the client. and a server or back-end portion that interacts with the shared resource. Subject: Part 3: Client/Server Technical Issues Subject: 3. no additional code needs to be licensed or installed on client desktops. Assuming a standard browser on the desktop.Client and server processes communicate through a . Compare this with the cost of updating client code on 2. The client process contains solution-specific logic and provides the interface between the user and the rest of the application system. A rapidly-disappearing disadvantage is that there is limited ability to provide custom coding on the client.

The more advanced form of servers are database servers. Application servers are not necessarily database centered but are used to server user needs. the client passes requests for files or file records over a network to the file server.edu> The simplest form of servers are disk servers and file servers. There are procedural statements on the server to execute a group of SQL statements (transactions) which either all succeed or fail as a unit.2 What are the different types of servers? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. In transaction servers. Traditional LAN computing allows users to share resources. In database servers.well-defined set of standard application program interfaces (API's) and RPC's. while security and management services. Horizontal scaling means adding or removing client workstations with only a slight performance impact. Basing resources on a server allows users to share data.cc. which are also based in the server. clients invoke remote procedures that reside on servers which also contains an SQL database engine. ensure data integrity and security. transaction server and application servers (Orfali and Harkey 1992). Subject: 3. The applications based on transaction servers are called On-line Transaction Processing (OLTP) and tend to be mission-critical applications which require 1-3 second response time. 4) An important characteristic of client-server systems is scalability. The communication overhead in this approach is kept to a minimum as the exchange typically consists of a single request/reply (as opposed to multiple SQL statements in database servers). The code that processes the SQL request and the data resides on the server allowing it to use its own processing power to find the requested data. Vertical scaling means migrating to a larger and faster server machine or multiservers. rather than pass all the records back to a client and let it find its own data as was the case for the file server. This form of data service requires large bandwidth and can slow a network with many users down considerably.rochester. . clients passes SQL (Structured Query Language) requests as messages to the server and the results of the query are returned over the network. download capabilities from Dow Jones or regulating a electronic mail process. such as. by moving them from standalone PCUs onto a Networked File Server (NFS). such as data files and peripheral devices. They can be scaled horizontally or vertically. 100% of the time and require tight controls over the security and integrity of the database. With a file server.

and distributed data management. remote data management.g. .3 What are the different client/server processing styles? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. Front-ending or HLLAPI (High-Level Language Application Programming Interface).Subject: 3. (Note: This is an arbitary classification and others may do it differently) Subject: 3. it is transformed by the frontware application into a corresponding 3270 data format and is sent to the host computer. This is also called Remote.edu> Gartner group came out with the five ways of describing the different c/s styles based on how they split the three components of any application: user interface.cc. 3270) data streams sent from a host for display in a windowed environment.edu> For people whose roots are embedded in the mainframe IBM world. most processing remains on the host or server. where a GUI front end is added to an IBM/MVS 3270/5250 application and is placed on a workstation. remote presentation. data from an application program is sent to a 3270 screen program on the mainframe to be displayed. The mode of operation is typically intelligent workstations intercepting and interrogating text-screen (e. client-server is essentially distributed or remote presentation. (Typically every mainframe screen used by the application has a corresponding window on the workstation and vice versa). For example. distributed function. Mapping. data management. However. with the exception of user interface translation logic and possibly validation logic. When the user enters the data in a GUI window.cc.rochester.4 What is distributed or remote presentation? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. The five styles are distributed presentation. business or application logic. This style maps a workstation Graphical User Interface (GUI) front end onto an existing application's text-based screen. The merged data is sent to the workstation as a 3270 data stream.The workstation interprets the data and converts it to graphical form in a window.This is "frontware" solution.rochester.

7 What is IBM's System Application Architecture? . read-only data. Distributed function applications are the most complex of the three typologies since two separately compiled application programs must be developed.cc. Subject: 3. Remote Data Management is relatively easily to program for because there is just one application program. The underlying communications facilities may implement either a message-based or remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism for transfer of dialog and data. RDBMS products that offer remote data management provide a layer of software on the client to handle the communication with the DBMS server. Workstations support the presentation and function logic and interface with the data server through the data manipulation language. other to the server.6 What is distributed function processing? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. Developers must analyze where each function should reside and what type of dialog must occur between the two programs. This is most relevant for architectures having data spread across several servers and when access to a DBMS on another server is required.rochester. In this instance. Subject: 3.cc. there are many variants of this typology. the server then responds with data that satisfies the query. One variant of the distributed function style is where data management and application function occur at both the client and server.5 What is Remote Data Management? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura.rochester.Distributed data management is an extension of remote data management and uses the distributed facilities of the DBMS to access distributed data in a manner transparent to users.This style represents a more traditional LAN database server or file server approach. the entire application resides on the client and the data managment is located on a remote server/host.edu> In remote data management. data management at the client would include referential.Subject: 3.edu> Here the split occurs in the application functionality. one part going to the client. However. Data frequently updated or accessed by many users would reside on the server. The client communicates with the server using SQL.

8 What is APPLE's VITAL architecture? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura.rochester. .cc. DAL consists of software components for the client and the server (Macintosh System 7 includes the client component.edu> SAA is a collection of selected software interfaces. Sun's RPC is licensed by more than 300 companies. A cornerstone of Apple's client/server architecture is Data Access Language (DAL). tools.Common Programming Interface (CPI) provides languages.Common Applications.rochester.cc. it simply requires the appropriate DAL link. Subject: 3. DAL sits between the client and server components. . With DAL. IBM.2. Four major components of this architecture are: . . will serve as demonstrations of SAA concepts and make it easy for users to migrate between systems. Transport Independent Remote Procedure . a change in the DBMS does not affect the front-end.Common User Access (CUA) defines conventions for GUI look and feel. efficient RPC that is particularly effective for installations not requiring WAN support. conventions. integrated applications across the major IBM computing environments. Subject: 3.Common Communication Support (CCS) supports existing communications standards. It is a lean. including DEC.cc.From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. and APIs that give applications greater portability and more consistent user interfaces across multiple platforms. This approach allows varied clients to communicate with many different servers. written by IBM.9 What is Sun's Open Network Computing Architecture? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. such as LU 6.It specifies how to construct and provide interfaces for these modules. with third party alliances providing the missing pieces. and Apple Computer.rochester.edu> VITAL provides a way of building information systems constructed from generalized modules that can be reused and shared.edu> Open Network Computing (ONC) is the Sun architecture. DOS and Windows clients are sold separately). and protocols that are used as a framework for developing consistent.

from the Open Software Foundation. They are the Remote Procedure Call (RPC). graphical or character terminal based) .System Access services which provides a standard operating system interface. AIX/ESA. allowing applications to run unmodified over multiple transport protocols including NetWare. (It is called "the DCE" by sticklers for grammatical consistency. from the DCE FAQ. TI-RPC runs independent of the underlying network transport.edu> NAS is a software suite that enables applications to be integrated across a distributed network of multivendor systems: NAS services are divided into four main groups: .rochester. with permission.Calls (TI-RPC) were co-developed by Sun and AT&T. and DTS components are commonly referred to as the "secure core" and are the required .osf. DCE Threads. CDS. RPC.and Distributed File Service (DFS). UNIX/SVR4. graphics and conventional text) . Subject: 3. The Threads.Communication and Central services which support communications using electronic mail and EDI .10 What is Digital's Network Application System (NAS) architecture? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura.) DCE consists of multiple components which have been integrated to work closely together.html) DCE is the Distributed Computing Environment.com> (Extracted.org/dce/faq-mauney. AIX/6000. the Security Service.mauney. PCNFS. Security. which supports database access and compound documents (collection of images.11 What is OSF-DCE? From: Jon Mauney <mauney@jtec. the Cell and Global Directory Services (CDS and GDS). Distributed Time Service (DTS). available at http://www. Subject: 3.cc. NetWise developed the TI-RPC Application Toolkit source code generation technology. Solaris.Application Access Services which support user interface (forms based.Information and resource sharing.

org) Subject: 3. It is a set of standard mechanisms for naming.rochester.edu> DOMS provide a way of pulling diverse components together and managing their communications.12 What are Distributed Object Management Systems (DOMS)? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura.edu> CORBA stands for the Common Object Request Broker Architecture.cc. to build. peruse the Object Management Group web site at http://www. and defining objects in a distributed computing environment. analogs. DCE's security and distributed filesystem. based on standards and extensibility.cc. (For technical details. It is not DCE is called "middleware" or "enabling technology. and deploy open distributed-computing applications .A method for creating location independence for client applications.components of any DCE installation.A uniform framework. for example. They are aimed at addressing the following: . DFS is an optional component. locating. non-network.Taylor@jhuapl. but instead should be integrated or bundled into a vendor's operating system offering. can completely replace their current.13 What is CORBA? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. integrate.14 What is DAE? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura.edu> .omg." intended to exist alone.rochester.A single interface to manage the complexities of a heterogeneous environment . Subject: 3. Subject: 3.

1 Business-Focused Client/Server Architecture From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo.A process model. Subject: 4. Today.com.An information model. which reflects organisational responsibilities and the way in which the people who use the system view their work. if ever. make goods. The functional structure and process model rarely. (4) DEVICE services to capture data and to control a broad category of controllers. Therefore.au> Traditional applications architectures have been based on function.2. client/server computing demands a three layer view of the . receive money).com. Subject: Part 4: Client/Server Business Issues Subject: 4. agree. equipment and sensors. devices. Client/Server Business Application Architectures From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo. deliver goods. .Distributed Application Environment is designed to allow businesses to use IBM's RISC System/6000 and PS/2 computers in a client/server network (or standalone) for their business applications.au> When analysing a business there are three views of the organisation: . . which details the business functions of the organisation (eg accept orders. to meet the needs of the business an application architecture should reflect the complete range of business requirements. bill customers. (3) PRESENTATION services. (2) DATABASE services . which details the information that the organisation needs to function.A functional model. DAE consists (1) MESSAGING services.

which must be incorporated into the new. Subject: 4. The only answer to the question "why build client/server applications?" is "because the business demands the increased benefits. responsive and comprehensive applications to support the complete range of business processes. more difficult and more expensive than traditional. which implements the information model It should be noted that this application architecture does not demand multiple hardware platforms.applications were complex . which is an enabling factor in systems building.organisation. most businesses have existing systems based on older technology.3 Business Drivers From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo. Unfortunately. Businesses today need integrated.au> Client/server computing has arisen because of a change in business needs.applications were built in isolation . flexible.com.applications were developed to model vertical applications . 1 The user interface layer. integrated environment.the supporting technology was based on a centralised control model Information technology. single process applications.applications were implemented as monolithic systems . which implements the functional model 2 The business function layer. . if the environment is robust and reliable enough and the business is prepared to pay the additional costs associated with workstation and LAN technology. The development and implementation of client/server computing is more complex. Problems with existing systems include: . has almost reached the stage where these systems can be designed and created. although such technology can be utilised. which implements the process model 3 The data layer.

The user interaction must be flexible . products and architectures.Application complexity needs to be hidden .Applications need to provide a consistent user interface .Organisation have changed from steep hierarchies to flattened hierarchies .The customer should have a single point of contact for all business with the organisation .The user will perform as much processing as possible during customer contact time .Network management is replacing vertical management .There is a perceived need for vendor independence.au> .New applications should be aligned with both the user's view and the business process view.Subject: 4.The time required to complete the work will be minimised . .The customer should deal with the same person over multiple contacts.au> .Multi-skilled and multi-function teams need access to multiple applications Subject: 4. programming paradigms.5 What does business expect from IT? From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo.com. This includes application development methodologies.4 Business Benefits From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo. Existing functionally aligned systems are not appropriate .There is a need for empowerment of staff and audit trail of actions .There is a change to team based management .com. .

.edu> AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: Orfali.Consistent information across all applications . organizational structures.1 Introductory/Overview Books From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.An ability to evolve IT systems to reflect changing business requirements . Subject: Part 5: Books on Client/Server Computing Subject: 5. al.A variety of user interface styles to reflect the needs of the work . processes and technology with strategies to achieve business integration.cc.Users should be able to modify business rules without reference to IT staff .rochester. not just a part . It can also be thought of as taking a business in its current state and forming an organizational and operational blueprint to redirect skills. et.6 What is Business Process Reengineering? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. policies. information (data).IT systems will support all activity performed by the user. processing and incentives towards targeted improvements. Essential Client/Server Survival Guide New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold .edu> Reengineering is the organizational process required to align people.Taylor@jhuapl. cultural values.It is essential that there be integrity of transactional processes Subject: 4. Robert.

. Patrick.Taylor@jhuapl. New York : McGraw-Hill. Client/server computing Carmel. c1993. 2nd Edition New York : Wiley. c1992.ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: ISBN: 0-442-01941-6 Berson. Wiley professional computing 0471133337 . c1997. Professional reference series. Dawna Travis Client/server computing New York : McGraw-Hill. 0672300656 Linthicum. Paul E. James Martin/McGraw-Hill productivity series 007016732X Renaud. Ind. Alex Client-server architecture / Alex Berson. Robert.0 New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold. VNR computer library 0442012195 Dewire. Ranade series on computer communications 0070050767 Smith. 1957Introduction to Client/Server Systems. c1992. David David Linthicum's Guide to Client/Server and Intranet Development Wiley. c1996. Client/server programming with OS/2 2. : SAMS.2 Detailed Technical Books From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.edu> AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: Orfali. 047117467X Subject: 5. Dan Harkey. c1992. J.

Group.net. get one. Developing client/server applications Boston : QED Pub. c1994 0-13-220138-0 Inmon. No endorsement is to be inferred from inclusion in the CS-FAQ. If you don't have one. 1947Implementing client/server computing : a strategic perspective McGraw-Hill systems design & implementation 0070062153 Subject: Part 6: Vendor Information Vendors may submit information for possible inclusion in this section to lloyd@abs. c1994 McGraw-Hill series on computer communications 0070050899 : 0070050902 (PBK) Khanna. it is strongly suggested that you include a pointer to your WWW page.client-server.3 Other Books From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. .Taylor@jhuapl. Please limit your submission to one paragraph. and include contact information. 0894354582 Boar.edu> AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: SERIES: ISBN: Baker. (Editor) Distributed Computing: Implementation and Management Strategies New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Networking the enterprise : how to build client/server systems that work New York : McGraw-Hill.Subject: 5.. If you want to be taken seriously by the readership of comp. R. Richard H. Bernard H. William H. c1993.

com. integrity. precompiler. EZ-RPC is available on more than 40 platforms. ======= PIPES Platform. A new product. Session management services provide guaranteed message delivery. NetBios.corsof. ======= Piccolo(tm). a distributed two-tier ODBC driver SDK. contact NobleNet.com with the single word "subscribe" in the message body. Vms. and error handling. and Silicon Graphics (SGI). Application developers use the Piccolo API to access data and applications residing on any of the supported platforms on a network. most Windows. is available for those working with databases. PIPES Platform's process-to-process messaging allows development of applications with an asynchronous. and various libraries. Tandem S2 Integrity.noblenet. For more information. or browse <http://www. Solaris 2. from Cornerstone Software. Our premier product is EZ-RPC. is message-oriented middleware that provides the essential communications services for distributing applications across the enterprise.1. at 508-460-8222. SCO. an RPC precompiler tool kit that includes our enhanced XDR (packaged as an IDL).e. including most UNIXes.com. We also publish a Windows rpcgen and distribute the IONA coporation's Orbix Object Request Broker development toolkit. The developers need no programming knowledge of the underlying transport protocol. An EZ-RPC mailing list is available.x. event-driven architecture. and the Tandem NonStop Kernel. or call Piccolo Sales at 603-595-7480.1 Middleware Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. A dynamic name service lets you find at run-time and communicate with any application resource in the PIPES Platform network.com/>. Subscribe by sending a message to ezrpc-request@world. For more information. from PeerLogic. and several others. Piccolo is supported on UNIX versions AIX. non-blocking. prioritization. Inc. PIPES Platform's cross-platform . HP-UX (HP9000/700 & 800).Subject: 6. or E-mail piccolo@corsof. Inc. Windows NT. is a message-oriented middleware product that provides application developers with peer-to-peer connectivity without regard for the underlying communications transport (i. even as machines and applications are added or moved. point your Web browser to http://www. It is also supported on Windows 3. sequencing. dynamic re-routing. OS/2. PIPES Platform automatically maintains information on all PIPES Platform resources.com/.std. Async).edu> ======= NobleNet specializes in providing high quality middleware tools for client-server development. Macs. TCP/IP.Taylor@jhuapl. send email to sales@noblenet. We provide free evaluation copies of EZ-RPC to qualified programmers.

and OS/2. reliably.htm. Customers can contact Entersoft at http://www. retail. Windows NT. Product Marketing. visit our home page at http://www. reliability and fault tolerance. from Talarian Corporation.com/ ======= SmartSockets (tm). peer-to-peer. on a WAN. or anywhere on the Internet.Taylor@jhuapl. Customers can also get additional TOP END information at NCR. Director. SmartSockets is available on most UNIX. scalability. is a rapid application development toolkit which enables processes to communicate quickly.com or at 908-575-9100. OpenVMS. ======= Entersoft Systems Corporation supplies NCR's TOP END (tm) Transaction Request Broker middleware. through the use of messages.peerlogic. such as the TOP END-Tuxedo Message Gateway. Contact Jennifer Hart.and multiprotocol support provide a consistent communications interface that allows developers to focus on business logic. 145. Also. Windows 95. Entersoft also provides add-on products for transaction processing. on a LAN.1. at http://www.talarian.com/product/topend/index.2 Test Software Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. jhart@peerlogic. Subject: 6. and securely across different operating system platforms. not communications. or E-mail info@talarian. handles communication protocols.com. Entersoft is the sole supplier of TOP END on most platforms. Included as part of the package are graphical tools for monitoring and debugging your application.com. UNIX. SmartSockets's programming model is built specifically to offer high-speed interprocess communication. and deals with recovery after system/network failures. For more information.entersoft.edu> . and RPC. TOP END has been used by customers in banking. Windows 3. and legacy platform.000s users. guarantees delivery of messages. and includes support for Java and Active/X applications.ncr. It supports a variety of communication paradigms including publish-subscibe. The communicating processes can reside on the same machine. contact Kelly Bernardo at 650-965-8050 ext. telecomm and other industries to build some of the largest transaction processing systems connectiong 100s of nodes and up to 10. TOP END runs on Windows (all versions).com/. 800-733-7601. http://www. SmartSockets is an industrial-strength package which takes care of network interfaces.

com Subject: 6. Load testing is the process of analyzing the effect application. For further information. naming/location services . EMPOWER/CS listens to the traffic server.com. 8200 Greensboro Drive.edu> ======= ICONIX Software Engineering. It builds scripts that can be replayed client devices. ICONIX. Suite 1475.3 Development Tool Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. by visiting the new ICONIX WWW PowerPage site: <http://www. EMPOWER/CS charts the time each user must wait for his or her screen response before an application is deployed. CASE tools for object-oriented and structured development. these tools enhance normal data access (e. (703)893-1939 (fax). The Windows and Windows NT support also includes OLE point-and-click features for application development. Scripts can be enhanced with C of many users on an between a client and with or without the language to extend captured activity and vary the data in queries and updates.. This Client/Server middleware works with Microsoft or third party development tools and includes the libraries for C.Taylor@jhuapl. Voice: 310-458-0092. ODBC or SQL) capabilities with transaction processing. On every platform. McLean. is the maker of ICONIX PowerTools. email: ICONIX@eworld. contact Alyse Rome. Windows. Performix. based on standard (X/Open and ISO) high-level APIs.. Director. These applications can then seamlessly blend the attributes of UNIX. plus Windows and Windows NT Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs). ICONIX offers a free white paper on combining OMT with Objectory for client/server development. Email: info@performix. VA 22102 (703)448-6606. ======= Unisys TransIT Open/OLTP Software is a suite of development tools and runtime management software that provides transaction processing extensions for Windows and Windows NT and UNIX based applications. networks and protocols. along with special offers and product information about ICONIX PowerTools.g.======= EMPOWER/CS is load testing software for client/server applications. New Media Marketing & Communications. Enterprises can quickly develop distributed and highly scaleable business application systems. Inc. Inc. Windows NT and mainframe systems and can integrate and synchronize the many different databases used on each of these platforms.com/iconix/>.biap. C++ or COBOL.

software configuration management and data warehousing. With CS/8000 you have all the tools you need to manage client/server projects of any level of complexity.com>. including Tuxedo. including native drivers for Oracle. both in character-mode and in Motif. 100's of C library function calls.com ======= JYACC is the maker of JAM 7. Likewise.unisys. develop your project plan. please reference: <http://www. JAM also integrates seamlessly with more than twenty of the most popular RDMBS products. It consists of a graphical screen painter. Motif. Macintosh.000 product licenses at 16. For more information. open client/server development.unisys. and others. Voice: 914-241-9100 email: cscl@cscl.jyacc.intersolv. DB/2.com. so that developers can create true Three-Tier applications. Learn more about Client/Server Connection by visiting us at http://www. including DOS. Use it to select your system architecture.com or contacting us. has more than 375.000+ customer sites around the world. expert systems and client/server system architectures.cscl. and generate all of your project documentation. VAX/VMS.com/. Customers benefit from INTERSOLVs common look and feel. OS/2 Presentation Manager. The INTERSOLV World Wide Web site can be accessed at http://www. broad coverage and rich functionality.and the store and forward (queuing) of messages. Email: jazzin@jyacc. ======= CS/8000 is the first development system that seamlessly integrates methodology.com/>. Informix. please reference <http://www. server applications are immune to client changes due to new platforms. Sybase.bb. a Visual Object Repository to allow creation of complex objects that can be shared across screens and updated through inheritance. its own scripting language called JPL. a cross-platform tool for building client/server and distributed applications. For more information. ODBC. INTERSOLV development solutions are available for object-oriented development. CS/8000 keeps you organized and keeps you on track. JAM applications can run unmodified on more than 100 platforms and operating environments.com . INTERSOLV. applications or interfaces. and virtually every implementation of UNIX. JAM works with the leading Transaction Monitors. or contact Phil Wimpenny via telephone at +1-215-986-5765 or via email at wimpenny@po3. MS-Windows. with annual revenues exceeding $120 million. and various tools and utilities. Runtime environments are highly tunable with the ability to locate and/or replicate server applications as desired without any impact to the client applications. Phone:800-458-3313 or 212-267-7722 ======= INTERSOLV is a leading provider of open client/server development solutions.

Tuxedo.magna. MAGNA X is an open OLTP application development system that simplifies growth into the complex world of distributed computing involving PCs. CICS. There is no run-time software. For more information: info@magna. www. Asia Pacific and Latin America.S. California. Sybase and Informix are supported. deploying.000 registered developers and 450 ISVs worldwide. Eclipse Builder is C/S development environment for Macintosh and PC/Windows. MAGNA X is strictly open. fbouquet@cornut.fr ======= MAGNA X from Magna Software Corporation provides a safe growth path to the open systems environments of the 1990's. Local service and support is available in the U. DB2/AIX. UNIX servers.346. Windows NT support has been announced.6647 email: us_sales@blyth. Services are generated for UNIX and/or CICS/ESA. Eclipse Query is an easy to use query tool for Macintosh and PC/Windows. Don't read our lips. ======= Blyth Software is an international supplier of modular application development tools for building.com email: info@blyth. MAGNA X generates three-tier client/server TP systems. The MAGNA X development environment is currently available on most major UNIX platforms. Frederic Bouquet. Blyth has more than 25. efficient. The Cornut Informatique Web site can be accessed at http://www. departmental and enterprise client/server applications. Java. Hamburg.com or call 212/691-0300. DB2/MVS.com UK/EUC Tech Supp: (44) 1344. try and judge. Entera) is used for connectivity. Visual Basic.======= Cornut Informatique provides a range of client/server products.fr/. Eclipse Report is graphical multi data source report generator. Front-end clients can be written in any language.482258 email: alistair_killick@blyth.800. a path that preserves and leverages your existing IS investment.2220 email: us_support@blyth.570. Industry-standard middleware (Encina. URL: http://www. with international offices in London.blyth. If PB or VB is used. and mainframes.com.com UK/EUC Sales: (44) 1344.cornut. concentrating on the SERVER portion of distributed systems. MX "Wizards" automate the construction of fully functional "test clients" with no programming required. Japan and Korea.com US Sales: 1. Unlike competing 3-tier products. Germany. including Power Builder. CI-Link is a powerful middleware that connects SQL database with Macintosh and PC/Windows applications.482258 email: uk_sales@blyth. C or C++. Service programs are generated in COBOL and/or C++ (available late '96) and are fully compiled. Europe.com ======= . Blyth Software is headquartered in Foster City. Oracle. and distributors throughout Europe. Delphi. and maintaining workgroup. England.com US TechSupport: 415.

NatStar offers an pragmatically object oriented and user friendly environment for rapidly developing applications that can be deployed enterprise-wide. Sybase. as well as Tuxedo for more complex distributed applications requiring TP. from standalone with the client. DB2/2. Systemator provides a powerful GUI prototyping capability which greatly facilitates user involvement in the initial stage of prototyping. with no limit to the number of tiers. Standard communication protocols such as IMC and TCP/IP are supported. tel:+47 22 09 65 00. Data modeling is used for describing the structure of the information handled by the organization. SqlBase. Such an abstract model of the data ensures portability between several database management systems and windowing systems. database systems and user interfaces. It provides a truly Open solution. Services can be automatically partitioned in various ways. Nonstop SQL. SQL for Oracle. fax: +47 22 09 65 01) ======= Nat Systems builds and supports the NatStar development tool. data model and workflow model of the application. with the option to modify it if necessary. Systemator provides support for all phases of the development process.dynasty.Dynasty is a true Enterprise Client/Server development environment. Informix.com where local country information is also available. It is also possible to create servers that can be accessed from Visual Basic. a well-known Scandinavian software company. Thanks to its graphical dialog modeling and editing tools. Unix or Tandem servers. More information is available on the WWW at http://www. Motif and Macintosh. the functions and the information of your enterprise. generating runtime-free C code. In Systemator's model designer you can build abstract models of the structure. to out on NT. OS/2. Systemator supports a wide range of machine platforms. enabling a dynamically partitioned application. Its powerful repository and conceptual modeling abilities ensure cost effective development as well as much lower maintenance costs. ====== Systemator is produced by Sysdeco.x/95/NT. Presentation can be targeted at Windows 3.no.no/tools/systemator/ or by contacting Vivian Ra (vra@sysdeco. native to the target platforms. SQL Server and ODBC is automatically generated. OS/2. NatStar's development environment offers three separate but tightly integrated modules for graphically defining the presentation. NatStar is a perfect tool for Component Based Development and today offers a catalog of tried and tested technical . The data model is the basis for generating both database structures and user dialogs. making native use of middleware. NatStar automatically generates code and SQL that can be deployed in a multi-tier environment.sysdeco. Powerbuilder and Internet clients. For more information see http://www. from modeling through to implementation. from the mainframe to the desktop. testing and maintenance of information systems.

natsys. etc.sequent. or browse our website at http://www. It addresses both business and technical issues.Taylor@jhuapl. decision support (DSS)/data warehousing and Internet-based applications.components.ibm.com dedicated to information related to client/server computing. document management.000 systems. The business side includes a Consultant's Corner where there are articles from industry experts. is a leading architect and provider of open client/server solutions for enterprise business computing. architects enterprise-class computing environments based on open systems.com/. Sequent successfully commercialized symmetric multiprocessing (SMP). Nat Systems offers support for the entire software development cycle. will scale to more than 250 processors and manage 100 terabytes of data. Inc. educational and professional services geared to help organizations re-architect their existing information technology infrastructures. Sequent's project-oriented offerings include consulting.csc. Sequent's next-generation. workflow tools. The technical side includes a web demo of IBM's Client/Server Advisor System and many client/server success stories from around the world. See www.com for more info.edu> ======= The IBM Client/Server Computing Unit maintains a web page at http://www. and today. NatWeb is Nat Systems' solution for developing Internet applications that front-end legacy systems. With an installed base of nearly 8. Call (530) 626-5700. ======= Sequent Computer Systems. Configuration & Change management. Suggestions on additional content are welcome. Subject: 6. There is also a Client/Server Spotlight section that contains a C/S Newsletter and information on other C/S resources. Symmetry servers incorporate up to 30 industry-standard processors to provide superior price/performance and scalability for on-line transaction processing (OLTP).4 Other Client/Server Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. Sequent leads all other vendors of high-end UNIX systems supporting very large-scale on-line transaction processing (OLTP). ======= . enabling integration with upper CASE tools. data warehouses and the application of internet technologies to business communications (including intranets). NUMA-Q systems. and business components for the near future.

End of Client/Server FAQ MultiPage [ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index ] Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer: lloyd@abs.net (Client/Server FAQ Maintainer) Last Update February 04 2011 @ 07:23 AM Some parts © 2011 Advameg. | Terms of Use . Inc.

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