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Problem 1:
The steadystate temperature distribution in a one–dimensional slab of thermal conductivity
50W/m.K and thickness 50 mm is found to be T= a+bx
2
, where a=200
0
C, b=2000
0
C/ m
2
, T
is in degrees Celsius and x in meters.
(a) What is the heat generation rate in the slab?
(b) Determine the heat fluxes at the two wall faces. From the given temperature distribution
and the heat fluxes obtained, can you comment on the heat generation rate?
Known: Temperature distribution in a one dimensional wall with prescribed thickness and
thermal conductivity.
Find: (a) the heat generation rate, q in the wall, (b) heat fluxes at the wall faces and relation
to q.
Schematic:
Assumptions: (1) steadystate conditions, (2) one –dimensional heat flow, (3) constant
properties.
Analysis: (a) the appropriate form of heat equation for steady state, one dimensional
condition with constant properties is
3 5 2 0
.
2
.
.
m / W 10 0 . 2 K . m / W 50 ) m / CC 2000 ( 2 q
bk 2 ] bx 2 [
dx
d
k
) bx a ( dx
d
dx
d
k q
dx
dT
dx
d
K q
× = × ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
+
÷ =
÷ =
(b) The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from Fourier’s law,
x
' '
x
dx
dT
k ) x ( q ÷ =
Using the temperature distribution T(x) to evaluate the gradient, find
dx
d
k ) x ( q
' '
x
÷ = [a+bx
2
]= 2kbx.
The flux at the face, is then x=0
2
x
' '
2 0 ' '
x
x
' '
m / W 000 , 10 ) L ( q
m 050 . 0 ) m / C 2000 ( K . m / W 50 2 kbL 2 ) l ( q , L atX
0 ) 0 ( q
=
× ÷ × ÷ = ÷ = =
=
Comments: from an overall energy balance on the wall, it follows that
0 E E E g
.
out
.
in
.
= + ÷ 0 L q ) L ( q ) 0 ( q
.
x
' ' ' '
x
= + ÷
3 5
2 "
x
"
x
.
m / W 10 0 . 2
m 050 . 0
0 m / w 00 , 10
L
) 0 ( q ) L ( q
q × =
÷
=
÷
=
Problem 2:
Consider a solar pond having three distinct layers of watersalt solution. The top and bottom
layers are well mixed with salt. These layers are subjected to natural convention, but the
middle layer is stationary. With this arrangement, the top and bottom surfaces of the middle
layer is maintained at uniform temperature T
1
and T
2
, where T
1
>T
2
. Solar radiation is
absorbed in the middle layer in the form q=Ae
mx
, resulting in the following temperature
distribution in the central layer
C Bx e
ka
A
x T
mx
+ + ÷ =
÷
2
) (
In the above equation, k is the thermal conductivity, and the constants A (W/m
3
), a (1/m), B
(K/m) and C(K) are also known.
Obtain expressions for the interfacial heat flux from the bottom layer to the middle layer, and
from the middle layer to the top layer. Are the conditions are steady or transient? Next,
obtain an expression for the rate at which thermal energy is generated in the entire middle
layer, per unit surface area.
Known: Temperature distribution and distribution of heat generation in central layer of
a solar pond.
Find: (a) heat fluxes at lower and upper surfaces of the central layer, (b) whether
conditions are steady or transient (c) rate of thermal energy generation for the entire
central layer.
Schematic:
Assumptions: (1) central layer is stagnant, (2) onedimensional conduction, (3)constant
properties.
Analysis (1) the desired fluxes correspond to conduction fluxes in the central layer at the
lower and upper surfaces. A general form for the conduction flux is
+ ÷ = =
+ ÷ = =
÷ =
=
÷
=
+ ÷
B
km
A
k q q B e
km
A
k q q
Hence
B e
km
A
k q
x cond u
ml
L x cond l
mx
cond
"
) 0 (
" "
0 (
"
"
(b) Conditions are steady if cT/ct=0. Applying the heat equation,
t
T 1
k
q
t
T
.
2
2
c
c
o
= +
c
c
t
e
k
A
e
k
A
mx mx
c
T c
= + ÷
÷ ÷
o
1
Hence conditions are steady since
t
T
c
c
=0 (for all 0<=x<=L)
For the central layer, the energy generation is
) 1 ( ) 1 (
0
.
0 0
"
.
mL mL
L
mx
g
L L
g
e
a
A
e
a
A
e
a
A
E
mxdx e A qdx E
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
÷ í = í =
Alternatively, from an overall energy balance,
g
.
"
1
"
2
E q q + ÷ =0 = (q”
cond(x=0)
)(q”
cond(x=L)
)
"
g
.
E =
"
1
q 
"
2
q
) 1 (
.
mL mL
g e
m
A
B e
km
A
K B
km
A
k E
÷ ÷
÷ = + ÷ + =
Comments: Conduction is the negative xdirection, necessitating use of minus signs in the
above energy balance.
Problem 3:
Consider 1D heat transfer across a slab with thermal conductivity k and thickness L. The
steady state temperature is of the form T=Ax
3
+Bx
2
+Cx+D. Find expressions for the heat
generation rate per unit volume in the slab and heat fluxes at the two wall faces (i.e. x=0, L).
Known: steadystate temperature distribution in onedimensional wall of thermal
conductivity, T(x)=Ax
3
+Bx
2
+CX+d.
Find: expressions for the heat generation rate in the wall and the heat fluxes at the two wall
faces(x=0, L).
Assumptions: (1) steady state conditions, (2) onedimensional heat flow, (3) homogeneous
medium.
Analysis: the appropriate form of the heat diffusion equation for these conditions is
0
k
q
dx
T d
.
2
2
= + Or
2
2
.
dx
T d
k q ÷ =
Hence, the generation rate is
] B 2 Ax 6 [ k q
] 0 C Bx 2 Ax 3 [
dx
d
k
dx
dT
dx
d
q
.
2
.
+ ÷ =
+ + + ÷ =
÷ =
which is linear with the coordinate x. The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from
Fourier’s law,
] C Bx 2 Ax 3 [ k
dx
dT
k q
2 "
x
+ + ÷ = ÷ =
Using the expression for the temperature gradient derived above. Hence, the heat fluxes are:
Surface x=0; (0)=kC
"
x
q
Surface x=L;
"
x
q (L) = K [3AL
2
+2BL+C]
COMMENTS: (1) from an over all energy balance on the wall, find
BkL 2 AkL 3 E
0 E ] C BL 2 AL 3 )[ K ( ) kC ( ) L ( q ) 0 ( q
0 E E E
2
' '
g
.
g
.
2
x
"
x
"
g
.
out
.
in
.
÷ ÷ =
= + + + ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
= + ÷
From integration of the volumetric heat rate, we can also find
BkL 2 AkL 3 E
] Bx 2 Ax 3 [ k dx ] B 2 Ax 6 [ k dx ) x ( q E
2
g
' '
.
L
0
L
0
2
.
L
0
' '
g
.
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = + ÷ = í =
í
Problem 4:
Consider a one dimensional system of mass M with constant properties and no internal heat
generation as shown in the figure below. The system is initially at a uniform temperature T
i
.
The electrical heater is suddenly switched ON, resulting in a uniform heat flux q”
o
at the
surface x=0 . The boundaries at x=L and elsewhere are perfectly insulated.
(a) Set up the differential equation along with the boundary and initial conditions for the
temperature T(x,t).
(b) Sketch the temperature variation with x for the initial condition (t<=0) and for several
times after the heater is switched ON. Comment whether a steadystate temperature
distribution will ever be reached.
(c) For any given time, sketch the heat flux variation with x. Choose the following
planes: x=0, x=L/2, and x=L.
(d) After time t
e
, the heater power is switched off. Assuming no heat loss, derive an
expression determine T
f
, the final uniform temperature, as a function of the relevant
parameters.
Known: one dimensional system, initially at a uniform temperature Ti, is suddenly exposed
to a uniform heat flux at one boundary while the other boundary is insulated.
Find: (a) proper form of heat diffusion equation; identify boundary and initial conditions, (b)
sketch temperature distributions for following conditions: initial condition (t<=0), several
times after heater is energized ;will a steadystate condition be reached?, (c) sketch heat flux
for x=0, L/2, L as a function of time, (d) expression for uniform temperature, Tf, reached
after heater has been switched off the following an elapsed time , te, with the heater on.]
Schematic:
Assumptions: (1) one dimensional conduction, (2) no internal heat generation, (3) constant
properties.
Analysis: (a) the appropriate form of the heat equation follows. Also the appropriate
boundary and initial conditions are:
t
T 1
x
T
2
2
c
c
o
=
c
c
Initial condition: T(x, 0) =T
i
uniform temperature
Boundary conditions: x=0 0 t ) x / T k q
0
"
o
> c c ÷ =
x=L 0 ) x / T
L
= c c Insulated
(b) The temperature distributions are as follows:
No steadystate condition will be reached since is constant. in
. .
out
in
.
E and E E ÷
(c) The heat flux as a function of time for positions x=0, L/2 and L appears as:
( d) If the heater is energized until t=t
o
and then switched off, the system will eventually reach
a uniform temperature , T
f.
Perform an energy balance on the system, for an interval of time
At=t
e
,
.
st
in
.
E E =
e s
"
o s
"
0
t
0 in in
t A q dt A q Q E
e
= í = = ) T T ( Mc E
i f st
÷ =
It follows that = OR
e s
"
o
t A q ) T T ( Mc
i f
÷ + =
i f
T T
Mc
t A q
e s
"
o
Problem 5:
A 1–mlong metal plate with thermal conductivity k=50W/m.K is insulated on
its sides. The top surface is maintained at 100
0
C while the bottom surface is
convectively cooled by a fluid at 20
0
C. Under steady state conditions and with
no volumetric heat generation, the temperature at the midpoint of the plate is
measured to be 85
0
C. Calculate the value of the convection heat transfer
coefficient at the bottom surface.
Known: length, surface thermal conditions, and thermal conductivity of a
Plate. Plate midpoint temperature.
Find: surface convection coefficient
Schematic:
Assumptions: (1) onedimensional, steady conduction with no generation, (2)
Constant properties
Analysis: for prescribed conditions, is constant. Hence,
2 / L
T T
q
2 1 "
cond
÷
= =
2
0
m / W 1500
k . m / W 50 / m 5 . 0
C 15
=
K . m / W 30 h
m / W 1500
W / K . m ) h / 1 02 . 0 (
C 30
) h / 1 ( ) k / L (
T T
" q
2
2
2
0
1
=
=
+
=
+
÷
=
·
Comments: The contributions of conduction and convection to the thermal
resistance are
W / K . m 033 . 0
h
1
R
W / K . m 02 . 0
K
L
R
2
cond , t
"
2
cond , t
"
= =
= =
Problem 6:
The wall of a building is a multilayered composite consisting of brick (100mm
layer), a 100mm layer of glass fiber(paper faced. 28kg/m
2
), a 10mm layer of
gypsum plaster (vermiculite), and a 6mm layer of pine panel. If h
inside
is
10W/m
2
.K and h
outside
is 70W/m
2
.K, calculate the total thermal resistance and the
overall coefficient for heat transfer.
Known: Material thickness in a composite wall consisting of brick, glass fiber,
and vermiculite and pine panel. Inner and outer convection coefficients.
Find: Total thermal resistance and overall heat transfer coefficient.
Schematic:
K
b
K
gl
Brick
Gypsum glass
Pine panel,K
p
100mm 10mm 6mm
hi=10W/m
2.
K
h
0
=70W/m
2
.K
0
h
1
b
b
K
L
gl
l
g
k
L
gy
gy
k
L
p
p
K
L
i
h
1
Assumptions: (1) one dimensional conduction, (2) constant properties, (3)
negligible contact resistance.
Properties: T= 300K: Brick, k
b
=1.3 W/m.K: Glass fiber (28kg/m
3
), k
g1
=
0.038W/m.K: gypsum, k
gy
=0.17W/m.K: pine panel, k
p
=0.12W/m.K.
Analysis: considering a unit surface Area, the total thermal resistance
W / K .. m 93 . 2 R
W / K . m ) 1 . 0 0500 . 0 0588 . 0 6316 . 2 0769 . 0 0143 . 0 ( R
W
K . m
10
1
12 . 0
006 . 0
17 . 0
01 . 0
038 . 0
1 . 0
3 . 1
1 . 0
70
1
R
h
1
K
L
k
L
k
L
K
L
h
1
R
2 "
tot
2 "
tot
2
"
tot
i p
p
gy
gy
1 g
1 g
B
B
0
"
tot
=
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + =
The overall heat transfer coefficient is
. K . m / W 341 . 0 U
) W / K . m 93 . 2 (
R
1
A R
1
U
2
1 2
tot
"
tot
=
= = =
÷
Comments: an anticipated, the dominant contribution to the total resistance is
made by the insulation.
Problem 7:
The wall of an oven is a composite of the following layers. Layers A has a
thermal conductivity k
A
=20W/m.K, and layer C has a thermal conductivity
k
C
=50W/m.K. The corresponding thicknesses are L
A
=0.30m and L
C
=0.15m,
respectively. Layer B is sandwiched between layers A and C, is of known
thickness, L
B
=0.15m, but unknown thermal conductivity k
B.
Under steadystate
operating conditions, the outer surface temperature is measured to be
T
s,0
=200C. Measurements also tell us that the inner surface temperature T
s,i
is
600
0
C and the oven air temperature is T =800
0
C. The inside convection
coefficient h is known to be 25W/m
2
.K. Find the value of k
B
.
Known: Thickness of three material which form a composite wall and thermal
conductivities of two of the materials. Inner and outer surface temperatures of
the composites; also, temperature and convection coefficient associated with
adjoining gas.
Find: value of unknown thermal conductivity, k
B.
Schematic:
T
s
,
0
=20
0
C
L
A
=0.3m
L
B
=L
C
=0.15m
k
A
=20W/m.K
k
C
=50W/m.K
K
C
T
·
=800
0
C
h= 25W/m
2
.K
K
B
K
A
T
s,i
=600
0
C
L
A
L
B
L
C
Assumptions: (1) steady state conditions, (2) onedimensional conduction, (3)
constant properties, (4) negligible contact resistance, (5) negligible radiation
effects.
Analysis: Referring to the thermal circuit, the heat flux may be expressed as
2
B
B
0
C
C
B
B
A
A
0 , s i , s "
m / W
K / 15 . 0 018 . 0
580
K . m / W 50
m 15 . 0
K
m 15 . 0
018 . 0
m 3 . 0
C ) 20 600 (
K
L
K
L
K
L
T T
q
+
=
+ +
÷
=
+ +
÷
=
The heat flux can be obtained from
2 ' '
0 2
i , s
"
m / W 5000 q
C ) 600 800 ( K . m / W 25 ) T T ( h q
=
÷ = ÷ =
·
Substituting for heat flux,
. K . m / W 53 . 1 K
098 . 0 018 . 0
5000
580
018 . 0
q
580
K
15 . 0
B
"
B
=
= ÷ = ÷ =
Comments: In an over, radiation effects are likely to have a significant influence on the
net heat flux at the inner surface of the oven.
Problem 8:
A steam pipe of 0.12 m outside diameter is insulated with a 20mmthick layer
of calcium silicate. If the inner and outer surfaces of the insulation are at
temperatures of T
s,1
=800 K and T
s,2
=490 K, respectively, what is the heat loss
per unit length of the pipe?
Known: Thickness and surface temperature of calcium silicate insulation on
a steam pipe.
Find: heat loss per unit pipe length.
Schematic:
T
s,1
=800K
D
2
=0.16m
Steam
T
s,2
=490K
D
1
=0.12m
Calcium silicate insulation
Assumptions: (steady state conditions, (2) onedimensional conduction, (3)
constant properties.
Properties: calcium silicate (T=645K): k=0.089W/m.K
Analysis: The heat per unit length is
m / W 603 q
) m 12 . 0 / m 16 . 0 ln(
K ) 490 800 )( K . m / W 089 . 0 ( 2
q
) D / D ln(
) T T ( K 2
q
q
q
'
r
'
r
1 2
2 , s 1 , s
L
r '
r
=
÷ t
=
÷ t
= =
Comments: heat transferred to the outer surface is dissipated to the surroundings
by convection and radiation.
Problem 9:
A cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of 0.1m dia has a thermal conductivity
k=0.0W/m.K and generates uniformly 24,000W/m
3
. This rod is encapsulated
within another cylinder having an outer radius of 0.2m and a thermal
conductivity of 4W/m.K. The outer surface is cooled by a coolant fluid at
100
0
C, and the convection coefficient between the outer surface and the coolant
is 20W/m
2
.K. Find the temperatures at the interface between the two cylinders
and at the outer surface.
Known: A cylindrical rod with heat generation is cladded with another cylinder
whose outer surface is subjected to a convection process.
Find: the temperature at the inner surfaces, T
1,
and at the outer surface, T
c
.
Schematic:
Assumptions: (1) steadystate conditions, (2) onedimensional radial
conduction, (3), negligible contact resistance between the cylinders.
Analysis: The thermal circuit for the outer cylinder subjected to the
convection process is
o
'
2
2
1 o '
1
r 2 h
1
R
k 2
r / r ln
R
t
=
t
=
Using the energy conservation requirement, on the inner cylinder,
g
.
out
.
E E =
Find that
2
1
.
1
'
r q q t × =
The heat rate equation has the form hence , R / T q
'
.
A =
' ' '
2
'
1
'
i
R / T andq ) R R ( q T T A = × × = ÷
·
Numerical values:
m / W 0 . 754 m ) 1 . 0 ( m / W 000 , 24 q
W / m . K 0398 . 0 m 20 . 0 2 K . m / W 20 / 1 R
W / m . K 0276 . 0 K . m / W 4 2 / 1 . 0 / 2 . 0 ln R
2 2 3 '
2 '
2
'
1
= × t × =
= × t × =
= × t =
Hence
C 130 30 100 W / m . K 0398 . 0 m / W 0 . 754 C 100 T
C 8 . 150 8 . 50 100 W / m . K ) cccc 0276 . 0 ( m / W 0 . 754 C 100 T
0 0
C
0 0
i
= + = × + =
= + = + × + =
Comments: knowledge of inner cylinder thermal conductivity is not
needed.
Problem 10:
A steel cable having a diameter of 0.005m and an electrical resistance of 6*10
4
/m carries an electrical current of 700 A. The surrounding temperature of the
cable is 300°C, and the effective coefficient associated with heat loss by
convection and radiation between the cable and the environment is
approximately 25W/m
2
.K.
(a) If the cable is uncoated, what is its surface temperature?
(b) If a very thin coating of electrical insulation is applied to the cable, with a
contact resistance of 0.02m
2
K/W, what are the insulation and cable surface
temperatures?
(c) What thickness of this insulation (k=0.5W/m.K) will yields the lowest
value of the maximum insulation temperature? What is the value of the
maximum temperature when the thickness is used?
Known: electric current flow, resistance, diameter and environmental
conditions associated with a cable.
Find: (a) surface temperature of bare cable, (b) cable surface and insulation
temperatures for a thin coating of insulation, (c) insulation thickness which
provides the lowest value of the maximum insulation temperature.
Corresponding value of this temperature.
Schematic:
T
∞
T
s
E
g
q
Assumptions: (1) steadystate conditions, (2) onedimensional conduction in r,
(3) constant properties.
Analysis: (a) the rate at which heat is transferred to the surroundings is fixed by
the rate of heat generation in the cable. Performing an energy balance for a
control surface about the cable, it follows that or, for the bare cable,
q Eg
.
=
/ 10
4
O
÷
. m / W 294 ) m 6 ( ) A 700 ( R I withq ). T T )( L D ( h L R I
2 '
e
2 '
s i
'
e
2
= × = = ÷ t =
·
It follows that
C 7 . 778 T
) m 005 . 0 ( ) K . m / W 25 (
m / W 294
C 30
D h
q
T T
0
s
2
0
i
'
s
=
t
+ =
t
+ =
·
(b) With thin coating of insulation, there exists contact and convection
resistances to heat transfer from the cable. The heat transfer rate is
determined by heating within the cable, however, and therefore remains the
same,
h
1
R
) T T ( D
q
L D h
1
L D
R
T T
L D h
1
R
T T
q
c , t
s i '
i i
c , t
s
i
c , t
s
+
÷ t
=
t
+
t
· ÷
=
t
+
÷
=
·
·
And solving for the surface temperature, find
C 1153 T
C 30
W
K . m
04 . 0
W
K . m
02 . 0
) m 005 . 0 (
m / W 294
T
h
1
R
D
q
T
0
s
0
2 2
c , t
i
'
s
=
+


.

\

+
t
= +

.

\

+
t
=
·
The insulation temperature is then obtained from
e , t
s
R
T T
q
·
÷
=
Or
C 7 . 778 T
) m 005 . 0 (
W
K . m
02 . 0
m
W
294
C 1153
L D
R
q C 1153 qR T T
0
i
2
0
i
c , t
"
0
c , t s i
=
t
×
÷ =
t
÷ = ÷ =
(c) The maximum insulation temperature could be reduced by reducing the
resistance to heat transfer from the outer surface of the insulation. Such a
reduction is possible D
i
<D
cr.
m 02 . 0
K . m / W 25
K . m / W 5 . 0
h
k
r
2
cr
= = =
Hence, D
cr =
0.04m> D
i =
0.005m. To minimize the maximum temperature, which
exists at the inner surface of the insulation, add insulation in the amount.
m t
m D D D D
t
i cr i
0175 . 0
2
) 005 . 0 04 . 0 (
2 2
0
=
÷
=
÷
=
÷
=
The cable surface temperature may then be obtained from
( )
C 318.2 T
π(0.005m)
W
.K m
0.02
m
W
294
C 692.5
L πD
R
q T qR T T
/R T T q , that g recognizin
C 692.5 T
2.25m.K/W
C 30 T
0.32)m.K/W 0.66 (1.27
C 30 T
m
W
294
hence,
π(0.04m)
.K m
W
25
1
) 2ππ(0.5W/.
005) ln(0.04/0.
π(0.005m)
.K/W 0.02m
C 30 T
hππ
1
2ππ
) /D ln(D
πD
R
T T
q
0
i
2
0
i
"
c t,
s c, t, s i
c, t, i s
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Comments: use of the critical insulation in lieu of a thin coating has the
effect of reducing the maximum insulation temperature from 778.7
0
C to
318.2
0
C. Use of the critical insulation thickness also reduces the cable
surface temperatures to 692.5
0
C from 778.7
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C with no insulation or fro
1153
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C with a thin coating.
00w / m 2 0 x x 2.0 10 5 W / m 3 L 0. q " (L) q " (0) 10.000 W / m 2 Comments: from an overall energy balance on the wall. . dx The flux at the face. q 'x (l) 2kbL 2 50W / m. find d [a+bx2]= 2kbx. it follows that E in E out E g 0 .' q 'x ( x ) k dT dx x Using the temperature distribution T(x) to evaluate the gradient.050m q '' x (L) 10. . is then x=0 q x ( x ) k '' q '' x (0) 0 ' atX L.050m .K (2000 0 C / m 2 ) 0. ' q 'x (0) q '' x (L) q L 0 . q .
Analysis (1) the desired fluxes correspond to conduction fluxes in the central layer at the lower and upper surfaces. and from the middle layer to the top layer. k is the thermal conductivity.Problem 2: Consider a solar pond having three distinct layers of watersalt solution. obtain an expression for the rate at which thermal energy is generated in the entire middle layer. a (1/m). resulting in the following temperature distribution in the central layer A T ( x) 2 e mx Bx C ka In the above equation. With this arrangement. Obtain expressions for the interfacial heat flux from the bottom layer to the middle layer. the top and bottom surfaces of the middle layer is maintained at uniform temperature T1 and T2. A general form for the conduction flux is . (b) whether conditions are steady or transient (c) rate of thermal energy generation for the entire central layer. Schematic: Assumptions: (1) central layer is stagnant. The top and bottom layers are well mixed with salt. (3)constant properties. B (K/m) and C(K) are also known. Are the conditions are steady or transient? Next. Solar radiation is absorbed in the middle layer in the form q=Aemx . Known: Temperature distribution and distribution of heat generation in central layer of a solar pond. but the middle layer is stationary. per unit surface area. where T1>T2. These layers are subjected to natural convention. Find: (a) heat fluxes at lower and upper surfaces of the central layer. (2) onedimensional conduction. and the constants A (W/m3).
Applying the heat equation. " E g = q1 . A mx L A A e (e mL 1) (1 e mL ) 0 a a a . the energy generation is L L E g 0 qdx A 0 e mxdx . necessitating use of minus signs in the above energy balance. from an overall energy balance.q" = (q”cond(x=0))(q”cond(x=L)) 2 Eg k . A mx A mx 1 e e k k t T =0 t (for all 0<=x<=L) For the central layer. . A A mL A BK e B (1 e mL ) km km m Comments: Conduction is the negative xdirection.A mx " qcond k e B km Hence A ml " A " " B ql" qcond ( x L 0 k e B qu qcond ( x0 ) k km km (b) Conditions are steady if T/t=0." Alternatively. " q " q1 E g =0 2 . 2 T q 1 T 2 t k t Hence conditions are steady since . " Eg .
Hence. Assumptions: (1) steady state conditions. T(x)=Ax3+Bx2+CX+d. the generation rate is q . q" (L) = K [3AL2+2BL+C] x COMMENTS: (1) from an over all energy balance on the wall. L). L). dT q " k k[3Ax 2 2Bx C] x dx Using the expression for the temperature gradient derived above. (3) homogeneous medium. '' . x=0. we can also find L L E g 0 q( x )dx k[6Ax 2B]dx k[3Ax 2 2Bx]0 0 . The steady state temperature is of the form T=Ax3+Bx2+Cx+D. . Known: steadystate temperature distribution in onedimensional wall of thermal conductivity. '' . Find expressions for the heat generation rate per unit volume in the slab and heat fluxes at the two wall faces (i. Analysis: the appropriate form of the heat diffusion equation for these conditions is .Problem 3: Consider 1D heat transfer across a slab with thermal conductivity k and thickness L. the heat fluxes are: q" (0)=kC Surface x=0. '' g 3AkL2 2BkL .e. . x Surface x=L. Find: expressions for the heat generation rate in the wall and the heat fluxes at the two wall faces(x=0. (2) onedimensional heat flow. L E . find E in E out E g 0 q " x (0) q " x (L) ( kC) ( K )[3AL2 2BL C] E g 0 E g 3AkL2 2BkL . d dT d 2 dx k dx [3Ax 2Bx C 0] dx q k[6Ax 2B] which is linear with the coordinate x. Hence. . d 2T q 0 dx 2 k Or d 2T q k 2 dx . . From integration of the volumetric heat rate. The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from Fourier’s law.
L as a function of time. (d) After time te. identify boundary and initial conditions. L/2. (c) sketch heat flux for x=0. initially at a uniform temperature Ti. the heater power is switched off. as a function of the relevant parameters. Assuming no heat loss. Comment whether a steadystate temperature distribution will ever be reached. The system is initially at a uniform temperature Ti.t). Analysis: (a) the appropriate form of the heat equation follows. (c) For any given time. Find: (a) proper form of heat diffusion equation. (2) no internal heat generation. and x=L. The electrical heater is suddenly switched ON. several times after heater is energized . the final uniform temperature. with the heater on. (a) Set up the differential equation along with the boundary and initial conditions for the temperature T(x. Choose the following planes: x=0. x=L/2. Known: one dimensional system. sketch the heat flux variation with x.] Schematic: Assumptions: (1) one dimensional conduction. (b) sketch temperature distributions for following conditions: initial condition (t<=0). The boundaries at x=L and elsewhere are perfectly insulated. Also the appropriate boundary and initial conditions are: 2 T 1 T Initial condition: T(x. te.Problem 4: Consider a one dimensional system of mass M with constant properties and no internal heat generation as shown in the figure below. (d) expression for uniform temperature. 0) =Ti uniform temperature x 2 t q " kT / x ) 0 t 0 Boundary conditions: x=0 o . (b) Sketch the temperature variation with x for the initial condition (t<=0) and for several times after the heater is switched ON. derive an expression determine Tf . reached after heater has been switched off the following an elapsed time .will a steadystate condition be reached?. is suddenly exposed to a uniform heat flux at one boundary while the other boundary is insulated. (3) constant properties. Tf. resulting in a uniform heat flux q”o at the surface x=0 .
(c) The heat flux as a function of time for positions x=0. for an interval of time t=te. Tf.x=L T / x ) L 0 Insulated (b) The temperature distributions are as follows: No steadystate condition will be reached since E in E out and E in is constant. Perform an energy balance on the system. . E in E st . . t E in Q in 0e q " A s dt q " A s t e 0 o E st Mc(Tf Ti ) q" A s t e o Mc It follows that q " A s t e = Mc(Tf Ti ) o OR Tf Ti . . ( d) If the heater is energized until t=to and then switched off. the system will eventually reach a uniform temperature . L/2 and L appears as: .
the temperature at the midpoint of the plate is measured to be 850C. T1 T2 15 0 C = 1500W / m 2 L / 2 0.K / W h . Hence. steady conduction with no generation. Calculate the value of the convection heat transfer coefficient at the bottom surface.cond L 0.k T1 T 30 0 C q" 1500W / m 2 (L / k ) (1 / h ) (0.02 1 / h )m 2 .K / W K 1 0.033m 2 .02m 2 . surface thermal conditions. (2) Constant properties Analysis: for prescribed conditions. The top surface is maintained at 1000C while the bottom surface is convectively cooled by a fluid at 200C. Plate midpoint temperature.K Comments: The contributions of conduction and convection to the thermal resistance are R " t .K is insulated on its sides. and thermal conductivity of a Plate.K / W q" cond h 30W / m 2 . is constant.Problem 5: A 1–mlong metal plate with thermal conductivity k=50W/m. Known: length. Find: surface convection coefficient Schematic: Assumptions: (1) onedimensional.5m / 50W / m. Under steady state conditions and with no volumetric heat generation.cond R " t .
3 W/m.038W/m. and vermiculite and pine panel. Known: Material thickness in a composite wall consisting of brick.K.K h0=70W/m2. glass fiber. and a 6mm layer of pine panel. Properties: T= 300K: Brick. If hinside is 10W/m2.K: gypsum.12W/m.17W/m. Inner and outer convection coefficients. Schematic: Brick glass Gypsum Pine panel.K: pine panel.K and houtside is 70W/m2. kg1= Analysis: considering a unit surface Area. Find: Total thermal resistance and overall heat transfer coefficient. kb=1. a 10mm layer of gypsum plaster (vermiculite). calculate the total thermal resistance and the overall coefficient for heat transfer. 28kg/m2).K: Glass fiber (28kg/m3).K 100mm 10mm 6mm 1 h0 Lb Kb Lg l k gl L gy k gy Lp Kp 1 hi Assumptions: (1) one dimensional conduction.Problem 6: The wall of a building is a multilayered composite consisting of brick (100mm layer). the total thermal resistance . kgy=0. 0. a 100mm layer of glass fiber(paper faced. (3) negligible contact resistance. kp=0.Kp Kb Kgl hi=10W/m2.K. (2) constant properties.
1)m 2 .0500 0.0769 2.0588 0.0143 0.01 0.1 70 1.17 0.12 10 W R " (0.6316 0.93m 2 .R" tot R" tot 1 L B L g1 L gy L p 1 h 0 K B k g1 k gy K p h i 0.K / W tot The overall heat transfer coefficient is U 1 R tot A 1 R " tot (2.006 1 m 2 .3 0.K. the dominant contribution to the total resistance is made by the insulation.341W / m 2 .K / W tot R " 2..K 1 0.1 0.038 0. Comments: an anticipated.93m 2 .K / W ) 1 U 0. .
Measurements also tell us that the inner surface temperature Ts. the outer surface temperature is measured to be Ts.K. also. (5) negligible radiation effects.K kC=50W/m.15m kA=20W/m.K. Layer B is sandwiched between layers A and C. Under steadystate operating conditions. LB=0. the heat flux may be expressed as . kB. but unknown thermal conductivity kB. Known: Thickness of three material which form a composite wall and thermal conductivities of two of the materials. is of known thickness.K.3m LB=LC=0. respectively. Layers A has a thermal conductivity kA=20W/m. (3) constant properties.0=200C Ts.i=6000C T=8000C h= 25W/m2. (4) negligible contact resistance. (2) onedimensional conduction. Analysis: Referring to the thermal circuit.0=200C.K KA KB KC LA=0. Schematic: Ts. temperature and convection coefficient associated with adjoining gas. Inner and outer surface temperatures of the composites.K LA LB LC Assumptions: (1) steady state conditions. The corresponding thicknesses are LA=0. Find: value of unknown thermal conductivity.i is 6000C and the oven air temperature is T =8000C.Problem 7: The wall of an oven is a composite of the following layers. and layer C has a thermal conductivity kC=50W/m. Find the value of kB.15m. The inside convection coefficient h is known to be 25W/m2.15m.30m and LC=0.
15m LA LB LC 0.q" Ts.018 0.53W / m. 0. .018 0.i T s .018 0.K (800 600) 0 C q '' 5000W / m 2 Substituting for heat flux.K KA KB KC 580 W / m2 0.098 KB 5000 q K B 1. radiation effects are likely to have a significant influence on the net heat flux at the inner surface of the oven.15 580 580 " 0.018 KB 50W / m.3m 0. Comments: In an over.15 / K B The heat flux can be obtained from q " h (T Ts.i ) 25W / m 2 .15m 0.0 (600 20) 0 C 0.K.
2=490K Assumptions: (steady state conditions. (3) constant properties. (2) onedimensional conduction.089W/m.12m) q 'r 603W / m Comments: heat transferred to the outer surface is dissipated to the surroundings by convection and radiation. respectively.K Analysis: The heat per unit length is q 'r q 'r q r 2K (Ts.089 W / m. .12m Calcium silicate insulation Ts. 2 ) qL ln(D 2 / D1 ) 2(0.16m / 0.K )(800 490)K ln(0.16m Steam D1=0.Problem 8: A steam pipe of 0.1=800K D2=0. Schematic: Ts. what is the heat loss per unit length of the pipe? Known: Thickness and surface temperature of calcium silicate insulation on a steam pipe. If the inner and outer surfaces of the insulation are at temperatures of Ts.2=490 K. Properties: calcium silicate (T=645K): k=0.1 T s. Find: heat loss per unit pipe length.1=800 K and Ts.12 m outside diameter is insulated with a 20mmthick layer of calcium silicate.
(3). Find: the temperature at the inner surfaces. and the convection coefficient between the outer surface and the coolant is 20W/m2. Schematic: Assumptions: (1) steadystate conditions.0W/m.K. Analysis: The thermal circuit for the outer cylinder subjected to the convection process is . Find the temperatures at the interface between the two cylinders and at the outer surface. (2) onedimensional radial conduction. and at the outer surface.1m dia has a thermal conductivity k=0.K. Known: A cylindrical rod with heat generation is cladded with another cylinder whose outer surface is subjected to a convection process.K and generates uniformly 24. negligible contact resistance between the cylinders.2m and a thermal conductivity of 4W/m.Problem 9: A cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of 0. T1. Tc. This rod is encapsulated within another cylinder having an outer radius of 0.000W/m3. The outer surface is cooled by a coolant fluid at 1000C.
m / W 100 50. .0W / m (0.0398K.0W / m 0.000 W / m 3 (0. .0W / m Hence Ti 100 0 C 754. Find that q ' q1 r12 .m / W 100 30 130 0 C Comments: knowledge of inner cylinder thermal conductivity is not needed.m / W .K 2 0.0276K.0398K.1) 2 m 2 754.' R1 ln ro / r1 2k 2 1 h 2ro R '2 Using the energy conservation requirement.0276 cccc)K.2 / 0. on the inner cylinder.m / W q ' 24.1 / 2 4W / m. E out E g . The heat rate equation has the form q T / R ' .8 0 C TC 100 0 C 754. Numerical values: R '2 1 / 20 W / m 2 . hence ' Ti T q ' (R 1 R '2 )andq ' T / R ' ' R 1 ln 0.20m 0.K 0.8 150.
with a contact resistance of 0. what is its surface temperature? (b) If a very thin coating of electrical insulation is applied to the cable. Corresponding value of this temperature. Find: (a) surface temperature of bare cable. diameter and environmental conditions associated with a cable. and the effective coefficient associated with heat loss by convection and radiation between the cable and the environment is approximately 25W/m2. resistance. (3) constant properties.K) will yields the lowest value of the maximum insulation temperature? What is the value of the maximum temperature when the thickness is used? Known: electric current flow. (2) onedimensional conduction in r. Schematic: Ts T∞ q Eg Assumptions: (1) steadystate conditions.K. (b) cable surface and insulation temperatures for a thin coating of insulation. (c) insulation thickness which provides the lowest value of the maximum insulation temperature.005m and an electrical resistance of 6*104 /m carries an electrical current of 700 A. what are the insulation and cable surface temperatures? (c) What thickness of this insulation (k=0. .02m2K/W.Problem 10: A steel cable having a diameter of 0. The surrounding temperature of the cable is 300°C.5W/m. (a) If the cable is uncoated.
c T 0.02 m W (0. however. and therefore remains the same. Performing an energy balance for a control surface about the cable.c 11530 C q Ti 778.Analysis: (a) the rate at which heat is transferred to the surroundings is fixed by the rate of heat generation in the cable.K m 2 .005m) .c 11530 C D i L 294 W m 2 . find 1 294W / m m 2 . for the bare cable. I 2 R 'e L h (D i L)(Ts T ).K 0.7 0 C (b) With thin coating of insulation.02 30 0 C R t .04 h (0. q Ts T Ts T 1 R t . there exists contact and convection resistances to heat transfer from the cable. It follows that Ts T 294W / m q' 30 0 C hD i (25W / m 2 .c 1 R t .005m) W W Ts q' D i Ts 11530 C The insulation temperature is then obtained from q Ts T R t . .c h q' And solving for the surface temperature. it follows that E g q or.c hD i L D i L hD i L D i (Ts T ) 1 R t .e Or Ti Ts qR t .7 0 C R " t .withq ' I 2 R 'e (700A) 2 (6 10 4 / m) 294 W / m.K )(0.005m) Ts 778. The heat transfer rate is determined by heating within the cable.K 0.
005)m 2 2 2 t 0.5W/.02m h 25W / m 2 .K/W 2. Ti Ts qR t.70C to 318. ) 1 25 W π(0. D0 Di Dcr Di (0. Such a reduction is possible Di<Dcr.27 0. W m 2 .02 R "t.005m) effect of reducing the maximum insulation temperature from 778.K Hence.c πD i Ts T ln(D c.04m> Di =0.K 294 0. To minimize the maximum temperature. add insulation in the amount.5 0 C recognizing that .c m W Ts q 692.02m 2 .25m.K hence.c.K/W Ts 692. which exists at the inner surface of the insulation. Ti 318.005) π(0.K 0.04/0.005m) 2ππ(0. Comments: use of the critical insulation in lieu of a thin coating has the .r /D i ) 2ππ 1 hππ c.50C from 778.5W / m. Ts 30 0 C Ts 30 0 C W 294 m (1.5 0 C πD i L π(0. Use of the critical insulation thickness also reduces the cable surface temperatures to 692.04 0. Dcr =0.04m) m 2 .70C with no insulation or fro 11530C with a thin coating. rcr k 0.005m.2 0 C q Ts Ti /R t.K/W ln(0.(c) The maximum insulation temperature could be reduced by reducing the resistance to heat transfer from the outer surface of the insulation.20C.66 0.0175m t The cable surface temperature may then be obtained from q '` R "t.32)m.r Ts 30 0 C 0.c.
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