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A GUIDE

CON'S T Rue TI ON'. O'F:':..
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TO THE. ':' ; ..
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SEGMENTAL

BRIDGES
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FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUREAU OF CONSTRUCTION
OCTOBER 1389
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hcknowledgements This mental bridges Transportation Janssen, p~oject' to HDR.
by Alan

guide f~r construction was'commissioned to HDR Engineering,

and inspection 'of Department H. ~nc., (HDR).

segof
a9

by the Florida

Inc.

Hubert acted

P.E.~ manager Host

o~ Jans~en, Spaans , Assoc.,

tor HDR in a capacity o~ special

Consultant HDR the

of the text and graphics we~e provided to

J.

Moreton,

Florida

Department

~.

P.E., state structures

of Transportation.

..

Engineer of

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The Transportation and avoid inspection problems The intent px:ojects_ Construction Bureau of the Florida to the bridge~ tor Department of

l,

has prepared this guide

'construction only • and 'quality

is to promote understanding, previously

or segmental .

information improve

anccunt.e.c on' various ed

segmental

It is not a supplement to,. nor an interpretation

of,
tions

any contract documents

or

specifications.

!In cases

of
be

conflict followed. practices imply cable

bet~een .this guide and particular
then the specifications this guide 'covers Although other

project

specifica-

or plans,

and plans shall

various

construction are less

related to segmental bridgest

it is not intended to
herein of the appli-

that

practices not described

suitable.

Contractors can, . within the limits

contract documents, plans and specifications, always ~lect a method that bett~r suits their own ~perations.

0-05

--.~~--."

1 Benefits Tenuinology 2.7 2.0 Erection Truss Span-by-Span Review of Techniques for segment Production 3.10 2.8 2.11 2.10 3.Hatch cast Short Line casting Long Line Casting Wet cast Joint System Span-by~Span Erection Balanced cantilever Erection Progressive Erection in cantilever casting Curve· Launching Gantry Beam and Winch :I I I I I I I I I 3.12 2~13 Precast S~grnents .6 3.2 2.1 Precast Segmental Bridge 1.5 3.7 3.5 1-01 1-01 2-01 .3 2-15 3-01 3-05 3-10 3-15 3-20 3-30 3-35 3.3 2.Match cast Segment Placing Concrete concrete Placing Sequence Finishing the Top Surface 0-10 3-40 3-45 3-50 3-55 3-60 I I I .~ble 1.2 Long Line and short Line forms 2.B 3.Post-Tensioning Ducts Handling the Prefabricated Rebar cage Rebar Cage in Casting Cell setting the.1 casting Yards 3.4 -2.6 2.12 Mat~h Casting casting Curve Fabrication of Rebar Cages with .14 3.0 of Contents Introduction Purpose 1.9 2.2 2.4 3.11.!-01 2-01 2-01 2-05 2-05 2"'. 3.05 2':"05 2-05 2-10 2-10 2-10 2-10 -I 2.0 Box Girder or Box Pier 2.9 3.Post-Tensioning Ducts and Hardware Installation of .

.Techniques 3-70 3-70 ..0 Review 5.4 5.1 4..o ... ._ ..2 5-01 5. 6.1 6. storing and stacking of of Erection Methods General Span-by-Span Launching Erection Erection Balanced Cantileve~ 5. ~3 :3 ~ curing Striking Handling Segments Forms for Handling Segments 4-01 4-05 Segments of.5 5..14 4.1 Purpose of Epoxy Types o~ Epoxy and Application Control General casting cell Geometry Control system 8.J a... . .1 8. supports Schedule and Closures rI ..2 a-01 S-20 Field Survey Checking During Erection 0-15 8-40 .5 7.2 6-0~ 6-10 6-15 6-20 6.3 5..2 Geometry 8.0 Construction 6-25 Epoxy Jointing 7. --- - ~ble of contents 3.3 8.1 5. .0 5-10 5-15 5-20 5-25 5-30 Girder Erectio~ Erection in Beam and Winch Erection Progressive Cantilever Wet Cast Joint Erection Details Post-tens~oning Lifting Segments Erection Temporary Midspan Sequence for Erection 6. ~~ .0 Review 4. 7... .3 6..2 r1 r1 .5 Tools Used for Geometry Geometry Control of the First Pier Segment control 8-30 8-35 7-01 7-01 L..6 5..4 .7 6.4 8.

8-50 9-01 9-20 10·-01 9.1-l5 • .8 10.0 Frequently ..2 10. I~SFection 12.6 Paae Systematic Achieved Error 8-45 8-50 8-50 8.of concrete settings 11-20 11-30 11-30 12-01 12-10 Traveler .2 10. 10-30 10-35 11. ·11 u r.2 Q-20 .1 "11.7 S.ints Technical Problems..3 11.1.Segmental 1.6 lO. 10.2 of the cast-in-Place Technique cycle Consolidation and 11-05 11-10 1.11 :1.4 lO.9 Prof~les Effects Pier ~haft Segments Temperature Bearings Expansion Occurring JO.Table of Contents 8.5 10.4 11-5 11-6 11-7 12.0 Bearings and Road Joints 9.1.S 8.~.9 10.1.0 The Form Traveler Curing Safety Process Inspection Submittals Team .10 Epoxy Not Setting Construction Alignment Freezing Overloads Poor Reinforcing D~tails Problems of water in Ducts 10-05 lO-10 lO-10 10-15 10-20 10-20 10-25 10-25 and Recess Pockets. J.7 10.O • J. Fit of Match cast Segments Blister Tendon Failure Pop-out Deck Delamination Cracking Honeycombing Construction General Review Casting Placing.3 10. 12.1 9.0 Cast-in-Place·Segmental 11.-01 10.

.. * •••••• *** ••••• *•••• * •••••••••••••• **** ••• ** •• - * *. 0-25 '- . • • • . i Ii •• ~ ~~. ~or-an techniques •• The of to The F10rida Department Hanual o~ post-tensioning '" is referred . other reader bridge is &n '" important part c~ segmenta1 AS but this technique app1ies to many construction methods p05t:Tansioning wel1.. .*•.~ ..rl fI . • Transportation extensive r1 ~ • description • ••••••••• . ra '" * POST-TBNSXONING MANUAL ~ ~i_~ • • • '" • '" * • post-tensioning construction. r-I ..

2(a) .2(a) 1.:2 (a) 4_ Connections.1 ~-04 2-02 2-03 .2 3.5 3.8 3.6..Casting Cell (Short Line Method) :3 .2." 3-72 4-02 4-05 4-07 5-06 5-07. casting Yard ~ ~-02 ~-03 tioure :t.of Ducts to Anchorages Use of Internal Vibrators for Compaction Placing Concrete : Finishing Concrete Surface Striking Fonns striking Match cast Segment Handling Segments Storing & Stacking of Segments Double Stacking 3-57 3-7~ L.5 2 casting Curve for Typical Jig for Fabrication of Rebar Cage ! '. 2 (b) 5.2(b) 1.6.2 4.2 2.2.14. 3..2.3-02 3-06 3-07 3-08 Typical Long Line Production Casting cell (Short Line Method) 3.14.12 3.2 Span-By-Span construction Typical Deviation· Block 0-30 lL <: .6. 2 (c) 2.2. 4. 3.2.ll 3.< .10 3.~: I.lJsting Qf Drawings D2scription Trent Bridge (U.6.4.6.4 3.1 3. : .C.7 Friction Effects on Post-Tensioning Ducts Checking a Three Dimensional Duct Alignment Rebar and Duct Conflict Problems Transverse Post-Tensipning Supports and·Checking supporting Post-Tensioning Ducts in Webs Handling of Pre!abricated Rebar cage 3-33 3-36 3-46 3-56 3-32 3-28 3-3~ Duct 3.3 3.) Long Key Bridge Linn Cove Viaduct ·(N.1 4.1 Simple cantilever Cantilever Bridge Casting curve 3-~1 3-~1 :3.1 5.1 3.2 (0) 3.1 3. 3.K.3 .) Segmental Bridge components Segment Features '.

2 8.) of a Pier 1 .3. figure 5.4 ~l: ~.1 8..l.7.3 B.4 8. 8.) setting.3.7..7. 1: ~I p. Control for Starting (Pier)'Segment Effect 9f Accumulatio~ of Systemati¢ Err9rs Alignment ot Cantilever structure (3 spans) Alignment of a Span-Sy-Span Struct~re 8-32 8-46 8-47 8-51 a-52 8-53 lJ.1 5. ~.. 2 6. 1 1 }~ 5.2 B.1.. .. '==----. ' .1 7.6.3 5. f Shimming Joints to Correct Shimming Joints to Correct (canto.2 .. Pier Segment From Ground Observations Required for Geometry control Geometry Cpntrol Measuring Equipment 6-26 7-02 1 i: 8-02 6-03 6-16 8-41 8-31' 1 P: p. 6.2 6.~ . r~ Cij 6.:1' . ) 0-35 Profile Profile I I f ~-----: I I ! . setting 1 1 l.. 6.6 Segment.1 B.Ll 8.3 6-06 6-07 6-16 6-l7 6-2l J Bars coupled Post-tensioning Erection Systems: Bars (contd..". 02 I~ •.6..1. ill' I 6.1.2 8. 5. -- . Use of Temporary Post-tensioning for Erection construction Use of continuously Coupled Post-tensioning 5-26 5-27 5-31 6.5.1..~! Qescriptigu Balanced Launching cantilever Erection 5-16 5-21 Gantry for Overhead Construction Beam and Winch Equipment Progressive cantilever Erection Sequence using ProgressivQ Segment Placing construction Using Wet cast Joint Syste~..2 S...1. \ \ i.L3 8. Geometry. .7..5 5.3.. & start of cantilever Erection Systems: Means of Stabilizing cantilever Aligning cantilevers' for Midspan Closure Effect of construction S~guence Application of Epoxy Jointing Compound Align~e~t control: set Up Alignment Control: set Up (contd.4....7.4 5.l.

5 12.2 9.2.10.4 10.8. 3 11.~ 12-02 11.1 9 .1 10.0. 4 Cast-in-Place Segmental Typical construction Sequence Nebraska city Bridge casting CYcle Nebraska city Bridge Form Traveler Nebraska city Bridge Concrete Pour Sequence Inspection Team (a) 11-06 11-11 11-16 11-2.1 10.r Joint Horizontal Gradient a-58 9-06 9-07 9-11 9-21 9-26 9-27 9-31 9.8.2 .2 B.1 Finger Joint Blister for Tendon Anchorage Effects of Misalignment Deck Delamination Cracking Due to Shrinkage cracking near Anchorage Cracking at Transverse Post-tensioning Anchorage af Tendon Ducts Curvature Pressure Exerted by Tendons 10-21 10-26 10"':27 10-28 10-31 10-32 10-33 10-36 Repair of Honeycombed Area Nebraska city Bridge cast-in-Place Segmental.2. Caused by Temperature • I Neoprene Bear~ngs Pot Bearings Bearing Position __ Compression Seal Transf1ex joint Madulj3. Balanced 11-02 cantilever Construction Variable Depth Box Girder 11.Esgg 8-54 8-56 8-57 Temperature Expansion and Contraction Temperature Gradient Deflection.9..De. .3 10.9.1 10.2 J.3 g. 12-12 Flow of Submittals for Design Revisions 0-40 ..10...9.3 9.2 10.2 12.L3 9..1 8.1'9 • ~ (c) .7.1 10.2.2 (b) Flow of submittals for Shop Drawings 12-1J.1 12.l1 11.2 t 11.9.criptioD Control for Precast Pier Shaft Segments Geometry 8.l0.

LOW SOl SR. and for It lead all is to conconover hoped that this will be a positive contribution some problems previously encountered and greater quality assurance deiays and costs caused By improving basic ~derstanding !ewer cerned.cn can be particularly for very long spans. ~aterial li~itations and so on.2 B. etc. EN( \ INTRODUCTION 1. have a significant impact upon the const~ction. structures of variable span lengths dictated by pier locations and clearances and where access restr. 1-01 . development particularly in Europe and elsewhere.I -.Pgrpose The purpose of this guid~ is to provide . . 1. '.easondue to access.1 . problems and will help of segmental by concern of st=uctian techniques. time. for highly curved..enefits Segmental bridges were introduced after an into the USA of a need with in cer- the tain ~here early Seventies initial period construction. useful over water.' . bridge construction a basic mat- outline ters to of segmental emphasizing needing av~id particular. egmental S and competitive consceuctd.ictions or the need to maintain traffic.attention on the job site. non-critical areas of construction and from lack under- standing of critical items will hopefully be reduced. CThey help fulfill types of bridge design and other forms of construction might not be possible or too costly fo~ some r.

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" . path. many This a~so etc. The manufacture bridge bridge vith of prec~st segments remote from the the helps a production operations. _ r.. r. .._...-- ~I I_ .. construction delivery.-05 . programming by removing weather susceptibility.: .".. .•••••• '... 1. precast (c).. from the segmen- site means that the site need be no larger. basis under ~aterials critical Some examples of constructed u (] [I tal bridges are shown in Figures L 2 (a) through II [I [I [I [I I-. than itself and th~ segments can be ~ade on factory controlled conditions.

shaped structura.s shown in Figure 2. Box shaped prec~st concrete elements which can be assembled to form a bridge superstructure pier (see Figures 2.3. I bridge constructed with precas~ segments. .0 TERMINOLOGY I i and definitio~s. Hatch casting is described 2-01 :~..2 Box Girder Box Com- or Box pier.:: . ~on types are shown in Figures 1.2(a) through (c). When the segments are separated and . 2.." in detail in Section 3.4 Match cast. Method of casting segments where~y a segment is cast against an existing segment to .I 2. :2 • 2.idce. For reference 2. A .3).2 and 2. the mating surfaces fit together perfectly and reproduce the "as cast geometry.2(a) through (c).3.2 and 2. 2·.Segm~ntal B.1 the following list of terms -I is made to Figures· 1. produce a ~atching joint. Pregast.l 'inember used for perstruc1=ures and piers a.3 bridge su- I I I :1 Precast Segments.re-~ssembled in the structure. " I I I I I I I . or ·1 I 2.

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" 2.2 long. together 5.joints are cast is post-tensionedt SpaD-bY-Span This for one span aligned. The form is only one segment tnt 2. an ta 2. on falsework until wet .. [J '" 'J. u 2. (a and b).i l - .3...2. field closures as shown in Figure 3.7 Wet Cast Joint System..7.!# to make a complete span.8 so they are not matchcast. segments truss. . see section fr. Cantilever an Erection. See Section 9 1 Balanced This is erection method where segments is are made e c erected ver up alternatively on either side of the pier in closure' or existing 2-05 cantile- to the point where a cast-in-place cantilever 5. Method of casting segment~ on a long casting or The bed span long qu...6 short line forms are described LQD~ Line casting.._ r '··'··········'1" which between makes up the soffit of a complete cantilever 3. and longitudinally post-tensioned in one operation 2. .2.' . . !. [I [I r.5 Sbort Line castinq. . : [J IIshort line. Segments and tc must be supported. '2 support jointed.2. with the previous See section side span structure.. Method whereby segments are cast in a single form ·between two bulkheads. Method called a casting previously of casting each segment the other as in a special form di! tel cell using a fixed bulkhead at one end and a cast segment'at shown in Figur~ 3... the girder 2. 1\ Erection.1. method is described in Section line casting 2..2. tl [I [I is an erection method where all the are placed on a temporary . hence the term in Section 3..2.

". the advancing 'I 1 1 I J I .~ erected .· 1 1 .6. cantileVer segment.13 See Section'5. only from one pier to the next using temporary piers or temporary cantilever. construct the next cantilever. in cantilever and in one in- I I support . advanced is equip~ent cantilever After erecting a segment. a tackle 1 1 which is attached to the end of of the 5. cable stays or both to See section 5. move' arid place them in After of final erected locations in the superstructure. (creep and shrinkage) See section Gantry Launching CUstom built erection equipment which lift.1 :1 Ca sting CUrve..12 profile to which the segments rehave afte'r all final structural yard in order to ~achieve the deformations bridge profile 8. of a cantilever launching or span. ~ogressive Segmen~s_ direction termediate Erection are in cantilever. the gantry completion.. custom made erection equipment consisting of a lonand and This gitudinal ~inches ~ent is beam fitted with lifting pulleys.4. is capable itself forward into a position ready to or span and so·on. 1 I I 2-10 r.5. This is the geometric must be made in th~ casting quired theoretical and time-dependent taken place.: I . 2. or lift~ up the segments. ..I I r t_ '. is used to take delivery their of the segments. Beay and Winch... 2.0. next cantilever the equipprogressive for erection used with balanced See Section erection.

to the next span or may be moved by cranes.. rests underneath previously lIlay be 3 This is a custom built truss Which a span on supports by. used for span-by-span See are typically 5. c 5 i o o c c c c c c c c 2-15 . Such trusses erection.14' Erection Truss Span-by-Span. crane connected to the pier and/or erected superstructure onto which a complete span ar segments self They Section p t b is placed launchi"ng or other device.2.••• "! 2.

r 0 . One or more casting cells An as· area for the pier segments I for supstructure segments.materials. shown o o Delivery gates.ersl. j 195 and templi'ltes. e o o o Concrete ba.t '_' '.y system. etc. J::: . hard- 'Ware. and concrete testing_fa~ilitiSs.sejDbly az'eaa . <. Rebar cage as.egment loading and delivery facilities. abutlllent segments or expansion .!1~. c. 0 0 0 steamcuring Control Segment ~acili tie. I I . bridge efficiency. reinf:orcement.../ L :I REVIEW OF TECHNIQUES FOR SEGMENT PRODUCTION 3..' tow.1 Casting Yard§ The major advantages dt lnaking. quality contr(l. essential features of a casting yard as include: and storage points for all cement.. for geometry 0: segmoents. and h~ndling·eqp.' stations.land time savings to construction.tch plant and delive:r. aggrepost.I I I production of any special segments such j oi.:-. sand.:ruotionperioG'_ The in Figure 3. One or more casting cells· for superstructure' segme_nts.r1ticalpathfor st.1 I I I I o ~.-tensioning.I 0 Q Segment storage Offices S.. . n n '. . removing casting operations 'from the cons~ction '~ndredu·cing the overall ·cen.\. segmen. lifting and survey areas'..:'. control.es.ts controlled in a precasting yard lie in br~ngh~g factory production o G techniqp. .' 3-01 :..' 0 .1.ipment.

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o o o it.2.structure with correcti_ons for short and long ter.1. Disadvantages o of this method a large area are that: it requires o.2 3.m deflections. The long line casting bed is shown in Figure 3.bulkhead travel along this long line.1 Long Line and Short Line Forms. 3-05 I I I . non-settling fdundation it does not allow either horizontal or vertical geometry variations the soffit cannot be reused for a new project the soffit can be made only for one casting curve which ~ust be used for all cantilevers of the structure.The size of the yard depends on the size of the job and rate of segment production required.rnust be built on a finn. The soffit must be ~ade in the profile of the . a full cantilever The obvious advantage is that all the geometry control is done when constructing the soffit thus simplifying this process during segment production. One or more forms and the. about four to five seglllents per 5 day week per casting cell.2. Allowing for typical production problems. All segments are cast on a soffit which is as long as (or half a cantilever if the cantilever is si~etrical). 3. It usually takes 3-5 ~onths to establish a yard and achieve the routine production of one segment per day from each casting cell. a realistic production rate is. Long Line casting Bed.

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3.2.2(a) and
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line casting: bed is cast~ng

shown

in is

Figures stationthe

3.2.2(b).with-this position

-~~th'od·the fo~

art yhile

the segments moye from the

position to

]liatch' casting Advantages o ~,sp~ce
o T~e

and then to'''''storage.

of this method are: -requ-;rements
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~ are much less is

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compared to centralized.

the

long

line'method. ent.ire
.

manufacturing process
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o

The tion

system is extremely adaptable and vertical transitions which are

to geometry

variati~ns in

such ~s horizontal costs. o

curvature

and 5upereleva-

obtained without increase

The forms are reusable for other projects.
The disadvantage of the system is.that must be very accurately placed. the This match re-

casting suring
3.:3.

segment eleyations

quires high

skills in surveying and equipment capable of meawith a 1/1000 foot·tolerance.

I

Match casting,

.This
ol.d~segment. ~pPl.i~d -to ti)at
.

is a method where~f.resh concrete
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of

the

new

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~e

already- hardened .... ancrete· of
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A bond b~eaker '(usu;~iya

:m:iXtu~e

of

the

wax, ·soap,. ensure techon the seg-

C;~d.:._t.alcu:m powder~_bu:t-,the:r;-e .ar~:::aTso_.c::hetnica~_compoUnds) is_ the
segments will, come apart-~~ ... ·.Th-e ma·tch casting
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the 'h~rd~ned:~on~ret~~~~1'~;'6~-'''i~'brder 'to
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-nique as !act ,that,

applied now on. thousands provided

~'f

segment~ is based

proper precaUtions

are taken,

-the

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lZI~n~s.; ill w

toget.h~rperte2tly

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co~~ ~p~~ ..~~_r~~:y an~~~~'up<:~.,t;:;~!?tion, £ will join with-:..the joint.::b·~ing:aimost -Lnvd.s Lb Le ,

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: s. The deflections which occur While ~~.5 -' .> . ::=::...the .: -.14). 3. "..such ~ ...::. The Fi~ure deflections increase:-:-. . This generally me~ns that· no work can be done on cannot occur...~ .. in l l Post-tensioning goal wou. ...'-:.. 5-se.4~1.:.._ ' :. during erec~ing ~ • .: asting .I s.:_ our €recresults in some deflection._.. . .~.~.. ~"~~. construction Both the deflections long term during and the deflections. blasting. if..f' j·amming· protrus1ons -=-.five steps required·._ _ -~~..and Now. : tQ ·~see ~ correct fit at the 'time of erection the except for a l~ght in joint sand. •• . 1: I I I 3. ..--_ . • are ~I·· ... I I must not have been alt~red.J:1l. ..~·:r: _. as defined in 2..+ . joint faces and that segnlents must be stress. constrUction the sa~ple ... .:::?. (c)• The situation ~~-~~~~ ""'Em~ '~-r-.. and (2) The which comp~nsation occur of deflections.11. lin. shown in Figure.ct:~6ns·- f~l" shows the effect· of a. For faces the "\Jay are merely impossible· t~ careful bre~k t~ applica~on bond of the bondbreaker and the avoidance .gment cantilever shown in (a) in . which is vertical curvature and actually the horizontal and superelevation shown on the plans. Shown.fte~· each step.:: -.Ld took I be to have a horizontal p~ofile aft~rthis tion place r we would have to pr~·vrde·3. which is precisely opposite the calculated deflection 3-1. .. : I I I The precautions which make it physically section 3...~ .. as d~fle.ed that ¢ii:fferentialdeformation Casting CUrye~ The casting curve..E7~~~ti-~!ii~L-!"s combi~ed selfweight~~. both selfweight· and post-tensioning the·cantilever incr~ases.' .4 is made up of two important (1) The reqUired components: geometric profile..~ ~ ~.L_-...

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the main sec- The essential o Walls held . soffit.~ . and slab.0 ·-··!R··~r~:~[··:~~·:":.::~'.In Figure 3. ducts and as much as possible of the hardware by means Figure jigs. . per day.}c proiil'.4. shown in (b).of .. '".atescll_t.-:-~ith s-t::31ndard Po~£..c:·rked to the proper tion size .. as of the reba~ cage preferably. ~truc~l:-al deflections The required are shown geometry . "of the ··st~cture...2."'" 'combined with t-: tite' geom~t:.5. provide o Spacer correct concrete J J .s)..5 fabrication pucts:and are compensated occuring deflec- The structural (cj and finally added to the to form the casting curve in (d). dons geometric 'profile of 3.The deflections during construction .is sh9~ -~~ (a):j -~. in Figure (a) ~ . A possible in to Use partial segment is illustrated jigs and templates. ricate rebar By hav~ng several jigs it is possible cages well in aqvance for' segment produc~ion_ features plywood for a jig are: or other suitable 'lIlaterial.tensioning duct -locations accurately de£ined.~-'" Wing cantil~v~ cators etc. tempJ.:._ . of with ohe of com3.·~· are.. . one ~eeded in order to achieve a production This is ~eadily accomplished . to the cover to ducts.trans~e~~ bars Laced..':. Prefabrication post-tensioning installed segment plete ample. andjori_iD. .. Rebar Cage with post-Tensioning -.. 0 and floors. and fi tt-ed' with post-tensioning floors to 10'._ Hardware . and f~mplate~~~i-k~d as needed fQr. typical custom built sometimes jig for a it is more convenient for exfor to fab- one for the bottom slab and webs 'and another the top slab. surfaces 0:£ rigidly by a frame to ~ccllrately define concrete Bulkhead (ou~side web'.

segment jig the and expan'could pier the < be and cage jig Sometimes are cast in separate cell itself. --_- .' \: 1 a jig of this type also permits and any other hardware fixed and ~arked up for repeated l~nes are used to check rebar.. reb~r. ... U in the jigs . such cases it mi9ht be convenient in the casting to fabricate It is advisable of jigs and templates use and adjust~ents. from anfinal castl' each in other.and templates epoxy and will help. segments can vary a little different post-tensioning and because in shape duct-and cells. sion joint segments. must be made after placing '" For pier. ~:.IIpaint on" epoxy. segments. segments the modified expansion In directly or a separate joint abutment typical made. Use. Because \ to ease as~emblys cover and duct positions ~. contatn cborage arrangements.. the rebar cage will de~orm tbe cage Ln the . care is needed when materials using epoxy coated' in order to avoid damage to ~he coating The use of padding padded slings using during fabricacoating must be ~.. \J transportation fro~ the jig to the casting C:: adjustments ing cell.. Damaged repaired a.Using tensioning be prctiles sq on. 3-25 ------ . to periodically casting cells. post to anp Duct duct positions locations accuratelY s~ring can be traced onto the walls from open surfaces. ~: I check the accuracy repeqted as they can deteriorate with special rebar tion. segments.

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. between' should be made to avoid conflicts bars and pos-t::-tensioning ducts. be set correctly (Figure J. shop drawings system. bars: the Engineer The position anchorages ducts case the position and between should of ~einforcing of conflict rei~forcing Efforts post-tension- bars w~ich should be locally ~djuste~ If it is necessary ~hould be consulted.to be checked ~t intervals of 2 . lead to wire able.re- 1 all post-tensioning concret~ ductis . failures. friction. Curved post-tensioning at in connections of preference" . .3). 1 u from the required alignment will cause undesirable in stress level and will also increase reduce Rinks the post-tensioning tendon force in ducts can trap wires and strands Such kinks are therefore . and rI the reinforcing ducts. ill 3..6. hich. not accept- post-tensioning to their k ducts should be securely Duct locations connected and alignthere with the to respective anchorages.t rt t: ~ r. showing post-te.. (Figure· and may . most of in the the postrebar in the tGnsioni~g cage.6. ..' I Installatlon As mentioned hardware exception of Post-Tensioni"ncr Ducts in 3:5 above.3 feet and kinks or misalignments ducts. compressive This W"ill ensure that level n quired variations variations This obtained.. "Integrated " t1 ~""w. installed accurate and smooth alignment stress is essential· the is for . fonn.. An An and ducts are installed· are usually to this ~re the· anchorages themselves because ot their weight. These should be prepared'by LJ 3-)0 f1 u' ------------------ . the particular bars. any special construction the details are very contractor. lllentSD::Ust be chec~ed ducts should ing in move shOUld be no (Figure 3.LJ ~1 .rsioning hardware reinforcing helpful..l).. 3.6 4I " .6.2).

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about flexible or so.:!' . 11] -. Pnst-ten5~_oning casting ducts should be securely be finuly in order fastened supported to avoid Flex-: and at to the rebar cage which in tUrn must the during concrete placement d.7 distortion Handling of the rebar.o avoid the . .. IT'''' ) I . ~I~" . of ducts and rebar of the concrete and inspection in slabs (Figure can be made any time before 3. it avoids 3. The points III ~." rebar cage should b~ sec~rely as xnuch rigidity fabricated with adequate tie wire to maintain as l?ossible. For this reason.many at frame cast-: distor':" bac)() "~. support 't. oloser .. are are fastened in slabs. ! with hangers (Figure 3.cage ret. against forms by chairs and spacers displacement subjected buoyance. spacings such to laybars as inter- transverse de~k prestressing.as and compaction.. should adjust-ments of'ducts before and reinforcing bars be ~ade and inspected Final adjustments the form is closed. I tbe Prefabricated of Rebar Transportation ing cell should. MI i I 1 done carefully can. -.7). are likely ducts Ducts less vibration ible post-tensioning to move when to the pressure of concrete. cage from jig to excessive (strong . ducts can-be auxiliary lnove~ent but should be fastened vals. is customary which to use a ~pecial '~ .aced firmly to the rebar cage.5).Final ..6.be It the re_barcage t.4). III . I I ~l:. susceptible 2 ft. The latter nl(\ I_.Lon . ' \ i ~~.llcts especially of moving J:.6. ~I" . ers Post-tensioning of tying wire and/or at no more than secured reinforcing {Figure Cage with several support 3. ft. is preferable l.

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connection the The imporor plate position anchDr to.B Rebar Cpoe in casting cell.3 degree tolerance (Figure 3. pockets providing angle off- to the plane of the form. installation orientation of the distribution of Ensure hail part and are. alignment of trumpet usually achieved should ~ a 2 .: be 1 1 L trumpet bursting trumpet to duct and also properly without or zone reinforcing.2 shows inanin nee need to always be checked.. repetitive for dis h ot uses of the pockets will be made of steel' has been checked provide - rI' ~~ to W Once a steel recess pocket accuracy. The duct must be'made of trumpet duct within tape.l:n. iii ~ fon \. ~.6. p::. 1 L"" 3. Based on this In case of many information.: Lwi in whicp case there is no consist by ~eans installation the joint connection with be its thei ser-" If plate and trumpet watertight The of 2 pieces. rt . these recess form."DF tril: tor in case of anchor plate._ci orientation of the E"illrJ. cleaned out and are " After the form has been thoroughly oiled. tant the items and post-tensioning to watch o anchors are installed.3.!il: tJ and 3-40 " . "i. stallation chor with are for one time use only Figure .:. are to be made. The trumpet plate.n . and and duct must be watertight. of a seal. that the congested can be concreted The vided sets recess plates. .B). mensional and these fear of honeycombing. the duct. an anchor and the proper alignment of the t Loi is sometimes" an 1ntegral part of the 3.l_tJoXLp"~ate pro1s usually by on the shop drawings. Wooden recess pockets of cau~ shot it will consistently the correct " orientation.9 ~ distribution problem.

9 its setting This desired the Match cast Segment. in the should at the ancho~s.(fc:r".bursting reinforcement is shown on the ~ :plans . should be stretched l( closely .. Engineer made beforehand should be consuited.the and standard duct loca- I I I I I I I I I and alignments Final inspection after the connection with anchors l r: and match cast segments '.t"ound :the leakag~. 3-45 I ...1) y~ The location of the bars should :b ~l tl I' t '..apd the ducts taped.the mat~h cast segment fine cast ~~tch s~g.. 1 inch..wound.. to po~it'ion P:t:i9l. . judgment whether or not concreting the will If'problems are anticipated. . cager all inthe. to pla4~~'ent of the all post-tensioning .The required. are made. anchorages the rebar cage is placed ducts are securely of con... ~ . adjustedr that anchorages bolted up to the is checked securely on Geom- !Ol:1ns.sing the form 8.' :Re'f~~to .densely re'inforced. respect of the ~nchor~ important " Spirals should be centered disof of the ~ucts-and begin right at the £or placement within be tribution p~ate are partic~larlY Dimensions drawings and these should.. on the drawings. After in the cell. supplied proper .exaltlple Fi~_ur~ J_O. on should integrated and show all area. . All post-tensioning respective be performed are checked. pitch as shown since should be cause problems.: I .. Thes'e .rebar cage'" ~nd d~~ts a~e' t~operlY 8erts fixed.~nt. In order to ensure "'ill be no mortar i!.nd its position C!. properly. .7 .in hairpins 7 s:trictly ad~erl?d.. nect~d tp their tions tendons should placing tne anchors... reinforci~g. possible rebar . the drawing board. segment is usually set as close as.--:. . out to the 1 anchor zones are .be tendons .to.. be and hardware spirals present are resolved ~ll conflicts between tendons and reinforcing " ..0 Section et:::y Control..re then th~ . 't~~~dafter :ihq.

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. (3) (see sec- I . j ~ r ' . a delivery sometimes as possible. that are proper lIlakesure that the forms are all and secure the joints ar~ tight and sealed. .. that this waiting cold joints. L . just.ratch for are: tho. allow the concrete especially already placed to take short walts slab the bottom stiffen necessary after placing concrete so that it can I..~ [ I 3.I r Use not skips.". concrete 'mix to simplify concreee'- is not overdone. 3-50 jj_ . oiled stripping coating'ot and the face of the match cast segment a suitable bond breakil}g agent.~- . :. and the ~mpact placement should be this' causes with segreqa~ion approved can damage ducts ana aisplace in accordance concrete procedures and specifications.. or pumps to deliver concrete as and do fall from a great heignt. .11). deliberate avoid holdups on are and but the c (4) Keep which an web as continuous can initial corner set.iven a .. seqUence g. (1) Some of the important points to t. let it chutes.~t '.ha everything t 1ightly is I place..t_~" .. . . . enough and in avoid to take the weight: of the rest of the web be careful..-~ ~ -. • b'· ..t:'oughly ..cle~m. that all ducts in its for First. use 'is made of retarde~s the casting operation. .10 Placing Good concrete practice W'ill ensure a good concrete placing product. Often.~..~ . ('2> Place the concrete in the specified tien 3. form should be aligned and t..

the concrete strength reduces by approximately (7) The finish cn the top surface the riding surface.ta~ and within c. ithdrawn use the from the while location. Do 1l2:t.. ~.h i s ducts Avoid.' ~ oughly tors 2 consolidate the concrete.at care is As this needed is in usually finishing~ day.Qt slab. corners for every awk". into the bottpm poor compaction and honey contact as of the vibrator with reb·ar and post-tensioning can cause damage or displacement sure ooncrete areas is is thoroughly as the as (Figure 3.. Do be . '. . move the vibrator sideways in webs D... 3. the or so and should slowly concrete..11 of this being the last jab for the hurried.. In spite should be good.10).qntent.avily Souna air reinforced compaction anchor~g·e zones essent. These..'.c an easily and ducts an~ can pull anchorage~ away from heavily honeybut which Dr the· web itself causing the concrete is unavoidable... procedure. t. procedure should prevent. it should not be concrete A Placing Sequence._ 3-55 r. rd a such around spirals. it he. L .J. internal as "pokerll vibrators cause this (6) Make to move concrete around or to ~rag it from for example. t~e· conbotdis- good placing int~~ bottom This movement bottom crete place placed rebar of the web spilling concrete into the tom slab. Some such flow at can be minimized by using the following is considered good practice ·(Figure 3. gre.. .. especially in compacted. combing.11)..' (5) Make proper use of internal "poker" vibrators to thorvibrathan same still the '.. it of the web concrete . types of for no mere should be pushed into the concrete rt.~einforced combing.

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the sidl thi.1 tia. sof cor any: for. sur mov SUr pri tre Und Use H<:..n set: 3-57 . off 3. top fro. the pro un e: vel: cov llSU cha by .

:~. strike top slab.-I Place the this soffit corners any forms. of the top surface is essenis also this Grinding is never conc::e._ly on many segmental. sUrfac~ must possible Prior to applying the riding surface treatment. .. 3. • . the riding properly very I.. delivery chute through by a chute through the bulkhead second concrete bottom in the webs and compact it around the bottom. - SCreeding extending top -.estime and costs money. the first concrete in the middle portion It is possible the top Place end.''." • j .--::.~. .- .12).~. Undulation Used should not be'permitted.. outsiCle edges tOl!ards the th'e top surface and finish as described finishing the Top Surface. dense and laven surface.. requires' that be used 3-60 ' Hand finishing has been in the I successfu).-. It by trained is finish by me- Chanical means providing that the 'equipment is used' properly and experienced Care is needed ~o make reThe sure that all depressions are filleq and'all high areas be aocurate and should 'be as smb6th as lIloVed to give a very unifoi-ln.j '.achieve a .o complete the bottom slab. it is then usually necessary to. anchorage blister..-!.~=~:"_~=-_:. reduces the une~enness cover. After such treatment. structures past..good operators.. of the Rand finishing board a ~good from strong the straight '~-=~ -. the center and. from off in the top slab workincr below. construction In addition . 7" .12 A goOtl quality fini~h. as this I ' in.case of superstructure segments. satisfactory tak. t. ~. the surface m~st still be even and accurate. The only one opportunity to achieve is in the casting operation for anyone as it (Figure 3.--.to the..te tial. put of the top surface after..through Finally place the concrete Place the next concrete compact the concrete wind~ws in their up in the' webs :Working . :~~~-. to of the do slab the in top bottoIllslab. improve the skid resistance 'possible to . -:. surface. by grooving. by leaving about 6 to ~2 inches clear of a trap in side forms a or at the bottom of the webs.

the surface produce bulkhead After surface may finer straight be very lightly and smoother as "touched surface. ith fioats to to b" Floats should not be' used or disturb the accuracy such a way to move concrete of the surface.. 3-65 etc. Good results screeds. When finishing Ii concrete surface it is proper add important vibration. (Use means if [: LJ- the concrete port tarps is to be covered contact to superat· and prevent with top surfaces. wetness has disappeared.l. should follow immediately time to get the surface by finishing The' best quali~y be achieved ter erection ~ . of h With cUrihour the IE. which ishing the best This will create will of of weaker surface L dust and wear badly workable concrete.. a in its cone: tarp paz a . Mechanical straight worked s~ots screeding should be ~ollowed by a edge . is specified process. that stre tion!. aluminum stiff beam ment.13 . cast segment to strike Mechanical screeds with off also both more ishe face . up" .--. well...>lab J .bulkhead the ~ork very to the top of the match to an accurate level. any low and high . the segments to a smooth then providing a transversely of the structure.. Thi~ finish cut vantage the initial leveling after placement. efficient. any stiff adfinis can and afcover material and to keep the concrete and floating live for working by and not to patches tamping i:· water to wet ing 1:. to allow grooved riding surf~ce A small amount of extra Why LeIlIa: form' 3. in use.) ~ -v-.11 for the depth removed by the grooving Be careful not to spoil the top surface 'when and for curing.. LJ . level.:+-antial. In order to take . J.. areas.usua 11y ('\ s!. to give an a~curate and straight surface' from the to the watch cast segment. by hand and used to check and correct ..: surface have been achieved rolling and vibratory The former are a little accur.

The ,top surface of the bottom face rinish accurateslab.
3.13

slab should be nevertheless, on ~e

fin~ be

isbed in a similar manner. although the appearance is .not so critical, Mechanical it should, screeds need not be used

of the surbottom

curing. In order to achieve a production is proper and sufficient to of shrinkage, etc. rate of one seg-

lDentper day from one casting cell, it is essential that curing tions strength and control or special Project

to ensure Specificaprocedures

piov~de the necessary
the curing

Provisions prescribe

to be followed.'
curing procedures its chemical hardening
It

depend upon the type of concrete, temperature a and exposure tem-

processes,

conditions. tarpaulins ing burlap,

is common practice to cover the segment with apply steam to maintain water and so rule"
oriv-

and

controlled

perature and humidity. blankets,

Other methods have been used, includ-

As a general

the slower the concrete/s the clearly evening

heat the few to is the

ot hydration
With ~ours

and loss of moisture is dispersed, rate of one segment pe r day, of the casting is essential. in the

better.

a production

curing process t~e start te~ain fo~.
3.14

in the casting cell cannot be more than a ~he next morning. This

from the completion

of survey an~:stripping environment procedures Earns.

~hy a controlled covered ~recise

The segment must stripping

with moist burlap even after

will differ from job to job.

Strikina

striking

of forms should not start the re~ired strength.
3-70

until the

con-

L

Crete

has reached

This

is

usually

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3-72

II

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ar keys are especiallY the· of broken~oif vulnerabr~ for t movement mechanism on the by the pall-ets must be examined a and way be tiIn~ take pz ot understood jacks to as . whe.o leave in whole removal.2 : Thi~ would require is these to verify in :fact obtained. as it Engi thn advisabl·e blockout forms tor as long as possible teet ..NI. If striking .gment (see co!. eight reinforc- inC~~bl~~rrying in full usually cylinders .· The she.can newly cast damage the be done in·such Fig'u.' tl:e· ··loosening 3.4 . the forms should be pric striking is very is easy crete young..14. .n pulling new seglnent.re The same se. should cast segment has either Also ere( be done with particular the be bond breaker not been properly applied.. the the above refers specifically to the "long to linell the and Although "short lin. segment provided strength lifted.1.of i to break the edges of blackouts.. the that segment is se~f-supporting.<t~"..or in part..t . specified in order top slab be stressed strength to break are then transverse a. be moved on its ing provided &upported ing must a higher customary strengths At this but not 2500~.f\"I...This stripping cr:ew. a· ay form the buLkhe ad .e'! system. Host pieces of is very (Figure:3 easy any special done w~th care as it con- to cause spalling and other damage When the hole cret casting .1) cell but it forms are is removable t.!! j air ~otion avoided or can easily minimized the shear keys and as much as possible. "wet cast joint" same applies 3-75 systems of segment production.nd tilting "lift" the of th~ pallet.2). . that It l:I. and pulling back. the match' car-e. specified sible pu~l to back at ease off the the match cast pallet is at At this side strength it is normally the top could of the posand slab also un- fc:lrlns. should applies a. the at 1 haS In case the the .. I .) .DOD post-tensionpsi.... ... Sometimes. portions can segment..

.:.1 ···i Handling Segments. Slings may somecare mus.ing at" the 5e9:!!!ents ·should only be the conc:. location can in the top slab where the bars (Figure 4. I frame for 1Iloving :the segJllent. where it is possible avoid damageto the. using span before However great of the· concrete With spa·n a segments are placed on to use slings truss for erection 4-01 '-< . It frame secured with post-t. ::J~.0 REVIEW OF TECHNIQt. II.t.done when means place Lit"t.in the casting times be 'Used (Figure...reteis a:t:. and after this any transverse to - Normally this take stressing carried out {if is specified -'·handling} • Most methods of segmental near or lifting erection use into lifting af the conthe bars good the holes through webs. 4'.JES FOR HA1H~LING SEGMENTS. position ·for are attached to the frame.bk4(r . strength...always necessary to use ~ lifting: yard.(a».e top slab inserts the inside or outside Special loops cast also possible. taken to protective construct±on jainting( hardwood shoes.? . are tp.comer etc.lng to the webs is the lateral By adjusting holes. through technique of the segment erection. the required be made to hang at the crossfall is not. sui table at least has been prlorto 4000 psi concrete .4.1.1(b) ) . require close approval of a Engineer. crete . 4. be by_ by also. A lifting but these.ension.

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ental effects resulting from dOUble stacking.storing and stacking of Segments.med. other rouof tine tasks are perf?r. therefore.t'J I Double.2(a)} age.rt J is essential loadings that the de~i9n. the" segments in storage.. .s. signer.tacking is .. and repair I I "f • t" I I I I 4-05 I I .usually possible (Figure 4..2(b» prov·iding three point support· is used: However segments should be periodically checked for any evidence of detrilD.w...~che~k 50 the effects be avoided. -II: ••••• .k~ (1. faces... requires the approval of the de- After placing and grouting... . of localized that cracking will Double stacking. such as transverse sandblasting post-tensioning of the joint. small defects. Segments ·should be stored using three point (Figure 4. in order to avoid warping with time in ·stor\ JA. suPpo~.

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truss.-:.. - i' 5. Within the limitations is not possible.). . pioneered in Florida.2 into the following SpaD-bv~Span This method. than a span themselves. ····~ 5-01 .1 general~ The different types of superstructure categories: erection sys- tion tems ~all 5. weight and limited is only load bearsuitable o of these trusses. . to temporarily support all the segments o ( it U u ~ f I The truss. o } The of conditions. a in of thl J tom made complete case o'f truss span. the method can also be used for curved Howevert strong curvature [f I U . in difficult and segments but also in urban and environmento from comto has also been applied The truss ca~ move' over the o can be transported if t~ere deliver Alternatively. is usually on the pier footings attached to the a higher pier on brackets piers i' i Because ing capacity for shorter spans of the size. tally p~er pleted sensitive . has been extensively The method terrain.. is normally utilizes a cusfor or. const~ction method areas. which supported I slightly. trucks·can are no restrictions segments adjacent posed by ·the terrain.: corre( Erection. the method (up to 150 feet). longer o 1-.0 RL~IEW OF ERECTION METHODS terna] and al at SO 5. posed by the straight bridges. the truss and a crane can place then.to pier bridge. iu c. used in a variety o on water.

together out any the are ·pads that ~hey -Since this in :i provided with teflon slid~ng and small jacks for height the situation after adjustments. :1 ! 5-05 .2.2. . correct a~ignment errors ~ade of the segments.2. leaving a small gap.2. During this time the -ducts for the the post-tensioning the tennext post-tensioning o After dons span. devia-- is shown in Figure 5.. applying epoxy.(a). wet joint is made. post-tensioning epoxy. enough epoxy. curing of the wet joint. There is usually ~ na~ow cast-in-place or wet joint to in each span close to the piers.1. tpe pier segments to The next segment is placed .l. are placed This is the and tendons-are the eastshown in-place situation inserted. Figure 5.". o o o After securing and aligning are apply After using excess segments supported shows placed..Post-tensioning and are is normally accomplished with expipes and ternal tendons~ Such tendons at so called deviation blocks tion block are placed in polyethelene at the pier diaphragms A typical attached to the stru~~ure or saddles.. sequence This wet joint is used during production erection of erection is usually as shown in o After in erection of all the segments in a span.1(b) erection o~ a few segments.2. Figure 5. can by move rollers the segm~nts are stressed bars in·order to fre~ly squeeze process requires all directions. are stressed and the truss is moved to the truss. The Figure 5.

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. A typical would cantilever .epeated. Erection.s soon as the alignment rate of erection checked be :2 -3 satisfactory. side is "balanced after each completed o [I [I lJ IJ l"l I 5-10 . "balanced sequence. u j enables of the.[I [J l) II o The are process erected..'-! . superstruc"ture independent of terrain.ity the years construction this method... Balanced :This method. The method from the 5.3 1>.. Spans of up to 400 " AM and curved bridges .l(a) of segments. cantilever". is repeated until the bearings are all segments is grouted in the span and spans II [j [I I] 5. on each side As of cI it pier seg-ment at the time it fOrllls cantilever a fact that an equal number 01 " which/because of seqrnents is "added on each cycle. on top next the the .. developed Added which to this over bridge layout been is the fact that. per week. a 500 foot radius ith have been constructed regarding ~ethods have by successfully versatil. . structure of the construction construction one grows derives its naln~. This is followed by erection by placing one segm~nt on "either side of the pier segment. erection both tor 12:11'"' ~ethod is by far the most versatile it is suitable The reason tor this is that II t . As indicated a pier starts by placing Ll I] in Figure segment of the two the pier. long and the cycle"is J. spans and for strong curvatures.

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neously.terrain is not accessible to Launchi.nq are large. first the segme. require support While most segments are erected some segments. (Figures 5. on the other. grows. casting curing a second . are erected. stage Here. expensive. unbalance. usually as the cantil=ver needed to p~ovide The tendons tendons So. mo s t." c~osure splices occur After of the during this cantilevering cantilever.post-tensioning applied ·called IIcontinuity post-tension~ng.' _rr-----. process stressed 1[1 called "cantilever cast in place and in the middle vers are connected of the splice in the endspans the cantileand ds of the interior spans. built and the in which make it possible fast and efficiently 5. and placed Because of this there This unbalance requires to stabilize usually steel the st~tin [I [I on the footing. post-tensioning per As segments are stressed. .3{a) cantilever.[I [I [[I [I [I 1[1 ments. (b»). cantilever end aparrs . pieces erect terrain of in areas Where equipmept very the. Although Usually place po ss LbLe . ·Launcbincr Launching gi::-ders may be us ed en girders large proj ects custom handle of gantry or for projects cranes.nt on the erected available and there is only one crane wi"ll one side then segment ~efuporary ting.4 5-15 segments below~ independent Figure shows a launching I~ ::_ \ . is are which two or four tendons segment. their familiarity opt ·for crane erection Girder Erection r is a choice. it seldom happens are that two segsimultawhich the is a one on each side of the pier.3(a». more tendons are stressed. ones in the by ~alsework (Figure 5. usually the . . the structural strength tendons. to each other.1I Erection Because contractors 5.4 of· will of the segments is ·usually done availability and if this by crane.

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:method very two pieces end pier and sui table over water. at C..4 anced the shows 5. The girder.0.cantilev..'} rI f. which is slightly B the largest on legs A and In addition support C part of the girder to be supported it is and This temporary is being to the piers and supports while. resting the pier lags (d) Figure segment. wincb Erection.~ on supports A and C until suport B is located required for erectic:m~. of many ways launching Beam and Another girders can be used. for erection are needed. is These on the cant.er of the special arrangements are needed for erection segment.. is often cast-In-place. be accessible 'everywhere. be .: . 'For of equipment which one for each .ilever by supports also ensure that the weight by the launching can girder SilIlilar:results of an unbaland not Figure if 5. launching girder "Ell.rI \". 5-20 '-' .4(a».i.J various longer which is shown attached girder stages than are of operation. segments the device below only vertical the end of the cantilever. span. . lifts. the shows the girder supported Note that A and B in the position shows erection supported supports in progress. is supported (Figure 5.achieved supports one "D" "E" are replaced by hangers.t. method sometimes used is the Beam and Winch usdithe pier f method shown in Figure forward 5. the (b) the end of the launching over while above on Figure "D" and by pier segment transported t1 placed. This is a very simple method Sinc~ need to be brought The terrain This makes orie ing a straight can make rectly must under therefore piece of equipment.5. shows the gantry being rolled Figure (e) n I.5 segment is carried and substructure.

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1(a) which completed crane Ol'l~ sho.ilever of. but access over the method was slow.rig complete.. so called because The remainder of the pier end were small was (see conif of size. _ l i 5. length 'Jiersareconstructed :he project is difficult e~sarily tion be uneconomical be limited would fo~ cranes. bridge constructed specified "U. . Interestingly.i. terrain. could be used. start.lay. s the on it at a crane rides to the tip . falsework a so con"':' but a the Figure 5... the However. .. that is piling. was also erected from the cant. the method need not necspecially if launch:Lng girder erecthat be the alternative.. at Grandfather this \. without by the footings... until at endspan being erected on a truck and place end.1(b».S.6 Progressive Erection in cantilever.the way the piers' expensive.and normally I 5 -. after segment 'far stnicted erecting one seg'lllent the time. Because equipment of the suspended the and erection ·preca~t structed.6. Servicel. and superstructure. Thus the technique len.".0•• .feet..re spans should tg aoout 180 . a cantilever normal exceeds ha. 55'" 5-25 n .. With this method the bridge is constructed on one end. h~re· it can pick up cantilever as it is brought example in this country this was ~ stift: leg derrick.ds itself disturbance Park to to conpiers the the was struct the bridge entirely. oth£.from l='igur~ was drilled into the ground with crane.r limitations a.. In the only - .l f a be canti- supported on a ternporary tower in order to lever :coments. from above.. "Microshaft" Mountain in the Blue Ridge Parkway piling.6..

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~ent production system.7 5. .7. 5-30 .6. or a temporary Naturally it would entire be possible to erect all the segments in one falsework operation the I I I I I I I I I I ~I I I I I I I falsework using embankment over length. is post Instead the segments are placed shape desired. in the geometric are cast and the structure how also Figure 5. '-1 I . the The. Erection. segments are not match cast. advantage structure is that the geometry from the on falsework control of is removed entirely the joints production process.6.fig~re ~idspan pridge instead 5.1(c) shows erection of temporary towers placed Figure at for support of the cantilever. tensioned.1 shows the segment arrangement and erection could proceed in an economical manner using only in one span at the time.K. a~ the proj ect • This H1ao/M18 method was used for two viaducts at the Langham In~erchange in the U.2 shows a a system of stays the cantilever length. constructed by this method using of towers to reduce Wet Cast Joint With 5. to the match casting but • All other aspec·ts of seg- this method are similar lllade in a fonn w-ith two bulkheads.

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1.50 to bottom.1I OUT seg]lt'ents.t~ ~ -.. %AlO. amount of tempoIf. after ...se the bars can only be removed has reached a stage at which the exists.1 Post-Tensioning. sec\lre segment or segments bef9re . .. the epoxy - the compression is significantly especially joint thickness -too non-uniform from construction.IiR. k .11 epoxy this and let purpo~e.alignment. equipment to the structure nopen time" t. tc it is to .. Temporary Post-Tensioning with common practice the erected post-tensioning most ferms ot segmental construction. bars-are after used concondi- LI CI . and its the necessary no longer because of and to Somedesign removal is hand t ::. to control Fer tion this struction temporary post-tensioning condition a temporary stress in the structure. If this is feature of the bridge..~. stress ca. conditions.. . is on the other required rary pest-tensioning t. under .he sequence of installation plans..o bed down the psi average compression in cantilever tends to .. shown on the contract temporary 6-01 post-tensioning .t.. WhiCh.1c.L ERECTION DETAILS u U . ' (3) In some cases.n 6.d(t the desired 1"* ~ ..1).S"!Of ..use temporary post-tens ion i. can affect R. vary pA. ~q......uniform.he epoxy j ointing (2) o CI (J To it allow joint r a fairly even stress to be applied It is for over the protop then whole set face in order t. segment from the lifting allowable 'setting material. several \IIOI... normal to vide 30 .J.n~ is installed (Figure 6...the lOain longitudinal The purpose is: the weight of of Ll [J (1) To provide the within the a rapid means of transferring time called.

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o stress In cantilever normally cantilever. shown and removal manual . This will alloTrl many reuses of the bars.. erection. construction the temporary using bars ·are of t. when segments them so continuously after that it may not be possible to retrieve to plan the temporary6-05 has been made at the midspan. express .\e.. it is safer not to reIn case bars are permanent acceptable tensile strength.the bars. manufacturer.t.II control tractor1s struction clearly signed ''Within sequence temporary a stress leads the the of arising specifically or his own sequence and af from the conconthen dethe the on elected :method of operation..1.u. 5ars to 50% of the Breaking however.1. only a t:ew sega canto eXcan space ments or they might be continuously tilever or span. in temoo. COUpled bars. evaluate it is advisable effect of bar of coupling of the in advance the likely cumulative 11 .• the shop drawings Temporary that individUal post-tensioning bars may be overlapped coupled throughout so bars or coupled bars extend With continuous coupling Shortening.is necessary of. Use .. should by the be by the contractor installation.J tension and concrete . post-tensioning and/or Engineer of shop drawing process. and to exceed then these bars should f1 r1 r1 figure and if so. cut the Sometimes. In such case it is post-tensioning n . it. temporary post-tensioning approved equipment.b. J) • u I' t1 11 It is normal practice to limit the stress racy pest-tensioning the bars . the Closure ad Vantageous only for the last ~wo or three occasionally. tloved :for 70~ of the ultimate not be reused wi th- permission post-tensioning or cannot be t.2 and 6. stressing should be erection In any clearly event.~ ~r L of the this bar reto' r._e oars up If there is any doub.lIdrift" significantly vi thin the blackouts as the point and eat into tolerances (Fig".e. the strength ~O~.' anchors.xres 6.

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\ lOlust Permanent Permanent "'~"installed Both webs. the segments in such a way that they hang precisely in order to and temporary process..1(a). and couplers reuse are expensive pieces to adding the last tbeir Hence feY. in other Florid~ stressing applications. quite k'cj cantilever anchors Temporary bars and partic~larly of hardware.ith Sf 6.2 Lifting tendons used the for segmental bridges is no different Transportat~on of . stres!": suppo-: and effec1 first SeYODI Li. Dep~rtment ot and the blocks Since They are attached at deviation grouting reader of is ing the any Geome1 the be t' post-tensioning from tendons to referred techniques.2. of segments was a~s~ discussed choiCE. which tendons erection.3 placed in the interior space of the to the structure at the pier (see Figure 5. If position of the previously the shear keys epoxy jointing does not" match..2 i~ essentia~.2). as wit:.' PQst-~ensioning Manual for an extensive de~cription i ad.fting in section subject 4. slo't:te 4. post-Tensioning post-tensioning as tendons proceeds.. placing. h' external tendons are are located Exte~nal in ducts inside t~e concr!'!te slabs used in case of balanced tendons are located in polyet~y~ene box d~aphragm are commonly essa~ . are and stressed and internal They e~e~tion of segments usec..these oc : t. in cantilever it is necessary erected segment post-tensioning the position 6-10 to the approval When erecting to lift in the align the a the c can b. Vertic Segments for Erection. and handling Clearly the method is the contractor's of the Engineer.·1 most of the bars can be recovered prior segment. a sing" center 1 ThiS f.1. Internal and pipes and cantilever gi~der. bars during only on of the two segments provi· Figur the segment w·n:l bear temporarily . 6. maxim~ 6.

if two lifting points are used. and are magnified in the cantilever II Control). a single center it is necessary to lift slightly fra~e with slings for so that the segment can holes for hangs at the required of the crossfall.few . quite easy to align the segments a5 (such With off w~th a beam and winch) central -lift. keys which ~ight lead to cracks when jointing.. and horizontal Setting alignment with span-by-span 6. which of local reinforcement beneath effects). construction begins by placthis segme~t is critical (see section to segments -are used 8 ing any the the pier segment vertical errors pier at as the correct Geometry be added. at roost two on each side of the bars 5eyond this. It is CI LI (J .2(a) either IIwrapped around" the pier .for few segments. Vertical stress support. Supports. is not truss necas at a pre~et crossfall essary when they are to be placed on an erection construction. In any case the lifting device used the means to adjust the position Lifting segments of the segments.3 -. laterally (Figure erection This be done by using a lifting the attachment slotted ~ust have 4.1(a)). can be used stability towers should be Temporarx 6-15 as shown in FigUre 6. PrOvided by some other means. the out of balance effects are likely to exceed the capacity of the concrete and of the available ~an be fitted into the restricted space. first A support system is only suitable.1- in such a way that successive of doing this is shown bars and shim packs in Figure post-tensioning (Note the the segment down to the piers and provision the packs to control as shown any provide possible t~mporary above the "bursting" piers. in balanced cantilever on the pier. After the first few segments.3 Temoorarv II iii bI cj.3. segment One method It is furthermore essential support can to 6. one over each web.

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careful Weight of cbncrete closure.. sometimes.od of providing is suspended from the to be always next an overhead launching repositioned Figure 6 . forces level. for requires in the can cause a deflection segments this and rDtation effect.3_2(b} gantry. is through bars showS how the hanger erected cantilever Another metn. This 6. can follow daily balance capable -pier(s) overcoming the bearing cantilever so movements connection Usually to the structure the midspan closure is a nominal can be cases larger the to and added at the itself from one five might feet be gap. With these systems r namely the towers and gantries. of balance in the same direction gantry. For the precast casting curve.likely to jo·int of tip Apart from the weight of the canoe addition and any force needed to pull friction the sOll\e of tbe remaining the strong backs on the •. however# it In such as long as a segment. \Jays be kept ity provided with out to both sides of the cantilever on one side through of the the a system of hydraulic jacks or by a tower system the the latter cantilever should a1so that stabilThe Las t. Midspan Closures. accomplished through IIstrong backsUstressed to the segments Figure loaos closure out be cantilever should adjacent temperature be carefully checked ~or the . joint workihg is. that after the this In aligning to make a midspan closure.when it for lUid span cl-osures. cantilevers 6. control cantilever.with support pier only. crete. to the are se'gment. to the rest (see of it is necessary by strong be conup to of : new cantilever bars the }::)ridge. compensated The cast-in-place 6-20 placement of the concrete . tower is always loaded. In order to seCure the is readily post-tensioning backs should carrieo.4 can be exercised over the amount of rotation comes to of the This is advantageous .4).

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at the joint is This load. 100 kips) through the rest of the pour.. of the first cast-in-pl. One sees this"fo~ checked with I-beams is applied. tendency .1 necting will where should tilever on splices 6 •.1 1'1 that once sequa. of cast-in-place The amount of this be carefully predetermined tips also move because The effect is described in 8.hce and schedule a change are selected ami for the casting curve.may'require a change pf or schedule posbewhich If has even the often more. 'even a design change. lower the elevation cantilever for.dth very large closure.. The weight. the casting concrete The schedule example. Schedule and compensated of the effect of sun radiation the deck. get if constructed ill and sequence schedule and sequenc~ the schedule struction important basis or sibly cause camber camber increased the lcontractor proposes. it 'I it will increase I I I .. month as soon as the pre~tressing again after say a 6-25 and as time goes by. I (. important stress. of this on the casting Construction and Secruence.I "" to deform. 'to casting' completing cracks post-tensioning then consideratiGn lab first and (say.4). This will ~elp in t~e~joints.9. defonnawith so a The conas 11 The casting curve will reflect the various tions tbe bridge . If the anticipated should be given nominai to it to be very large applying \o..0 •• end of the segment to the other. once up is cast and under both . are important. of sequence curve has the is in accordance In fact.2. 5 two cantilevers usually controlled deflection the by the stability will deflect under thee!fects splice of the additional is poured. contower This end Canmidspan .ace cause~ an unbalance which t~wer (Figure 6. a.----I segments deflection concrete. lt to avoid any tendency between such a to the as ncrack or open up at the bottom and the cast-in-place or the rotation bottom force is likely of the joints .

. 6-26 L ..~ .

camber 6. continuity sioning levers.. deflections These r shown deflections a~e generally after calculated by The strume instrm dUctic adequa..D S..can be to several inches.S. us when be built and therefor~ but. e~fects. because the sequence in addition. certain of all. made the si:.1. so that the deflecting up ins~ead An example different requiring caused by continuity If the sequence first.5. This increase in camber is caused by where spans.lea) the sequence indicates when is the post~tencantito will compen- cist etry The s e' ( fl is applied. the the designer is minor the sequence contro as prt 8. structure for effect reas. . sequence based . contractor1s The First spans of will contruction they are calculated . I 6-30 . -S.1 (a) and (b) where are used to construct different comp~nsation post-tensioning. creep. Only the contractor. this qn In creep the " segmental effect may for thes~ bridges amount c~eep In orde~ to compen~~t~ .2( I (in case of short spans) . schedule. determined schedule making out his will be example. concrete longer.. post-tensioning provfdes This an indication the timing. in the span with the span would would be the of same nent p: the cv- cantile:ver were stressed of this of down and the compensation sequences completely conti~uity The bridge wrong.. is al the contractor schedule when and reviewed by the ~OT or ·a consultant.connect two adjacent in stressed but The continuity span adjacent (b»). bridge is the rae ri' is g1ven in Figure73 6". has the tendency system apply".on is clear. constructed.l achievE tem Ls construction is als~ very tells important. post-tensiC?ning which it end is cis ion . provided the and in the span to . deflect the cantilever (see· lines "0" in Figures Were changed the go These deflections post-tensioning are carefully sated for in the casting curve. and of has the can know for SUre when and how the Exceptions from his decides to prescribe calculations that to this rule occur.

[or measuring of the finished product. of yard. Precision the sizes.l General The Geometry Control. the relative as-cast match preCision neighbor.1.' -- ~. 2 (a) and (b). cell . Control ·following is mainly achieved when building the discussion "short-linen the principles system since it is more commonly used although to both systems. ·The alignment strument on a permanent instrument \ dUction . l. nent pieces the overall is geometry control variations important has nothing though to do with compoare to of thickness quality or tolerances of the as these The cast of the segments.1.O GEOMETRY CONTROL S.rv e arid as shown . geometry segment F i gures COnt~ol is established mainly by positioning the old as prescrl. nor target otherwise is ~ontrolled target. s.' adequate bench 1narks should be maintained.ry The apply i requires where the more than the "long-lipe!1 system concentrates on the Geomsoffit.trol must· be reestablished. s~gmental ll bridges casting each is sys- achieved tem in the casting The Ushort-line is based on making very fine adjustments in the casting cell an~ therefore . These measurements The setup required for this in the casting sho~n in Figure 8. 8-01 . throughout base and a permanent yard is by an inNeither the proFor should be disturbed con. level and usually square so the this.$0 ~o match pre- cast segment cision et. in 8. required new position the segment in relation to its are critical.bed by the casting cu.~. The casting is always plumb.

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of his competence.o the instructions will be The centerline is curved. r $eiJlllen~ and the centerline centerline it.1.1 construction. B. for the new segment The following the new segment marks the can·be centerIn of befor cast: cur. it is during to adjust for the deflections. records. A. Geometry control In for'segmental ! 'Was lIloved. casting. C. casting less offset flat.. it is . B. of the tops of the the is scribed onto the elevations the segment The bolts for has folare match spans . its bolts and its centerline of the new segment. checked~ by the inspector since be meticUlously errors are expensive and time consuming to correct. c:o:t:t"ec. E and F are installed.1 Train accur tency criti prior: match marni condj are the same as those measured to be poured.:. . segmen' a spar the bridge In case of a curved bridge.excellent accurate should surveyor. occur which ers curve. the old segment is properly is c~mpletef morning the s~rveyor reset -and After se~up cast. the elevations position deter- s-os . are cb eoked to before the old segment is moved. He shoQl~ be on the job daily and spite.lent~egIDen as well as two centerline lowing recorded markers. preci!' or ~/: and surv e: adjustment 1 is part of the shopdrawings. necessary to be made The vertical which curve markel~ next segment tion pair t I curvature is handled '.. and D.arly. the ce s t. 2 (a)• But even if the bridge the amount is used as shown in Figure simil. As mentioned. by the is determined casting examp:. t.r As been finished. the segment would line up exactly with the bridges requires his an keep work . It i line and records the bolt elevations addition. v itnir . morning Now the first segment is cast and the top slab four elevation bolts. markers. or~ can be rolled forward I After the first segment ing position. "D"" is moved to the match castprovided by the unan is of as it was before. are in line with instrument Note that if the segment and ta~get and the bolt before the would be positioned evations segment in such a way that both centerline enhan.:c::~t.

or due to forces applied to it while closing the forms. it follows tion tolerance pair of example. critical prior morning to Trained surveyors it . precision and segments if there segmt:.. lias cast" depends consis- is important that the same individuals observations Usually. conditions this is the first thing weather are most stable from d~y to day. before While casting. accuracy tency. can allow even accuracies consistently As accuracy of or 1/1000 feet.. daily crews at the same time and when 5tr~pping the forms of both the new before the arrive and ~atch cast segments. Note that all the critical readings are those after set will up the ocso during casting. to remain however is recorded slight. offsets surveying feet on elevations normal feet.e. casting operation. a span. ~iL~. due to settlement due to vibrating segment" segment of the soffit of fresh concrete against it.:. $eg:£~"mtal bridge. then the in the casting cell should be to 1/10 of 1/100 Direct reading to 1/1000 and measuring devices. When spans vithin cast 1/100 constructing a bridge using girders or position Since.· the precision proportionately are 10 segments in a cantilever. it is important to have an accurate this is unlikely Some movement. 1 l . whole to duly in a erecany For feet in place. 1/100 feet).j_n within that in order to obtain must be the required greater. (i. It is possible to compensate for casting 8-10 errors by adjusting .of· this order. an the day old each Certain equipment of 1/10000 upon readings with make each the equipment enhancements.~ine if the old segment has moved during lllent. so the true achieved geometry after casting.nL. it is normal practice deflections to set forms feet (1/8 inch) of the desired there are a number of short corrected for anticipated and so on. casting changes the new segof the "old the rails by It is often noted that position occur weight. CUr. obtain in the casting cell is at the limit however.

Figure . of concrete with a crane to an of a foot is asking a lot! use shims. the field setting is only run required and at each pier segment or start of a doing this correctly.: poses some practical difficulties because it no means as easy to obtain the same accuracy in the field as in the casting yard.'1"" operations the calculated actual the of the segments be carried field erection This process as well. elevations and horizontal thereby back. fron~ to (Figure 8. accuracy In practice to (e. keeping [I casting l.3). It is very the casting relative positions is critical ot the first segment. the cantilever after erection. Also/' transverse horizontal using not relying longitudinal alignment adjustment the base marker. erection. the succesive Placing it a is the of a few it is worthwhile is' by large chunk thousandths possible segments 6.3.g. within by to to pack~ and wedges maneuver an acceptable installing accuracy 'supplementary cell. In facti track the of in geometry control lies in for them. calculating com- for the next cantilever 8-15 The latter should only be used as a last resort . However.j [I Erection ment. then adjustments reorienting a shimming be necess·ary. and should be done usually a pier segas pos- as accurately important-that and all the information "as cast" through f~oro [I. Such compensations include: or the calculated. If not. / solely centerline marks During alignwith or the as ment may should be checked to see if they are in agreement as-cast positions.' the shorter. sible.the ~ajor position trick errors of the next set up and and correcting so on. L· "'.s while in the casting line upon of the pierseg1llentcan'be set in the field of the full segment width. setting rotating pensatory joints.1.1).

va L rrn- \ ..:-se ..ifl'tal r~'Lng / j I r. the ot seg05- I' LJ·rom the it the is r--l Ufew t'the U a is I.. .as 8-16 I I I I I I ..~ lTn- 1'-he i- ~..or \.j lith Its : ..: E o Ling .

Lstructure.2 casting Cell Geometry control SYstem. vertical location The horizontal f""'~ match Lasured cast is established E and F by setting I segu. and D are set over the webs 'as U these are the points where· no vertical deflection will occur r'le to transverse : ~~ample.1 and B.illustrated of a system \ Leans in Figure The bolts A. in the casting cell by 8. C. the deformation ['ant from those Wficult rt. -. alignment hairpins 8-2Q effects. are at best sophisticated segmental the idenI L~onstruction differ I ::ical girders ~with precast lsubstantially ~liminate f_C'~ theoretical just as in precast girder segmental by the construction time of where can differ in camber by a few inches. Moreover deep girders. can production actual deflection --I.:mJ Preci. - T\ Geometry control is achieved as . of the concrete Qf arise are being differand most In from Deformations concrete to predict the with any degree of confidence judgements.sion within the geometry f'sential I .l4 bending or post-tensioning tips can deflect the effect of C:eadload and would therefore control bolts. variations has However most of the shrinkage This helps has to con- r'lsuallY occurred matured the significant likely with young urete. much transverse suitable For as prefor the wing under This alignment or camber by as not be inch r b:ess.j"-'-'. .2. B.1. \ }. . it can unpredictably 'so on. I.ents at the necessary skew and offset I as on its centerline from the casting L_. lead to "correction of corrections" and Or it is not effective for short cantilevers i.. during stora~e and the concrete erection.empts i: control system is esof the from difat- in order to avoid errors in the geometry A source of error in alignment may characteristics assumed.1.

. J ! . Lj~~S 1 """'\ :d ::'0 i y . 8-21 " "..:S : 'r ~ ..::~/"..'j I I nd 1e . ·tiwJ " 11 !he .

' '0' 11 and elevations mote drift bench of the of the 'bulkhead should o pack to .. made tians qusnt g~oss It is adyi~~l?~~ thcr~ pa~~l~e~ but.l. ~~~t~ng ~ se'g-m~nts ings anq match tp.. Th~.~ exa:c.:~s. likel~ e~actly w~ll ~eadi~~s l?e t c (2) E \0.r- U r1 . segm. separat~ contractor ~nd ~esident It .~x+~'.'.:" match ca st..l:l. of l:-_henewl~ cast lDeasured by .. fl?1l:l? ~e~te.s. justing its be~~w the the jacks elev~t. to avoid any maj or m~~:t:e~4~nq ~ 1::hat t .c~ of .odical~y but ~ar~~~~! ~rac~ t~e g~'?~~try be~ter XI s tp~ a~ignmen.ion Lik~wise. ~f the c~llcenterline be checked . se1:~ 9. analysi~ i~ made etther. ~ " . '?l?~e:.t s~gme..._ of the observations t processing .).-eaq.l::~~s: on a:1l.ent.~. and it pl~ts. P~~.. has be an ~~tabl~shed.lgh usage.~ o~s.~' p'0~~-t:.' '... . on the are ~olt~ at v~rtical the a:J.op cornp~t~r or calculator oftce the procedure i t becom~s very and !iqt.:~~~m.?rvao and subse~ and aVoid w~11 n~~ agree computat~9ns errors....~va't.".:l:ry S. The former conveni~~'tl¥ handle~· by desk t.oule After.?n c.~' .et l:ead-= t on a.?lI1~tic::~ Desk 1: 1 r repe.hro. or by graphical plotti!lg.ef~lly hairpins ~ ..ot:~ is ca:r.. ~y is (3 ) I J.king e~.i'?n .rd against mak~ng is 9'?C?~ practice: paralle~ gr~ph~c~l rli (._ ~"' ~ ce3:1 c~nt~r~ine.-v~~~ons are made ~~ an accul:"'a.:-t:-~n~error~ due t.:titious t~p comp'~~er pr?gr~m~ I ~re avai~a~le but thiS to through does check not by th~ industry ~o h~nd~e mistakes su~h comput~t~ons. e~~l1t ~C?l_~ and 9f~~. 8-25 gua.numerical quite for.~ c~r:dage ca~culat~4 top ~I}-til ~boy~ or tion pot cont:t p~ane defined by the of the bulY~ead. reto 1= E mazks 'to guarp.3 (1) C tCi.i~e are leng~h Iueabolts surements made ~~on~ the lines ~~ the elevati~n c a J:: (F~gqre a~?). by t~e ~~a~f ~n order ~ea~~ngs.~ ••• ~ _.~nt set ~s ~~ve~S by ~d.001 s feet. equip~~~t aga'i!lst ~p~dvt:::.

3. the bolt._ .1) • (2) ..... Centerline point which offsets are sits in a measured punch Also. from mark it on to should the with (~) Of:fsets: a center . bolt advantageous marks hairpins to measure lengths between and similarly punch marks. (3) the leveling rod should be fitted with w I I a center point which sets into a punch ~ark j.- Lengths: It is point between A steel tape is used for l~ngth an ·the hairpins. the center between lines be 8.J to the object of . J:?e .. of fitted are the made fixed a to same precision level placed on onto a leveling rod with scale divided I . .The above description tion to the techniques not control rt provides the basic the full thesis on introducIt is geometry_ and with emphasis on goad practice. Tools Used for 'Geometry Control.. point each time.. involved th'e intent here to present computations significant as these can be extremely would add nothing by g.002 feet for length (Figure f: 8-30 ..! I····! down to at least ._. __. held at right cell (Figure 8. l~ I . the measurement.2). ..this guide. l centerline using a metal scale. along the Readings distance- adjacent ~-. in the top of r~Y U- ''_ ..fitted attached of sight the this be the A spirit angles level should be to the centerline scale so that it is set horizontal. 1 ~' in •• L:! 2~ Elevations: with a Dounting. n r the leveling should estimated to at least . ~~:i~ing cell hairpins. ~ake sure Elevation reading reaaings on the bolts top feet..005 In order the the readings are taken at exactly 1 ~'- :a..