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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO.

2, JUNE 2010 369

Harmonics Mitigation in LCI-Fed Synchronous


Motor Drives
Bhim Singh, Fellow, IEEE, Sanjeev Singh, Student Member, IEEE, and S. P. Hemanth Chender, Member, IEEE

Abstract—A load-commutated inverter (LCI) fed synchronous The ideal load for the LCI is a SM operating at a leading PF [17
motor (SM) is operated as an adjustable speed drive (ASD) in ], [18]. Therefore, the load commutation makes the drive system
high-power applications. These drives are known as commuta- simple and reliable. However, the LCI-fed overexcited SM has
torless motor (CLM) drives and posses many promising features
like high efficiency, economic operation, and flexibility of control problems at low speeds and at starting due to low back electro-
in high-power ratings. The CLM drives are used in compressors, motive force (EMF) across stator terminals. One of the simplest
blowers, fans, pumps, and mill drives for a range of industries as methods is pulsed starting in which LCI thyristors are commu-
mining, water treatment plants, chemical, paper, textile, cement, tated by interrupting the dc link current [18 ].
rolling mills, and petrochemical plants. However, the power quality The PQ concerns are more prominent in LCI-fed SM drives
(PQ) problems at ac mains have been the concerns in these drives
as the LCI has front-end thyristor converter injecting harmonics because of their high-power ratings. The passive wave shaping
in the supply. This paper investigates various topologies for the techniques are normally used, which are based on magnetics in
mitigation of PQ problems in LCI-fed SM drives using multipulse three-phase ac–dc converters and one of such systems is known
ac–dc converters. A set of hybrid topologies is proposed, which as multipulse or multiphase converters [19]–[24]. There are
use a combination of a passive filter with a multipulse converter many configurations of multipulse ac–dc converters (MPCs) in
to feed CLM. A basis for selection of a suitable ac–dc converter is
presented for PQ improvement at the input mains of the LCI-fed 12 to large number of pulses [25]–[29].
SM drives. Recently, many MPCs are reported for PQ improvement. It
uses multiwinding transformers [30]–[34] at the input of the rec-
Index Terms—AC–DC power conversion, adjustable speed
drives, load-commutated inverter (LCI), multipulse converters, tifier, which results in higher pulses in the dc output, thereby re-
power quality (PQ) , synchronous motors (SMs). duction in the ripple. This ac–dc converter draws a current from
ac mains having a number of steps with its waveform close to
a sinusoidal. The higher pulses eliminate the need of filtering
I. INTRODUCTION at the rectifier end, and reduces the problems at the inverter
end, namely a high inverter commutation angle and additional
ANY regulatory standards [1]–[4] regarding the power rotor-heating and pulsating electric torque in the motor [30 ],
M quality (PQ) problems have been developed due to in-
creased use of power electronic equipment, and especially ac
[33].
This paper deals with various solutions for mitigation of
motor drives in many industrial applications. These drives use power quality problems in LCI-fed SM drive and provides a
converter–inverter sets consisting of thyristor converters at front basis for selection of a suitable solution for an application.
end. These converters are a common source of voltage and/or
current harmonics, and create many problems for power utilities II. STATE-OF-THE-ART
[5]–[10] . Therefore, suitable measures are required for mitiga-
tion of these harmonics. One of very popular methods is to use The LCI is one of the earliest inverters developed for ad-
passive or active filters. Some standards [11], [12] have recom- justable speed drives [35 ]–[38]. It mainly consists of a con-
mended the use of filters and transformers. trolled rectifier, which feeds an adjustable dc current , via
Synchronous motors (SMs) with speed control are very pop- a dc inductor to a LCI. Since the thyristor does not have
ular in high-power and variable speed applications as they are self-extinguishing capability, it can be commutated by the load
voltage with a leading PF [36]. Fig. 1(a) shows a basic control
economic alternative at high-power levels [13]–[15]. A load-
commutated inverter (LCI) uses the load voltage with a leading schematic of LCI-fed SM drive operating at a leading PF. The
power factor (PF) for natural commutation of thyristors [16]. inverter output current is a quasi-square wave. However, the
motor voltage waveform is close to sinusoidal superim-
posed with voltage spikes caused by thyristor commutations.
Manuscript received June 02, 2009; revised August 16, 2009 and August 16,
Hence, the motor current contains low-order harmonics, such
2009; accepted November 24, 2009. Date of publication February 08, 2010; date as the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, etc. These harmonic currents cause
of current version May 21, 2010. Paper no. TEC-00220-2009. torque pulsations as well as additional power losses in the motor
B. Singh and S. Singh are with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India (e-mail: bhim-
and associated system [17], [18].
singhr@gmail.com; sschauhan.sdl@gmail.com). The LCI-fed SM drive features low cost and high efficiency
S. P. Hemanth Chander is with the Delta Energy Systems (India) Pvt. Ltd., due to the use of low-cost thyristors. The LCI is suitable for large
Gurgaon, Haryana 122001, India (e-mail: hemanthsp2010@gmail.com). drives with a power rating in megawatts, where the initial invest-
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. ment and operating efficiency are of great importance. However,
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEC.2009.2038369 the input PF of the drive changes with its operating conditions.
0885-8969/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE
370 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

PQ improvement. Conventional three-phase SM-fed from two


LCIs using a phase-shifting transformer or six-phase SM-fed
from two LCIs have also been reported [18] for reduction of
torque ripples and harmonics.
There are several publications on the benefits of LCIs
[39]–[46] and MPCs [47]–[53] separately in various ap-
plications. However, very few publications [44], [54], [55]
are available regarding the PQ improvement using MPCs
in LCI-fed SMs. Moreover, there are many applications of
LCI-fed SM drives reported in the literature [56]–[65]. LCIs
have also been used to start the SMs driving heavy torque load
so that the ac mains current at the starting could be reduced, and
thereafter, the motor runs direct on line [63]. An LCI also finds
applications in ships as a frequency converter, which converts
the variable generated voltage to a fixed frequency for the ship's
main distributions system [41].

III. MPCS FOR PQ IMPROVEMENT


A MPC consists of magnetics, solid-state devices, and en-
ergy storage elements. These MPCs are developed using thyris-
tors and magnetics through auto-connected, multiwinding trans-
formers, and interphase transformers (IPTs), tapped reactor and
additional thyristors, and capacitors with the concept of pulse
multiplication to get higher pulses starting with 12 pulse to 18,
24, 30, 36, 40, etc. [30], [66]–[70].
MPCs use phase shifting through transformers to convert the
original three-phase ac supply to multiphase ac supply. This re-
sults in higher pulses in dc output, thereby, reduction in ripple
and high number of steps in ac mains current close to sinusoidal
with reduced THD. Fig. 1 shows isolated transformer-based
thyristor converter topologies for 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-pulse con-
verters supplying LCI-fed SM drive, and Fig. 2 shows noniso-
lated transformer (which are known as autowound transformers)
based topologies for 12-, 18-, and 24-pulse thyristor converters
supplying LCI-fed SM drive.
The isolated MPCs mostly use multiwinding transformers
at the input of the converter. The ratings of these transformers
are equal to load rating; therefore, size and weight are quite
high. However, by using autotransformers (in nonisolated
converters), the size, cost, weight, and losses of magnetic
Fig. 1. Isolated converters for LCI-fed SM drive. (a) Six-pulse LCI-fed SM
components can be reduced drastically [30]–[33]. These MPCs
drive topology with control loop. (b) 12-pulse converter topology with a passive use different winding connections e.g. star, delta, zigzag,
filter. (c) 18-pulse converter topology. (d) 24-pulse converter topology. polygon, hexagon, T-connection, tapped winding, and plu-
rality of winding of transformers so that desired phase shift is
achieved to eliminate or reduce harmonics in input ac mains
In addition, the rectifier input current is highly distorted, there- current [30]–[33]. The rating of autotransformers in nonisolated
fore, a LCI-SM drive should be equipped with harmonic filters topology can be reduced to less than 25% of the load rating [28].
or any other compensation device to reduce line current total Various combinations of star, delta, and zigzag connections are
harmonic distortion (THD) [18 ]. used in the converter topologies shown in Fig. 1, whereas Fig. 2
The PQ improvement is achieved by using many wave shows various combinations of delta, polygon, and hexagon
shaping techniques. Usually tuned filters are used in the passive autotransformer connections.
wave-shaping techniques, but these filters cannot be designed The techniques of pulse multiplication on dc bus, optimum
for all the harmonics. Therefore, hybrid wave-shaping methods dc link reactor, and active interphase reactor on dc side, have
and some other passive topologies can be thought of as a fea- further impact on the rating and size of input transformer. Pulse
sible solution. The passive wave-shaping topologies can further multiplication topology [30]–[33], [66]–[70] generates higher
be classified as passive tuned filters and MPCs. Various hybrid pulses in the multiples of 12-pulse, i.e., 24, 36, and 48 pulses
combinations of both these topologies can also be used for are generated using a reactor and two, three, or four thyristors,
SINGH et al.: HARMONICS MITIGATION IN LCI-FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES 371

converter technology because it not only eliminates specific har-


monics but also reduces other harmonics. It also reduces elec-
tromagnetic interference (EMI), radio frequency interference
(RFI), and switching losses due to low-frequency soft switching
caused by line commutation, resulting in high efficiency and low
noise level in the converter system [32]. MPCs have been re-
ported to reduce THD of ac mains current well below 2% or
around and almost ripple free dc output voltage to feed variety
of loads with various configurations of ac–dc converters [19] .
But these MPCs have the drawback of higher dc link voltage as
compared to six-pulse converters, which makes them nonsuit-
able for retrofit applications [31].
Passive filters along with controlled rectifiers have been ex-
tensively developed [31]–[33], [53], [71] in high-power rating
and already existing installations. The use of tuned passive fil-
ters with thyristor MPCs reduces the notches in the input voltage
waveform due to commutation overlap and provides the reactive
power [33], [53]. The reduction in current THD, improved PF
at partial loads, and reduced magnetics rating are some advan-
tages of passive tuned filters [31], [72].
Various multipulse topologies [30] have been reported for
harmonic mitigation and the quantified ac mains current THD
varies from 10.45% to 13.9% for load variation from 100%
to 20% in a 12-pulse diode rectifier, whereas, in case of a
12-pulse thyristor rectifier the current THD varies from 12.89%
to 15.37% for 100% to 20% load variation. Moreover, use of
higher number of pulses for improvement in current THD and
PF is also suggested for variety of applications.
There are many efforts reported [45], [54], [55], [70] for har-
monics mitigation using 12-pulse converters, but none of them
quantify the THD of ac mains current and PF. However, har-
monic spectra of ac mains current have been shown to demon-
strate the elimination of 5th and 7th harmonics in case of a
12-pulse rectifier as compared to a 6-pulse rectifier. Moreover,
improvement in ac mains current THD has been proposed by
increasing the number of pulses from 12-pulse to 36-pulse [54],
[55 ]. The harmonic spectrum of ac mains current of a 12-pulse
rectifier shown in [70] demonstrates around 10% magnitude of
harmonics.
The THD of ac mains current in 12-pulse diode rectifier has
been reported [50 ] in the range of 8.2% to 12.15% with PF
variation from 0.975 to 0.976 for load varying from 100% to
20%, respectively. To reduce the THD of ac mains current, an
18-pulse rectifier is proposed and resultant THD of ac mains
current have been presented in the range of 3.8% to 5.5% for
Fig. 2. Nonisolated thyristor converters for LCI-fed SM drive. (a) Six-pulse
converter topology. (b) 12-pulse converter topology with a passive filter. (c)
100% to 20% load variation, respectively. Moreover, the THD
18-pulse converter topology. (d) 24-pulse converter topology. (e) 24-pulse (12 of ac mains current is reported in the range of 8.31% to 18.72%
2 2) converter topology (pulse multiplication). for load varying from 90% to 20% for a 12-pulse converter [69].
For improved THD of ac mains current using 12-pulse
thyristor converters, a modified control is used [73], so that
respectively [54]. For nonisolated MPCs based on pulse mul- the synthesized ac mains current is approximately sinusoidal.
tiplication technique, additional zero-sequence blocking trans- The resultant current THD is reported less than 1%, but there
former (ZSBT) and IPT are used [33]. is no mention of PF under these conditions. The THD of ac
Many attempts have been made to reduce size, weight, and mains current have been reported [74] in the range of 10.1%
cost of magnetics in MPCs. The THD of ac mains current dras- to 17% for load variation of 100% to 20% in a 12-pulse diode
tically reduces if the value of dc link inductor and leakage reac- rectifier. For improvement in ac mains current THD, use of
tance of input transformer is selected optimally [30]. MPC tech- a single-phase square wave auxiliary voltage supply in the
nology is considered superior to pulsewidth modulation (PWM) middle dc bus has been suggested in the literature [75], [76].
372 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

The improvement in the ac mains current THD have been


reported to 4.64% for a 12-pulse thyristor rectifier [75] and
4.9% in case of a 12-pulse diode rectifier [76]. In another effort
for reduction of current THD on the ac side of a 12-pulse
series-connected line-commutated ac/dc rectifiers, a control
involving switching of two IGBTs for improved shaping of the
dc current is presented [77]. Moreover, all these strategies [73],
[75]–[77] require additional circuitry/algorithm for the control
of the auxiliary arrangements other than 12-pulse converter.
The PF shall still be poor due to reactive power burden at large
firing angles.
Most of the reported paper [30], [44], [54], [55], [69] for
PQ improvement of LCI-SM drive use either a 24-pulse con-
verter employing pulse multiplication with three-phase SM
or a 12-pulse converter with six-phase SM [45]. The MPCs
with pulse multiplication have complex control whereas the
six-phase SM is costly and needs special design. This paper
uses a combination of the passive filter and a 12-pulse converter
[shown in Figs. 1 (b) and 2(b)], which facilitates reduction in
current THD, improved PF with reactive power compensation Fig. 3. Six-pulse converter-fed 12-pulse LCI-SM drives. (a) Three-phase con-
thereby reduced voltampere requirement of the converter, verter topology. (b) Six-phase converter topology.
control complexity, and the cost of the system. It also has the
benefit of minimum kilovoltampere rating compared to higher
pulse converters. converters is 60 /x [19]. The fact that the negative-sequence
voltages and currents are shifted in the opposite sense to posi-
IV. LCI-FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE tive-sequence values also provides a mechanism to cancel har-
The conventional LCI-fed SM drive has a six-pulse converter monics in pairs.
feeding to a three-phase SM [78]–[80]. However, the multi-
A. 12-Pulse AC–DC Converters
pulse concept of current source converters can easily be used for
a LCI-fed SM drive, where the ac source can be replaced by A 12-pulse ac–dc converter requires phase shift of 30 ,
three-phase SM and the natural commutation is substituted by which can be achieved by two configurations, namely isolated
load commutation [18]. However, the operation is limited to a star–delta transformer having 0 and 30 phase shift or isolated
12-pulse converter configuration as the triggering control cir- star–zigzag transformer combinations with phase shift of –15
cuit becomes complicated for higher number of pulses. There and 15 w.r.t supply voltage. The isolated star–zigzag
can be two topologies for 12-pulse LCI operation. One topology transformer combination is balanced compared to the star–delta
[shown in Fig. 3(a)] uses phase-shifting transformers, which transformer combination [32]. The turns ratios for Y/Z – 1
combines the 2 six-pulse LCI outputs to get a three-phase supply and Y/Z – 2 transformers to provide 15 and –15 phase
(12-pulse converter) for a conventional three-phase SM. These shift, respectively, are given by and
phase shift transformers are very expensive but has an advan- , where is number of turns per
tage of being used with a conventional three-phase SM. Other phase in star winding, and N , N are number of turns of the
topology [shown in Fig. 3(b)] uses an asymmetric six-phase SM zigzag winding. The detailed design of these transformers has
in which two sets of three-phase windings displaced at an angle been given in Appendix B [see Figs. 1(b) and 2(b)].
of 30 are employed [18], [45]. These topologies of SM can be For nonisolated topologies, the autotransformer may have
fed from any rectifier set discussed earlier to meet the PQ stan- various connections for 15 phase shift e.g., polygon,
dards, provided the cost, control complexity, and efficiency are delta-polygon, zigzag, and T-connected transformers [31]–[33].
within acceptable limits. The delta-polygon connected autotransformer (detailed design
has been given in Appendix C) is used in this investigation.
V. DESIGN OF MULTIPULSE AC–DC CONVERTERS FOR
LCI-SM DRIVE B. 18-Pulse AC–DC Converters
An n-pulse ac–dc controlled converter operates on the prin- The transformer design for an isolated 18-pulse ac–dc con-
ciple of harmonic elimination by allowing the flow of harmonic verter configuration requires 20 , 0 , and –20 phase shift,
currents through transformers (isolated or nonisolated) required which is achieved by the use of two zigzag and a star winding
by one bridge to be supplied by another, however, the individual in the secondary side of the transformer. The turns ratio of pri-
harmonic current of each bridge converter remains the same mary star winding to secondary star winding is 3:1, whereas, the
[31]–[33 ]. The minimum order of harmonics in an n-pulse con- turns ratio for Y/Z – 1 and Y/Z – 2 transformers to provide 20
verter is nK 1, where K is a positive integer and n is the number and –20 phase shift, respectively, is given by
of rectification pulses per cycle of the fundamental voltage. The and , where is number of turns
phase shift required for a converter having x number of six-pulse per phase in star winding, and N , N are number of turns of the
SINGH et al.: HARMONICS MITIGATION IN LCI-FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES 373

zigzag winding. The detailed design is given in Appendix B [see a vital part of the drive modeling, and thereby, the response of
Figs. 1 (c) and 2(c)]. the drive system.
To achieve 20 phase shift required for an 18-pulse con- The speed controller is a proportional and integral (PI) con-
verter with a nonisolated topology, the autotransformer may troller. Thus, the speed error – is transformed into
have various connections for e.g. polygon, delta-polygon, current reference through transfer function
zigzag, and T-connected transformers [31]–[33]. The
delta-polygon connected autotransformer (detailed design
has been given in Appendix D) is used in this investigation. (1)

C. 24-Pulse AC–DC Converters where and are the speed con-


troller gain and T is the speed controller integral time constant.
A 24-pulse ac–dc converter requires –15 , 0 , 15 , and The current controller is also a typical PI controller, through
30 phase shift among four sets of voltages. For isolated trans- which the current error is transmitted to the rectifier through
former design, it is achieved by the use of two zigzag, one star, transfer function
and one delta configurations in the secondary windings. The
turns ratio for Y/Z – 1 and Y/Z – 2 transformers to provide 15
and –15 phase shift, respectively, is similar to a 12-pulse con- (2)
verter phase-shift transformer, for which the detailed design is
given in Appendix B [see Figs. 1(d) and 2(d)]. where , and are the current con-
However, for nonisolated converter to generate 15 and troller gain and T is the current controller integral time con-
30 phase shift, a hexagon-connected autotransformer (detailed stant.
design has been given in Appendix E) is selected among various The integral time constant of the current controller
other connections, e.g., star, delta, hexagon, and T-connected should be considerably smaller than that of the speed controller
configuration. , approximately).
The output of the current controller ( ) is used to control the
D. 24-Pulse (12 2) AC–DC Converter firing angle of the controlled rectifier. The operation of LCI-SM
drive can be controlled using constant commutation lead angle
A 24-pulse ac–dc converter shown in Fig. 2(e) using pulse
and constant margin angle strategies [17] , [18]. However, the
multiplication requires a 12-pulse ac–dc converter (as discussed
operation of the LCI-SM drive at the minimum margin angle
earlier) followed by a pulse multiplication or ripple reinjection
needed for safe commutation results in highest PF at the motor
circuit. The pulse multiplication circuit mainly consists of a
terminals and the best utilization of its windings [32]. There-
ZSBT and an IPT. The ZSBT is smaller in size, volume, and
fore, constant margin angle control of LCI-SM is used in this
weight as it contains only triple frequency components. It offers
study for performance evaluation of various PQ improvement
very high impedance to the zero-sequence current and helps in
topologies. Moreover, for starting of these drives, a pulsed con-
independent operation of two rectifier bridges. An IPT is the
trol scheme is used, which is switched on to LCI mode when
main component for pulse doubling, which uses two thyristors
the motor attains sufficient speed such that the back EMF of the
only. The detailed design of ripple injection circuit is given in
motor reaches suitable value capable of load commutation [14].
Appendix F [see Fig. 2(e)].
VII. PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS CONVERTER TOPOLOGIES
E. 12-Pulse AC–DC Converter With Tuned High-Pass Filter
The proposed converter topologies are designed and mod-
A combination of a second-order damped passive filter tuned
eled for an 85 kW synchronous motor drive (data is given in
to 11th order harmonics and a high-pass shunt passive filter
Appendix A) in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Fig. 4(a)
is used at the input of a 12-pulse ac–dc converter to feed the
shows the supply current waveform and harmonic spectrum of
LCI-SM drive. The passive filters have been designed for 11th
the six-pulse isolated thyristor converter-fed LCI-SM drive. It
order harmonic and higher order harmonics separately and
shows 28.82% THD of ac mains current at rated load with 1.37
connected in parallel in case of 12-pulse converter. For higher
crest factor (CF). Their current THD reduces sharply with in-
pulse converters, passive filter tuned to other frequencies shall
crease in converter pulses and reaches 1.22% at rated load with
be used, e.g., 17th and high-pass filter for an 18-pulse converter
1.41 CF for an isolated 24-pulse converter. Fig. 4 shows the
and 23rd and high-pass filter in case of 24-pulse converter.
supply currents and their harmonic spectra of the LCI-SM drive
The design of a 12-pulse ac–dc converter is same as discussed
for 6, 12, 18, 24-pulse controlled converters at rated load. Fig. 5
earlier, whereas, the high-pass filter elements are designed
shows the supply currents and their harmonic spectra of the
using equations given in Appendix G.
LCI-SM drive for nonisolated MPCs with rated load. The THD
of supply current reduces to 5.09% for a 12-pulse converter case
VI. MODELING OF LCI-FED SM DRIVE at rated load and reaches 3.98% in case of a nonisolated 24-pulse
The adjustable speed LCI-fed SM drive system includes a converter.
current-control loop inside a speed-control loop, where the dc The performance of various topologies shows that the
current is controlled by the current-control loop to follow a cur- six-pulse converter (isolated and nonisolated) based LCI-SM
rent reference given by the speed-control loop. Therefore, the drive is having a poor power quality, both in terms of current
modeling of the speed controller and a current controller forms harmonic distortion and PF during the total operating range.
374 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

Fig. 4. Supply current waveforms and harmonic spectra of isolated converter- Fig. 5. Supply current waveform and harmonic spectra of nonisolated con-
based LCI-fed SM running at rated speed and rated torque. (a) Six-pulse con- verter-based LCI-fed SM running at rated speed and rated torque. (a) Six-pulse
verter [see Fig. 1(a)]. (b) 12-pulse converter [see Fig. 1(b)]. (c) 18-pulse con- converter [see Fig. 2(a)]. (b) 12-pulse converter [see Fig. 2(b)]. (c) 18-pulse con-
verter [see Fig. 1 (c)]. (d) 24-pulse converter [see Fig. 1(d)]. verter [see Fig. 2 (c)]. (d) 24-pulse converter [see Fig. 2(d)].

Fig. 6 shows current waveforms at ac mains and its harmonic Fig. 7 shows the variation of the current THD and PF with
spectra for 12-pulse converters (isolated and nonisolated load at ac mains for isolated 12-pulse converter topology with
topologies) with shunt passive filter feeding LCI-SM drive and without shunt passive filters. The detailed power quality pa-
operating at full load and half load. Amongst, different isolated rameters with load variation (rated torque and variable speed)
and nonisolated MPCs, the 12-pulse converter is able to achieve are also given in Tables III and IV for a 12-pulse converter with
the power quality within limits of international standards and without passive filters, respectively. It is observed that the
[1]–[4] with a passive filter only. However, the 18 and 24-pulse current THD at ac mains of a 12-pulse converter with shunt
converters have resulted in lower current harmonic distortion at passive filter remains below 8% in the 20%–100% load range.
ac mains. But the PF of ac mains during fractional speeds still The PF variation of the 12-pulse converter with shunt passive
remains poor. The performance of these converter topologies filter shows consistent improvement as compared to results of
is summarized in Tables I and II in terms of PQ indices for the same topology without filter and it remains in the range of
rated and half the rated load. The performance evaluation of 0.85–0.94 from light-load to full-load condition. The voltage
the proposed converter topologies show consistent results in THD is also reduced to less than 1% with the 12-pulse converter
the wide range of speed and meet the desired PQ specifications. topology using passive filters. The rms current at ac mains is also
However, the results have been recorded at rated and half reduced drastically at light load, however, the reduction is ob-
the rated speeds with rated torque just for the performance served in the wide load range, i.e., 36.5–136.5 A from light-load
comparison of various converter topologies at some common to full-load condition against very high values (122–143 A from
reference. light load to full load) for the same topology without filter as
To achieve improved power quality in LCI-SM drive, the shown in Tables III and IV . Therefore, a 12-pulse converter
12-pulse converter topology has been simulated at rated load topology with passive shunt filter is considered a good option
with passive tuned filters and it is observed that this topology for constant torque loads operating in variable speed range.
shows consistent improved power quality in wide range of op-
eration. The design of the shunt passive filter has been aimed to VIII. APPLICATION POTENTIAL
supplement the reactive power requirement of the drive during The multipulse ac–dc converter-fed LCI-SM drive has a
wide speed range. The variation of reactive power from light vast application potential in various large rating adjustable
load to full load is reasonably large and a 12-pulse converter speed drives. The major applications include roller mills, large
with a passive filter shows consistently improved PQ in the compressors, crushers, conveyors, industrial fans and pumps
total load range. in cement, steel, pulp and paper, petrochemicals, mining,
SINGH et al.: HARMONICS MITIGATION IN LCI-FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES 375

Fig. 7. Variation of PF and current THD with load for isolated 12-pulse con-
verter-fed LCI-SM drive at rated torque and 1000 r/min speed.

TABLE III
POWER QUALITY INDEXES WITH LOAD VARIATION (VARIABLE SPEED AND
RATED TORQUE) FOR A 12-PULSE CONVERTER-FED LCI-SM DRIVE WITH
PASSIVE FILTER

Fig. 6. Supply current waveform and harmonic spectra of 12-pulse converter-


based LCI-fed SM drive with shunt passive filter. (a) Isolated topology at rated
load [see Fig. 1(b)]. (b) Isolated topology at half of the rated load [see Fig. 1(b)].
(c) Nonisolated topology at rated load [see Fig. 2(b)]. (d) Nonisolated topology
at half the rated load [see Fig. 2(b)].

TABLE I TABLE IV
POWER QUALITY INDEXES OF VARIOUS MPC-BASED LCI-SM DRIVE AT POWER QUALITY INDEXES WITH LOAD VARIATION (VARIABLE SPEED AND
RATED SPEED (1500 r/min) AND RATED TORQUE RATED TORQUE) FOR A 12-PULSE CONVERTER-FED LCI-SM DRIVE WITHOUT
PASSIVE FILTER

TABLE II
POWER QUALITY INDEXES OF VARIOUS MPC-BASED LCI-SM DRIVE AT HALF
THE RATED SPEED (750 r/min) AND RATED TORQUE

chemical and process industries [56]–[65]. The combination of


the multipulse converter system with passive filters provides
improved PQ at ac mains while fulfilling the load requirement.
The 12-pulse converter with a passive filter has magnetics
(i.e., voltampere rating) comparable with the 18- and 24-pulse
converters, whereas the control complexity and the cost of the
converter are reduced considerably. It is used in a wide range of
applications including large industrial loads, e.g., heating, ven-
tilating and air conditioning (HVAC)/air compressors, crushers,
grinders, rollers, dryers, conveyors, water/fluid/effluent pumps,
and induced draft (ID)/forced draft (FD) fans.
376 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

IX. CONCLUSION
The detailed design of converter topologies for power quality
improvement in LCI-SM drives has been presented to provide
a clear perspective on various aspects of these drives to the re-
searchers and engineers working in this field. Multipulse con-
trolled converters with isolated and nonisolated topologies have
been found capable of providing the desired power quality for
large rating industrial loads. A combination of passive filters and
12-pulse converter has been proposed for the LCI-SM drive,
which shows improved performance with reduced THD and
magnitude of ac mains current. The 12-pulse converter with
shunt passive filter has added advantages of simple control and
consistently improved PF in the wide operating speed range of
the drive. These converter topologies may be a good candidate
for many applications in near future with cost-effective solution.
It is hoped that this investigation on various PQ improvement
topologies for LCI-SM drives is a useful reference to the users
and manufacturers.

APPENDIX I
APPENDIX

A. Synchronous Machine Parameters Used for Simulation


Nominal power: 85 kVA, nominal voltage: 400 V, nominal
frequency: 50 Hz, no-load field current: 10 A, stator armature
resistance: 0.055 ohm, stator leakage inductance: 0.3595 mH,
d-axis mutual inductance: 12.82 mH, q-axis mutual induc-
tance: 5.692 mH, field resistance referred to stator: 0.03634
ohm, field leakage inductance: 1.302 mH, damper-winding
parameters: the d-axis resistance ohm,
leakage inductance mH, the q-axis resistance
ohm, leakage inductance mH,
inertia , friction factor 0.07 Nm·s, pole pairs
2, rotor type: salient pole, wound field. Source impedance:
0.03 pu, transformer leakage impedance: 0.03 pu, dc link
inductor: 15 mH. Gains of PI controllers: ,
s, , s.

B. Design of Phase-Shifting Transformers


Y/Z – 1 transformer: From phasor diagram shown in Fig. 8(a)

for (3)

and

(4)

In a balanced system , so the relation becomes

(5)
Fig. 8. Schematic and phasor diagrams of various components of MPCs. (a)
Similarly, the following relation can be derived using 6
Y/Z – 1 topology. (b) Y/Z – 2 topology. (c) Delta-polygon ( 15 ) auto-
6
transformer topology. (d) Delta-polygon ( 20 ) autotransformer topology. (e)
Hexagon autotransformer topology. (f) IPT for pulse doubling. (g) Passive fil-
ters.
SINGH et al.: HARMONICS MITIGATION IN LCI-FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES 377

TABLE V where , ,
TURN RATIOS OF STAR/ZIGZAG TRANSFORMERS FOR VARIOUS PHASE-SHIFT – , , , V is rms value of
ANGLES
phase voltage and 2K K K 1. These equations result
in , , and .

D. Design of Delta-Polygon Connected Autotransformer for


18-pulse Converter Operation
Fig. 8(d) shows connection and phasor diagrams of a delta-
polygon connected autotransformer for producing desired phase
shifts. The number of turns required for achieving these phase
shifts among different phases as shown in Fig. 8(d) are given by
, , and . The input phase
, and are connected to the output directly as one set
(6) of voltages. The remaining two sets of voltages for phase “a”
are given by (11) and (12), where ,
These ratios are summarized in Table V for a given value of , – , , ,
. V is rms voltage/phase.
Y/Z – 2 transformer: Following the similar procedure as in
previous case, we can get from the phasor diagram of Fig. 8(b) E. Design of Hexagon-Connected Autotransformer for
24-pulse Converter Operation
Fig. 8(e) shows connection and phasor diagrams of a
for (7) hexagon-connected autotransformer for producing desired
phase shifts. The number of turns (shown in Fig. 8 (e) as
and , and ) required for achieving these phase shifts
among different phases can be calculated by considering the
voltages of phase “a ” given by four sets of equations as follows:
(8)

(13)
In a balanced system , so the relation becomes
(14)
(15)
(9) (16)

Similarly, the second relation can be derived as follows: where , , ,


, , ,
and V is rms value of phase voltage. These equations result in
(10) , , , and
.

Table V summarizes the turn ratios for a given value of . The F. Design of Pulse-Multiplication Circuit
ratio ( ) has been taken as two, three, and four for 12-,
18-, and 24-pulse transformers, respectively, in this paper. Fig. 8(f) shows the schematic diagrams of pulse-doubling
circuit for thyristor converters using an IPT connected to two
C. Design of Delta-Polygon Connected Autotransformer for thyristors [33].
12-pulse Converter Operation The voltage appearing across the reactor winding is an
ac voltage ripple of six times the source frequency, resulting
Fig. 8(c) shows connection and phasor diagrams of a delta- in smaller size weight and volume of the IPT [30], [31], [33].
polygon connected autotransformer for producing desired phase When , the thyristor is forward biased and can be
shifts. The number of turns (shown in Fig. 8(c) as , and fired. In this mode, the current and MMF relationship are given
) required for achieving these phase shifts among different by following equations:
phases can be calculated by considering the voltages of phase
“a ” given by two sets of equations as follows:

(17)
(11) (18)
(12) (19)
378 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

where is the total number of turns in the IPT, whereas [4] Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions (Equipment Input Current
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dual channel high reliability LCI drive,” in Proc. IEEE Pulp Paper Ind. India, in 1956. He received the B.E. degree in elec-
Tech. Conf., 1988, pp. 23–37. trical from the University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India,
[58] E. B. Turner and C. P. Lemone, “Adjustable-speed drive applications in 1977, and the M.Tech. and Ph.D. degrees from In-
in the oil and gas pipeline industry,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-25, dian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, New Delhi,
no. 1, pp. 30 –35, Jan./Feb. 1989. India, in 1979 and 1983, respectively.
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of a 15000-hp, 6000-dmin adjustable-speed drive in a petrochemical interests include power electronics, electrical machines and drives, active
facility,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1027–1036, Nov./ filters, flexible AC transmission system (FACTS), high voltage DC (HVDC),
Dec. 1995. and power quality.
380 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

Dr. Singh is a Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering, the Mr. Singh is a Life Member of the Indian Society for Technical Education
National Academy of Science, India, the Institution of Engineers, India, and the and the System Society of India.
Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers, a Life Member of
the Indian Society for Technical Education, the System Society of India, and the
National Institution of Quality and Reliability.
S. P. Hemanth Chender (M’10) was born in My-
laram, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India, in 1985.
He received the B.Tech. degree in electrical and
Sanjeev Singh (S’09) was born in Deoria, India, in electronics from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological
1972. He received the B.E. degree in electrical from University, Hyderabad, India, in 2006 and the
Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa, India, in M.Tech. degree from Indian Institute of Technology
1993 and the M.Tech. degree from Devi Ahilya Vish- (IIT) Delhi, New Delhi, India, in 2008.
wavidyalaya, Indore, India, in 1997. In 2008, he joined as an R&D Engineer, Delta
In 1997, he joined as a Project Officer with the Energy Systems (India) Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, India.
North India Technical Consultancy Organisation, His current research interests include power elec-
Chandigarh, India, in 1997. In 2000, he joined as a tronics, electrical machines and drives, as well as
Lecturer with the Department of Electrical and In- switch-mode power supply design for custom design, telecom, network, server
strumentation Engineering, Sant Longowal Institute and storage power supplies.
of Engineering and Technology, Sangrur, Punjab,
India. His current research interests include power electronics, electrical
machines and drives, energy efficiency, and power quality.