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Motor Drives

Bhim Singh, Fellow, IEEE, Sanjeev Singh, Student Member, IEEE, and S. P. Hemanth Chender, Member, IEEE

Abstract—A load-commutated inverter (LCI) fed synchronous The ideal load for the LCI is a SM operating at a leading PF [17

motor (SM) is operated as an adjustable speed drive (ASD) in ], [18]. Therefore, the load commutation makes the drive system

high-power applications. These drives are known as commuta- simple and reliable. However, the LCI-fed overexcited SM has

torless motor (CLM) drives and posses many promising features

like high efficiency, economic operation, and flexibility of control problems at low speeds and at starting due to low back electro-

in high-power ratings. The CLM drives are used in compressors, motive force (EMF) across stator terminals. One of the simplest

blowers, fans, pumps, and mill drives for a range of industries as methods is pulsed starting in which LCI thyristors are commu-

mining, water treatment plants, chemical, paper, textile, cement, tated by interrupting the dc link current [18 ].

rolling mills, and petrochemical plants. However, the power quality The PQ concerns are more prominent in LCI-fed SM drives

(PQ) problems at ac mains have been the concerns in these drives

as the LCI has front-end thyristor converter injecting harmonics because of their high-power ratings. The passive wave shaping

in the supply. This paper investigates various topologies for the techniques are normally used, which are based on magnetics in

mitigation of PQ problems in LCI-fed SM drives using multipulse three-phase ac–dc converters and one of such systems is known

ac–dc converters. A set of hybrid topologies is proposed, which as multipulse or multiphase converters [19]–[24]. There are

use a combination of a passive filter with a multipulse converter many configurations of multipulse ac–dc converters (MPCs) in

to feed CLM. A basis for selection of a suitable ac–dc converter is

presented for PQ improvement at the input mains of the LCI-fed 12 to large number of pulses [25]–[29].

SM drives. Recently, many MPCs are reported for PQ improvement. It

uses multiwinding transformers [30]–[34] at the input of the rec-

Index Terms—AC–DC power conversion, adjustable speed

drives, load-commutated inverter (LCI), multipulse converters, tifier, which results in higher pulses in the dc output, thereby re-

power quality (PQ) , synchronous motors (SMs). duction in the ripple. This ac–dc converter draws a current from

ac mains having a number of steps with its waveform close to

a sinusoidal. The higher pulses eliminate the need of filtering

I. INTRODUCTION at the rectifier end, and reduces the problems at the inverter

end, namely a high inverter commutation angle and additional

ANY regulatory standards [1]–[4] regarding the power rotor-heating and pulsating electric torque in the motor [30 ],

M quality (PQ) problems have been developed due to in-

creased use of power electronic equipment, and especially ac

[33].

This paper deals with various solutions for mitigation of

motor drives in many industrial applications. These drives use power quality problems in LCI-fed SM drive and provides a

converter–inverter sets consisting of thyristor converters at front basis for selection of a suitable solution for an application.

end. These converters are a common source of voltage and/or

current harmonics, and create many problems for power utilities II. STATE-OF-THE-ART

[5]–[10] . Therefore, suitable measures are required for mitiga-

tion of these harmonics. One of very popular methods is to use The LCI is one of the earliest inverters developed for ad-

passive or active filters. Some standards [11], [12] have recom- justable speed drives [35 ]–[38]. It mainly consists of a con-

mended the use of filters and transformers. trolled rectifier, which feeds an adjustable dc current , via

Synchronous motors (SMs) with speed control are very pop- a dc inductor to a LCI. Since the thyristor does not have

ular in high-power and variable speed applications as they are self-extinguishing capability, it can be commutated by the load

voltage with a leading PF [36]. Fig. 1(a) shows a basic control

economic alternative at high-power levels [13]–[15]. A load-

commutated inverter (LCI) uses the load voltage with a leading schematic of LCI-fed SM drive operating at a leading PF. The

power factor (PF) for natural commutation of thyristors [16]. inverter output current is a quasi-square wave. However, the

motor voltage waveform is close to sinusoidal superim-

posed with voltage spikes caused by thyristor commutations.

Manuscript received June 02, 2009; revised August 16, 2009 and August 16,

Hence, the motor current contains low-order harmonics, such

2009; accepted November 24, 2009. Date of publication February 08, 2010; date as the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, etc. These harmonic currents cause

of current version May 21, 2010. Paper no. TEC-00220-2009. torque pulsations as well as additional power losses in the motor

B. Singh and S. Singh are with the Department of Electrical Engineering,

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India (e-mail: bhim-

and associated system [17], [18].

singhr@gmail.com; sschauhan.sdl@gmail.com). The LCI-fed SM drive features low cost and high efficiency

S. P. Hemanth Chander is with the Delta Energy Systems (India) Pvt. Ltd., due to the use of low-cost thyristors. The LCI is suitable for large

Gurgaon, Haryana 122001, India (e-mail: hemanthsp2010@gmail.com). drives with a power rating in megawatts, where the initial invest-

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. ment and operating efficiency are of great importance. However,

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEC.2009.2038369 the input PF of the drive changes with its operating conditions.

0885-8969/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE

370 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

LCIs using a phase-shifting transformer or six-phase SM-fed

from two LCIs have also been reported [18] for reduction of

torque ripples and harmonics.

There are several publications on the benefits of LCIs

[39]–[46] and MPCs [47]–[53] separately in various ap-

plications. However, very few publications [44], [54], [55]

are available regarding the PQ improvement using MPCs

in LCI-fed SMs. Moreover, there are many applications of

LCI-fed SM drives reported in the literature [56]–[65]. LCIs

have also been used to start the SMs driving heavy torque load

so that the ac mains current at the starting could be reduced, and

thereafter, the motor runs direct on line [63]. An LCI also finds

applications in ships as a frequency converter, which converts

the variable generated voltage to a fixed frequency for the ship's

main distributions system [41].

A MPC consists of magnetics, solid-state devices, and en-

ergy storage elements. These MPCs are developed using thyris-

tors and magnetics through auto-connected, multiwinding trans-

formers, and interphase transformers (IPTs), tapped reactor and

additional thyristors, and capacitors with the concept of pulse

multiplication to get higher pulses starting with 12 pulse to 18,

24, 30, 36, 40, etc. [30], [66]–[70].

MPCs use phase shifting through transformers to convert the

original three-phase ac supply to multiphase ac supply. This re-

sults in higher pulses in dc output, thereby, reduction in ripple

and high number of steps in ac mains current close to sinusoidal

with reduced THD. Fig. 1 shows isolated transformer-based

thyristor converter topologies for 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-pulse con-

verters supplying LCI-fed SM drive, and Fig. 2 shows noniso-

lated transformer (which are known as autowound transformers)

based topologies for 12-, 18-, and 24-pulse thyristor converters

supplying LCI-fed SM drive.

The isolated MPCs mostly use multiwinding transformers

at the input of the converter. The ratings of these transformers

are equal to load rating; therefore, size and weight are quite

high. However, by using autotransformers (in nonisolated

converters), the size, cost, weight, and losses of magnetic

Fig. 1. Isolated converters for LCI-fed SM drive. (a) Six-pulse LCI-fed SM

components can be reduced drastically [30]–[33]. These MPCs

drive topology with control loop. (b) 12-pulse converter topology with a passive use different winding connections e.g. star, delta, zigzag,

filter. (c) 18-pulse converter topology. (d) 24-pulse converter topology. polygon, hexagon, T-connection, tapped winding, and plu-

rality of winding of transformers so that desired phase shift is

achieved to eliminate or reduce harmonics in input ac mains

In addition, the rectifier input current is highly distorted, there- current [30]–[33]. The rating of autotransformers in nonisolated

fore, a LCI-SM drive should be equipped with harmonic filters topology can be reduced to less than 25% of the load rating [28].

or any other compensation device to reduce line current total Various combinations of star, delta, and zigzag connections are

harmonic distortion (THD) [18 ]. used in the converter topologies shown in Fig. 1, whereas Fig. 2

The PQ improvement is achieved by using many wave shows various combinations of delta, polygon, and hexagon

shaping techniques. Usually tuned filters are used in the passive autotransformer connections.

wave-shaping techniques, but these filters cannot be designed The techniques of pulse multiplication on dc bus, optimum

for all the harmonics. Therefore, hybrid wave-shaping methods dc link reactor, and active interphase reactor on dc side, have

and some other passive topologies can be thought of as a fea- further impact on the rating and size of input transformer. Pulse

sible solution. The passive wave-shaping topologies can further multiplication topology [30]–[33], [66]–[70] generates higher

be classified as passive tuned filters and MPCs. Various hybrid pulses in the multiples of 12-pulse, i.e., 24, 36, and 48 pulses

combinations of both these topologies can also be used for are generated using a reactor and two, three, or four thyristors,

SINGH et al.: HARMONICS MITIGATION IN LCI-FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES 371

monics but also reduces other harmonics. It also reduces elec-

tromagnetic interference (EMI), radio frequency interference

(RFI), and switching losses due to low-frequency soft switching

caused by line commutation, resulting in high efficiency and low

noise level in the converter system [32]. MPCs have been re-

ported to reduce THD of ac mains current well below 2% or

around and almost ripple free dc output voltage to feed variety

of loads with various configurations of ac–dc converters [19] .

But these MPCs have the drawback of higher dc link voltage as

compared to six-pulse converters, which makes them nonsuit-

able for retrofit applications [31].

Passive filters along with controlled rectifiers have been ex-

tensively developed [31]–[33], [53], [71] in high-power rating

and already existing installations. The use of tuned passive fil-

ters with thyristor MPCs reduces the notches in the input voltage

waveform due to commutation overlap and provides the reactive

power [33], [53]. The reduction in current THD, improved PF

at partial loads, and reduced magnetics rating are some advan-

tages of passive tuned filters [31], [72].

Various multipulse topologies [30] have been reported for

harmonic mitigation and the quantified ac mains current THD

varies from 10.45% to 13.9% for load variation from 100%

to 20% in a 12-pulse diode rectifier, whereas, in case of a

12-pulse thyristor rectifier the current THD varies from 12.89%

to 15.37% for 100% to 20% load variation. Moreover, use of

higher number of pulses for improvement in current THD and

PF is also suggested for variety of applications.

There are many efforts reported [45], [54], [55], [70] for har-

monics mitigation using 12-pulse converters, but none of them

quantify the THD of ac mains current and PF. However, har-

monic spectra of ac mains current have been shown to demon-

strate the elimination of 5th and 7th harmonics in case of a

12-pulse rectifier as compared to a 6-pulse rectifier. Moreover,

improvement in ac mains current THD has been proposed by

increasing the number of pulses from 12-pulse to 36-pulse [54],

[55 ]. The harmonic spectrum of ac mains current of a 12-pulse

rectifier shown in [70] demonstrates around 10% magnitude of

harmonics.

The THD of ac mains current in 12-pulse diode rectifier has

been reported [50 ] in the range of 8.2% to 12.15% with PF

variation from 0.975 to 0.976 for load varying from 100% to

20%, respectively. To reduce the THD of ac mains current, an

18-pulse rectifier is proposed and resultant THD of ac mains

current have been presented in the range of 3.8% to 5.5% for

Fig. 2. Nonisolated thyristor converters for LCI-fed SM drive. (a) Six-pulse

converter topology. (b) 12-pulse converter topology with a passive filter. (c)

100% to 20% load variation, respectively. Moreover, the THD

18-pulse converter topology. (d) 24-pulse converter topology. (e) 24-pulse (12 of ac mains current is reported in the range of 8.31% to 18.72%

2 2) converter topology (pulse multiplication). for load varying from 90% to 20% for a 12-pulse converter [69].

For improved THD of ac mains current using 12-pulse

thyristor converters, a modified control is used [73], so that

respectively [54]. For nonisolated MPCs based on pulse mul- the synthesized ac mains current is approximately sinusoidal.

tiplication technique, additional zero-sequence blocking trans- The resultant current THD is reported less than 1%, but there

former (ZSBT) and IPT are used [33]. is no mention of PF under these conditions. The THD of ac

Many attempts have been made to reduce size, weight, and mains current have been reported [74] in the range of 10.1%

cost of magnetics in MPCs. The THD of ac mains current dras- to 17% for load variation of 100% to 20% in a 12-pulse diode

tically reduces if the value of dc link inductor and leakage reac- rectifier. For improvement in ac mains current THD, use of

tance of input transformer is selected optimally [30]. MPC tech- a single-phase square wave auxiliary voltage supply in the

nology is considered superior to pulsewidth modulation (PWM) middle dc bus has been suggested in the literature [75], [76].

372 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

reported to 4.64% for a 12-pulse thyristor rectifier [75] and

4.9% in case of a 12-pulse diode rectifier [76]. In another effort

for reduction of current THD on the ac side of a 12-pulse

series-connected line-commutated ac/dc rectifiers, a control

involving switching of two IGBTs for improved shaping of the

dc current is presented [77]. Moreover, all these strategies [73],

[75]–[77] require additional circuitry/algorithm for the control

of the auxiliary arrangements other than 12-pulse converter.

The PF shall still be poor due to reactive power burden at large

firing angles.

Most of the reported paper [30], [44], [54], [55], [69] for

PQ improvement of LCI-SM drive use either a 24-pulse con-

verter employing pulse multiplication with three-phase SM

or a 12-pulse converter with six-phase SM [45]. The MPCs

with pulse multiplication have complex control whereas the

six-phase SM is costly and needs special design. This paper

uses a combination of the passive filter and a 12-pulse converter

[shown in Figs. 1 (b) and 2(b)], which facilitates reduction in

current THD, improved PF with reactive power compensation Fig. 3. Six-pulse converter-fed 12-pulse LCI-SM drives. (a) Three-phase con-

thereby reduced voltampere requirement of the converter, verter topology. (b) Six-phase converter topology.

control complexity, and the cost of the system. It also has the

benefit of minimum kilovoltampere rating compared to higher

pulse converters. converters is 60 /x [19]. The fact that the negative-sequence

voltages and currents are shifted in the opposite sense to posi-

IV. LCI-FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE tive-sequence values also provides a mechanism to cancel har-

The conventional LCI-fed SM drive has a six-pulse converter monics in pairs.

feeding to a three-phase SM [78]–[80]. However, the multi-

A. 12-Pulse AC–DC Converters

pulse concept of current source converters can easily be used for

a LCI-fed SM drive, where the ac source can be replaced by A 12-pulse ac–dc converter requires phase shift of 30 ,

three-phase SM and the natural commutation is substituted by which can be achieved by two configurations, namely isolated

load commutation [18]. However, the operation is limited to a star–delta transformer having 0 and 30 phase shift or isolated

12-pulse converter configuration as the triggering control cir- star–zigzag transformer combinations with phase shift of –15

cuit becomes complicated for higher number of pulses. There and 15 w.r.t supply voltage. The isolated star–zigzag

can be two topologies for 12-pulse LCI operation. One topology transformer combination is balanced compared to the star–delta

[shown in Fig. 3(a)] uses phase-shifting transformers, which transformer combination [32]. The turns ratios for Y/Z – 1

combines the 2 six-pulse LCI outputs to get a three-phase supply and Y/Z – 2 transformers to provide 15 and –15 phase

(12-pulse converter) for a conventional three-phase SM. These shift, respectively, are given by and

phase shift transformers are very expensive but has an advan- , where is number of turns per

tage of being used with a conventional three-phase SM. Other phase in star winding, and N , N are number of turns of the

topology [shown in Fig. 3(b)] uses an asymmetric six-phase SM zigzag winding. The detailed design of these transformers has

in which two sets of three-phase windings displaced at an angle been given in Appendix B [see Figs. 1(b) and 2(b)].

of 30 are employed [18], [45]. These topologies of SM can be For nonisolated topologies, the autotransformer may have

fed from any rectifier set discussed earlier to meet the PQ stan- various connections for 15 phase shift e.g., polygon,

dards, provided the cost, control complexity, and efficiency are delta-polygon, zigzag, and T-connected transformers [31]–[33].

within acceptable limits. The delta-polygon connected autotransformer (detailed design

has been given in Appendix C) is used in this investigation.

V. DESIGN OF MULTIPULSE AC–DC CONVERTERS FOR

LCI-SM DRIVE B. 18-Pulse AC–DC Converters

An n-pulse ac–dc controlled converter operates on the prin- The transformer design for an isolated 18-pulse ac–dc con-

ciple of harmonic elimination by allowing the flow of harmonic verter configuration requires 20 , 0 , and –20 phase shift,

currents through transformers (isolated or nonisolated) required which is achieved by the use of two zigzag and a star winding

by one bridge to be supplied by another, however, the individual in the secondary side of the transformer. The turns ratio of pri-

harmonic current of each bridge converter remains the same mary star winding to secondary star winding is 3:1, whereas, the

[31]–[33 ]. The minimum order of harmonics in an n-pulse con- turns ratio for Y/Z – 1 and Y/Z – 2 transformers to provide 20

verter is nK 1, where K is a positive integer and n is the number and –20 phase shift, respectively, is given by

of rectification pulses per cycle of the fundamental voltage. The and , where is number of turns

phase shift required for a converter having x number of six-pulse per phase in star winding, and N , N are number of turns of the

SINGH et al.: HARMONICS MITIGATION IN LCI-FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES 373

zigzag winding. The detailed design is given in Appendix B [see a vital part of the drive modeling, and thereby, the response of

Figs. 1 (c) and 2(c)]. the drive system.

To achieve 20 phase shift required for an 18-pulse con- The speed controller is a proportional and integral (PI) con-

verter with a nonisolated topology, the autotransformer may troller. Thus, the speed error – is transformed into

have various connections for e.g. polygon, delta-polygon, current reference through transfer function

zigzag, and T-connected transformers [31]–[33]. The

delta-polygon connected autotransformer (detailed design

has been given in Appendix D) is used in this investigation. (1)

troller gain and T is the speed controller integral time constant.

A 24-pulse ac–dc converter requires –15 , 0 , 15 , and The current controller is also a typical PI controller, through

30 phase shift among four sets of voltages. For isolated trans- which the current error is transmitted to the rectifier through

former design, it is achieved by the use of two zigzag, one star, transfer function

and one delta configurations in the secondary windings. The

turns ratio for Y/Z – 1 and Y/Z – 2 transformers to provide 15

and –15 phase shift, respectively, is similar to a 12-pulse con- (2)

verter phase-shift transformer, for which the detailed design is

given in Appendix B [see Figs. 1(d) and 2(d)]. where , and are the current con-

However, for nonisolated converter to generate 15 and troller gain and T is the current controller integral time con-

30 phase shift, a hexagon-connected autotransformer (detailed stant.

design has been given in Appendix E) is selected among various The integral time constant of the current controller

other connections, e.g., star, delta, hexagon, and T-connected should be considerably smaller than that of the speed controller

configuration. , approximately).

The output of the current controller ( ) is used to control the

D. 24-Pulse (12 2) AC–DC Converter firing angle of the controlled rectifier. The operation of LCI-SM

drive can be controlled using constant commutation lead angle

A 24-pulse ac–dc converter shown in Fig. 2(e) using pulse

and constant margin angle strategies [17] , [18]. However, the

multiplication requires a 12-pulse ac–dc converter (as discussed

operation of the LCI-SM drive at the minimum margin angle

earlier) followed by a pulse multiplication or ripple reinjection

needed for safe commutation results in highest PF at the motor

circuit. The pulse multiplication circuit mainly consists of a

terminals and the best utilization of its windings [32]. There-

ZSBT and an IPT. The ZSBT is smaller in size, volume, and

fore, constant margin angle control of LCI-SM is used in this

weight as it contains only triple frequency components. It offers

study for performance evaluation of various PQ improvement

very high impedance to the zero-sequence current and helps in

topologies. Moreover, for starting of these drives, a pulsed con-

independent operation of two rectifier bridges. An IPT is the

trol scheme is used, which is switched on to LCI mode when

main component for pulse doubling, which uses two thyristors

the motor attains sufficient speed such that the back EMF of the

only. The detailed design of ripple injection circuit is given in

motor reaches suitable value capable of load commutation [14].

Appendix F [see Fig. 2(e)].

VII. PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS CONVERTER TOPOLOGIES

E. 12-Pulse AC–DC Converter With Tuned High-Pass Filter

The proposed converter topologies are designed and mod-

A combination of a second-order damped passive filter tuned

eled for an 85 kW synchronous motor drive (data is given in

to 11th order harmonics and a high-pass shunt passive filter

Appendix A) in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Fig. 4(a)

is used at the input of a 12-pulse ac–dc converter to feed the

shows the supply current waveform and harmonic spectrum of

LCI-SM drive. The passive filters have been designed for 11th

the six-pulse isolated thyristor converter-fed LCI-SM drive. It

order harmonic and higher order harmonics separately and

shows 28.82% THD of ac mains current at rated load with 1.37

connected in parallel in case of 12-pulse converter. For higher

crest factor (CF). Their current THD reduces sharply with in-

pulse converters, passive filter tuned to other frequencies shall

crease in converter pulses and reaches 1.22% at rated load with

be used, e.g., 17th and high-pass filter for an 18-pulse converter

1.41 CF for an isolated 24-pulse converter. Fig. 4 shows the

and 23rd and high-pass filter in case of 24-pulse converter.

supply currents and their harmonic spectra of the LCI-SM drive

The design of a 12-pulse ac–dc converter is same as discussed

for 6, 12, 18, 24-pulse controlled converters at rated load. Fig. 5

earlier, whereas, the high-pass filter elements are designed

shows the supply currents and their harmonic spectra of the

using equations given in Appendix G.

LCI-SM drive for nonisolated MPCs with rated load. The THD

of supply current reduces to 5.09% for a 12-pulse converter case

VI. MODELING OF LCI-FED SM DRIVE at rated load and reaches 3.98% in case of a nonisolated 24-pulse

The adjustable speed LCI-fed SM drive system includes a converter.

current-control loop inside a speed-control loop, where the dc The performance of various topologies shows that the

current is controlled by the current-control loop to follow a cur- six-pulse converter (isolated and nonisolated) based LCI-SM

rent reference given by the speed-control loop. Therefore, the drive is having a poor power quality, both in terms of current

modeling of the speed controller and a current controller forms harmonic distortion and PF during the total operating range.

374 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

Fig. 4. Supply current waveforms and harmonic spectra of isolated converter- Fig. 5. Supply current waveform and harmonic spectra of nonisolated con-

based LCI-fed SM running at rated speed and rated torque. (a) Six-pulse con- verter-based LCI-fed SM running at rated speed and rated torque. (a) Six-pulse

verter [see Fig. 1(a)]. (b) 12-pulse converter [see Fig. 1(b)]. (c) 18-pulse con- converter [see Fig. 2(a)]. (b) 12-pulse converter [see Fig. 2(b)]. (c) 18-pulse con-

verter [see Fig. 1 (c)]. (d) 24-pulse converter [see Fig. 1(d)]. verter [see Fig. 2 (c)]. (d) 24-pulse converter [see Fig. 2(d)].

Fig. 6 shows current waveforms at ac mains and its harmonic Fig. 7 shows the variation of the current THD and PF with

spectra for 12-pulse converters (isolated and nonisolated load at ac mains for isolated 12-pulse converter topology with

topologies) with shunt passive filter feeding LCI-SM drive and without shunt passive filters. The detailed power quality pa-

operating at full load and half load. Amongst, different isolated rameters with load variation (rated torque and variable speed)

and nonisolated MPCs, the 12-pulse converter is able to achieve are also given in Tables III and IV for a 12-pulse converter with

the power quality within limits of international standards and without passive filters, respectively. It is observed that the

[1]–[4] with a passive filter only. However, the 18 and 24-pulse current THD at ac mains of a 12-pulse converter with shunt

converters have resulted in lower current harmonic distortion at passive filter remains below 8% in the 20%–100% load range.

ac mains. But the PF of ac mains during fractional speeds still The PF variation of the 12-pulse converter with shunt passive

remains poor. The performance of these converter topologies filter shows consistent improvement as compared to results of

is summarized in Tables I and II in terms of PQ indices for the same topology without filter and it remains in the range of

rated and half the rated load. The performance evaluation of 0.85–0.94 from light-load to full-load condition. The voltage

the proposed converter topologies show consistent results in THD is also reduced to less than 1% with the 12-pulse converter

the wide range of speed and meet the desired PQ specifications. topology using passive filters. The rms current at ac mains is also

However, the results have been recorded at rated and half reduced drastically at light load, however, the reduction is ob-

the rated speeds with rated torque just for the performance served in the wide load range, i.e., 36.5–136.5 A from light-load

comparison of various converter topologies at some common to full-load condition against very high values (122–143 A from

reference. light load to full load) for the same topology without filter as

To achieve improved power quality in LCI-SM drive, the shown in Tables III and IV . Therefore, a 12-pulse converter

12-pulse converter topology has been simulated at rated load topology with passive shunt filter is considered a good option

with passive tuned filters and it is observed that this topology for constant torque loads operating in variable speed range.

shows consistent improved power quality in wide range of op-

eration. The design of the shunt passive filter has been aimed to VIII. APPLICATION POTENTIAL

supplement the reactive power requirement of the drive during The multipulse ac–dc converter-fed LCI-SM drive has a

wide speed range. The variation of reactive power from light vast application potential in various large rating adjustable

load to full load is reasonably large and a 12-pulse converter speed drives. The major applications include roller mills, large

with a passive filter shows consistently improved PQ in the compressors, crushers, conveyors, industrial fans and pumps

total load range. in cement, steel, pulp and paper, petrochemicals, mining,

SINGH et al.: HARMONICS MITIGATION IN LCI-FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES 375

Fig. 7. Variation of PF and current THD with load for isolated 12-pulse con-

verter-fed LCI-SM drive at rated torque and 1000 r/min speed.

TABLE III

POWER QUALITY INDEXES WITH LOAD VARIATION (VARIABLE SPEED AND

RATED TORQUE) FOR A 12-PULSE CONVERTER-FED LCI-SM DRIVE WITH

PASSIVE FILTER

based LCI-fed SM drive with shunt passive filter. (a) Isolated topology at rated

load [see Fig. 1(b)]. (b) Isolated topology at half of the rated load [see Fig. 1(b)].

(c) Nonisolated topology at rated load [see Fig. 2(b)]. (d) Nonisolated topology

at half the rated load [see Fig. 2(b)].

TABLE I TABLE IV

POWER QUALITY INDEXES OF VARIOUS MPC-BASED LCI-SM DRIVE AT POWER QUALITY INDEXES WITH LOAD VARIATION (VARIABLE SPEED AND

RATED SPEED (1500 r/min) AND RATED TORQUE RATED TORQUE) FOR A 12-PULSE CONVERTER-FED LCI-SM DRIVE WITHOUT

PASSIVE FILTER

TABLE II

POWER QUALITY INDEXES OF VARIOUS MPC-BASED LCI-SM DRIVE AT HALF

THE RATED SPEED (750 r/min) AND RATED TORQUE

the multipulse converter system with passive filters provides

improved PQ at ac mains while fulfilling the load requirement.

The 12-pulse converter with a passive filter has magnetics

(i.e., voltampere rating) comparable with the 18- and 24-pulse

converters, whereas the control complexity and the cost of the

converter are reduced considerably. It is used in a wide range of

applications including large industrial loads, e.g., heating, ven-

tilating and air conditioning (HVAC)/air compressors, crushers,

grinders, rollers, dryers, conveyors, water/fluid/effluent pumps,

and induced draft (ID)/forced draft (FD) fans.

376 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

IX. CONCLUSION

The detailed design of converter topologies for power quality

improvement in LCI-SM drives has been presented to provide

a clear perspective on various aspects of these drives to the re-

searchers and engineers working in this field. Multipulse con-

trolled converters with isolated and nonisolated topologies have

been found capable of providing the desired power quality for

large rating industrial loads. A combination of passive filters and

12-pulse converter has been proposed for the LCI-SM drive,

which shows improved performance with reduced THD and

magnitude of ac mains current. The 12-pulse converter with

shunt passive filter has added advantages of simple control and

consistently improved PF in the wide operating speed range of

the drive. These converter topologies may be a good candidate

for many applications in near future with cost-effective solution.

It is hoped that this investigation on various PQ improvement

topologies for LCI-SM drives is a useful reference to the users

and manufacturers.

APPENDIX I

APPENDIX

Nominal power: 85 kVA, nominal voltage: 400 V, nominal

frequency: 50 Hz, no-load field current: 10 A, stator armature

resistance: 0.055 ohm, stator leakage inductance: 0.3595 mH,

d-axis mutual inductance: 12.82 mH, q-axis mutual induc-

tance: 5.692 mH, field resistance referred to stator: 0.03634

ohm, field leakage inductance: 1.302 mH, damper-winding

parameters: the d-axis resistance ohm,

leakage inductance mH, the q-axis resistance

ohm, leakage inductance mH,

inertia , friction factor 0.07 Nm·s, pole pairs

2, rotor type: salient pole, wound field. Source impedance:

0.03 pu, transformer leakage impedance: 0.03 pu, dc link

inductor: 15 mH. Gains of PI controllers: ,

s, , s.

Y/Z – 1 transformer: From phasor diagram shown in Fig. 8(a)

for (3)

and

(4)

(5)

Fig. 8. Schematic and phasor diagrams of various components of MPCs. (a)

Similarly, the following relation can be derived using 6

Y/Z – 1 topology. (b) Y/Z – 2 topology. (c) Delta-polygon ( 15 ) auto-

6

transformer topology. (d) Delta-polygon ( 20 ) autotransformer topology. (e)

Hexagon autotransformer topology. (f) IPT for pulse doubling. (g) Passive fil-

ters.

SINGH et al.: HARMONICS MITIGATION IN LCI-FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES 377

TABLE V where , ,

TURN RATIOS OF STAR/ZIGZAG TRANSFORMERS FOR VARIOUS PHASE-SHIFT – , , , V is rms value of

ANGLES

phase voltage and 2K K K 1. These equations result

in , , and .

18-pulse Converter Operation

Fig. 8(d) shows connection and phasor diagrams of a delta-

polygon connected autotransformer for producing desired phase

shifts. The number of turns required for achieving these phase

shifts among different phases as shown in Fig. 8(d) are given by

, , and . The input phase

, and are connected to the output directly as one set

(6) of voltages. The remaining two sets of voltages for phase “a”

are given by (11) and (12), where ,

These ratios are summarized in Table V for a given value of , – , , ,

. V is rms voltage/phase.

Y/Z – 2 transformer: Following the similar procedure as in

previous case, we can get from the phasor diagram of Fig. 8(b) E. Design of Hexagon-Connected Autotransformer for

24-pulse Converter Operation

Fig. 8(e) shows connection and phasor diagrams of a

for (7) hexagon-connected autotransformer for producing desired

phase shifts. The number of turns (shown in Fig. 8 (e) as

and , and ) required for achieving these phase shifts

among different phases can be calculated by considering the

voltages of phase “a ” given by four sets of equations as follows:

(8)

(13)

In a balanced system , so the relation becomes

(14)

(15)

(9) (16)

, , ,

and V is rms value of phase voltage. These equations result in

(10) , , , and

.

Table V summarizes the turn ratios for a given value of . The F. Design of Pulse-Multiplication Circuit

ratio ( ) has been taken as two, three, and four for 12-,

18-, and 24-pulse transformers, respectively, in this paper. Fig. 8(f) shows the schematic diagrams of pulse-doubling

circuit for thyristor converters using an IPT connected to two

C. Design of Delta-Polygon Connected Autotransformer for thyristors [33].

12-pulse Converter Operation The voltage appearing across the reactor winding is an

ac voltage ripple of six times the source frequency, resulting

Fig. 8(c) shows connection and phasor diagrams of a delta- in smaller size weight and volume of the IPT [30], [31], [33].

polygon connected autotransformer for producing desired phase When , the thyristor is forward biased and can be

shifts. The number of turns (shown in Fig. 8(c) as , and fired. In this mode, the current and MMF relationship are given

) required for achieving these phase shifts among different by following equations:

phases can be calculated by considering the voltages of phase

“a ” given by two sets of equations as follows:

(17)

(11) (18)

(12) (19)

378 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

where is the total number of turns in the IPT, whereas [4] Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions (Equipment Input Current

, and are the number of turns as shown in 16 A per phase) International Standard IEC 61000-3-2, 2000.

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[57] J. N. Poole and W. J. Frey, “Retrofit of a recovery boiler ID fan with a Bhim Singh (SM’99–F’10) was born in Rahamapur,

dual channel high reliability LCI drive,” in Proc. IEEE Pulp Paper Ind. India, in 1956. He received the B.E. degree in elec-

Tech. Conf., 1988, pp. 23–37. trical from the University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India,

[58] E. B. Turner and C. P. Lemone, “Adjustable-speed drive applications in 1977, and the M.Tech. and Ph.D. degrees from In-

in the oil and gas pipeline industry,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-25, dian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, New Delhi,

no. 1, pp. 30 –35, Jan./Feb. 1989. India, in 1979 and 1983, respectively.

[59] D. C. Azbill, J. E. Propst, and R. E. Catlett, “A case study of replacing In 1983, he joined the Department of Electrical

steam turbines with LCI-type variable-speed drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Engineering, University of Roorkee, as a Lecturer,

Appl., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1086–1094, Nov./Dec. 1990. and in 1988 became a Reader. In December 1990, he

[60] W. J. Frey, “Retrofit experience of an 8000 HP pipeline compressor joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT

variable speed drive,” in Proc. IEEE IAS PCIC, 1991, pp. 139–146. Delhi, as an Assistant Professor, where he became

[61] B. M. Wood, W. T. Oberle, J. H. Dulas, and F. Steuri, “Application an Associate Professor, in 1994 and a Professor, in 1997. His current research

of a 15000-hp, 6000-dmin adjustable-speed drive in a petrochemical interests include power electronics, electrical machines and drives, active

facility,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1027–1036, Nov./ filters, flexible AC transmission system (FACTS), high voltage DC (HVDC),

Dec. 1995. and power quality.

380 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

Dr. Singh is a Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering, the Mr. Singh is a Life Member of the Indian Society for Technical Education

National Academy of Science, India, the Institution of Engineers, India, and the and the System Society of India.

Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers, a Life Member of

the Indian Society for Technical Education, the System Society of India, and the

National Institution of Quality and Reliability.

S. P. Hemanth Chender (M’10) was born in My-

laram, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India, in 1985.

He received the B.Tech. degree in electrical and

Sanjeev Singh (S’09) was born in Deoria, India, in electronics from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological

1972. He received the B.E. degree in electrical from University, Hyderabad, India, in 2006 and the

Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa, India, in M.Tech. degree from Indian Institute of Technology

1993 and the M.Tech. degree from Devi Ahilya Vish- (IIT) Delhi, New Delhi, India, in 2008.

wavidyalaya, Indore, India, in 1997. In 2008, he joined as an R&D Engineer, Delta

In 1997, he joined as a Project Officer with the Energy Systems (India) Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, India.

North India Technical Consultancy Organisation, His current research interests include power elec-

Chandigarh, India, in 1997. In 2000, he joined as a tronics, electrical machines and drives, as well as

Lecturer with the Department of Electrical and In- switch-mode power supply design for custom design, telecom, network, server

strumentation Engineering, Sant Longowal Institute and storage power supplies.

of Engineering and Technology, Sangrur, Punjab,

India. His current research interests include power electronics, electrical

machines and drives, energy efficiency, and power quality.

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