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“Benefits in English language learning through music”

(Proposal to adolescents between 11 and 12 years old)

Name: Juana Fernanda Olazábal Gómez

Tutor: Maria Esther Linares

Camelot – Language Center - Integral Program for Teachers of English

April, 2010
Table of Contents

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 : Definitions inside English language teaching theory

1.1. Approach

1.1.1. The Grammar Translation Method

1.1.2. The Direct Approach

1.1.3. The Reading Approach

1.1.4. The Audio-lingual Approach

1.2. Teaching

1.2.1. Teaching English as a foreign language

1.2.2. Teaching English as a second language

1.3. Music

1.3.1. Music in teaching process

1.3.1.1. The Audio-lingual method

Chapter 2: Difficulties with English

2.1. Difficulties for teachers

2.1.1. Speaking too quickly

2.1.2. Speaking too naturally

2.1.3. Asking your students if they understood

2.1.4. Impatience

2.1.5. No acknowledgment

2.1.6. Do not adapt materials to the learning style and characteristics

of the students

2.1.7. Follow the course book

2.1.8. Do not encourage and promote language practice outside

classroom
2.2. Difficulties for students

2.3. Difficulties for students in specific topics

2.3.1. Pronunciation

2.3.1.1. Consonant Phonemes

2.3.1.2. Vowel Phonemes

2.3.1.3. Syllable structure

2.3.1.4. Unstressed vowels

2.3.1.5. Stress timing

2.3.1.6. Connected speech

2.3.2. Grammar

2.3.2.1. Tenses

2.3.2.2. Functions and auxiliaries

2.3.2.3. Modal verbs

2.3.2.4. Idiomatic usage

2.3.2.5. Articles

2.3.3. Vocabulary

2.3.3.1. Phrasal verbs

2.3.3.2. Word derivation

2.3.3.3. Size of lexicon

2.3.3.4. Collocations

2.4. Handling mistakes

Chapter 3: Samples and techniques used in classroom

3.1. Group

3.1.1. Location

3.1.2. Trilce School

3.1.3. Obstacles between English and students from this school

3.1.3.1. “We live in Peru, we do not speak English therefore we do

not need it”


3.1.3.2. “I cannot listen to English music because I do not

understand it”

3.1.3.3. “English language is useless outside school”

3.1.3.4. “I am never going to travel outside our country that is why

I am never going to use English”

3.1.3.5. “English is just a meaningless subject inside school syllabus”

3.1.3.6. “I do not speak English, therefore I should not have any

contact with it”

3.1.4. Schools of precedence from current students

3.2. The use of music with this current group

3.2.1. Weak points

3.2.1.1. Grammar knowledge

3.2.1.2. Phonetics

3.2.1.3. Pronunciation

3.3. Things to be aware of when we use songs to teach English

3.3.1. Rules to follow to choose a song for classes

3.3.1.1. The level of students

3.3.1.2. Age and gender of students

3.3.1.3. Relationship with the class

3.3.1.3.1. Recommended exercises to practice past tense

3.3.1.4. Content of the lyrics

3.3.1.5. Slang

3.4. Techniques to teach English though music

3.4.1. Recommended program to use songs in English class

3.4.1.1. Pre teach the vocabulary

3.4.1.2. And Action!

3.4.1.3. Picture and cards for each word or phrase


3.4.1.4. A capella – Without the music

3.4.1.5. Big Finish – Play the CD

3.5. Lesson Plans used in classroom

3.5.1. I got a feeling

3.5.2. Smile

3.5.3. Smells like teen spirit

3.5.4. This love

CONCLUSIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDICES
PREFACE

“Education isn't how much you have committed


to memory, or even how much you know. It's
being able to differentiate between what you
know and what you don't.”

Anatole France

(French Novelist and teacher at the Académie française, 1844 – 1924)


INTRODUCTION

English language in our country is many times considered as an extra subject inside the
curricula of national and private schools. English is usually placed under subjects as
mathematics or Spanish grammar, because it does not belong to our everyday reality.

Through the years, private schools in our country have developed a certain interest in
English as a service that is given to students by including special English programs inside
the annual teaching program or helping the students to improve their English with the
support of language institutes. Nowadays English has become quite popular, we can
consider that invasion that gets the students (as many other things) through the media.

Most of student’s exposure to English language came from media, such as television,
music and movies. Adolescents and teenagers are more exposed to English language,
even more than adults and children.

This is because (According to what Walter Isaacson* wrote on TIME magazine´s “100
most influential people” 2009 issue) “Teenagers look for role models and stars that can
catch their attention by using the well-known equation: rich + famous”

In our country, the same as the rest of the countries around the world; these stars and role
models are easily found in international TV, music and movies. The biggest exposure to
English for adolescents can be placed on TV and music.

Being these two items the most popular between teenagers; they become easy access
inside their houses. This constant and easy access to English language cannot be
supervised all the time by the parents, this is why it can create wrong ideas or grammatical
mistakes that are usually carried to school, where English teachers have to deal with
mistakes or questions originated by this indiscriminate exposure.

It would be a mistake to censor this kind of approach to the language, because if


sometimes this makes mistakes and wrong ideas it also arouse curiosity for the language.

Curiosity helps in the learning process of English because it creates an interest that
teachers can use to involve their students in the class. Involving the students in the class
we need also the correct resources, such as videos, audios, flashcards, etc.

Having a large group of students I have realized that they do not have a good
predisposition to practice English or speak in English during classes. Their refusal to
practice English is caused by many reasons, between cultural, educational and familiar.
I have decided to use audio to increase the practice of English inside and outside the
classroom, using popular songs to create in the students an interest for English in order to
make them aware of the native pronunciation and the use of real English.

So this project as a goal to create a conscience about the proper use of music as a tool
that can help teacher to impart knowledge and accessible resources to students between
the age range that I present.

(*Walter Isaacson: American writer and biographer, CEO of CNN and managing editor of
TIME magazine.)
Chapter I

Definitions inside English language teaching theory

“The best way to know if students of English language had a real success in this learning
process is that Students can communicate properly in English having a good performance
in the 4 skills: Reading, writing, speaking and listening.”

Of the four skills, the listening is consider one of the most difficult skill to develop because
of the variety of sounds that we can find in the English language. The learning of the
language depends on how good and consistent is the approach to English language.
1.1. Approach:

Cambridge´s Advanced Learners Dictionary gives approach the following definition: “To
come near”* by using this definition we can say that approach is the action to come near to
something, in this case we are going to talk about the approach from adolescents between
the ages of 11 (eleven) and 12 (twelve) years old to English language. Approach in the
teaching field is also use to name the methods used in the teaching process:

1.1.1.  The Grammar-Translation Approach

“This approach was historically used in teaching Greek and Latin. The approach was
generalized to teaching modern languages.”**

Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue, with little active use of the target
language. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists. Elaborate explanations of
grammar are always provided. Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting words
together; instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words. Reading of difficult
texts is begun early in the course of study. Little attention is paid to the content of texts,
which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. Often the only drills are exercises
in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue,
and vice versa. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.

(Source: Camelot Language Center – Handout – Teaching Methodoly – Methods and


approaches)

1.1.2. The Direct Approach

“This approach was developed initially as a reaction to the grammar-translation approach


in an attempt to integrate more use of the target language in instruction.”**

*Cambridge Advanced Learners – 2010 Edition - Cambridge University Press 2010

Lessons begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in the target
language. Material is first presented orally with actions or pictures. The mother tongue is
NEVER, NEVER used. There is no translation. The preferred type of exercise is a series of
questions in the target language based on the dialogue or an anecdotal narrative.
Questions are answered in the target language. Grammar is taught inductively--rules are
generalized from the practice and experience with the target language. Verbs are used
first and systematically conjugated only much later after some oral mastery of the target
language. Advanced students read literature for comprehension and pleasure. Literary
texts are not analyzed grammatically. The culture associated with the target language is
also taught inductively. Culture is considered an important aspect of learning the language.
1.1.3. The Reading Approach

“This approach is selected for practical and academic reasons. For specific uses of the
language in graduate or scientific studies. The approach is for people who do not travel
abroad for whom reading is the one usable skill in a foreign language.” **

The priority in studying the target language is first, reading ability and second, current
and/or historical knowledge of the country where the target language is spoken. Only the
grammar necessary for reading comprehension and fluency is taught. Minimal attention is
paid to pronunciation or gaining conversational skills in the target language. From the
beginning, a great amount of reading is done in L2, both in and out of class. The
vocabulary of the early reading passages and texts is strictly controlled for
difficulty. Vocabulary is expanded as quickly as possible, since the acquisition of
vocabulary is considered more important that grammatical skill. Translation reappears in
this approach as a respectable classroom procedure related to comprehension of the
written text.

1.1.4.  The Audiolingual Method

“This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology. It adapted many of the
principles and procedures of the Direct Method, in part as a reaction to the lack of
speaking skills of the Reading Approach.” **

New material is presented in the form of a dialogue. Based on the principle that language
learning is habit formation, the method fosters dependence on mimicry, memorization of
set phrases and over-learning. Structures are sequenced and taught one at a
time. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills.

**Curran, Charles A. Counseling-Learning in Second Languages. Apple River, Illinois:


Apple River Press, 1976.

Little or no grammatical explanations are provided; grammar is taught inductively. Skills


are sequenced: Listening, speaking, reading and writing are developed in
order. Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context.

Teaching points are determined by contrastive analysis between L1 and L2. There is
abundant use of language laboratories, tapes and visual aids. There is an extended pre-
reading period at the beginning of the course.

Great importance is given to precise native-like pronunciation. Use of the mother tongue
by the teacher is permitted, but discouraged among and by the students. Successful
responses are reinforced; great care is taken to prevent learner errors. There is a
tendency to focus on manipulation of the target language and to disregard content and
meaning.
1.2. Teaching:

Is the process of giving information and imparting knowledge, so we are going to focus on
the English language teaching and it´s orientation to be taught by using music.

In English teaching we can find two ways of teaching English:

1.2.1. TEFL: Teaching English as a foreign language: refers to teaching English to


students whose first language is not English. TEFL usually occurs in the student's own
country, either within the state school system, or privately, e.g., in an after-hours language
school or with a tutor. TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English.*

TEFL mixes L1 with L2, being able to give explanations and aswers based on the L1, in
this case; L1 is Spanish.

1.2.2.  TESL: Teaching English as a second language: (also called "Teaching


English for Speakers of other Languages," to note the fact that some people may be
acquiring English as a third language, fourth language, etc.) refers to
teaching English to students whose first language is not English and usually in a region
where English is the dominant language.*

This project is going to be focused on TESL, the school chosen to do the investigation
works with the TESL to get bilingual Student at the end of the school program.

(*Source: Sievert, Jessica. "Evaluation of Structured English Immersion and Bilingual


Education on Reading Skills of Limited English Proficient Students in California and
Texas". Applied Research Project. Texas State University. 2007)

1.3. Music:

Is the art of arranging sounds in time so as to produce a continuous, unified, and evocative
composition, as through melody, harmony and rhythm. Music is considered also a
universal way of communication, we can transmit feeling and ideas with the help of music.
That is why we have different genders of music and different topics in their lyrics that give
the listener a message previously given by the composer or writer.

(Source: Owen, Harold (2000). Music Theory Resource Book. Oxford University Press.)

The music does not transmit the composer´s idea but this rarely is understood entirely for
the listener as it was thought by the creator.

The artificiality of the musical stimulus (in listening drills) may give rise to a kind of
"structured speech"; which is marked by lack of interaction in a real sense.The content
presented by "meaningless drills" may teach learners that listening is a waste of time.
Only hearing is required to complete meaningless drills. Language learning may be
presented as a tedious process.

When using "meaningless drills" e.g. minimal pairs for pronunciation, teachers should
remember to convince learners of the importance of phonology, stress and intonation or
any other features of language systems which might be isolated from meaning for the
purpose of practice. Students should be given the reason behind the repetition and
focusing on the words on some feature of paragraph, sentence or word.

e.g.

Watching vs. Washing the TV.

Awkward consonant clusters or diphthongs. Communication often fails at motor skill level
(e.g. poor pronunciation of certain phonemes).

(Source: Lalas, J. & Lee, S. (2002). Language, Literacy, and Academic Development for
English language Learners. Pearson Educational Publishing.)

1.3.1. Music in teaching progress:

Music is frequently used by teachers to help second language learners acquire a second
language. This is not surprising since the literature abounds with the positive statements
regarding the efficacy of music as a vehicle for first and second language acquisition. It
has been reported to help second language learners acquire vocabulary and grammar,
improve spelling and develop the linguistic skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening.

According to educators of second language learners, music is advantageous for still other
reasons. First, for most students, singing songs and listening to music are enjoyable
experiences. The experience is so pleasurable that it is not uncommon for students to
“pester” their teacher so that they can sing again and again. Also, as students repeatedly
sing songs, their confidence level rises. Furthermore, by engaging in a pleasurable
experience, learners are relaxed and their inhibitions about acquiring a second language
are lessened. Yet, while they are more relaxed, they are also more attentive than usual,
and therefore, more receptive to learning. Through songs, students are exposed to
“authentic” examples of the second language. Furthermore, target vocabulary, grammar,
routines and patterns are modeled in context.

(Source: Jalongo and Bromley, 1984, McCarthey, 1985; Martin, 1983, Mitchell, 1983,
Jolly, 1975)

The idea of using musical resources to teach English relies in the fact that music is a
reachable resource of English, it is an easy and universal way to be exposed to the
language in an informal way and even outside the classroom giving some independence to
the students when studying English by themselves.

If we want to label the use of music inside the teaching process or identify it with a specific
method, we could locate it inside the audio-lingual method.

1.3.1.1.The Audiolingual Method

This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology. It adapted many of the
principles and procedures of the Direct Method, in part as a reaction to the lack of
speaking skills of the Reading Approach.

New material is presented in the form of a dialogue. Based on the principle that language
learning is habit formation, the method fosters dependence on mimicry, memorization of
set phrases and over-learning. Structures are sequenced and taught one at a
time. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills. Little or no grammatical
explanations are provided; grammar is taught inductively. Skills are sequenced: Listening,
speaking, reading and writing are developed in order. Vocabulary is strictly limited and
learned in context. Teaching points are determined by contrastive analysis between L1
and L2. There is abundant use of language laboratories, tapes and visual aids. There is an
extended pre-reading period at the beginning of the course. Great importance is given to
precise native-like pronunciation. Use of the mother tongue by the teacher is permitted, but
discouraged among and by the students. Successful responses are reinforced; great care
is taken to prevent learner errors. There is a tendency to focus on manipulation of the
target language and to disregard content and meaning.

In the case of using music to learn English we have to be aware of the vocabulary, needed
to permit individual control over the meaning of the information conveyed. When not
permitted there is a danger that all that is being practiced is pronunciation. Drills which
lean heavily on automatic responses without reference to appropriate contexts may give
rise to little or no naturalistic speech.

Vocabulary needs to be revised or checked over and over again, the main goal of
students is to be able to communicate that is why they need to have at hand the proper
and enough vocabulary resource in order to express their ideas in the way that they are
created inside their minds.

Sometimes, the repetition drills, the classic ones, are just a way to improve the
pronunciation in a mechanical way, what happens with the songs is that these are a nice,
active and interesting way to learn new words, and it is also quite attractive for students
that are not so enthusiastic about the learning of a new language.

One opinion about learning English through music from the Cameroonian English teacher
Kisito Futonge, owner of a web page of teaching articles:

“English songs can be used for a wide variety of ESL learning and teaching activities.
They can start discussions on a topic or even become the centre of debate. Songs are
also great for teaching listening. One of my favorite exercises with music is completing the
blanks as students listen or listening and choosing the correct words from two words than
rhyme, for example cry and try. Most English songs sometimes sacrifice grammar for
smooth rhyme. This makes them very good grammar teaching tools. You can teach new
vocabulary with songs and students would understand them better within the context of
the song. These are just a few of many ideas for using songs in ESL/EFL teaching.”

ESL Magazine : Read & Publish ESL Articles

Using English Videos And Music In EFL,ESL Classrooms


By Kisito Futonge
Chapter II

Difficulties with English

2.1. Difficulties for teachers:

Teaching is a learning process for both students and teachers. While teachers may make
progress in the first years of their career, learning should never stop. Learning stopping is
a dangerous sign indicating that the teacher needs to do something new to continue being
a better teacher. Here are some mistakes that are common found in classrooms.

2.1.1. Speaking too quickly

When someone is just beginning to teach, speaks too quickly. The students cannot
understand the teacher. When the teacher thinks that he/she is talking in a natural pace,
for the students it was too quick, as the teacher is used to speak in a fluent way, the
students have trouble following the rhythm of the teacher.

(Source: Adolph Paul - Difficulties and challenges in teaching English as the second
language – Articlebase.com)

In a classroom, if we speak fluently as it was a native English speakers classroom we are


going to find a few number of students that are going to understand us with no further
problems.

2.1.2. Speaking too naturally

If the goal of learning English is to be able to communicate in a fluent and clear way as
you were a native speaker, the teacher, when teach has to be careful with the
pronunciation and the naturally when speaking.

Sometimes, because we English in a regular way, we tend to run words together. If some
students are going to be able to understand you even though you speak in a fluent regular
way, it is not recommendable to exceed your students’ abilities. A way to correct this
mistake would be to decrease your enunciation in tandem with your students' increasing
ability.

(Source: Adolph Paul - Difficulties and challenges in teaching English as the second
language – Articlebase.com)

2.1.3. Asking your students if they understand

A classic way to check is students understood the class given, is to ask them if they
understood. The common answer is yes, many times this “yes” only means that they heard
you. Sometimes students say no, and you can explain the topic again. Far more often,
however, students will reply affirmatively without having understood. When teachers first
started teaching ask this question very often. As the time goes by you will understand that
is only one possible meaning when they reply. To confirm my students have understood,
check the information given with drills and questions referred to main and specific point
about the class.

(Source: Jin, L., & Cortazzi, M. (1998). "The culture the learner brings: A bridge or a
barrier? In M. Byram & M. Fleming (Eds.), Language learning in intercultural perspective:
Approaches through drama and ethnography. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University
Press.)

2.1.4. Impatience
Many times, we do not wait for students to speak. The result is obvious- improper
communication. Communication consists of three important aspects- speaking, listening
and assimilating. If we keep on speaking without giving out students a chance to speak,
we would never be able to address the weak points of the students.

2.1.5. No Acknowledgement

How often do you acknowledge the answer given by your students? Everyone loves being
noticed. Teachers, therefore, should acknowledge the questions, answers and even
doubts of their students.

Any one of them can easily derail the students' efforts in language acquisition and
learning or cause them serious problems. So, review these areas, make any needed
adjustments to your teaching practice. Do not be a block to your learners' progress.

2.1.6. Do not adapt materials to the learning style and characteristics of the
students.

Unfortunately, the learning style most reflected in the classroom is that of the teacher. It is
paramount that concepts and material be presented in a way most suitable for the
learners.

"Student learning styles may be an important factor in the success of teaching and may
not necessarily reflect those that teachers recommend."

(Source: Jack C. Richards Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied


Linguistics (3rd edition 2002, with Richard Schmidt)

Why? Because teachers use their own preferences in the class room, not necessarily
those of the students. Do an analysis of your class group’s learning characteristics, then
apply the results to your teaching.

2.1.7.Follow the course book.

A course book is usually not intended to be a "bible", but all too often teachers follow it
"religiously". They do nothing else, nor include outside materials in their teaching. If you
read the teacher's notes that typically accompany an English or language text, you will
most likely note that the course book is intended to be a guide for teaching with
supplementary materials widely used to expand, deepen or reinforce presented materials
and themes. Use the course book sequence as a guide. Freely supplement its exercises
and course materials with your own creations or at the very least with materials adapted
from other sources. Plan your lessons and materials to meet the needs, learning styles
and characteristics of your learners.

2.1.8. Do not encourage and promote language practice outside the classroom.

With an alarming number of schools and institutes decreasing student to teacher


classroom contact hours per week it is essential for learners to receive additional practice
and input. There are requirements of as little as four hours per week or even less in many
publicly or government-funded educational centers. Can a student really learn a language
in only 45 hours? Or put it this way, is it reasonable to expect mastery of any sort in a
language after six or seven days in a foreign country where that language is spoken?
Spread that contact intensity over a six-month period; does that make language learning
and acquisition better or worse? Now, throw in the learners using their first language half
of each day of language learning and you have a situation degraded to a nearly impossible
state.

So teachers must avoid being a block to your learners' progress..

As educators, it becomes imperative for us to impart quality education to pupils. The


purpose of education can only be achieved when we understand our moral responsibilities
and strive to make education simpler for students. Psychology is an important tool for
better teaching.

Many of our students do not speak that well. They come to us to learn. Learning to speak
a foreign language is a challenge, especially in a country where the target language is not
part of the daily life.

(Source: Prof. Larry M. Lynch Teaching English as a Foreign or Second Language: A


Teacher Self-development and Methodology Guide)

Our job as teachers is to help them to communicate as well as they can.

2.2. Difficulties for students:

Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in
the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language is
different from English. Spanish native speakers have some words in common with English
language. Despite of students´ native language there is always interference between L1
and L2 in basic languages of English learning.

Spanish native speakers students, for example think in Spanish and the main goal of
English learning is to be able to communicate in L2; in this case English.

Even when they are learning grammatical rules, it is hard for the students to express or
create ideas in English.

The famous phrase “To learn English you must think in english” becomes an obstacle in
this basic level of learning.

Eg.

In Spanish the adjective goes after the noun.

La blusa verde
In English the adjective goes before the blouse

The green blouse

 Many students confuse the rules and use the grammatical order as if they were
speaking English:

“The blouse green”

Other mistakes are pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing
items of vocabulary known. This is known as L1 transfer or "language interference".
However, these transfer effects are typically stronger for beginners' .

It is important to remember that learning a second language involves much more than
learning the words and the sounds of a language. Communication breakdowns occur not
only due to the more commonly understood syntax and pronunciation difficulties but
because when we learn a new language we also learn a new culture. What is perceived as
right, normal and correct in one language and culture does not always "translate" into a
second language...even when the vocabulary is understood. Communication breakdowns
may occur as a result of cultural assumptions regarding age, forms of
address, authority and respect, touching, eye contact and other body language, greetings,
invitations, and punctuality to name just a few.

(Source: La Perla, Joann, "Order, Chaos and Gentle Revolutions: A Brief and Personal
History of ESL Instruction for Immigrants", 1986-10-25, paper presented at Union County
College's conference, "Literature and the Immigrant Experience" (Cranford, NJ, October
25, 1986).)

2.3. Difficulties for students in specific topics:

2.3.1. Pronunciation:

2.3.1.1. Consonant phonemes


English does not have more individual consonants sounds than most languages. However,
the interdentals, /θ/ and /ð/ (the sounds written with th), which are common in English
(thin, thing, etc.; and the, this, that, etc.) are relatively rare in other languanges and these
sounds are missing even in some English dialects. Some learners substitute
a [t] or [d] sound, while others shift to [s] or [z], [f] or [v] and even [ts] or [dz]).
2.3.1.2. Vowel phonemes

The precise number of distinct vowel sounds depends on the variety of English. Many
learners, such as speakers of Spanish, Japanese or Arabic, have fewer vowels, or only
pure ones, in their mother tongue and so may have problems both with hearing and with
pronouncing these distinctions.

2.3.1.3. Syllable structure

“In its syllable structure, English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the
vowel and four after it (e.g., straw, desks,glimpsed). The syllable structure causes
problems for speakers of many other languages. Japanese, for example, broadly
alternates consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan often try to force vowels in
between the consonants (e.g., desks /desks/ becomes "desukusu" or milk shake /mɪlk
ʃeɪk/ becomes "mirukushēku").

(Source: Ogden, Charles K. (1934), The System of Basic English, New York:
Harcourt, Brace & Co., and Templer, Bill (2005), “Towards a People’s English:
Back to BASIC in EIL”, Humanising Language Teaching September 2005.)

2.3.1.4. Unstressed vowels

Native English speakers frequently replace almost any vowel in an unstressed syllable
with an unstressed vowel, often schwa. For example, from has a distinctly pronounced
short 'o' sound when it is stressed (e.g., Where are you from?), but when it is unstressed,
the short 'o' reduces to a schwa (e.g., I'm from London.). In some cases, unstressed
vowels may disappear altogether, in words such as chocolate (which has four syllables in
Spanish, but only two as pronounced by Americans: "choc-lit".)
Stress in English more strongly determines vowel quality than it does in most other world
languages (although there are notable exceptions such as Russian). For example, in some
varieties the syllables an, en, in, on and un are pronounced as homophones, that is,
exactly alike. Native speakers can usually distinguish an able, enable, and unable because
of their position in a sentence, but this is more difficult for inexperienced English speakers.
Moreover, learners tend to overpronounce these unstressed vowels, giving their speech
an unnatural rhythm.
2.3.1.5. Stress timing

English tends to be a stress-timed language, this means that stressed syllables are
roughly equidistant in time, no matter how many syllables come in between. Although
some other languages, e.g., German and Russian, are also stress-timed, most of the
world's other major languages are syllablle, with each syllable coming at an equal time
after the previous one.

2.3.1.6. Connected speech

Phonological processes together with indistinct word boundaries can confuse learners
when listening to natural spoken English, as well as making their speech sound too formal
if they do not use them.

2.3.2. Grammar

2.3.2.1. Tenses

English has a relatively large number of tenses with some quite subtle differences,
such as the difference between the simple past "I ate" and the present perfect "I have
eaten." Progressive and perfect progressive forms add complexity.

(Source: Jeremy Harmer - The Practice of English Language Teaching – Pearson


Publications)

2.3.2.2. Functions of auxiliaries

Learners of English tend to find it difficult to manipulate the various ways in which
English uses the first auxiliary verb of a tense. These include negation (e.g. He hasn't
been drinking.), inversion with the subject to form a question (e.g. Has he been
drinking?), short answers (e.g. Yes, he has.) and tag questions (has he?). A further
complication is that the dummy auxiliary verb do /does/did is added to fulfil these
functions in the simple present and simple past, but not for the verb to be.

(Source: Jeremy Harmer - The Practice of English Language Teaching – Pearson


Publications)
2.3.2.3. Modal verbs

English also has a significant number of modal auxiliary verbs which each have a
number of uses. For example, the opposite of "You must be here at 8" (obligation) is
usually "You don't have to be here at 8" (lack of obligation, choice), while "must" in
"You must not drink the water" (prohibition) has a different meaning from "must" in
"You must not be a native speaker" (deduction). This complexity takes considerable
work for most English language learners to master.

(Source: Jeremy Harmer - The Practice of English Language Teaching – Pearson


Publications)

2.3.2.4. Idiomatic usage

English is known to have a relatively high degree of idiomatic usage. For example, the
use of different main verb forms in such apparently parallel constructions as "try to
learn", "help learn", and "avoid learning" pose difficulty for learners. Another example is
the idiomatic distinction between "make" and "do": "make a mistake", not "do a
mistake"; and "do a favor", not "make a favor".

2.3.2.4. Articles

English has an appreciable number of articles , including the definite article the and the
indefinite article a, an. At times English nouns can or indeed must be used without an
article.

2.3.3. Vocabulary

2.3.3.1. Phrasal verbs


Phrasal verbs in English can cause difficulties for many learners because they have
several meanings and different syntactic patterns. There are also a number of phrasal verb
differences between American and British English.

2.3.3.2. Word derivation

Word derivation in English requires a lot of rote learning. For example, an adjective can be
negated by using the prefix un- (e.g. unable), in- (e.g. inappropriate), dis- (e.g. dishonest),
or a- (e.g. amoral), or through the use of one of a myriad of related but rarer prefixes, all
modified versions of the first four.

2.3.3.3. Size of lexicon

The history of English has resulted in a very large vocabulary, essentially one stream
from Old English and one from the Norman infusion of Latin-derived terms. (Schmitt &
Marsden claim that English has one of the largest vocabularies of any known language.)
This inevitably requires more work for a learner to master the language.

2.3.3.4. Collocations

Collocations in English refer to the tendency for words to occur regularly with others. For
example, nouns and verbs that go together (ride a bike/ drive a car). Native speakers tend
to use chunks of collocations and the ESL learners make mistakes with collocations in
their writing/speaking which sometimes results in awkwardness.

2.4. Handling mistakes


Most lessons consist of two different kinds of phases:
• Teacher-centred phases, in which the students are listening and talking to the
teacher

• Student-centred phases, in which the students are listening and talking to each
other.
Chapter III

Samples and techniques used in the classroom

3.1. Group:

The group of adolescents chosen to be analyzed and follow to proof the approach that you
can get though music consist in 4 classroom.
“A problem with any culture in the world is that people will always seek out their own kind.
In any major city of the world there are enclaves where people of similar ethnic
backgrounds set up home and businesses. There have been numerous cases of
immigrants living in Australia or the United States for more than twenty years who still do
not speak any English. In these insular societies there is no pressure to learn ESL when
there is no need to. Admittedly, many immigrants come to the West seeking work or a
better life, and the need to earn a living will preclude any formal study. Therefore they pick
up English on the job. Children of immigrants, however, often speak their parents' tongue
fluently and sometimes allow themselves to pick up their parents' accents as well. This is
not a problem, but acquiring their parents' linguistic errors in English is.”

(Source: Enzo Silvestri, eHow Contributing Writer)

3.1.1. Location:

Villa Maria del Triunfo has a total land area of 70.57 km². Before the district was created in
1939 in that area we could find two human settlements known as Tablada de
Lurin and Villa Poeta José Gálvez Barrenechea. Created by construction workers came
from outside Lima and their families.

In 1961 was officially created as a District, having a large population (over twenty
thousand families registered in the city hall).

3.1.2. Trilce School

Villa María del Triunfo

Address: 2222, Pachacútec Avenue – Villa María del Triunfo – Lima

This is my first years an English teacher in Trilce Institution. I have been assigned the high
school level, 1st year A, B, C and 2nd year B.

Being this a large group students and due to the location of their school and the place
where they lived, they are not exposed to English regularly. The closest foreign language
institute is in another district and most of the student´s parents are not able to cover the
fee of these institutes.

3.1.3. Obstacles between English and students from school:

From a group of 120 students only two have a access to English language institutes after
school classes, they are not use to listen music in English or even like tv shows or movies
in English spoken language.
If they have the chance to watch an American or European movie, they prefer to watch it
with the subtitles on, or change the spoken language to Spanish (their mother tongue).

In previous occasions I have recommend them several options to have access to native
English, but they refuse to speak, practice or even listen English outside the school.

I also have to deal with wrong ideas about English brought many times from house
because of parents that think that English is nothing but an “extra” subject:

3.1.3.1. “We live in Peru, we do not speak English therefore we do not need
English”:

The students´ idea about their realities is always an obstacle in English class. Based on
the fact that English is not our official mother tongue they do not pay enough attention or
importance to it. They do not even consider English a part of their reality in a future.

3.1.3.2. “I cannot listen English music because I do not understand it”:

Many times, I have found that students’ arguments do not have a solid background or
defense beyond their own words, usually based on their personal thoughts. An example of
this is the fact that students refuse to watch movies or TV shows in native English because
they cannot understand the language. Huge contradiction, if you do not know or there is an
obstacle between you and the information the correct reaction would be of investigation or
curiosity to know new words.

3.1.3.3. “English language is useless outside school”

Students hardly ever practice English outside the school, many times this is because the
embarrassment they feel about their mistakes in pronunciation, most students feel shy
when it’s their turn to speak in the classroom, their friends are watching and between the
adolescence the opinions of our friends is the most important opinion. If students make a
mistake and friends make fun of it students are going to feel ashamed and are going to
refuse to speak English inside or outside the classroom.

3.1.3.4. “I am never going to travel outside our country that is why I will never
use English”

Students who refuse the idea of English language as a part of their reality, consider that
this is just part of a foreign reality, that only belongs to English speaking countries. And the
only way to get in touch with English is by travelling outside the country.

Despite of the Stock Market Crash that USA had to face on 2008, the migration from our
country to USA never changed or decreased their numbers. People still want to chase the
“American Dream” and they continue travelling, so by statistics Peru is still tie to USA as a
target country for emigration.

( Source: © OIM - IOM 2008


Organización Internacional para las Migraciones - OIM Lima)
3.1.3.5. “English is just a meaningless subject inside the school syllabus”

We often listen about peruvian students winning mathematic or science contest, but when
have we listened about a Peruvian winning an English related contest? Never; in our
country national education is oriented to put English language is a second level, under
mathematics, Spanish and grammar.

In 2008, the education minister José Antonio Chang decided to modify the National
Curricula Design of Regular Basic Education* in order to improve the national school´s
students level school when graduating. But he included this modification only in High
School level, letting primary school lost in the same old fashion curricula where English is
just an “extra”.

We cannot correct entirely the fact that English has been relegated in our national schools,
but privates school do what they can (or what students demand) by giving high levels of
English programs as a way to offer a better service that national schools.

(Gloria Medina, Mejorarán enseñanza y aprendizaje de idioma inglés en colegios de


secundaria,PerúEnVideos.com, December, 2008)

3.3.1.6. “I do not speak English, therefore I should not have any contact with
it”

The ultimate excuse to refuse to participate in English class is the personal one, when
students lack of real reasons to create obstacles between English language and them,
they tend to give personal reason such as “I do not like English” or “I am not good at
English”, many times this are just other ways to create a wall between the second
language, here there is not much that the teacher can do, taking the classroom as a group.
It is much better to deal with this in a personal way, knowing each students worries about
the language would be ideal, but in this case a large group as the one that I handle I have
to deal with these in small groups of students.

3.1.4. Schools of procedure from current students:

Here I see cultural and educational problems, students come from schools where the
English subject was just teach once a week in a very basic level, even with that low level
of knowledge they have not develop any like or interest in acquire the language as a
second language or practice it outside.

Villa María del Triunfo is considered by the local police as a place where violence and
gangs have settled being considered as a big problem for adolescent´s education.
The local police created a program last year “Safe Schools” where members of the police
went to the national and private institutes giving speeches about security and against
gangs.

( Jose Carlos Jhon Erazo - Escuelas seguras villa maria del triunfo- emagister.com
Copyright © 1999/2000 - Grupo Intercom - 27/04/2009)
Actually in Trilce´s 1st year High school classrooms I can fin 3 groups of students:

Students who have been in Trilce since Primary and are still studying here, so they have
a basic background in English. This group is formed by the 30 or 35 % of students.

New Students, In the change from primary school to high school there is a raise in the
number of students, many students from other schools change to Trilce looking for
demanding classes usually in mathematics and science area. This group is formed by the
60% or 65% of students.

Students that have access to English language institutes such as ICPNA or Britanico, in
this group we can find only 5 or 10% of the students.

3.2. The use of music with this current group

As the days were passing I had the opportunity to know students a little better and could
indentify their weak points.

3.2.1. Weak points:

3.2.1.1. Grammar knowledge: By not giving English language the proper


importance it needs they do not remember the rules of grammar beyond the
basic ones taught in primary level. As the classes move on, students need
to learn new rules and it is an obstacle.

3.2.1.2. Phonetics: Phonetics has become a very important part in English


learning, but it is not teach in most of schools, students do not know what
the concept of phonetic and the different sound in English phonetics.

3.2.1.3. Pronunciation: With constant repetition drills they learn and listen
the correct pronunciation of the words over and over again and even with
this constant repetition they have mistakes in pronunciation such as:

Eg.

Friday is supposed to be pronunciate: /ˈfraɪdeɪ/

But students keep saying: /ˈfrɪdaɪ/

Because they pronounce the English words thinking in Spanish and relating
the Spanish sounds to their reading in English.
3.3. Things to be aware of when we use songs to teach english

3.3.1. Rules to follow to chose a song for classes:

The process of choosing a song to work with adolescents has to be done days before the
class is given and it must be done following some rules:

3.3.1.1. The level of the students: According to their level we have to be


careful if the song has words that the students recognize or use at their level of
knowledge. Don´t choose songs with words that are unknown to our students or use
them but prepare a previous vocabulary explanation about the new words.

Eg.

“But then they send me away to teach me how to be sensible,


logical, responsible, practical.
And they showed me a world where I could be so dependable,
clinical, intellectual, cynical.”

(Source: The Logical Song – SuperTramp -1970)

The song has a slow rhythm easy to follow for the students but the words are not
so known for a group of adolescents between 11 and 12 in a lower-intermediate
like the group in observation, it would be better if we do a vocabulary explanation
before the listening if we want to include this song in class, in order to avoid
sudden questions in the middle of the drill or students chatting and asking their
classmates about the new words.

3.3.1.2. Age and Gender of students: If well as a drill, every student should
participate in the listening activity, it would be much better if students feel
motivated about the song they are going to work with, so to get a better
result it would help to locate the music preferences of the students based
mostly in their age and gender and the last trends according to bands and
singers.

Eg.

“And now, the end is near,


And so I face the final curtain.
My friends, I'll say it clear;
I'll state my case of which I'm certain.
I've lived a life that's full -
I've travelled each and every highway.
And more, much more than this,
I did it my way.”

(Source: My Way – Paul Anka – 1969)

Even though for adult people who know the meaning of the song My Way it
represent a huge moment in the music culture, for students between 11 and 12
years it does not mean the same that it does for melomaniac people, because of
the difference in ages.

3.3.1.3. Relationship with the class: Even though the listening activities are
usually independent drills it would be very useful to check the lyrics first to
look for words that match with the vocabulary previously done in class, at
least a couple of words to establish a relationship between this drill and the
rest of the class.

Eg.

“When I woke up, the rain was pouring down


There were people standing all around
Something warm rolling through my eyes
But somehow I found my baby that night
I lifted her head, she looked at me and said
"Hold me darling just a little while."
I held her close, I kissed her our last kiss
I found the love that I knew I would miss
But now she's gone, even though I hold her tight
I lost my love, my life that night.”

( Source: Last Kiss - Composed by: Wayne Cochran / Version by: Pearl Jam /
Year: 1999)

If we are having a class about verbs in past, we can link the material used for
teaching grammar with the song presented here, or we can use them as a practice
for the topic of verbs in past tense.

3.3.1.3.1. Recommended exercise to practice past tense verbs using Pearl


Jam´s Last Kiss:
1.-Complete the spaces with the verbs in past in brackets in past tense:

Last Kiss – Pearl Jam

“When I ___________ (wake up), the rain _________ (is) pouring down
There ___________ (are) people standing all around
Something warm rolling through my eyes
But somehow I _____________ (find) my baby that night
I ________________ (lift) her head, she _____________ (look) at me and
_______________ (say)
"Hold me darling just a little while."
I _____________ (hold) her close, I ______________ (kiss) her our last kiss
I found the love that I ______________ (know) I would miss
But now she's _____________ (go), even though I hold her tight
I _______________ (loose) my love, my life that night.”

(Source:)

Composed by: Wayne Cochran

Version by: Pearl Jam

Year: 1999

3.3.1.4. Content of the lyrics:

The students must be exposed to the language; but not all English language musical
material is appropriate for students between 11 and 12 years. Most are adult topics or
ideas that the students do not consider yet.

Eg.

You've got a body like the devil


and you smell like sex
I can tell your trouble, but I'm still obsessed
Because you know you're so hot!
I want to get you alone...so hot
I want to get you stoned...so hot
I don't want to be your friend
I want to fuck you like I'm never going to see you again

( Source: So Hot! - Kid Rock )


We often see that the parents have trouble controlling and checking the type of music that
their children listen to the differences between languages. This makes very difficult for the
parents to realize about which song has a proper topic for adolescents. In the case of the
song: So Hot! By Kid Rock, it is a very famous song and it was n°1 in many American
billboards. Therefore, we can establish that being a famous song that has been listened to
in the whole world, it should have a proper content.

Slang:

Is defined by the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary on its 2010 Edition as “A kind
of language occurring chiefly in casual and playful speech, made up typically
of short-lived coinages and figures of speech that are deliberately used in
place of standard terms for added raciness, humor, irreverence, or other
effect.”

Usually in rap or hip hop songs the composers and singers use and abuse slang and
offensive language in order to capture the massive attention to their records.

Eg.

“Back by popular demand


Now pop a little Zantac or ant'-acid if you can
You're ready to tackle any task that is at hand
How does it feel, is it fantastic, is it grand?
Well look at all the massive masses in the stands
Shady man… no don’t massacre the fans
Damn, I think Kim Kardashian's a man
She stomped him just cause he asked to put his hands
On her massive Gluteus maximus again
Squeeze it, then Squish it, then pass it to her friend
Can he come back as nasty as he can
Yes he can, can, don’t ask me this again”

(Source: We made you – Eminem)

If the lyrics are not so fast to follow, which is common with rap and hip-hop songs, slang
makes it difficult to complete the task or understand the lyrics, because of the changes in
the word meanings.

3.4. Techniques to teach English through music:


3.4.1. Recommended program to use song in English class:

3.4.1.1. Pre teach the Vocabulary

If you are using traditional songs such as lullabies (children songs), try and pre-teach as
much of the language in previous lessons as you can. Do not teach it as a prelude to a
song, just let the few of the words fall in naturally during the previous couple of lessons.

(This idea also works well with drama plays or picture books). If you are teaching a song
specially written for teaching ESL or EFL, you can probably introduce all the language at
the beginning of the day´s lesson.

3.4.1.2. And Action!

The main reason songs work so well is that many kids are what is called "Musically
Intelligent". It simply means that new phrases stick in their memory if it is accompanied by
a melody. It is the same thing that happens when you hear a brand new catchy song on
the radio and you cannot get it out of your head.

But although musical intelligence is very common, some kids are also intelligent in
different ways and we have to try and incorporate as many types as we can into the class.
So for kids who are more physical we add in gestures and actions for each line of the song
or we can include changes in the voice tone and play with the sounds, maybe emphasize
some words or try to do the gesture of each word from the lyric. It is very often a good idea
to let the kids choose the gesture, that way it becomes their own. As they own it they
remember it much more easily.

3.4.1.3. Picture Cards for Each Word or Phrase

This recommendation is just an optional one. Just as some kids are more physical, some
learn more visually. More effective than simply writing the lyrics on the board, a colourful
picture card to illustrate each lyric is recommended. Now we have actions, melody and
pictures for each new word or phrase.

3.4.1.4. A Cappella - Without the Music

This is the key stage and the one that most teachers miss out. Even if the kids already
know the English, and have all the gestures and can see all the pictures, if you simply play
the CD and say "Hey, let's sing!" they are all going to give you some very strange looks.

The key is to go through the song phrase by phrase without any backing music. Do the
actions and point to the picture cards and make sure everyone can get a basic grasp of
the melody. Do not worry if you cannot sing well, in most countries it is the effort that the
kids see and appreciate. In fact the will often appreciate bad singing more than good
singing.
If you have a particularly tricky song, start off slow and slowly build up the speed. The
point here is that by the time you have finished you should be up to or just a little bit faster
than the recording on the CD. You will be astounded at how fast the kids can get with this
method.

Being my group of students a large teenagers group I must deal with the fact of shyness,
embarrassment and the friends’ opinion, they are more interested in what are the friends
are going to think if they sing that in if they are doing it right or wrong.

What I do with my students is make them all sing together first with music and then without
music in a slower rhythm, mixing their singing with their thoughts about the lyrics content
and message.

3.4.1.5. Big Finish: Play the CD

In the cappella section you will hear the kids getting better at the English but also sloping
off in their concentration. That is when you kick in the music, make sure the arrangement
is energetic and the kids will found it quite interesting and catchy. Do not exaggerate with
the volume, because students tend to low the voice volume when they can only listen to
the CD. Keep the gestures and actions in there and usually after just one run through the
song they will have all the new language permanently imprinted in their brains. They will
probably ask to sing it again, which is fine, but no more than twice, you want to keep them
wanting more for next time.

3.4. Lesson Plans used in classroom:

3.4.1. I got a feeling

FOCUS: Vocabulary
Grammar – Future tense
AGE: All
LEVEL: Basic

SONG TO WORK: I got a feeling


BY: Black Eyed Peas
YEAR: 2009

MATERIALS
1. Handout with the lyrics
2. CD/Mp3 with the song
3. Flashcards or markers to write the words vocabulary on the board.

STEPS
1. Give the students lyrics. Go over the meaning of each song lyric. As you say each target
vocabulary word, point to the corresponding illustration card or word written on the board.

Before listening:

Do you like going to parties?

What do you do before you go to a party?

What are you going to do this weekend?

Full lyrics:

* gotta = have got a; *gonna= going to;


*wanna= Want to

I gotta* feeling that tonight's gonna be a I wanna let it go


good night Let's go way out spaced out
That tonight's gonna* be a good night And loosing all control
That tonight's gonna be a good good Fill up my cup
night (x3) Mozoltov
Tonight's the night night Look at her dancing
Let's live it up Just take it off
I got my money Let's paint the town
Let's spend it up We'll shut it down
Go out and smash it Let's burn the roof
Like Oh My God And then we'll do it again
Jump off that sofa
Let's get get OFF Let's Do it (x3)
I know that we'll have a ball And live it up
If we get down I gotta feeling that tonight's gonna be a
And go out good night
And just loose it all That tonight's gonna be a good night
I feel stressed out That tonight's gonna be a good good
night (x2) Easy go
Tonight's the night Now we on top
Let's live it up Feel the shot
I got my money Body rock
Let's spend it up Rock it don't stop
Go out and smash it Round and round
Like Oh My God Up and down
Jump off that sofa Around the clock
Let's get get OFF Monday, Tuesday,
Fill up my cup (Drink) Wednesday, Thursday,
Mozolotov (Lahyme) Friday, Saturday,
Look at her dancing (Move it Move it) Saturday and Sunday
Just take it off Get get get get get
Let's paint the town With us you know what we say
We'll shut it down Party everyday p-p-p-party
Let's burn the roof Party everyday
And then we'll do it again
Let's do it (x3) I gotta feeling that tonight gonna be a
Let's live it up good night
Here we come That tonight's gonna be a good night
Here we go
That tonight's gonna be a good good
We gotta rock
Easy come night(x2)

Recommended exercises to practice future going to and new vocabulary.

 Questions after listening:

Where is he going to?

What is he going to spend up?

What is he going to paint?

 Complete the Listen to this part of the song and fill in the spaces with the
prepositions in the box

up, out, off, down


I gotta* feeling that tonight's gonna be a And go _______
good night And just loose it all
That tonight's gonna* be a good night I feel stressed _______
That tonight's gonna be a good good I wanna let it go
night (x3) Let's go way _______spaced _______
Tonight's the night night And loosing all control
Let's live it _______ Fill _______ my cup
I got my money Mozoltov
Let's spend it _______ Look at her dancing
Go _______and smash it Just take it _______
Like Oh My God Let's paint the town
Jump _______that sofa We'll shut it _______
Let's get get _______ Let's burn the roof
I know that we'll have a ball And then we'll do it again
If we get _______

3.4.2. Smile

FOCUS: Speaking
AGE: 11 - 12
LEVEL: Basic

SONG TO WORK: Smile


BY: Charles Chaplin

MATERIALS

1. CD of song, preferably a story song or a song which provokes mental images.

2. Song lyrics on projector or handout.

STEPS

1. Teach key vocabulary words that are found in the song. Use flashcards or worksheets
to allow for additional vocabulary practice.

Before listening:

What do you do if a friend feels sad?


What do you do when you feel sad?
Do you believe that “Smile is the cure for all diseases”?
Have you ever heard about Charles Chaplin?

2. Show lyrics on the overhead projector. Then play the CD. As students listen to the song,
they can quietly read the song lyrics on the overhead or projector.

After listening:

How do you think the singer feels?


Is it a happy or sad song?
Why do you think the song title is “Smile”?

3. To make certain students fully comprehend the song’s lyrics, go through the lyrics
without the benefit of music. Occasionally pause, and then ask comprehension questions.
Play the song a second time.
4. Divide students into small groups of three or four.

Full lyrics

Smile, though your heart is aching Smile and maybe tomorrow


Smile, even though it's breaking You'll find that life is still worthwhile
When there are clouds in the sky If you just...
You'll get by...
Light up your face with gladness
If you smile Hide every trace of sadness
With your fear and sorrow Although a tear may be ever so near
That's the time you must keep on trying If you smile
Smile, what's the use of crying Through your fear and sorrow
You'll find that life is still worthwhile Smile and maybe tomorrow
If you just... You'll find that life is still worthwhile
If you just smile...
Smile, though your heart is aching
Smile, even though it's breaking That's the time you must keep on trying
When there are clouds in the sky Smile, what's the use of crying
You'll get by... You'll find that life is still worthwhile
If you just smile

Other option of exercise is to practice beside the speaking are these to improve
abstract vocabulary focused on happy and sad feelings.

1. Listen to the first part of the song and fill in the gaps with the words in the box:

clouds, face, fear, heart, life, sorrow,


tomorrow, worthwhile,

Smile, though your _______is aching If you smile


Smile, even though it's breaking With your ________and ________
When there are ______in the sky Smile and maybe ___________
You'll get by... You'll find that _________is still
____________
If you just...

2. Listen to the 2nd part and choose the right word.

Light up your face/trace with sadness/gladness


Hide every face/trace of sadness/gladness
Although a near/tear may be ever so near/tear
That's the time you must keep on crying/trying
Smile, what's the use of crying/trying
You'll find that life is still worthwhile
If you just...

3. Find all the words you can relate to good or bad feelings. Write them in separate
columns. Use the dictionary when necessary.
3.4.3. Smells like teen spirit
FOCUS: Writing

AGE: 11 - 12
LEVEL: Basic

SONG TO WORK: Smells like teen spirit


BY: Nirvana

MATERIALS

1. Projector.
2. Power Point Presentation with the lyrics.
3. CD/Mp3 with the song.

Full lyrics:

Load up on guns Entertain us


Bring your friends I feel stupid and contagious
It’s fun to lose Here we are now
And to pretend Entertain us
She’s overboard A mulatto
Myself assured An albino
I know I know A mosquito
A dirty word My libido
Yea
Hello (x 16)
And I forget
With the lights out it’s less dangerous Just what it takes
Here we are now And yet I guess it makes me smile
Entertain us I found it hard
I feel stupid and contagious Its hard to find
Here we are now Oh well, whatever, nevermind
Entertain us
A mulatto Hello (x 16)
An albino
A mosquito With the lights out it’s less dangerous
My libido Here we are now
Entertain us
I’m worse at what I do best I feel stupid and contagious
And for this gift I feel blessed Here we are now
Our little group has always been Entertain us
And always will until the end A mulatto
An albino
Hello (x 16) A mosquito
My libido
With the lights out it’s less dangerous Yeah
Here we are now

Recommended exercises to develop writing and vocabulary focus in “opposites”


topic:
1. Fill in the blanks with these words:

Dirty, Guns, Bored, Pretend

Load up on ________, bring your friends


It's fun to lose and to ___________.
She's over bored and self assured.
Oh no, I know a _________ word

Hello Hello Hello how low? (repeat)

2. Write the opposites of the words in backets:

Ref.: With the lights out it's less ______________ (safe)


Here we are now, ___________ us (bore)
I feel __________ and contagious (intelligent)
Here we are now, ___________ us (bore)
A mulatto, an albino,
a mosquito, my libido, yeah

3. Unjumble the letters and form the missing words:

I'm worst at what I do ________, (estb)


and for this _______ I feel blessed (tifg)
our _________ group has always been (tiletl)
and always will until the _________ (ned)

Hello Hello Hello how low? (repeat)

3.4.4. This Love


• PRACTICE: Mixed Tenses
• SKILLS: Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening
• SONG: This Love
• BY: Maroon 5

INSTRUCTIONS:

Replace the infinitives with one of the following tenses:-

• Simple Future
• Simple Present
• Present Continuous
• Present Perfect
• Simple Past

Discuss your choice of answers with another student

Listen to the song to check your answers.

THIS LOVE I ....................(have) no choice 'cause I

(sung by Maroon 5) ....................(say) 'goodbye' anymore.

I ....................(be) so high I ....................


(not recognize) I ....................(try) my best to feed her
appetite,
The fire burning in her eyes,
Keep her coming every night.
(Nor) The chaos that ....................
(control) my mind. (It was) So hard to keep her satisfied;

(She) ....................(whisper) 'goodbye' (She) Kept playing love like


and she ....................(get) on a plane; it ....................(be) just a game,

Never to return again, Pretending to feel the same,

But always in my heart Then turn around and leave again.

This love ....................(has taken) its toll This love ....................(take) its toll on
on me; me;

She ....................(say) 'goodbye' too She ....................(say) 'goodbye' too


many times before many times before

And her heart ....................(break) in front And her heart ....................(break) in front
of me. of me.
I ....................(have) no choice, 'cause My pressure on your hips,

I ....................(say) 'goodbye' anymore. Sinking my fingertips

I....................(fix) these broken things; Into every inch of you,

(I'll) Repair your broken wings 'Cause I ....................(be)


that....................(be) what
And make sure everything.................... you ....................(be) me to do.
(be) alright.
Conclusions

Conclusions:

After two months using the music as a resource to teach English to my


basic level high school students. I got the following conclusions:
Music catches the attention of students:

Despite of the rhythm, lyric contents and genre, music is always going to
create expectations between the students. It is something unusual for
them. They are used to classes limited to the use of book and notebook,
and listening to popular songs that makes them feel like that is a
memorable situation, therefore they remember more details that when
they are just been taught in the classic regular way.

Music drills are not always recommendable:

For specific topics, where the students can follow the class easily it is good to
use music as a enforcement resource, but when the topic contains a lot of
grammar knowledge and rules this probably is going to create an obstacle.
Music is a resource that cannot be used everyday in the classroom. As it is
something uncommon, it must be preserved as this. We can use music drills as
a way to reinforce good advance and good behavior of our students. If they
have good progress during the week or month, we can use the music drills as a
prize, letting them choose the song from our song bank.

Music drills have to more supervise when they are done in large
groups:

I handle a large group of students, who are easily distracted by any kind of
comments outside the lesson plan. If they found a word that they consider
funny or interesting, they were going to express it without thinking that this
might be a reason of distraction for the rest.

I also had to deal with group work in the classrooms during listening, which
sometimes became an occasion to chat while working.

Music is motivational:

Students found the act of singing happy and energetic, I have seen that this is
not a common action for them, most of my students felt ashamed of singing
because they do not consider themselves good singers, after a couple of drills
where the main goal was getting them relaxed enough to sing without worrying
for teachers’ or friends’ opinion I got at least 90 % of students singing aloud.

Indentifying with the songs

Before the investigation I thought that to identify with music was an exclusive
thing for people who can understand English language fully. My students
proved me wrong and they told me that some of the song that were used
during classes make them remember about personal situations where they
were involved with the feeling represented in the song.
Busting the myths:

I have been able to erase or correct some of the myths that students create
about the use of English:

“We live in Peru, we do not speak English therefore we do not


need English”

By mixing lyrics related to journeys with cultural background students


got interested in the culture from countries. When they listen to the
Beatles they point out that they are from Liverpool, England. Just as
when they listen to an American singer they mention the city or the
state where he or she is from. This creates an interest and curiosity for
the culture of different countries.

“I cannot listen English music because I do not understand it”:

At the beginning of the music drills, students explain what the song was about
by translating the title. After many drills they found out that translation is not
the same as meaning. They do not have a vast vocabulary but with some
words they try to show their ideas and thoughts about the song worked.

Eg.

Teacher: What is the song “Smile” By Charles Chaplin about?

Student: Sad, man… very sad

They cannot express complete sentences yet, but they have the idea of what
vocabulary to use. They also have learnt that they do not need to translate
every single word that they read, it is more important to understand the
content of the song than translate it all.

“English language is useless outside school”

By giving students homework based on the song, they started to ask each
other questions about the song outside classroom, a couple of my students told
me they were practicing the song “I got a feeling” by Black Eyed Peas for a
future school performance. Not all the students have the same predisposition
to practice the language outside the class. But the number has increased in the
last months.

“English is just a meaningless subject inside the school


syllabus”

With the use of music as a resource in class I also raise up the level of
the classes and homework, at the beginning the students were shocked
because they thought they could never catch the rhythm with the class.
As they were pushed to improve, they did it, in different ways, in
different areas but they are improving different skills.

“I do not speak English, therefore I should not have any contact


with it”

One of the homework given after the listening drills was to investigate about
the writer of the song and the story behind it. In many cases there were only a
couple of students who brought the biography, I encourage them to go to the
front and read it to their classmates. They started to look for more songs from
the same artist and his or her biography, if there was something interesting or
unusual in the life of a singer they asked me about it.

Eg.

Student: What is the meaning of “pedophile” I read that Michael Jackson was
accused of being that.

Student: Is it true that Elton John is gay?

Student: Is it true that Madonna adopts children from Africa?


Appendices
Appendix n° 1
Lists of students
Trilce – 1st Year High School
2010
GRADE: 1ST SECONDARY
COURSE: ENGLISH
TEACHER: JUANA OLAZABAL

N° LAST NAMES NAMES


1 AGUILAR CCANTO Jesus Alonso
2 ARENALES AQUINO Andrea Rosa
3 AVILES VALDIVIA Alex Bolfredo
4 BRAVO ALANYA Cristopher
5 CALDERON RINCON Solange Belén
6 CASTILLO QUISPE Martín Leonardo
7 CCORAHUA BRINGAS Bruno Abel
8 CHOQUE CERDÁN Kelly Paola
9 CURASI ANCHAYHUA Valeria Naomi
10 FERRO BELLO Piero Giovanni
11 GAMERO PALACIOS Diego Armando
12 HUAMAN BEJARANO Rodrigo Alonso
13 HUANCA SALDARRIAGA France Bryan
14 LIVIA BERMUDEZ Sergio Fernando
15 MACHUCA MEOÑO Diego Nicolás
16 MALLQUI GUTIERREZ Rolly Anderson
17 MENDOZA MALASQUEZ Alexandra Madeley
18 MILLA SANDOVAL Henry Mauricio
19 MUÑOZ ROMERO José Brayan
20 OCEDA HINOSTROZA Vanessa Elizabeth
21 ORELLANA ROJAS Araat Alexander
22 PAIVA SALAZAR Leonardo José
23 PALOMINO NAVARRO Angelo Michael
24 PARDO JUAREZ Johan Eibelton
PORTOCARRERO
25 PADILLA Marjory
26 QUIROZ HERRERA Stacy Lilanely
27 RAMOS SALAZAR Karoline Dayane
28 RIVERA CHIARA Melany Magaly Natalia
29 RUIZ FIGUEROA Diego Antonio
30 SANCHEZ VALDEZ Juan Eduardo
SANTIESTEBAN
31 GAMERO Gezer Alonso
32 SIERRA ROJAS Rosa Massiel
33 TRILLO VELIZ Madai Anel
34 VASQUEZ PURI Cristabel
35 VERA PEREZ Mauricio Alejandro
36 VIVAS LOPEZ Anette Lucía
37 ZUTA CCAHUANA Karen Zinedine
38 FACHIN MELENDEZ Luis Enrique
GRADE: 1ST SECONDARY – B
COURSE: ENGLISH
TEACHER: FERNANDA OLAZABAL

N° LAST NAMES NAMES


1 ARONES MONCADA Alberto David
2 BELTRAN RAMIREZ Camila Rosario
3 BERRIOS BEJAR Eleazar Felipe
CARRANZA
4 CARHUAPOMA Sheyla Milagros
5 CAYCHO GAMARRA Freddy Martín
6 CERNA DE LA CRUZ Frank Alex
CONTRERAS
7 HUARCAYA Rodrigo Franco
8 COTARMA CIEZA Ronald Darío
9 CRUZ SANTILLAN Valeria
10 DIAZ YAMUNAQUÉ Karina Vanessa
11 FLORES ALVINES Bruno Eduardo
12 GALVAN VILCHEZ Pamela Graciela
13 GUTIERREZ PNO Ana Gabriela
14 MARCA PARDO Bruno Valentín
15 MARTEL QUISPE José Luis
16 MEZA SAENZ Martin Esteban
17 MOSCOSO RAMOS Israel
18 ÑAUPARI REYES Alessandra Antuane
19 ORÉ QUISPE Carla Alondra
20 PACSI HUAMÁN Johnny Ronaldo
21 PALOMINO CHÁVEZ Kelly Lesly
22 PALOMINO SANTILLAN Luis Angel
23 PATIÑO MANTILLA Sandra Mirella
24 PINTO CAMERO Adriana Romina
25 PISCO BULLÓN Daniela Gisel
26 PLASCENCIA VIGO Diego Sebastián
27 PONCE MORALES Guilianna Isamar
28 PUMA FLORES Antonella
29 QUISPE MERINO Eliana Dianeli
RAMOS
30 HUAMANCHUMO Javier Aramis
31 RAMOS VILLAR Aaron Xamir
32 RIOS QUEVEDO Karina Del Rosario
33 SALGADO QUISPE Gianella
34 TEJEDA ESTEBAN Franklin Wilfredo
35 VALLETA CANO Axel Giunaycker
36 VERA LÁZARO Piero Stefano
37 ZÚÑIGA QUIROZ Guilianna Andrea

GRADE: 1ST SECONDARY – C


COURSE: ENGLISH
TEACHER: FERNANDA OLAZABAL

N° LAST NAMES NAMES


1 ALIAGA ENRIQUEZ Fabiola Angela
2 ALMIRON DÍAZ Paolo Giovanni
3 CABELLOS OJEDA Guiliana Carolina
4 CAJAHUARINGA ANAYA Sergio Enrique
5 CAYCHO YUMANAQUÉ Alexandra Verónica
6 CAYOTOPA ROSALES Fiorella
7 DIAZ MALCA Paul Eduardo
8 ESTRADA QUIROZ Birjoó André
FALCÓN
9 ASTUHUAYHUA Enzo Enrique
10 FLORES ALVINES Jeanpiere
11 HUAMÁN QUISPE Alicia Milagros
12 LARICO LARICO Bryan Enzo
13 LEIVA QUIROZ Yorschua
14 MALDONADO VALERIO Giafar Ali Abdul
15 MARÍN TAICO Elizabeth Rocío
16 MARTINEZ LUDEÑA Camila Margot
17 MATEO AYALA Karen Fiorella
18 ORTEGA SERBAN Poldi Pablo
PACHECHO
19 PARIMANGO Diego
20 PEDRAZA LOPEZ Carlos Enrique
21 PERTUZ VILLEGAS Marcelo
22 PINTO RAMIREZ María Fernanda
23 PIZARRO YUZZELLI Bruno
24 RAMOS CUADROS Alexander Augusto
25 RIOS CRESPO Patrick Josue
26 RODRIGUEZ BUITRON Sharon Dallana
27 SAGASTEGUI FOUSCAS Yahaira Andrea
28 SANABRIA MACHUCA Andrea Alexandra
29 SANCHEZ RAMIREZ Stefano Rodrigo
30 SARAVIA NARVAEZ María Angela
31 SUVIZARRETA Ariany Glagys
CASTAÑEDA
32 TIMANA MARCA Jacqueline Jannet
33 TITO BARTOLO Alfredo Jesús
Rey Eduardo
34 VILCA PÉREZ Alexander
35 VIZCARDO ROJAS Angel Fernando
36 YLLA YNGOL Victor Anderson
37 YUPANQUI MIRANDA Alvaro Braulio Anselmo
Appendix n°2:

Map of Villa Maria del Triunfo District

Empresa Municipal Administradora del Peaje de Lima

Km. 1.7. Via Evitamiento

Ate, Lima
 Appendix n°3

List of school of procedure of my current students:

 Jorge Bernal Salas Nº 7080 (Av. Independencia, San Gabriel, V.M.T., Lima)
 Villa María (Av. El Triunfo 634, Villa María del Triunfo, Lima, Lima)
 7054 (Villa María del Triunfo, Lima, LM)
 Colegio Nacional 6011 (Nueva Esperanza, Villa María del Triunfo, Lima)
 Eloy G. Ureta (Villa María del Triunfo, Lima, LM)
 Fe y Alegría # 23 (Vallecito Bajo, Villa María del Triunfo, Lima)
 Fe y Alegría # 24 (San Grabriel Alto, Villa María del Triunfo, Lima)
 Héroes de la Breña (Villa María del Triunfo, Lima, LM)
 Jorge Basadre Grohmann 6073 (Tablada de Lurín, Villa María del Triunfo, Lima,
LM)
 José Carlos Mariátegui (San Gabriel, Villa María del Triunfo, Lima)
 José María Arguedas (José Carlos Mariátegui, San Gabriel, Villa María del
Triunfo, Lima, LM)
 José María Arguedas 6024 (Tablada de Lurín, Villa María del Triunfo, Lima, LM)
 Juan Guerrero Quimper (Urb. José Gálvez, Villa Maria del Triunfo, Lima)
 Juan Valer Sandoval 6093 (Villa María del Triunfo, Lima)
 Julio C. Tello 6060 (César Vallejo, Villa María del Triunfo, Lima, LM)
 La Inmaculada 6022 (Villa María del Triunfo, Lima)
 Manuel Scorza Torres 6081 (Villa María del Triunfo, Lima)
 María Milagrosa (Nueva Esperanza, Villa María del Triunfo, Lima, LM)
 Mariano Melgar Nº 6019 (Villa María del Triunfo, Lima)
 Nuestro Salvador ( Villa Maria del Triunfo, Lima)
 Orden Soberana y Militar de Malta (Villa María del Triunfo, Lima)
 Prolog - Colegio Pre Universitario (Villa María del Triunfo, Lima, LM)
 República del Ecuador (Nueva Esperanza, Villa Maria del Triunfo, Lima)
 Salamanca (Villa María del Triunfo, Lima, LM)
 Santa Rosa 7073 V.M.T. (Villa Maria del Triunfo, Lima)
 Stella Maris (Tablada de Lurín, Villa María del Triunfo, Lima, LM)
 Túpac Amaru II Nº 7055 de VMT (Villa Maria del Triunfo, Lima)

(Source: Municipalidad de Villa Maria del Triunfo | Jr. José Galvez # 895
Todos los Derechos Reservados M.V.M.T. 2009)
Appendix N°4:

Structural and educational situation of schools procedure of my current students:

Zona 1 : JOSE CARLOS MARIÁTEGUI (05)


______________________________________________________________________

I.E. N° 6059 “SAGRADO CORAZON DE JESUS”


DIRECTOR: Lic. Camilo Raya Vega
Ubicación: Jr. Cotahuasi 120
Zona: José Carlos Mariátegui
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: llano
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_______________________________________________________________________

I.E. “JOSE CARLOS MARIATEGUI


DIRECTOR: Lic Aldo Javier Avalos Ríos
Ubicación: Av. José Carlos Mariátegui
Zona: José Carlos
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: abrupto
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : No cuenta con un centro de cómputo por implementar
_____________________________________________________________________

I.E. N° 7106 “VILLA LIMATAMBO”


DIRECTOR: Lic. Dionisio Picho Cancho
Ubicación: Av. José Carlos Mariátegui 3467
Zona: José Carlos Mariátegui
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Llano
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_______________________________________________________________________

I.E. N° 6081 “MANUEL SCORZA TORRES”


DIRECTOR: Lic. Francisco Romero Montes
Ubicación: Av. Ramón Castilla N° 351 – San Gabriel Alto
Zona: José Carlos Mariátegui
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Buena
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_______________________________________________________________________

I.E. N° 7080 “JORGE BERNAL SALAS”


DIRECTOR: Lic. Teófilo Rojas Rivera
Ubicación: Calle Independencia N° 196
Zona: José Carlos Mariátegui
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Buena
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
______________________________________________________________________

• Zona 2 : CERCADO (02)


________________________________________________________________

I.E. N° 7055 “TÚPAC AMARU II”


DIRECTOR: Lic. Lorenzo Mendoza Michuy
Ubicación: Av. El Triunfo Cda. 8
Zona: Cercado
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Óptima
Niveles Educativos : Inicial - Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
________________________________________________________________

I.E. N° 6022 “LA INMACULADA”


DIRECTOR: Lic. José Luis Neyra
Ubicación: Av. Salvador Allende N° 975
Zona: Cercado
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Óptima
Niveles Educativos : Primaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_______________________________________________________________________

• Zona 3 : INCA PACHACÚTEC (02)

I.E. N° 6019 “MARIANO MELGAR”


DIRECTOR: Lic. Ela Alva Ocrospuma
Ubicación: Av. La Unión s/n
Zona: Inca Pachacútec
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Óptima
Niveles Educativos : Primaria - Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_______________________________________________________________________

I.E. N° 6020 “MICAELA BASTIDAS”


DIRECTOR: Lic. Olga Cruz Collantes
Ubicación:
Zona: Inca Pachacútec
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Óptima
Niveles Educativos : Primaria - Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
________________________________________________________________
• Zona 4 : NUEVA ESPERANZA (03)
________________________________________________________________

I.E. “REPÚBLICA DE ECUADOR”


DIRECTOR: Jesús Israel Malpica Solórzano
Ubicación: Av. 26 de Noviembre
Zona: Nueva Esperanza
Disposición y actitud del Director: Buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Optima
Niveles Educativos : Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo.
________________________________________________________________

I.E. N° 6014 “VIRGEN DEL CARMEN”


DIRECTOR: Lic. Blanca Neyra Navarro
Ubicación: Jr Mateo Pumacahua
Zona: Nueva Esperanza
Disposición y actitud del Director: Buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Optima
Niveles Educativos : Primaria - Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo.
_______________________________________________________________________

I.E. “MARISCAL ELOY GASPAR URETA”


DIRECTOR: Lic. David Jeremias
Ubicación: Av. 26 de Noviembre
Zona: Nueva Esperanza
Disposición y actitud del Director: Buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Optima
Niveles Educativos : Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_______________________________________________________________________

• Zona 5 : SAN FRANCISCO DE LA TABLADA DE LURÍN (04)


________________________________________________________________

I.E: 7088 “GERONIMO CAFFERATA MARAZZI”


DIRECTOR: Lic Dante Díaz Rivera
Ubicación: Av. Flora Tristan Nº 1050
Zona: Tablada de Lurín
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Optima
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo.

_____________________________________________________________________

I.E: 6152 “STELLA MARIS”


DIRECTOR: Lic Oscar Raúl León Delgado
Ubicación: Av. Atahualpa Nº 150 Tablada de Lurín
Zona: Tablada de Lurín
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Optima
Niveles Educativos : Primaria - Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo.
______________________________________________________________________

I.E: 6073 “JORGE BASADRE”


DIRECTOR: Lic Elmer Arnaldo Chumacero López
Ubicación: Av. Billingrust s/n
Zona: Tablada de Lurín
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Optima
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con un centro de cómputo.
______________________________________________________________________

I.E: 6024 “JOSE MARIA ARGUEDAS”


DIRECTOR: Lic Alejandro Arotinco Huaylla
Ubicación: Calle Los Incas 3 Sector
Zona: Tablada de Lurín
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Optima
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta computo insuficiente desean implementar
_____________________________________________________________________

• Zona 6 : VILLA POETA JOSÉ GÁLVEZ BARRENECHEA (04)


____________________________________________________________________

I.E: 6029 “BARTOLOME MITRE”


DIRECTOR: Lic Armanda Baldarrago Alvarado
Ubicación: Jr. Angamos 252
Zona: José Gálvez
Disposición y actitud del Director: Buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Accesible
Niveles Educativos : Primaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con centro de cómputo
_______________________________________________________________________

I.E. N° 6015 “SANTÍSIMO SAGRADO CORAZÓN DE JESÚS”


DIRECTOR: Lic. Alicia Rojas Cahua
Ubicación: Av. Lima 1005
Zona: José Gálvez
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy Buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Óptima
Niveles Educativos : Primaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con centro de cómputo
_______________________________________________________________________

I.E. N° 6093 “JUAN VALER SANDOVAL”


DIRECTOR: Lic Aura Irene Damaris Adrianzen
Ubicación: Av. Miguel Grau
Zona: José Gálvez
Disposición y actitud del Director: Buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Óptima
Niveles Educativos : Primaria - Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con centro de cómputo
_______________________________________________________________________

I.E. “JUAN GUERRERO QUIMPER”


DIRECTOR: Lic Adelina Peña Hurtado
Ubicación: Av.
Zona: José Gálvez
Disposición y actitud del Director: Buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Accesible
Niveles Educativos : Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : Cuenta con centro de cómputo

• Zona 7 : NUEVO MILENIO (03)


DIRECTOR: Lic. Lili Mariluz Santivañez
Ubicación: AA.HH. Primero de Mayo
Zona: Nuevo Milenio
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy Buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Abrupto
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : No cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_______________________________________________________________________

I.E: 7231 “NUEVO PROGRESO”


DIRECTOR: Lic Isabel Timaná Delgado
Ubicación: AHH. Nuevo Progreso
Zona: Nuevo Milenio
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Abrupto
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : No cuenta con un centro de cómputo
____________________________________________________________________

I.E: 7233 “MATSU UTSUMI”


DIRECTOR: Lic Marcos Escalante Carrión
Ubicación: AA.HH. Puyusca
Zona: Nuevo Milenio
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Abrupto
Niveles Educativos : Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo : No cuenta con un centro de cómputo

(Source: REDEM, Red Mundial Educativa, Av. Sucre 365 - Oficina Nº 301 Magdalena del
Mar - Lima17 - LIMA - PERU )
 Appendix n°5:

Estructural and educational situation of my current stundents procedure prívate schools

INSTITUCIONES EDUCATIVAS PARTICULARES

• Zona 1 : JOSE CARLOS MARIÁTEGUI (01)


____________________________________________________________

I.E.P. “MAGÍSTER”
DIRECTORA: Lic. Rita Rojas Pumacayo
Ubicación: Av. José Carlos Mariátegui
Zona: José Carlos Mariátegui
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Óptima
Niveles Educativos : Inicial - Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo: Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_____________________________________________________________________

• Zona 2 : CERCADO (02)


_____________________________________________________________

I.E.P. “MARIANISTA”
DIRECTOR: Lic. Lidia Oré
Ubicación: Av. El Triunfo N° 436
Zona: Cercado
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Óptima
Niveles Educativos : Inicial - Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo: Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_____________________________________________________________________

I.E.P. “MARÍA DE LOS ÁNGELES”


DIRECTOR: Mercedes Ibáñez de Quiroz
Ubicación: Jr. Santa Cruz
Zona: Cercado
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Óptima
Niveles Educativos : Inicial - Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo: Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
___________________________________________________________

• Zona 3 : INCA PACHACÚTEC (01)


_____________________________________________________________

I.E.P. “ MARÍA EXALTACIÓN”


_____________________________________________________________
DIRECTORA: Lic. Irma Gutiérrez Suyo
Ubicación: Villa Jardín 1ra. Zona
Zona: Inca Pachacútec
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Buena
Niveles Educativos : Inicial - Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo: Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_____________________________________________________________________

• Zona 5 : SAN FRANCISCO DE LA TABLADA DE LURÍN (02)


_____________________________________________________________

I.E.P. “SANTA MARÍA DEL ROSARIO”


DIRECTOR: Hna. Maria Isabel Mercado Chávez
Ubicación:
Zona: Tablada de Lurín
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Buena
Niveles Educativos : Inicial - Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo: Cuenta con un centro de cómputo
_____________________________________________________________

I.E.P. “LA ALBORADA”


DIRECTOR: Lic. Betty Alvarado
Ubicación:
Zona: Tablada de Lurín
Disposición y actitud del Director: Muy buena
Accesibilidad de la Zona: Buena
Niveles Educativos : Inicial - Primaria – Secundaria
Centro de Cómputo: Cuenta con un centro de cómput

(Source: REDEM, Red Mundial Educativa, Av. Sucre 365 - Oficina Nº 301 Magdalena del
Mar - Lima17 - LIMA - PERU )
Appendix n° 6:

List of songs:

1. I Gotta feeling – Black Eyed Peas

2. Smile by Charles Chaplin (Michael Jackson, Nat King Cole versions)

3. Human, by The Killers

4. If I were a Boy, by Beyoncé

5. Welcome to my life, by Simple Plan

6. Dancing Queen, by Abba

7. In this life, by Delta Goodrem

8. Beautiful Girls, by Sean Kinston

9. You've got a friend, by Carole King (sung by James Taylor)

10. Cancer, by The Chemical Romance

11. Monsoon, by Tokio Hotel

12. Thanks for the memories, by Fall Out Boy

13. Relax, Take it easy by Mika

14. Umbrella by Rihanna

15. Jingle Bell Rock by A lot of singers

16. Happy New Year, by Abba

17. Complicated, by Avril Lavigne

18. Barbie Girl, by Aqua

19. Independent Women (Charlie's Angels) by Destiny's Child

20. Where is the love by Black Eyed Peas

21. As long as you love me, by Backstreet Boys

22. Baby One More Time, by Britney Spears

23. Overprotected by Britney Spears


24. With arms wide open, by Creed

25. Thankyou, by Dido

26. Cleaning Out my Closet, by Eminem

27. It's raining men by Geri Halliwell

28. I Will Survive, by Gloria Gaynor

29. Lemon Tree, by Fool's Garden

30. You're Beautiful by James Blunt

31. Señorita by Justin Timberlake

32.Can't get out my head, by Kylie Minogue

33. Smell like teen spirit by Nirvana

34. Don't look back in anger, by Oasis

35. All I Want for Christmas by Olivia Olson

36. Every breath you take by Police

37. Angels, by Robbie Willians

38. Whenever, wherever by Shakira


Appendix n° 7

Teaching Large Groups

Kevin Nield
Faculty LTA Co-ordinator
Sheffield Hallam University

Aims of the Session

•What is a large group?


•What is good learning?
•Issues for staff when teaching large groups.
•Issues for students when taught as part of a large group.
•Possible techniques to be used for large group teaching.
•To produce a help list.

What is a large group?

•The answer could be the number at which students become anonymous.


•20 –480 (UCLAN, 2003)
•30 –120 (400)
•What are the numbers that you deal with?

Why have large groups?

•Efficient –get information over to a lot of students at one sitting.


•Financially effective -on current fees we could teach one student for approximately 9
hours per annum. (with pay mod probably less and declining each year)

•Inefficient –learn 20% of what we hear (chalk and talk).


•Inefficient –60 minutes?
•Can be a false economy.
•High re-registration/fail rates.

What does good learning involve?

•Involvement
•Problem-solving
•Activity
•Motivation –“deep”rather than “surface”or “achieving”.
•Application and transfer
•Knowing why
•Purposeful
•Learning styles accounted for.

Principles of “Good”Teaching

Biggs and Moore (1993)

1.Are intrinsically motivated

2.Are active not passive

3.Interact with each other

4.Knowledge base is structured and integrated

Nield (2004, 2007) “Excellent”teacher

1.Knows/understands the subject matter

2.Is well-prepared

3.Understands the needs of the students.

(Source: Kevin Nield, Faculty LTA Co-ordinator, Sheffield Hallam University – Class
management)