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Panorama of the Electric Power Sector Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no

in Brazil is a reviewed and expanded Brasil é uma publicação bilíngüe, revista e


bilingual version of the first book published ampliada do primeiro livro produzido pelo
by Centro da Memória da Eletricidade Centro da Memória da Eletricidade no Bra-
no Brasil. This second edition provides a sil. Esta segunda edição oferece uma ampla
comprehensive reconstruction of Brazil’s reconstituição da história da indústria de
electricity industry until the current day, and eletricidade em nosso país até os dias atuais,
includes two new chapters on the history apresentando dois novos capítulos sobre a
of the sector over the past twenty years. trajetória do setor nos últimos 20 anos.

The first edition of Panorama, which came Publicada em 1988, a primeira edição do
out in 1988, has become a widely-used Panorama tornou-se uma fonte de consulta
source of reference by people interested obrigatória para os estudiosos do processo
in understanding how Brazil’s electricity de formação e desenvolvimento do setor
industry came into existence and how de energia elétrica no Brasil, esgotando-se
it has developed since. The excellent rapidamente. Considerando a excelente

Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil


Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil
response to the book, which quickly went receptividade do livro, a MEMÓRIA DA
out of stock, prompted MEMÓRIA DA ELETRICIDADE julgou apropriado preparar
ELETRICIDADE to prepare a second, updated uma segunda edição atualizada que vem
edition, whose launch is being timed to a público ao ensejo da comemoração dos
celebrate the center’s 20th anniversary. seus 20 anos de atividades.

MEMÓRIA DA ELETRICIDADE was founded Fundada em outubro de 1986, por iniciativa


in October 1986 by Eletrobrás. It is a da Eletrobrás, a MEMÓRIA DA ELETRICI-
non-profit cultural entity whose mission DADE é uma entidade cultural sem fins
is to preserve the historical heritage lucrativos, voltada para a preservação do pa-
and memory of the electricity sector. trimônio histórico e da memória do setor de
Its output to date comprises more than energia elétrica. A instituição conta com um
50 titles, which include books, magazines significativo lastro de trabalhos realizados,
and CD-Rom’s, as well as exhibitions, abrangendo mais de 50 títulos, entre livros,
information systems, and technical revistas e CD-Rom’s, além de exposições,
assistance in the area of documentation. sistemas de informação e assessorias téc-
nicas na área de documentação.

MEMÓRIA DA ELETRICIDADE MEMÓRIA DA ELETRICIDADE


Avenida Presidente Vargas, 583 - Gr. 701/10 Avenida Presidente Vargas, 583 - Gr. 701/10
20071-003 - Centro - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brasil 20071-003 - Centro - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brasil
Tels.: 55 21 2514-5295 e 55 21 2514-5298 Tels.: 55 21 2514-5295 e 55 21 2514-5298
Fax: 55 21 2232-2840 Fax: 55 21 2232-2840
memoriaeletricidade@memoria.eletrobras.gov.br memoriaeletricidade@memoria.eletrobras.gov.br
www.memoria.eletrobras.gov.br www.memoria.eletrobras.gov.br
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Panorama
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do setor de energia elétrica________________________________________________
no Brasil
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Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil
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MEMBROS INSTITUIDORES
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Centrais Elétricas Brasileiras - Eletrobrás
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Centrais Elétricas do Norte do Brasil - Eletronorte
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Centrais Elétricas do Sul do Brasil - Eletrosul
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Companhia Hidro Elétrica do São Francisco - Chesf
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Espírito Santo Centrais Elétricas - Escelsa
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Fumas Centrais Elétricas
Light Serviços de Eletricidade
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Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica - Cepel
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Associação Brasileira de Concessionárias de Energia Elétrica - ABCE
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Associação de Empresas Distribuidoras de Eletricidade do Norte e Nordeste - Aedenne
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Associação Nacional de Empresas Estaduais de Energia Elétrica - Acesa
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MEMBROS MANTENEDORES

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Centrais Elétricas Brasileiras - Eletrobrás
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Centrais Elétricas do Norte do Brasil - Eletronorte
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Centrais Elétricas do Sul do Brasil - Eletrosul
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Companhia Hidro Elétrica do São Francisco - Chesf
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Espírito Santo Centrais Elétricas - Escelsa
Furnas Centrais Elétricas
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Light Serviços de Eletricidade
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Companhia de Eletricidade do Estado da Bahia - Coelba
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Companhia Energética de Brasília - CEB
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Companhia Energética de Goiás - Celg
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Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais - Cemig
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Companhia Energética de Pernambuco - Celpe
Companhia Energética do Maranhão - Cemar
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Companhia Energética do Piauí - Cepisa
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Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz - CPFL
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Companhia Paranaense de Energia - Copel
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Empresa Energética de Sergipe - Energipe
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P195
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Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil = Panorama
________________________________________________of electric power sector in Brazil / Coordenação Paulo Brandi de
________________________________________________Barros Cachapuz. – Rio de Janeiro : Centro da Memória da Eletri-
cidade no Brasil, 2006.
________________________________________________ 812p. ; 25 cm.
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ISBN xx-xxxxx-xx-x
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Título e texto em português e inglês.
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________________________________________________ 1. Energia Elétrica - Brasil - História. 2. Serviços de eletricidade
– Brasil I. Cachapuz, Paulo Brandi de Barros (Coord.) II. Centro da
________________________________________________Memória da Eletricidade no Brasil.
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CDD 621.3745
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Centro da Memória da Eletricidade no Brasil
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MEMÓRIA DA ELETRICIDADE ________________________________________________
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Panorama
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do setor de energia elétrica________________________________________________
no Brasil
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Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil
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Rio de Janeiro ________________________________________________
2006 ________________________________________________
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EDIÇÃO
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Centro da Memória da Eletricidade no Brasil - MEMÓRIA DA ELETRICIDADE
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© 2006
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Presidente/President: MARIO PENNA BHERING
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Diretora-Executiva/Executive Director: MARILZA ELIZARDO BRITO
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Coordenadoria do Centro de Referência/Head of Reference Center: SOLANGE BALBI CERVEIRA REIS
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Coordenadoria de Pesquisa/Head of Research: LIGIA MARIA MARTINS CABRAL
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Coordenadoria de Comunicação/Head of Communications: LILIANA NEVES CORDEIRO DE MELLO
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Coordenadoria de Administração/Head of Administration: CARLOS HENRIQUE DA SILVA
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EQUIPE DA 2a EDIÇÃO
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Coordenação/Managed by: PAULO BRANDI DE BARROS CACHAPUZ
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Redação capítulos 5 e 6/Chapters 5 and 6 written by: PAULO BRANDI DE BARROS CACHAPUZ
Pesquisa/Research by: REJANE CORRÊA DE ARAÚJO (in memoriam)
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SUZANA CESA
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Índices/Indexed by: LEILA LOBO DE MENDONÇA
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LILIANA NEVES CORDEIRO DE MELLO
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PEDRO LIBÂNIO RIBEIRO DE CARVALHO
Normatização bibliográfica/Bibliographical standardization by: LEANDRO PACHECO DE MELO
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Tradução/Translation by: AGLEN MCLAUCHLAN
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NOREEN LESLIE VANDERPUT
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REBECCA ATKINSON
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Projeto gráfico e editoração eletrônica/Graphic design and desktop publishing by: LILIANA NEVES CORDEIRO DE MELLO
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EQUIPE DA 1a EDIÇÃO
Coordenação/Managed by: RENATO FELICIANO DIAS (in memoriam)
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Pesquisa e redação/Researched and written by: LIGIA MARIA MARTINS CABRAL
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PAULO BRANDI DE BARROS CACHAPUZ
________________________________________________ SÉRGIO TADEU DE NIEMEYER LAMARÃO
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Apêndice/Appendices by: LORILEY FERRAZ DA ROSA PEREIRA
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Índices/Indexed by: COORDENADORIA DO CENTRO DE REFERÊNCIA/REFERENCE CENTER
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Copidesque/Copy-editing by: REYNALDO VALINHO ALVAREZ
Levantamento iconográfico/Image research by: GILBERTO LIMA MARTINS
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KENZO PAGANELLI
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Tradução/Translation by: JAMES LOWELL MCMASTERS (in memoriam)
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Consultor técnico/Technical consultancy by: ALBERTO MÁRIO COTRIM RODRIGUES PEREIRA (in memoriam)
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Apresentação ________________________________________________
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Foreword ________________________________________________
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É com grande satisfação que o Centro da Memória It is with great satisfaction that the
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da Eletricidade no Brasil comemora seus 20 anos Centro da Memória da Eletricidade no
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de atividades com a publicação de uma nova Brasil celebrates its 20th anniversary
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with the publication of a new, bilingual
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edição, desta vez bilíngüe, do livro que marcou a
edition of the book that was the
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primeira contribuição da entidade para o estudo center’s first work on the history of
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da história da indústria de eletricidade em nosso the electricity industry in Brazil.
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país. ________________________________________________
The first edition of Panorama of the
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Electric Power Sector in Brazil was
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Lançado em 1988, o Panorama do setor de energia
launched in Portuguese in 1988,
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elétrica no Brasil apresentou inédita e abrangente providing an unprecedented, broad-
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reconstituição da história do setor, abrindo cami- ranging reconstruction of the history
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nho para o desenvolvimento do extenso e diver- of the industry and paving the way for
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subsequent research. It was followed
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sificado programa de pesquisas da Memória da
by a variety of studies on a broad
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Eletricidade. A partir da experiência do Panorama,
range of topics, including the social
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foram realizados trabalhos sobre amplo leque function of electricity in contemporary
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temático, abordando a função social da energia Brazil, industry legislation, planning
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elétrica no Brasil contemporâneo, a legislação, for the expansion and operation of
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Brazil’s electricity networks, the
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o planejamento da expansão e da operação dos
history of specific companies, entities,
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sistemas elétricos, a história de empresas, órgãos, and personalities, and significant
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personalidades e empreendimentos de relevante electric energy projects in the past.
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importância na trajetória do setor. ________________________________________________
Memória da Eletricidade was established
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by Eletrobrás in October 1986. Its
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Criada em outubro de 1986 por iniciativa da Ele-
output to date comprises more than 50
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trobrás, a Memória da Eletricidade conta hoje titles, which include books, magazines
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com significativo lastro de trabalhos, abran- and CD-ROMs, as well as exhibitions,
________________________________________________
gendo mais de 50 títulos, entre livros, revistas information systems, and technical
________________________________________________
assistance in the area of documentation.
________________________________________________
e CD-Rom’s, além de exposições, sistemas de
________________________________________________
informação e assessorias técnicas na área de
The project for the first edition
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documentação. of Panorama was to collate and
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organize the available literature. A primeira edição do Panorama representou um
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This encompassed numerous official esforço de síntese e sistematização da literatura
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documents issued by government disponível, incluindo em sua bibliografia nu-
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departments and energy companies,
merosos documentos oficiais de governo e de
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as well as books, academic articles,
empresas do setor, além de livros, artigos e tra-
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and papers produced by engineers and
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economists. It presented an introduction balhos acadêmicos, produzidos por engenheiros
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to the emergence of the electricity e economistas. Além de uma introdução sobre o
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industries in Europe and the USA in the surgimento da indústria de eletricidade na Euro-
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late 1800s as well as four chapters on pa e nos Estados Unidos, no final do século XIX,
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the industry in Brazil until the 1980s. o Panorama continha quatro capítulos sobre o
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desenvolvimento da indústria de energia elétrica
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This 333-page volume quickly became
no Brasil até meados da década de 1980.
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a widely-used source of reference by
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industry professionals and scholars
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alike. In response to its excellent Com 333 páginas, a obra tornou-se uma fonte de
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reception, an English translation of the consulta amplamente utilizada por profissionais
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book was brought out in a new format do setor e da academia. Devido à excelente re-
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in 1992. Both the Portuguese and ceptividade, uma versão em inglês foi divulgada
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English volumes are now out of stock.
na forma de caderno em 1992. Cumpre ressaltar
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o esgotamento dos exemplares do livro em por-
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The idea to bring out a new edition of
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Panorama was first cogitated in 1998, but tuguês e do caderno em inglês.
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at the time it was unfeasible because of
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the number of other projects underway at A atualização do Panorama foi cogitada em 1998,
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Memória da Eletricidade. Nonetheless, a mas não pôde ser levada adiante na época de-
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preliminary study was made at the time vido ao acúmulo de projetos em andamento na
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which later proved of great use when the
Memória da Eletricidade. De todo modo, proce-
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project for the new edition got underway.
deu-se a uma pesquisa preliminar que se revelou
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A number of new editorial and bastante útil quando a empreitada da segunda
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methodological issues were raised by the edição ganhou prioridade em nosso programa
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decision to make this publication more de trabalho.
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extensive than the first and bilingual.
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The quality of the 1988 edition has been A opção por uma edição bilíngüe, revista e am-
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upheld and textual information has been
pliada apontou de imediato para questões de
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given priority, for which reason it does
ordem editorial e metodológica. Esta nova versão
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not include any of the black and white
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illustrations that supplemented the first do Panorama buscou manter o padrão de quali-
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edition. Of all the center’s publications, dade do trabalho lançado em 1988, privilegiando
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this is the most significant in terms of as informações textuais. Isso explica a retirada
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sheer size, not just because it is bilingual, das poucas ilustrações em preto e branco que
contribuíram de forma discreta para a iconogra- ________________________________________________
but also because the new text on the recent
fia da primeira edição. Entre as nossas publica- ________________________________________________
history of the industry totals 180 pages.
ções, o presente livro é recordista em número ________________________________________________
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The text from the first edition has been
de páginas, não apenas por se tratar de uma
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minutely proof-read and revised to include
edição bilíngüe, mas também pela redação de
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extra information from books, specialized
180 laudas originais sobre a trajetória do setor ________________________________________________
articles, and academic papers that provide
nos últimos 20 anos. ________________________________________________
new knowledge about different angles
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of the history of electrical energy in
O Panorama passou por uma revisão acurada ________________________________________________
Brazil. The fourth chapter in particular
do conteúdo da primeira edição, incorporando ________________________________________________
has been expanded and had more data
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added about the industry’s development
a contribuição de livros, artigos especializados
________________________________________________
in the 1980s. The two new chapters in
e trabalhos acadêmicos que aportaram novos
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this second edition cover the history
conhecimentos sobre diversos aspectos da ________________________________________________
of the industry as of 1990, drawing a
história da energia elétrica no Brasil. Merece ________________________________________________
natural dividing line between the end of
destaque a ampliação do quarto capítulo com ________________________________________________
President Fernando Henrique Cardoso’s
a inserção de dados mais consistentes sobre a ________________________________________________
second term in office in 2002 and the
evolução do setor na década de 1980. Os dois ________________________________________________
beginning of the Luís Inácio Lula da
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Silva administration the following year.
novos capítulos desta segunda edição abordam
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a história do setor a partir de 1990, tendo como
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One source of research that was
linha divisória o final do segundo mandato do ________________________________________________
indispensable in preparing this edition
presidente Fernando Henrique Cardoso em 2002 ________________________________________________
was the internet. Data of all manner
e o início do governo Luís Inácio Lula da Silva ________________________________________________
were obtained from the websites of
no ano seguinte. ________________________________________________
different publicly- and privately-owned
________________________________________________
companies, entities, and universities,
________________________________________________
as well as the industry’s specialized
Cumpre ressaltar a importância da pesquisa via
________________________________________________
press and representative agencies and
Internet na elaboração desta segunda edição do
________________________________________________
organizations. Another valuable source
Panorama. Dados essenciais foram obtidos em ________________________________________________
of reference was Eletrobrás’s digital
portais de empresas, entidades e instituições ________________________________________________
document archive, and the publication
universitárias públicas e privadas, revistas e ________________________________________________
could not have been completed
organizações especializadas na cobertura de ________________________________________________
without the input of professionals from
eventos do setor. O acesso ao acervo documen- ________________________________________________
Eletrobrás, Operador Nacional do
________________________________________________
Sistema Elétrico (ONS) and Empresa
tal informatizado da Eletrobrás também foi de
________________________________________________
de Pesquisa Energética (EPE). The
extrema valia, assim como a ajuda de colegas
________________________________________________
groups responsible for the first and
da Eletrobrás, do Operador Nacional do Siste- ________________________________________________
the second issues are listed on the
ma Elétrico (ONS) e da Empresa de Pesquisa ________________________________________________
credits. Their names include Renato
Energética (EPE). As equipes responsáveis ________________________________________________
Feliciano Dias, Rejane Corrêa de
pela primeira e segunda edição do livro estão ________________________________________________
Araújo, James Lowell McMasters and
________________________________________________
Alberto Mário Cotrim Rodrigues Pereira, consignadas na ficha técnica. Ali, aparecem os
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to whom we pay a lasting tribute. nomes de Renato Feliciano Dias, Rejane Corrêa
________________________________________________ de Araújo, James Lowell McMasters e Alberto
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Despite any flaws or gaps that it
Mário Cotrim Rodrigues Pereira, aos quais pres-
________________________________________________
may contain, this new edition of the
tamos homenagem in memoriam.
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Panorama of the Electric Power Sector
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in Brazil provides a comprehensive
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overview of the contemporary history Com suas eventuais imperfeições e lacunas, a
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of the Brazilian electricity industry segunda edição do Panorama do setor de energia
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and the fundamental role it has played elétrica no Brasil oferece uma visão abrangente
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in the development of this nation. da história do setor para todos os que se inte-
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ressam pelo percurso da indústria de energia
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elétrica no país e pelo papel crucial que ela de-
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________________________________________________ sempenha no desenvolvimento brasileiro.
________________________________________________
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________________________________________________ Mario Penna Bhering
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Sumário ________________________________________________
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Contents ________________________________________________
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Introdução/Introduction ......................................................................................................................13
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Capítulo 1/Chapter 1
A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930) ________________________________________________
...................................... 35
The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930) ________________________________________________
............................................35
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A energia elétrica entra em cena .............................................................................................. 38
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Electric power shows off ...................................................................................................................38
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A chegada da Light .....................................................................................................................
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The arrival of The Light group ..........................................................................................................44
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A atuação das concessionárias de menor porte .................................................................... 58
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The performance of the smaller concessionaires ..............................................................................57
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A década de 1920: concentração empresarial e ampliação do parque gerador ................ 74
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The 1920’s: the concentration of enterprises and expansion of the generating system....................74
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A demanda por equipamentos elétricos .................................................................................
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The demand for electric equipment ...................................................................................................92
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Estado e energia elétrica: primeiras tentativas de regulamentação ________________________________________________
................................... 95
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The State and electric power: first atempts at regulation .................................................................95
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Capítulo 2/Chapter 2 ________________________________________________
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O Estado entra em cena (1930-1945) ......................................................................................... 101
The State enters the scene (1930-1945) ................................................................................................101
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A Revolução de 1930 e o Código de Águas ........................................................................... 104
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The Revolution of 1930 and the Water Code ..................................................................................104
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O Estado Novo e os dilemas da política de energia elétrica .............................................. 113
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The “Estado Novo” and the dilemmas of the electric power policy ...............................................113
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A Expansão do setor e a multiplicação da demanda........................................................... 130
Expansion of the sector and it’s demand growth ............................................................................130
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Capítulo 3/Chapter 3
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A crescente participação do Estado e a constituição da Eletrobrás (1945-1962) ............ 151
State increasing participation and the setting up of Eletrobrás (1945-1962) .....................................151
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As políticas do poder público para o setor de energia elétrica .......................................... 157
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The Government’s policies for the electric power sector................................................................157
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O Governo Dutra e a formulação do Plano Salte .......................................................... 157
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The Dutra Government and the conception of the “Plano Salte” ...........................................157
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O Segundo Governo Vargas e as mudanças de curso no setor .................................. 163
The Second Vargas Government and changes in the bearings of the sector ...........................163
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O Plano de Metas do Governo Kubitschek e a criação da Eletrobrás........................ 182
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The Kubitschek Government’s Target Program and the creation of Eletrobrás .....................183
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A expansão do setor e a afirmação das empresas públicas ............................................. 197
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Expansion of the sector and the strengthening of the public corporations .....................................197
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Companhias de energia elétrica ...................................................................................... 199
Electric power companies ........................................................................................................199
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A implantação da indústria de equipamentos elétricos pesados ..................................... 247
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Implementation of an electrical equipment industry .......................................................................247
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Capítulo 4/Chapter 4
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Desenvolvimento e crise do modelo estatal (1962-1989) ..................................................... 257
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Evolution of the State framework and a history of crises faced .........................................................257
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A Eletrobrás e o reordenamento institucional do setor de energia elétrica..................... 272
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Eletrobrás and the institutional reorganization of the electric power sector .................................271
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A evolução do processo de planejamento e da operação interligada .............................. 285
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Evolution of the planning process and of interconnected operations .............................................284
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As questões econômico-financeiras do setor....................................................................... 309
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Economic and financial issues of the sector ....................................................................................309
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O sistema Eletrobrás, as empresas estaduais
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e o crescimento exponencial da capacidade geradora ....................................................... 342
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The Eletrobrás system, state companies
and the exponential growth of generating capacity ........................................................................342
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As empresas do sistema Eletrobrás................................................................................ 346
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Companies in the Eletrobrás system ........................................................................................346
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A Itaipu Binacional ............................................................................................................ 385
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Itaipu Binacional ......................................................................................................................385
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As companhias estaduais ................................................................................................ 392
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State companies ........................................................................................................................392
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As empresas privadas ....................................................................................................... 438
________________________________________________
Privately owned companies......................................................................................................438
________________________________________________
Os autoprodutores .............................................................................................................
________________________________________________ 441
Self-producers ..........................................................................................................................440
________________________________________________
O desenvolvimento da indústria de equipamentos ________________________________________________
e a consolidação das grandes construtoras de usinas________________________________________________
hidrelétricas ................................ 442
Development of the equipment industry
________________________________________________
and consolidation of the major builders of hydroelectric plants ....................................................442
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Capítulo 5/Chapter 5
________________________________________________
As reformas institucionais e o processo de privatização (1990-2002) ............................... 453
________________________________________________
Institutional reforms and privatization process (1990-2002) .............................................................453
________________________________________________
Início das mudanças na regulamentação do setor de ________________________________________________
energia elétrica ........................... 476
Start of changes to the regulation of the electric power sector.......................................................476
________________________________________________
A reforma do setor de energia elétrica no ________________________________________________
primeiro governo Fernando Henrique Cardoso ....................................................................
________________________________________________ 488
Reform of the electric power sector
________________________________________________
during the first term of office of Fernando Henrique Cardoso .......................................................488
________________________________________________
As privatizações e a reconfiguração patrimonial do setor de energia elétrica ................ 514
________________________________________________
Privatizations and restructure of the electric power sector’s________________________________________________
asset composition............................514

Planejamento e expansão dos sistemas elétricos entre ________________________________________________


1990 e 2000 ................................ 560
Planning and expansion of the electricity network between ________________________________________________
1990 and 2000 ..................................560
________________________________________________
A crise energética e o racionamento de 2001 ....................................................................... 621
________________________________________________
The energy crisis and rationing in 2001 .........................................................................................621
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Capítulo 6/Chapter 6
________________________________________________
A trajetória recente do setor de energia elétrica ................................................................... 653
________________________________________________
Recent developments within the electricity sector ................................................................................653
________________________________________________
A reforma do modelo e as mudanças no quadro institucional .......................................... 660
________________________________________________
The reform of the industry model and institutional changes ...........................................................660
________________________________________________
A expansão dos sistemas e a implantação dos leilões________________________________________________
de energia ................................... 674
The expansion of the systems and introduction of energy tenders ..................................................674
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Perspectivas............................................................................................................................... 717
________________________________________________
Future Prospects .............................................................................................................................717
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Apêndice .................................................................................................................................... 727
________________________________________________
Appendix ....................................................................................................................................... 727
________________________________________________
Titulares do Ministério dos Negócios da Agricultura,
________________________________________________
Comércio e Obras Públicas 1889-1892 ........................................................................................729
________________________________________________
Ministers of the Ministry of Agricultural, Commercial
________________________________________________
and Public Works Affairs 1889-1892 ................................................................................................... 729
________________________________________________
Titulares do Ministério da Indústria, Viação e Obras Públicas 1892-1930 ............................729
________________________________________________
Ministers of the Ministry of Industry, Transportation and Public Works 1892-1930 ........................ 729
________________________________________________
Titulares do Ministério da Agricultura, Indústria e Comércio 1909-1930 ..............................730
________________________________________________
Ministers of the Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce 1909-1930................................... 730
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Titulares do Ministério da Agricultura 1930-1961 ......................................................................730
________________________________________________
Ministers of the Ministry of Agriculture 1930-1961 ............................................................................ 730
________________________________________________
Titulares do Ministério das Minas e Energia 1961-1990 ...........................................................731
________________________________________________
Ministers of the Ministry of Mines and Energy 1961-1990 ................................................................. 731
________________________________________________
Titulares do Ministério da Infra-estrutura 1990-1992 ................................................................731
________________________________________________
Ministers of the Ministry of Infrastructure 1990-1992 ........................................................................ 731
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Titulares do Ministério de Minas e Energia 1992-2006 .............................................................731
Ministers of the Ministry of Mines and Energy 1992-2006 ................................................................. 731
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Presidentes da Eletrobrás 1962-2006 ...........................................................................................732
________________________________________________
Presidents of Eletrobrás 1962-2006 .................................................................................................... 732
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Referências documentais/References ........................................................................................ 733
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Índice onomástico/Onomastic Index ........................................................................................... 759
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Índice intitulativo/Index of electricity companies and entities .................................................... 767
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Introdução ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Introduction
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The scientific, technical and industrial
________________________________________________ AS INOVAÇÕES CIENTÍFICAS, técnicas e in-
________________________________________________
innovations witnessed during the last dustriais observadas nas três últimas décadas
________________________________________________
three decades of the nineteenth century do século XIX transformaram profundamente
________________________________________________
profoundly transformed the world of
o mundo da produção, a estrutura social, os
________________________________________________
production, the social structure, the picture
quadros da vida cotidiana e o imaginário dos
________________________________________________
of daily life and Man’s imagination,
________________________________________________
defining a new form of organization and homens, definindo uma nova forma de organi-
________________________________________________
operation of Western Civilization: the zação e funcionamento da civilização ocidental:
________________________________________________
urban-industrial society. Limited at the end a sociedade urbano-industrial. Limitado nos fins
________________________________________________
of the nineteenth century to Western Europe do século XIX à Europa Ocidental e aos Estados
________________________________________________
and the United States, the urban-industrial Unidos, o modelo de sociedade urbano-industrial
________________________________________________
model of society would become globally
ganharia escala global no decorrer do século XX,
________________________________________________
prevalent during the course of the twentieth
incorporando as regiões industrialmente menos
________________________________________________
century, incorporating the industrially less-
________________________________________________
developed regions of the rest of the world. desenvolvidas do resto do mundo.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Around 1900, industrialization, with all Por volta de 1900, a industrialização, com todos
________________________________________________
its corollaries, had already influenced os seus corolários, já influenciava de tal modo
________________________________________________
the living conditions of a considerable as condições de vida de parcela considerável
________________________________________________
portion of the populace of the Occident
da população do Ocidente que, se qualquer
________________________________________________
to such an extent that, if any one of us
um de nós pudesse recuar ao início do século,
________________________________________________
could return to the beginning of the
________________________________________________
century, he would find himself in the se encontraria em meio a um cenário bastante
________________________________________________
midst of a quite familiar scenario. In fact, familiar. Com efeito, muitos dos elementos hoje
________________________________________________
many of the elements which today are completamente incorporados ao cotidiano da
________________________________________________
completely incorporated to our civilized vida civilizada – o motor de combustão interna,
________________________________________________
daily life – the internal combustion o telefone, o microfone, o elevador, os pneus, a
________________________________________________
engine, the telephone, the microphone,
lâmpada elétrica, os transportes públicos me-
________________________________________________
the elevator, pneumatic tires, electric
canizados, as fibras e os plásticos sintéticos
________________________________________________
lights, mechanized public transportation
________________________________________________
systems, synthetic fibers and plastics, etc. etc. – surgiram durante esse período. O pleno
________________________________________________
– appeared during this period. The full aproveitamento das potencialidades do motor
________________________________________________
utilization of the potential of the internal de explosão permitiria, numa fase imediata-
________________________________________________
combustion engine would allow, in an mente posterior, a produção em grande escala
________________________________________________
immediately subsequent phase, the large- do automóvel e o desenvolvimento da indústria
________________________________________________
scale production of the automobile and the
aeronáutica.
________________________________________________
development of the aeronautical industry.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
What occurred during the last 30 years O que aconteceu nos últimos 30 anos do século
________________________________________________
of the nineteenth century was something XIX foi algo qualitativamente diferente de um
________________________________________________
qualitatively different from an extension simples prolongamento da Revolução Industrial,
________________________________________________
of the Industrial Revolution begun in iniciada na Inglaterra no final do século anterior.

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

14
Caracterizado por importantes inventos científi- ________________________________________________
England at the end of the previous century.
cos, pela utilização de novas fontes de energia, ________________________________________________
Characterized by important scientific
como a eletricidade e o petróleo, pelo surgimento ________________________________________________
inventions; by the utilization of new
________________________________________________
sources of energy, such as electric power
de novos ramos industriais, como a siderurgia,
________________________________________________
and petroleum; by the appearance of
a indústria química e a indústria elétrica, e pela
________________________________________________
new industrial fields, such as metallurgy,
concentração de capitais, esse período é de- ________________________________________________
chemicals and the electrical industry; and
nominado de Segunda Revolução Industrial por ________________________________________________
by the concentration of capital, this period
muitos historiadores e economistas. ________________________________________________
is called the Second Industrial Revolution
________________________________________________
by many historians and economists.
Um dos aspectos fundamentais da Segunda ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
One of the fundamental aspects of the
Revolução Industrial foi o estabelecimento de
________________________________________________
Second Industrial Revolution was the
uma íntima relação entre ciência e técnica, la-
________________________________________________
establishment of an intimate relationship
boratório e fábrica. Na verdade, os avanços téc- ________________________________________________
between science and technology, between
nicos das últimas décadas do século XIX foram ________________________________________________
laboratory and factory. Actually, the
essencialmente científicos, já que requeriam não ________________________________________________
technical advances of the last decades
apenas certos conhecimentos da ciência pura, ________________________________________________
of the nineteenth century were primarily
como também um processo mais consistente de ________________________________________________
scientific, since they required some
________________________________________________
knowledge of pure science as well as
experimentação científica e análise.
________________________________________________
a more consistent method of scientific
________________________________________________
experimentation and analysis.
Marcando o nascimento das ciências aplicadas, ________________________________________________
as descobertas mais significativas dessa fase ________________________________________________
Due to the continuous development of
originaram-se sobretudo dos laboratórios de ________________________________________________
applied sciences, the most important
física e química e não mais da engenhosidade ________________________________________________
discoveries of this phase took place in
de inventores natos, traço característico da pri- ________________________________________________
chemical and physical laboratories,
________________________________________________
reducing the importance of the ingenuity
meira fase da Revolução Industrial. O laboratório
________________________________________________
of born inventors, a characteristic of the
tornou-se, nesse contexto, peça indispensável
________________________________________________
first phase of the Industrial Revolution.
do complexo industrial que se estruturava, con- ________________________________________________
In this context, the laboratory became
correndo decisivamente para o aprimoramento ________________________________________________
an indispensable part of the industrial
técnico e a redução dos custos de produção, ________________________________________________
complex which was being formed,
além de promover uma interação cada vez mais ________________________________________________
and contributed to the improvement
estreita entre industriais, técnicos e cientistas ________________________________________________
and reduction of production costs,
________________________________________________
besides promoting an ever-stronger
profissionais.
________________________________________________
interaction among manufacturers,
________________________________________________
technicians and professional scientists.
A grande maioria das invenções práticas surgi- ________________________________________________
das na Segunda Revolução Industrial resultou ________________________________________________
The large majority of the practical
não somente da aplicação do conhecimento ________________________________________________
inventions which appeared during
científico à indústria, mas também do empre- ________________________________________________
the Second Industrial Revolution

Introdução
Introduction

15
________________________________________________
resulted not only from the application go de novos materiais e de novas fontes de
________________________________________________
of scientific knowledge to industry, energia.
________________________________________________
but also from the use of new materials
________________________________________________
and new sources of energy.
A indústria siderúrgica ilustra bem essa afirma-
________________________________________________
ção. Embora o aço já fosse conhecido há séculos,
________________________________________________
The steel industry well illustrates this
________________________________________________
affirmation. Although steel had been os métodos utilizados na sua fabricação eram
________________________________________________
known for centuries, the methods used morosos e o custo do produto extremamente
________________________________________________
in its manufacture were time-consuming caro. A invenção de um processo mais barato
________________________________________________
and the cost of the product extremely de conversão do ferro em aço pelo engenheiro
________________________________________________
high. The invention of a cheaper process inglês Henry Bessemer, em 1856, do alto-forno
________________________________________________
for converting iron into steel by English
pelo engenheiro alemão, naturalizado inglês,
________________________________________________
engineer Henry Bessemer in 1856, of the
William Siemens, juntamente com o engenhei-
________________________________________________
open hearth by the German, naturalized
________________________________________________
British, engineer William Siemens together ro e industrial francês Pierre Martin, em 1867, e
________________________________________________
with French engineer and industrialist de um sistema de produção de aço, através do
________________________________________________
Pierre Martin in 1867, and of a steel aproveitamento de minerais pobres em ferro,
________________________________________________
production method using low content iron pelo metalurgista inglês Sidney Gilchrist Tho-
________________________________________________
ores by English metallurgist Sidney Gilchrist mas e seu primo Percy Gilchrist, em 1878, alterou
________________________________________________
Thomas and his cousin Percy Gilchrist in
radicalmente esse quadro.
________________________________________________
1878, radically changed this outlook.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The increase in European steel production, O aumento da produção européia de aço foi notá-
________________________________________________
going from 80,000 tons in 1850 to 28 vel, passando de 80.000 toneladas em 1850 para
________________________________________________
million tons in 1900, was an outstanding 28 milhões em 1900. Ao longo desses anos, o em-
________________________________________________
achievement. During those years, the prego do aço foi progressivamente suplantando
________________________________________________
use of steel in the production of rails o do ferro, tanto na produção de trilhos ferroviá-
________________________________________________
and equipment, building structures,
rios, estruturas para grandes edificações, túneis
________________________________________________
tunnel linings and bridges, as well as
e pontes, quanto em outros campos, como o da
________________________________________________
on machinery, was supplanting iron and
________________________________________________
became a cheap and high tenacity material. produção de máquinas, que também exigiam
________________________________________________ um metal barato e de alta tenacidade.
________________________________________________
The increasing use of other metals for
________________________________________________
industrial purposes also dates from that Data igualmente desse período a intensificação
________________________________________________
period. Worthy of note among these are: do uso de outros metais para fins industriais.
________________________________________________
copper, irreplaceable as a conductor
Entre eles, merecem ser citados o cobre, insubs-
________________________________________________
of electricity; lead, for water and gas
tituível como condutor elétrico, o chumbo, em-
________________________________________________
pipes; and zinc, used in paint and the
________________________________________________
galvanization of steel. Discovered in 1827, pregado na fabricação de tubulações e condutos
________________________________________________
aluminum was not used on a commercial de água e gás, e o zinco, utilizado em pinturas
________________________________________________
scale until after the introduction of the e na galvanização do aço. Descoberto em 1827,
________________________________________________
electrolytic process which appeared o alumínio só passou a ser aproveitado em es-

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

16
cala comercial após a introdução do processo ________________________________________________
in 1886 as an important contribution
eletrolítico, surgido em 1886 como importante ________________________________________________
brought about by the advance of the
contribuição trazida pelo avanço da indústria ________________________________________________
chemical industry. Thanks to its lightness,
________________________________________________
its good conductibility of heat and its
química. Graças à sua leveza, à boa conduti-
________________________________________________
resistance to oxidation, aluminum rapidly
bilidade de calor e à resistência à oxidação, o
________________________________________________
became a material of great economic
alumínio constituiu-se rapidamente em mate- ________________________________________________
importance and a vital raw material for
rial de grande importância econômica, sendo ________________________________________________
the nascent aeronautical industry.
elemento imprescindível na nascente indústria ________________________________________________
aeronáutica. ________________________________________________
The outstanding progress registered in
________________________________________________
the steel industry and in the industrial
________________________________________________
utilization of other metals was associated
Os notáveis progressos registrados na siderurgia
________________________________________________
with even more important changes: the
e no aproveitamento industrial de outros metais
________________________________________________
extraordinary development of the chemical
estavam relacionados com mudanças ainda mais ________________________________________________
industry and of hydraulic potential as a
relevantes: o extraordinário desenvolvimento da ________________________________________________
new source of light, heat and power.
indústria química e a introdução da eletricidade ________________________________________________
como nova fonte de luz, calor e força. ________________________________________________
The chemical industry acquired enormous
________________________________________________
importance as of the 1870’s and
________________________________________________
innumerable inventions appeared during
A indústria química adquiriu enorme importân-
________________________________________________
the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
cia a partir da década de 1870, registrando-se
________________________________________________
Shortly before, in 1856, English chemist
inúmeras descobertas nesse setor durante o ________________________________________________
Henry Perkin produced the first synthetic
último quartel do século XIX. Pouco antes, em ________________________________________________
dye from coal and brought about the
1856, o químico inglês Henry Perkin, com base ________________________________________________
fantastic development of organic chemistry.
no alcatrão mineral, obteve o primeiro corante ________________________________________________
It was discovered that starting with coal-
sintético, dando início a um fantástico desenvol- ________________________________________________
tar it was possible to extract hundreds
________________________________________________
of ani1ines besides an infinity of other
vimento da química orgânica. Descobriu-se que,
________________________________________________
products such as indigo, aspirin, carbolic
a partir do alcatrão mineral, era possível extrair
________________________________________________
acid, saccharine and vanilla extract.
centenas de corantes, além de uma infinidade de ________________________________________________
outros produtos, como o anil, a aspirina, o ácido ________________________________________________
Gradually, new substances were added
fênico, a sacarina e a essência de baunilha. ________________________________________________
to the list of synthetic products. New
________________________________________________
methods were invented to produce paper
Paulatinamente, novas substâncias foram sen- ________________________________________________
from wood pulp, glucose and starch from
________________________________________________
corn, and artificial silk from cellulose.
do acrescentadas à lista de produtos sintéticos.
________________________________________________
The production of plastic materials from
Inventaram-se métodos para obter papel da
________________________________________________
such substances as casein, phenol and coal
polpa da madeira, para extrair glicose e amido ________________________________________________
by-products was a considerable advance.
do milho e seda artificial das fibras de madeira. ________________________________________________
Realizaram-se sensíveis avanços na criação ________________________________________________
Among other chemicals, worthy of mention
de matérias plásticas, obtidas de substâncias ________________________________________________
are: caustic soda, for whose increase in

Introdução
Introduction

17
________________________________________________
production Ernest Solvay’s manufacturing como a caseína, o fenol e derivados do carvão
________________________________________________
process (1873) greatly contributed; e do coque.
________________________________________________
and sulfuric acid, indispensable for the
________________________________________________
production of drugs, dyes, fertilizers
Outros dois produtos básicos da indústria quími-
________________________________________________
and explosives. It was thanks to the use
ca foram a soda cáustica, cuja produção ganhou
________________________________________________
of sulfur in the vulcanization process
________________________________________________
that Brazilian latex was assured a wide enorme impulso após a introdução do método
________________________________________________
range of industrial applications: in de Ernest Solvay (1873), e o ácido sulfúrico, in-
________________________________________________
bicycle and automobile tires, footwear dispensável para a fabricação de fertilizantes e
________________________________________________
and clothing industries and later in explosivos e para a vulcanização da borracha. Foi
________________________________________________
products for the electrical industry. In graças à vulcanização da borracha que o látex
________________________________________________
the same way as the chemical industry,
brasileiro teve assegurada uma ampla gama de
________________________________________________
the electrical industry originated
aplicações industriais: na fabricação de pneus
________________________________________________
specifically from scientific discoveries
________________________________________________
and exerted an unprecedented impact on para bicicletas e automóveis, na indústria de
________________________________________________
society, due principally to the enormous calçados e de artigos de vestuário e, mais tarde,
________________________________________________
diversity of uses which it gave rise to. na própria indústria elétrica.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Knowledge of electricity through Da mesma forma que a indústria química, a in-
________________________________________________
laboratory experiments dates back
dústria elétrica originou-se especificamente de
________________________________________________
several hundred years, but it was around
descobertas científicas e exerceu um impacto
________________________________________________
1800 that Italian physicist Alessandro
________________________________________________
Volta created the world’s first battery. sem precedentes sobre o conjunto da sociedade,
________________________________________________
Investigations progressed, and in 1831, em função principalmente da enorme diversida-
________________________________________________
English physicist Michael Faraday de de usos que suscitou.
________________________________________________
conceived the principle of the first dynamo.
________________________________________________
However, the industrial use of electricity A eletricidade já era conhecida pelas experi-
________________________________________________
depended upon low-cost production and,
ências de laboratório, ao menos desde 1800,
________________________________________________
above all, on long-distance transmission.
quando o físico italiano Alessandro Volta criou
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
In that wise, the invention of the dynamo a primeira bateria do mundo. As investigações
________________________________________________
by German engineer Werner Siemens in avançaram e, em 1831, o físico inglês Michael
________________________________________________
1867 can be considered as the landmark Faraday concebeu o princípio do dínamo. En-
________________________________________________
in the history of the electrical industry. tretanto, a utilização industrial da eletricidade
________________________________________________
Around that same period, French engineer dependia da produção a baixos custos e, sobre-
________________________________________________
Aristide Bergès utilized hydraulic force for
tudo, da transmissão a distância.
________________________________________________
the first time to generate electric power,
________________________________________________
installing the first turbine activated by a
________________________________________________
waterfall at a sawmill on his property. Nesse sentido, pode-se tomar a invenção do
________________________________________________ dínamo pelo engenheiro alemão Werner Sie-
________________________________________________
However, the practical possibilities did not mens, em 1867, como o marco inicial da história
________________________________________________
become a reality until between 1881 and da indústria elétrica. Por essa mesma época, o

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

18
engenheiro francês Aristide Bergès aproveitou ________________________________________________
1883, when Frenchman Marcel Deprez
pela primeira vez a força hidráulica para gerar ________________________________________________
demonstrated the possibility of transporting
energia elétrica, instalando numa serraria de sua ________________________________________________
power over long distances by means of
________________________________________________
high voltage. Shortly thereafter, just prior
propriedade a primeira turbina movida por uma
________________________________________________
to 1900, the invention of the alternator and
queda d’água.
________________________________________________
the transformer allowed for the raising
________________________________________________
and lowering of voltages, making possible
Todavia, as possibilidades práticas só se torna- ________________________________________________
the large-scale use of electric power.
ram reais entre 1881 e 1883, quando o francês ________________________________________________
Marcel Deprez demonstrou a possibilidade de ________________________________________________
The invention of electric lighting was
transportar energia a longa distância, por meio ________________________________________________
another fundamental contribution to
________________________________________________
the development of this new industrial
de alta tensão. Posteriormente, pouco antes de
________________________________________________
field, becoming a commercial success in
1900, a invenção do alternador e do transforma-
________________________________________________
1879 when American physicist Thomas
dor permitiria a elevação ou a redução da tensão, ________________________________________________
Alva Edison gave the incandescent light
tornando possível o emprego em larga escala da ________________________________________________
bulb a more durable filament. Three
energia elétrica. ________________________________________________
years later, in New York, on Edison’s
________________________________________________
initiative, the world’s first electric power
A invenção da lâmpada elétrica foi outra con- ________________________________________________
plant was inaugurated, supplying light
________________________________________________
to homes and offices in Manhattan.
tribuição fundamental para o desenvolvimento
________________________________________________
However, the generalized use of electric
desse novo ramo industrial, tornando-se um êxi-
________________________________________________
lighting did not take place until after
to comercial em 1879, quando o físico Thomas ________________________________________________
the discovery of alternating current
Alva Edison dotou a lâmpada incandescente de ________________________________________________
by Yugoslav physicist Nikola Tesla
um filamento mais durável. Três anos depois, por ________________________________________________
in 1888. Later, this was followed by
iniciativa de Edison, foi inaugurada em Nova Ior- ________________________________________________
the installation of lighting systems for
que a primeira usina de força elétrica do mundo, ________________________________________________
streets and homes for whole cities.
________________________________________________
fornecendo iluminação para casas e escritórios
________________________________________________
The Second Industrial Revolution witnessed
de Manhattan. Porém, a generalização do uso
________________________________________________
the birth of another industry which
da luz elétrica só ocorreu após a invenção da ________________________________________________
presented the same transforming potential
corrente alternada pelo físico iugoslavo Nikola ________________________________________________
of the chemical and electrical industries:
Tesla, em 1888, o que possibilitou a instalação ________________________________________________
the petroleum industry. A source of
de sistemas de iluminação nas ruas e casas de ________________________________________________
energy equal to that of coal and hydraulic
cidades inteiras. ________________________________________________
potential and later as raw material for
________________________________________________
the ever-vaster field of petrochemicals,
________________________________________________
petroleum was basically used for medicinal
A Segunda Revolução Industrial assistiu ao nas-
________________________________________________
purposes and for the manufacture of
cimento de uma outra indústria que apresentava ________________________________________________
kerosene used as fuel for lamps.
o mesmo potencial transformador das indústrias ________________________________________________
química e elétrica: a indústria do petróleo. Fonte ________________________________________________
The first oil well was sunk in 1859 in
de energia equivalente ao carvão e à eletricida- ________________________________________________
Pennsylvania (USA) and for years

Introdução
Introduction

19
________________________________________________
petroleum continued to be utilized for de e, mais tarde, matéria-prima do campo cada
________________________________________________
heating and other residential uses. The vez mais vasto da petroquímica, o petróleo era
________________________________________________
invention of the internal combustion empregado basicamente para fins medicinais e
________________________________________________
engine in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto paved
para a fabricação de querosene, utilizado como
________________________________________________
the way for the use of petroleum as fuel
combustível para lampiões.
________________________________________________
for the automotive era which was drawing
________________________________________________
near. In fact, in 1886, German engineer
________________________________________________
Gottlieb Daimler adapted the internal O primeiro poço foi perfurado em 1859, na Pen-
________________________________________________
combustion engine for use with gasoline silvânia (EUA) e durante anos o petróleo foi
________________________________________________
while another German engineer, Karl empregado na calefação e em usos domésticos.
________________________________________________
Benz, equipped it with the electric spark A invenção do motor de combustão interna em
________________________________________________
to set off the fuel. The perfecting of the
1878, por Nikolaus Otto, abriu caminho para o
________________________________________________
carburetor around 1890 also contributed
uso do petróleo como combustível da era do
________________________________________________
to expand the potentialities of gasoline as a
________________________________________________
source of power. Finally, in 1897, another automóvel que se avizinhava. Com efeito, em
________________________________________________
German engineer, Rudolf Diesel, invented 1883, o engenheiro alemão Gottlieb Daimler
________________________________________________
an internal combustion motor which used adaptou o motor de combustão interna ao uso da
________________________________________________
the spontaneous combustion of crude oil. gasolina, em lugar do gás natural, e o engenhei-
________________________________________________ ro Karl Benz, também alemão, equipou-o com
________________________________________________
Notwithstanding the development of new
a faísca elétrica para inflamar o combustível.
________________________________________________
power sources such as hydraulic potential,
O aperfeiçoamento do carburador, por volta de
________________________________________________
petroleum and gas, it should be pointed out
________________________________________________
that coal still maintained its supremacy for 1890, também contribuiu para ampliar as poten-
________________________________________________
some time. A fuel typical of the first stage cialidades da gasolina como fonte de energia.
________________________________________________
of the Industrial Revolution, in 1913 coal Finalmente, em 1897, outro engenheiro alemão,
________________________________________________
was still responsible for close to 88% of Rudolf Diesel, inventou um motor de combustão
________________________________________________
the energy produced in the world. Besides interna que não usava nem gás nem gasolina,
________________________________________________
that, the energy derived from other sources
mas sim o óleo cru.
________________________________________________
was allocated basically for transportation
________________________________________________
and residential consumption, whereas
________________________________________________
coal was the prime fuel of the industrial Não obstante o desenvolvimento de novas fontes
________________________________________________
activities which took their necessary energéticas como a hidreletricidade, o petróleo
________________________________________________
motive power either directly from steam e o gás, convém salientar que o carvão manteve
________________________________________________
engines or indirectly from electric sua primazia durante algum tempo. Combustível
________________________________________________
generators driven by steam engines. típico da primeira etapa da Revolução Industrial,
________________________________________________
o carvão ainda era responsável em 1913 por cerca
________________________________________________
The utilization of new industrial
de 88% da energia produzida no mundo. Além
________________________________________________
techniques characteristic of the Second
________________________________________________
Industrial Revolution implied in the disso, a energia derivada de outras fontes desti-
________________________________________________
creation of very large companies and nava-se basicamente ao setor de transportes e
________________________________________________
the concentration of the populace into ao consumo doméstico, ao passo que o carvão
________________________________________________
large urban agglomerations. The use era o combustível por excelência das atividades

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Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

20
industriais, sendo utilizado quer diretamente, por ________________________________________________
of Bessemer converters and Martin-
meio do motor a vapor, quer indiretamente, pela ________________________________________________
Siemens furnaces in the steel industry,
intermediação do gerador elétrico. ________________________________________________
for example, transformed the family firms
________________________________________________
of the sector into an anachronism.
________________________________________________
A utilização das novas técnicas industriais ca-
________________________________________________
There was a decrease in the number
racterísticas da Segunda Revolução Industrial ________________________________________________
of industrial units, whereas those that
implicou a criação de empresas de grande escala ________________________________________________
survived were significantly larger
e a concentração da população em vastos aglo- ________________________________________________
and employed many more workers. In
merados urbanos. A introdução do alto-forno na ________________________________________________
other words, what happened was the
indústria siderúrgica, por exemplo, fez com que ________________________________________________
gathering of workers into factories and
________________________________________________
the concentration of these factories in
a empresa familiar, que empregava um número
________________________________________________
industrial cities and urban areas.
reduzido de trabalhadores, se tornasse rapida-
________________________________________________
mente um anacronismo. ________________________________________________
Countries in the process of
________________________________________________
industrialization had their appearance
Verificou-se a diminuição do número de unida- ________________________________________________
altered with the adoption of the practice
des industriais, mas, por outro lado, as que per- ________________________________________________
of grouping together the work force in a
maneceram eram significativamente maiores, ________________________________________________
smaller number of large manufacturing
________________________________________________
organizations. Cities absorbed the villages
empregando muito mais operários. Em outras
________________________________________________
and the growth rate of large metropolises
palavras, o que ocorreu foi a reunião da mão-de-
________________________________________________
greatly surpassed that of the smaller cities.
obra em fábricas e a concentração dessas fábri- ________________________________________________
cas em cidades industriais e áreas urbanas. ________________________________________________
At the same time, the transformations
________________________________________________
which occurred in the rural areas
Os países em processo de industrialização tive- ________________________________________________
– caused chiefly by the mechanization of
ram sua fisionomia alterada com a adoção da ________________________________________________
agriculture – and the decrease in the death
________________________________________________
rate due to the advances in the fields of
prática de agrupar a força de trabalho em um
________________________________________________
hygiene and medicine were responsible
menor número de grandes organizações fabris.
________________________________________________
for the large demographic growth rate.
As cidades absorveram as vilas e o ritmo de cres- ________________________________________________
This population increase was largely
cimento das grandes metrópoles ultrapassou em ________________________________________________
absorbed by the cities and represented
muito o das cidades menores. ________________________________________________
one more characteristic element of the
________________________________________________
profound changes which were taking
Paralelamente, as transformações que se verifi- ________________________________________________
place in the industrialized world.
________________________________________________
caram nas áreas rurais – provocadas sobretudo
________________________________________________
The introduction of technical innovations
pela mecanização da agricultura – e a queda na
________________________________________________
led to a crisis of industrial super
taxa de mortalidade, causada pelos progressos ________________________________________________
production - immediate cause of the
observados no campo da higiene e da medi- ________________________________________________
depression which occurred in the last
cina, determinaram um enorme crescimento ________________________________________________
decades of the nineteenth century. These
demográfico. Esse incremento populacional foi ________________________________________________
events facilitated the process of industrial

Introdução
Introduction

21
________________________________________________
consolidation as the small-scale family absorvido em grande parte pelas cidades, re-
________________________________________________
company – typical of the first phase of presentando mais um elemento característico
________________________________________________
the Industrial Revolution – accordingly das profundas mudanças que se operavam no
________________________________________________
did not have a sufficiently ample basis to
mundo industrializado.
________________________________________________
withstand the impact of the depression.
________________________________________________
At that moment it was fundamental to
________________________________________________
be able to face the high costs of new A introdução de inovações técnicas gerou tam-
________________________________________________
industrial equipment; the growing bém uma crise de superprodução industrial
________________________________________________
complexity of the organization of industrial – causa imediata da depressão verificada nas
________________________________________________
companies (laboratories, sales services, décadas finais do século XIX. Esses eventos
________________________________________________
advertising and production delivery); propiciaram o aprofundamento do processo de
________________________________________________
the increasing expenses of stocking raw
consolidação industrial, na medida em que a
________________________________________________
material and the payment of a growing
empresa familiar de pequena escala – típica da
________________________________________________
labor force. These Requirements, allied
________________________________________________
with the market fluctuations and the primeira fase da Revolução Industrial – não pos-
________________________________________________
uncompromising competition among suía base suficientemente ampla para suportar
________________________________________________
industries, acted in such a way that only o embate da depressão. Nesse momento, era
________________________________________________
the larger-scale companies could cope. fundamental ter condições para enfrentar o ele-
________________________________________________ vado custo dos novos equipamentos industriais,
________________________________________________
The majority of the industrial
a complexificação da organização das empresas
________________________________________________
organizational forms prevailing until the
industriais (laboratórios, serviços de venda, pro-
________________________________________________
end of the last century consisted of private
________________________________________________
companies whose capital came from the paganda e transporte da produção) e os gastos
________________________________________________
reapplication of profits in the business. crescentes com os estoques de matérias-primas
________________________________________________
In these companies, the shares belonged e com o pagamento de um número maior de
________________________________________________
to a small group of persons and the trabalhadores. Estas exigências, aliadas às flu-
________________________________________________
partners generally participated actively tuações do mercado e à concorrência cada vez
________________________________________________
in management. This model of business
mais acirrada entre as indústrias, atuavam de tal
________________________________________________
organization is typical of what is commonly
modo que apenas as empresas de maior porte
________________________________________________
called industrial capitalism, where the
________________________________________________
productive activities (industry) have a poderiam satisfazê-las.
________________________________________________
marked predominance over circulation
________________________________________________
(commerce) and finance (banks). A maioria das formas de organização industrial
________________________________________________ predominantes até fins do século passado con-
________________________________________________
As of the end of the nineteenth century, sistia em sociedades privadas cujo capital era
________________________________________________
a large number of companies adopted
formado pelas reaplicações do lucro no negócio.
________________________________________________
the form of stock corporations. This
Nessas empresas, as ações eram propriedade
________________________________________________
new industrial form was set up through
________________________________________________
the action of brokerage firms charged de um pequeno número de pessoas e os sócios
________________________________________________
with the subscription of shares among geralmente participavam ativamente das ta-
________________________________________________
the public at large for a commission; in refas de direção. Esse modelo de organização
________________________________________________
addition, ever since their appearance, empresarial é típico do que se convencionou

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Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

22
chamar capitalismo industrial, em que as ativi- ________________________________________________
stockholding companies have brought
dades produtivas (indústria) têm um marcante ________________________________________________
about a certain degree of separation
predomínio sobre a circulação (comércio) e as ________________________________________________
between shareholders and management.
________________________________________________
finanças (bancos).
________________________________________________
At this stage, industrial capitalism,
________________________________________________
based on free competition, began to be
A partir de fins do século XIX, grande parte das ________________________________________________
supplanted by financial or monopolistic
empresas adotou a forma de sociedades anô- ________________________________________________
capitalism, where the large banking
nimas. Essa nova modalidade empresarial foi ________________________________________________
institutions began to decisively influence
montada através da atuação de companhias ________________________________________________
the industrial and commercial companies
de investimento, encarregadas de distribuir as ________________________________________________
by means of stock control and the
________________________________________________
granting of loans and financings.
ações entre o público mediante uma comissão;
________________________________________________
além disso, desde o seu surgimento, as socieda-
________________________________________________
It was in this context that the process of
des anônimas compreenderam um certo grau de ________________________________________________
concentration of industries and of capital
separação entre os acionistas e a direção. ________________________________________________
was carried out and materialized with
________________________________________________
the appearance of trusts; the mergers
A essa altura, o capitalismo industrial, baseado ________________________________________________
of companies, holding companies or
na livre concorrência, começou a ser suplantado ________________________________________________
companies which held controlling stock
________________________________________________
interest in other companies – all of
pelo capitalismo financeiro ou monopolista, no
________________________________________________
these typically American – and of the
qual as grandes instituições bancárias passa-
________________________________________________
cartels – a predominant form in Europe,
ram a influir decisivamente sobre as empresas ________________________________________________
principally in Germany during the 1880’s
industriais e comerciais, através do controle ________________________________________________
when they exerted significant pressure
acionário e da concessão de empréstimos e ________________________________________________
on the German economy. Resulting
financiamentos. ________________________________________________
from the absorption or integration of
________________________________________________
small-scale industrial and organized
________________________________________________
establishments, all of them with the purpose
Foi nesse contexto que se desenrolou o proces-
________________________________________________
of restricting or eliminating competition,
so de concentração das indústrias e do capital,
________________________________________________
these new forms of entrepreneurial
materializando-se com o aparecimento dos ________________________________________________
organizations present special aspects
trustes, das fusões de empresas, das holdings ________________________________________________
which differentiate them from each other.
ou companhias detentoras – essas, formas ti- ________________________________________________
picamente americanas – e dos cartéis – forma ________________________________________________
Regarding cartels, their constitution
predominante na Europa, principalmente na ________________________________________________
occurred by means of an agreement
________________________________________________
among independent firms which mutually
Alemanha durante a década de 1880, quando
________________________________________________
stipulated the ways of maintaining prices
tiveram uma significativa repercussão sobre a
________________________________________________
and market quotas for the sale of their
economia germânica. Resultantes da absorção ________________________________________________
products. In this type of association, all
ou integração de estabelecimentos industriais ________________________________________________
the members kept their technical and
de pequeno porte e organizadas, todas elas, ________________________________________________
juridical autonomy, not constituting,
com a finalidade de restringir ou suprimir a con- ________________________________________________
therefore, corporative enterprises nor

Introdução
Introduction

23
________________________________________________
issuing shares. What held sway was corrência, essas novas formas de organização
________________________________________________
a common management for obtaining empresarial apresentam aspectos particulares
________________________________________________
their proposed objective: to avoid the
que as distinguem.
________________________________________________
wear and tear of the competition.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The trust constituted a more intense form Quanto ao cartel, sua constituição deu-se por
________________________________________________
of concentration than the cartel and intermédio do acordo entre empresas indepen-
________________________________________________
the movement for its composition was dentes que convencionaram entre si formas de
________________________________________________
outstanding in the United States until
manutenção dos preços e de divisão de merca-
________________________________________________
1890 when the Sherman Act declared
________________________________________________
it illegal. Definable as a combination dos, para a venda de seus produtos. Nessa forma
________________________________________________
of practically all the producers of de associação, todos os integrantes mantinham
________________________________________________
determined articles seeking to control autonomia técnica e jurídica, não constituindo,
________________________________________________
their prices and processes of production,
portanto, entidades corporativas, nem emitindo
________________________________________________
the trust also held control of the market
ações. O que vigorava era uma gerência comum
________________________________________________
by means of middlemen and salesmen.
________________________________________________
Despite the absorbed companies para a consecução do objetivo proposto: evitar
________________________________________________
apparently maintaining their juridical os desgastes da concorrência.
________________________________________________
independence, they did not retain their
________________________________________________
economic independence because they
O truste constituiu uma forma de concentração
________________________________________________
entrusted the administration of their
________________________________________________
interests to an organism which, as a mais intensa que o cartel e o movimento para sua
________________________________________________
last resort, was ruled by a council of formação foi notável nos Estados Unidos, entre
________________________________________________
trustees comprised of the managers 1897 e 1902, afetando vários setores industriais
________________________________________________
of the largest member companies. e comerciais.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The mergers occurred among
________________________________________________
companies which produced identical Podendo ser definido como uma combinação da
________________________________________________
or related articles, where the units quase totalidade dos produtores de determina-
________________________________________________
involved in this process of merger dos artigos, visando ao controle de seu preço e
________________________________________________
completely lost their individuality, being
do processo de sua produção, o truste também
________________________________________________
transformed into a new company.
exercia controle sobre o mercado, por meio dos
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Finally, the holding company appeared intermediários e vendedores. Apesar de as em-
________________________________________________
as a consequence of American legislation presas absorvidas guardarem, aparentemente,
________________________________________________
which limited the formation and the sua personalidade jurídica, não conservavam
________________________________________________
activity of trusts. In truth, it was to
sua independência econômica, pois confiavam
________________________________________________
take advantage of the possibilities
________________________________________________
which this legislation offered. Thus, a a administração de seus interesses a um orga-
________________________________________________
certain number of productive units were nismo que, em última instância, era comandado
________________________________________________
brought together under the control of por um conselho de curadores, formado pelos
________________________________________________
one company which held the portfolios dirigentes das maiores empresas.

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

24
As fusões ocorreram entre companhias produ- ________________________________________________
of the majority shares of these units.
toras dos mesmos artigos ou de artigos relacio- ________________________________________________
This type of association was not
nados, sendo que as unidades envolvidas nesse ________________________________________________
dedicated to producing anything and
________________________________________________
did not require a large amount of real
processo de concentração perdiam completa-
________________________________________________
capital, although it maintained the total
mente sua individualidade, transformando-se
________________________________________________
productive capacity under its control.
numa nova empresa. ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The process of concentrating capital
Finalmente, a companhia holding apareceu em ________________________________________________
described above did not only acquire
conseqüência da legislação americana que ________________________________________________
gigantic dimensions in some countries
limitava a formação e a atuação dos trustes. ________________________________________________
such as Germany, the United States
________________________________________________
and Japan, but also made possible
Tratava-se, na realidade, de aproveitar as possi-
________________________________________________
the large concentration of political
bilidades que essa legislação oferecia. Assim,
________________________________________________
forces. Congressmen, ministers of state,
certo número de unidades produtivas era reunido ________________________________________________
and even presidents were members
sob o controle de uma companhia que passava ________________________________________________
of the administrative boards of large
a possuir as carteiras de ações majoritárias des- ________________________________________________
corporations. On the other hand, the
sas unidades. Esse tipo de associação não se ________________________________________________
operation of these huge enterprises
dedicava à produção e não exigia uma grande ________________________________________________
often provoked government intervention
________________________________________________
in the majority of countries in order to
quantidade de capital real, embora mantivesse
________________________________________________
limit activities and control abuses.
sob sua mira a capacidade produtiva total.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
On the international plane, the
O processo de concentração de capitais acima ________________________________________________
transformations caused by the Second
descrito não só adquiriu proporções gigantescas ________________________________________________
Industrial Revolution brought about
em alguns países como a Alemanha, os Estados ________________________________________________
a series of new requirements for the
Unidos e o Japão, mas também possibilitou ________________________________________________
industrialized nations related with the
________________________________________________
maintenance of the rhythm of industrial
uma grande concentração de força política.
________________________________________________
development such as: the existence of
Parlamentares, ministros e até presidentes eram
________________________________________________
external markets for the absorption of
membros de conselhos de administração de ________________________________________________
production surpluses; the afflux of raw
grandes empresas. Por outro lado, muitas vezes ________________________________________________
materials and minerals which were not
a atuação dessas empresas gigantes provocou ________________________________________________
native to their territories; the existence
a intervenção do poder público, na maioria dos ________________________________________________
of cheap manpower and areas fit for
países, visando a limitar suas atividades e con- ________________________________________________
safe and profitable capital investment.
________________________________________________
trolar abusos.
________________________________________________
To solve these problems, the capitalist
________________________________________________
nations began to develop, as of the
No plano internacional, as transformações ________________________________________________
second half of the nineteenth century,
provocadas pela Segunda Revolução Industrial ________________________________________________
an external expansion policy which,
acarretaram uma série de novas necessidades ________________________________________________
mainly affecting Asia, Africa and Latin
para os países industrializados, relacionadas ________________________________________________
America, became known as imperialism.

Introdução
Introduction

25
________________________________________________
Still within the picture of the consequences com a manutenção do ritmo de desenvolvimento
________________________________________________
of the second phase of the Industrial industrial, tais como: a existência de mercados
________________________________________________
Revolution, worthy of being pointed out externos para o escoamento do excedente de pro-
________________________________________________
is the beginning of the loss of ground
dução; o afluxo de matérias-primas e minerais
________________________________________________
on the part of England as leader of the
inexistentes nos seus territórios, mas essenciais
________________________________________________
industrialized nations, due to the rapid
________________________________________________
progress of other countries – mainly à produção; a disponibilidade de mão-de-obra a
________________________________________________
Germany and the United States. baixo custo e de áreas favoráveis ao investimento
________________________________________________ seguro e lucrativo de capitais.
________________________________________________
British industry began to be surpassed by
________________________________________________
that of the United States and Germany, Para resolver esses problemas, os países capi-
________________________________________________
also losing its rule over the technological
talistas começaram a desenvolver, a partir da
________________________________________________
and organizational fields, especially in
segunda metade do século XIX, uma política de
________________________________________________
the sectors of metallurgy and chemical
________________________________________________
and electric material industries which expansão externa que, atingindo principalmente
________________________________________________
offered the broadest perspectives for a Ásia, a África e a América Latina, ficou conhe-
________________________________________________
expansion since they were engendered cida sob a denominação de imperialismo.
________________________________________________
under the aegis of the concentration
________________________________________________
of capital. This implied a complete Ainda no quadro das conseqüências da segunda
________________________________________________
reorganization of the relative position
fase da Revolução Industrial, deve ser assinalado
________________________________________________
of these nations in the world economy.
o início da perda de terreno por parte da Ingla-
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
On the eve of the twentieth century, terra como líder das nações industriais, em face
________________________________________________
there was a speedy world integration do rápido avanço de outros países – Alemanha
________________________________________________
with far-reaching consequences, e os Estados Unidos, principalmente.
________________________________________________
affecting practically all the areas of the
________________________________________________
globe. As of then, almost all nations A indústria inglesa começou a ser ultrapassada
________________________________________________
were more closely interconnected
pela norte-americana e pela alemã, perdendo
________________________________________________
economically and financially than
domínio também nos campos tecnológico e
________________________________________________
in any other previous period.
________________________________________________ organizacional, particularmente nos setores de
________________________________________________
The outstanding diffusion of the uses metalurgia, indústria química e de material elé-
________________________________________________
of electricity observed as of the last trico, que ofereciam as maiores perspectivas de
________________________________________________
quarter of the nineteenth century is expansão, na medida em que já surgiram sob a
________________________________________________
closely associated with two essential égide da concentração de capitais. Isso implicou
________________________________________________
characteristics: its ease of transmission
uma completa reordenação da posição relativa
________________________________________________
and its flexibility. Regarding the first,
desses países na economia mundial.
________________________________________________
it is the possibility of transporting
________________________________________________
electricity long distances through space
________________________________________________
without suffering any considerable loss No limiar do século XX, assistia-se a uma veloz
________________________________________________
of power. The second characteristic integração mundial, com conseqüências de
________________________________________________
refers to the ease and efficiency with longo alcance, afetando praticamente todas as

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

26
áreas do globo. A partir de então, quase todos ________________________________________________
which electricity is converted into other
os países estavam mais estreitamente interliga- ________________________________________________
forms of energy such as heat and light.
dos, econômica e financeiramente, do que em ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
From the combination of both these
qualquer outra época anterior.
________________________________________________
attributes, two important consequences are
________________________________________________
derived. On the one hand, the utilization of
A notável difusão dos usos da eletricidade, ob- ________________________________________________
electricity allowed industrial installations
servada a partir do último quartel do século XIX, ________________________________________________
to be located at places distant from
está intimamente associada a duas caracterís- ________________________________________________
sources of power; on the other hand, it
ticas essenciais: sua transmissibilidade e sua ________________________________________________
allowed the wide distribution of power,
flexibilidade. ________________________________________________
placing it within the reach of all.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Relegated at the beginning of the nineteenth
Quanto à primeira, trata-se da possibilidade de
________________________________________________
century to scientific curiosity, electricity
a eletricidade ser transportada através do espa- ________________________________________________
progressively became a commercially
ço, sem que isso implique perdas consideráveis ________________________________________________
useful source of power, mainly in the field
de energia A segunda característica refere-se à ________________________________________________
of communications, the metallurgical
possibilidade de se converter, com facilidade e ________________________________________________
industry and the light chemical industry
eficiência, a eletricidade em outras formas de ________________________________________________
and, finally, in illumination.
________________________________________________
energia, como o calor e a luz.
________________________________________________
The use of electricity in lighting caused an
________________________________________________
unprecedented economic impact, making
Da combinação única desses dois atributos, ________________________________________________
the formation of a new industrial sector
decorrem duas importantes conseqüências. Por ________________________________________________
feasible - the electrical industry. This
um lado, a utilização da eletricidade permitiu ________________________________________________
industry is comprised of two branches: the
que as instalações industriais se localizassem ________________________________________________
manufacture of electrical equipment and
em pontos distantes das fontes de energia; por ________________________________________________
the production of electric power, which
________________________________________________
generates and distributes electricity. The
outro lado, possibilitou a ampla disseminação da
________________________________________________
jumping off point for the development of
energia, colocando-a ao alcance de todos.
________________________________________________
the electrical equipment industry was,
________________________________________________
without doubt, the formation of a wide
Circunscrita, no início do século XIX, ao campo ________________________________________________
consumer market for the incandescent
das curiosidades científicas, a eletricidade foi se ________________________________________________
light invented by Thomas Alva Edison
tornando, de maneira progressiva, uma forma de ________________________________________________
in 1879. However, since to operate the
energia comercialmente útil, primeiro nas comu- ________________________________________________
lamps it was necessary to set up a whole
________________________________________________
system of generation, transmission and
nicações, em seguida na metalurgia e na indústria
________________________________________________
distribution of electricity, the demand
química leve e, finalmente, na iluminação.
________________________________________________
it provoked ended up stimulating the
________________________________________________
electricity industry in its complex as well.
O emprego da eletricidade na iluminação causou ________________________________________________
um impacto econômico sem precedentes, viabi- ________________________________________________
Mastering the technology used in the
lizando a formação de um novo setor industrial: ________________________________________________
generation and utilization of electric

Introdução
Introduction

27
________________________________________________
power, the principal American and a indústria elétrica. Essa indústria compõe-se
________________________________________________
European companies of the sector were de dois ramos: a indústria de equipamentos elé-
________________________________________________
virtually engendered as monopolies. tricos, ou eletrotécnica, e a indústria de energia
________________________________________________
elétrica, que produz e distribui a corrente. O ponto
________________________________________________
The pioneers of the electrical industry in
de partida para o desenvolvimento da indústria
________________________________________________
the United States were three engineers
________________________________________________
– Thomas Alva Edison himself, Elihu de equipamentos elétricos foi, sem dúvida, a for-
________________________________________________
Thomson, also an inventor, and Edwin mação de um amplo mercado consumidor para
________________________________________________
Houston, who in the 1880’s founded a lâmpada incandescente, inventada por Thomas
________________________________________________
the Edison General Electric and the Alva Edison em 1879. Entretanto, como, para acio-
________________________________________________
Thomson-Houston Electrical Company. nar as lâmpadas, era necessária a constituição
________________________________________________
de todo um sistema de geração, transmissão e
________________________________________________
Still in the 1880’s another engineer, George
distribuição da corrente elétrica, a demanda por
________________________________________________
Westinghouse, founded the Westinghouse
________________________________________________
Electric Manufacturing Company ele provocada acabou estimulando igualmente a
________________________________________________
basically for the production of equipment indústria elétrica em seu conjunto.
________________________________________________
for the generation and distribution of
________________________________________________
hydroelectric power and arc lamps, besides Dominando a tecnologia empregada na geração
________________________________________________
having produced important innovations e na utilização de energia elétrica, as principais
________________________________________________
in electric transformers. Exploiting the
empresas norte-americanas e européias do
________________________________________________
power potential of Niagara Falls and
setor já nasceram virtualmente sob o signo do
________________________________________________
transmitting the electricity produced to the
________________________________________________
city of Buffalo, Westinghouse underwent monopólio.
________________________________________________
a large and rapid expansion through the
________________________________________________
acquisition of two smaller companies: Os pioneiros da indústria elétrica nos Estados
________________________________________________
the Consolidated Electric Light Company Unidos foram três engenheiros – o próprio
________________________________________________
and the United States Electric Company. Thomas Alva Edison, o também inventor Elihu
________________________________________________
Thomson e Edwin Houston – que fundaram, na
________________________________________________
The first steps of the American electrical
década de 1880, a Edison General Electric e a
________________________________________________
industry were marked by the rivalry among
________________________________________________
the three major companies: Thomson- Thomson-Houston Electrical Company.
________________________________________________
Houston, Edison and Westinghouse. The
________________________________________________
competition for lower sales prices of their Ainda na década de 1880, outro engenheiro, George
________________________________________________
products was intense and the technological Westinghouse, constituiu a Westinghouse Elec-
________________________________________________
evolution of the production line was tric Manufacturing Company, empresa voltada ba-
________________________________________________
extremely rapid. The uncompromising
sicamente para a produção de lâmpadas de arco
________________________________________________
competition led to a spiraling decline
destinadas à distribuição de energia hidrelétrica,
________________________________________________
in prices, dragging the sector into a
________________________________________________
serious crisis. Dogged by economic além de ter produzido importantes inovações nos
________________________________________________
difficulties, Edison and Thomson-Houston transformadores elétricos. Explorando o potencial
________________________________________________
merged in April 1892, giving birth to energético das cataratas do Niágara e transmi-
________________________________________________
the General Electric Company (GE). tindo a corrente produzida à cidade de Buffalo, a

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

28
Westinghouse experimentou grande expansão, ________________________________________________
The newly-created GE controlled
acelerada pela aquisição de duas empresas me- ________________________________________________
a large portion of the patented
nores, a Consolidated Electric Light Company e ________________________________________________
technology of the electrical sector,
________________________________________________
thus guaranteeing itself a position of
a United States Electric Company.
________________________________________________
leadership. By means of an aggressive
________________________________________________
policy of patent acquisition and the
Os primeiros passos da indústria elétrica nor- ________________________________________________
introduction of its own innovations, GE
te-americana foram marcados pela rivalidade en- ________________________________________________
practically guaranteed the monopoly
tre as três maiores empresas: Thomson-Houston, ________________________________________________
of the technology of the manufacture of
Edison e Westinghouse. A competição por me- ________________________________________________
lamps and other electrical equipment.
nores preços de venda dos produtos era intensa ________________________________________________
The company counted on the financial
________________________________________________
support of J. P. Morgan, the powerful
e a evolução tecnológica da linha de produção
________________________________________________
capitalist who participated in the merger
apresentava-se extremamente rápida. A acirra-
________________________________________________
agreement in 1892, a member of General
da concorrência levou a uma queda em espiral ________________________________________________
Electric’s Board of Directors since its
dos preços, arrastando o setor para uma séria ________________________________________________
founding. At the time of the merger, the
crise. Premidas por dificuldades econômicas, a ________________________________________________
company controlled more than 2,000
Edison e a Thomson-Houston fundiram-se em ________________________________________________
patents for electrical inventions.
abril de 1892, dando origem à General Electric ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Meanwhile, Westinghouse devoted its
Company (GE).
________________________________________________
efforts to the production of AC systems
________________________________________________
of generation and distribution. Shortly,
A recém-criada GE controlava boa parte da tec- ________________________________________________
it rivaled GE in the production of
nologia patenteada do setor elétrico, garantindo ________________________________________________
generating and distribution equipment,
assim uma posição de liderança. Por meio de ________________________________________________
motors and control apparatuses.
uma agressiva política de aquisição de patentes ________________________________________________
The disputes over patents between the
e da introdução de inovações próprias, a GE pra- ________________________________________________
two largest companies of the electric
________________________________________________
power sector were constant, frequently
ticamente garantiu o monopólio da tecnologia de
________________________________________________
shifting from the market to the courts.
fabricação de lâmpadas e de outros equipamen-
________________________________________________
tos elétricos. A empresa contava com o suporte ________________________________________________
This situation came to an end in 1896,
financeiro do poderoso capitalista J. P. Morgan, ________________________________________________
when GE and Westinghouse signed
que participara do acordo de fusão em 1892, inte- ________________________________________________
a general patent acknowledgment
grando a diretoria da General Electric desde sua ________________________________________________
agreement, constituting a cartel,
fundação. Na época da fusão, a nova companhia ________________________________________________
concerning the use of their respective
________________________________________________
already-patented technologies.
controlava mais de 2.000 patentes de invenções
________________________________________________
GE was given 62.5% of the rights to the
elétricas e seus substitutivos próximos.
________________________________________________
patents and Westinghouse the remaining
________________________________________________
37.5%. Business was to be divided in
Enquanto isso, a Westinghouse concentrava ________________________________________________
that proportion without the payment of
seus esforços na produção de sistemas de cor- ________________________________________________
royalties to the other party. However,
rente alternada e de lâmpadas de arco. Em pouco ________________________________________________
should one of the two companies

Introdução
Introduction

29
________________________________________________
exceed its respective quota, it would be tempo, ela rivalizava com a GE na produção de
________________________________________________
obligated to pay royalties to the other. equipamentos de geração e distribuição, moto-
________________________________________________ res e aparelhos de controle. As disputas por pa-
________________________________________________
The agreement between the dominant
tentes entre as duas maiores empresas do setor
________________________________________________
firms strengthened their predominance
elétrico eram constantes, deslocando-se muitas
________________________________________________
in the market, making the appearance
________________________________________________
of new companies in the American vezes do mercado para os tribunais.
________________________________________________
electric sector exceedingly difficult.
________________________________________________
After 1896, many small companies Essa situação chegou a termo em 1896, quando a
________________________________________________
fell under the control of GE or GE e a Westinghouse firmaram um acordo geral
________________________________________________
Westinghouse, which thus established de reconhecimento de patentes, configurando
________________________________________________
a virtual duopoly over the sector.
um cartel quanto ao uso das suas respectivas
________________________________________________
tecnologias já patenteadas. Coube à GE a re-
________________________________________________
General Electric and Westinghouse
________________________________________________
consolidated their hegemonic positions due presentação de 62,5% das patentes do cartel e
________________________________________________
fundamentally to three factors: technological 37,5% à Westinghouse. Os negócios deveriam
________________________________________________
superiority, the control of patents and an ser divididos nessa proporção, sem pagamento
________________________________________________
outstanding financial strength. Thanks to de royalty à outra parte. Contudo, caso uma das
________________________________________________
these resources, they were able to absorb duas companhias excedesse sua cota respectiva,
________________________________________________
their competitors and respective patents,
seria obrigada a pagar royalty à outra.
________________________________________________
besides financing their own sales. By
________________________________________________
means of the mutual use of technology,
________________________________________________
the two companies acknowledged and O acordo entre as firmas dominantes fortaleceu
________________________________________________
strengthened one another’s power in seu predomínio no mercado, dificultando sobre-
________________________________________________
exchange for peace on the market. It maneira a entrada de novas empresas no setor
________________________________________________
was these same elements of control and elétrico norte-americano. Depois de 1896, muitas
________________________________________________
coordination which led them to dominate the empresas pequenas passaram para o controle
________________________________________________
markets outside their own country, based
da GE ou da Westinghouse, que assim estabele-
________________________________________________
on an organizational structure similar to
ceram um virtual duopólio sobre o setor.
________________________________________________
that of their American headquarters.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The truth is that, ever since their founding, A General Electric e a Westinghouse consoli-
________________________________________________
the first American electrical companies daram suas posições hegemônicas em virtude,
________________________________________________
had been making incursions abroad, fundamentalmente, de três fatores: a superiori-
________________________________________________
seeking to obtain a speedy profit from dade tecnológica inicial, o controle de patentes
________________________________________________
their inventions. At the end of the 1880’s,
e um notável poderio financeiro. Graças a esses
________________________________________________
Edison General Electric appeared on
recursos, puderam absorver as concorrentes
________________________________________________
the British market with its subsidiary:
________________________________________________
Edison Swan; in Germany by means of e as patentes que elas detinham, além de fi-
________________________________________________
the Allgemeine Edison Gesellschaft; and nanciar as próprias vendas. Por intermédio do
________________________________________________
in Italy by means of the Società Edison uso recíproco de tecnologia, as duas empresas
________________________________________________
per la Fabricazione delle Lampade. reconheceram e reforçaram o poder uma da ou-

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Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

30
tra, em troca da paz no mercado. Foram esses ________________________________________________
Also at the end of that decade, Thomson-
mesmos elementos de controle e coordenação ________________________________________________
Houston in turn created Thomson-Houston
que lhes permitiram dominar os mercados fora ________________________________________________
International, by means of which it founded
________________________________________________
the British Thomson-Houston in 1890 and
de seu país de origem, com base numa estrutura
________________________________________________
the Société Française Thomson-Houston.
organizacional muito semelhante à das matrizes
________________________________________________
At the end of the 1890’s, Westinghouse also
norte-americanas. ________________________________________________
entered the British market, manufacturing
________________________________________________
and selling its products. With the
Na verdade, desde sua fundação, as primeiras ________________________________________________
appearance of General Electric in 1892,
empresas elétricas norte-americanas vinham ________________________________________________
the subsidiaries of the Edison Electric
fazendo investidas fora dos EUA, visando a obter ________________________________________________
and of Thomson-Houston passed over
________________________________________________
to the ownership of the new company.
um proveito rápido das suas invenções. No final
________________________________________________
da década de 1880, a Edison General Electric
________________________________________________
However, around 1895-1896, the direct
penetrou no mercado inglês com sua subsidiá- ________________________________________________
investment of American capital had
ria – a Edison Swan; na Alemanha, por meio da ________________________________________________
already become low profit. Competition
Allgemeine Edison Gesellschaft, e na Itália, por ________________________________________________
on the European market was strong
intermédio da Società Edison per la Fabricazione ________________________________________________
and the American parent companies
delle Lampade. ________________________________________________
had difficulty in adequately managing
________________________________________________
their foreign branches. The European
________________________________________________
governments – generally quite sensitive to
Por sua vez, a Thomson-Houston, também no
________________________________________________
pressure from their respective domestic
final daquela década, criou a Thomson-Hous- ________________________________________________
companies – did not grant the patent
ton International, por meio da qual fundou a ________________________________________________
protection claims forthcoming from
Thomson-Houston inglesa, em 1890, e a Société ________________________________________________
American companies. With a certain
Française Thomson-Houston. No final dos anos ________________________________________________
frequency, the European companies simply
1890, a Westinghouse também ingressou no mer- ________________________________________________
copied the models and innovations of the
________________________________________________
American companies’ foreign branches.
cado inglês, fabricando e comercializando seus
________________________________________________
produtos. Com o surgimento da General Electric
________________________________________________
GE immediately reduced its participation
em 1892, as subsidiárias da Edison Electric e da ________________________________________________
in the British Thomson-Houston and the
Thomson-Houston passaram a pertencer à nova ________________________________________________
Allgemeine Edison, whereas Westinghouse
empresa. ________________________________________________
did away with its British branch. In order
________________________________________________
to alleviate the competition in foreign
No entanto, já por volta de 1895-1896, o inves- ________________________________________________
markets, the leading companies of the
________________________________________________
world adopted a system similar to that
timento direto de capitais norte-americanos
________________________________________________
agreed upon by GE and Westinghouse
começava a se mostrar pouco rentável. A con-
________________________________________________
in 1896: patent licensing agreements.
corrência no mercado europeu era forte e as ________________________________________________
Consisting of mutual contractual
matrizes norte-americanas tinham dificuldade ________________________________________________
arrangements where each party
em administrar adequadamente suas filiais. Os ________________________________________________
involved recognized the patent rights of
governos europeus – em geral, bastante sensí- ________________________________________________
the others, these agreements likewise

Introdução
Introduction

31
________________________________________________
established the exchange of technology, veis às pressões das companhias locais – não
________________________________________________
subject to specific conditions. atendiam aos pedidos de proteção de patentes
________________________________________________ encaminhados pelas empresas dos EUA. Com
________________________________________________
The route taken by the large
alguma freqüência, as firmas européias simples-
________________________________________________
European electrical manufacturing
mente copiavam os modelos e as inovações das
________________________________________________
companies was very similar to that of
________________________________________________
their American counterparts, being filiais estrangeiras.
________________________________________________
equally based on the monopoly of
________________________________________________
technology and the establishment A GE logo reduziu sua participação na Thom-
________________________________________________
of branches in other countries. son-Houston inglesa e na Allgemeine Edison,
________________________________________________ enquanto a Westinghouse se desfez da sua filial
________________________________________________
The European country which presented
britânica. Para amenizar a concorrência nos
________________________________________________
greater progress in the electrical sector
mercados externos, as firmas líderes no mundo
________________________________________________
was undoubtedly Germany. The precursors
________________________________________________
of the German electrical industry were the adotaram um sistema similar ao acertado pela
________________________________________________
brothers, engineers Werner and William GE e pela Westinghouse em 1896: acordos de
________________________________________________
Siemens who, in 1874, in partnership licenciamento de patentes. Consistindo em ar-
________________________________________________
with the mechanic Johann Georg Halske, ranjos contratuais mútuos, nos quais cada parte
________________________________________________
founded Siemens und Halske. At the envolvida reconhecia os direitos de patente da
________________________________________________
beginning of the 1890’s, the company
outra, esses acordos estabeleciam igualmente
________________________________________________
entered the American market, installing a
a permuta de tecnologia, sujeita a condições
________________________________________________
branch in Chicago. However, due to the
________________________________________________
same problems faced by the American específicas.
________________________________________________
companies in Europe, the Chicago
________________________________________________
subsidiary was sold to General Electric A trajetória cumprida pelas grandes empresas
________________________________________________
in 1900. In 1903, the German company da indústria elétrica européia foi muito seme-
________________________________________________
received a great impulse by the acquisition lhante à de suas congêneres norte-americanas,
________________________________________________
of Elektrizitäts Aktiengesellschaft, becoming
baseando-se igualmente no monopólio da tec-
________________________________________________
the Siemens- Schuckertwerke agglomerate.
nologia e no estabelecimento de sucursais em
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The other giant of the German electrical outros países.
________________________________________________
sector was the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts
________________________________________________
Gesellschaft (AEG). Founded in 1883 by O país europeu que apresentou maiores pro-
________________________________________________
the German Emil Rathenau and controlled gressos no setor elétrico foi, indiscutivelmente
________________________________________________
by the American Edison General Electric a Alemanha. Os precursores da indústria elétri-
________________________________________________
Company, the AEG won its entrepreneurial
ca alemã foram os irmãos engenheiros Werner
________________________________________________
autonomy at the turn of the century,
e William Siemens que, em sociedade com o
________________________________________________
capturing important portions of the
________________________________________________
European and South American markets. mecânico Johann Georg Halske, fundaram em
________________________________________________ 1874 a Siemens & Halske. No início da década
________________________________________________
By incorporating competing companies, de 1890, a companhia ingressou no mercado dos
________________________________________________
establishing branches and manufacturing Estados Unidos, instalando uma filial em Chica-

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Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

32
go. Entretanto, devido aos mesmos problemas ________________________________________________
an ample list of products (lamps, storage
enfrentados pelas firmas norte-americanas na ________________________________________________
batteries, motors, generators, etc.) of
Europa, a subsidiária de Chicago foi vendida à ________________________________________________
cheap but good quality, and having a
________________________________________________
solid financial scheme which would
General Electric em 1900. Em 1903, a empresa co-
________________________________________________
allow them to offer easy credit to clients,
nheceu um grande impulso, com a aquisição da
________________________________________________
Siemens and AEG created a powerful
Elektrizitäts-Aktiengesellschaft, formando então ________________________________________________
industrial complex which in 1914 employed
o conglomerado Siemens-Schuckertwerke. ________________________________________________
close to 150,000 persons. On the eve
________________________________________________
of the First World War, the German
A outra gigante do setor elétrico alemão era ________________________________________________
electrical industry was the second largest
a Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG). ________________________________________________
in the world in regard to production,
________________________________________________
immediately following the United States,
Fundada em 1883 pelo alemão Emil Rathenau e
________________________________________________
and was first in volume of exports.
controlada pela empresa norte-americana Edi-
________________________________________________
son General Electric, a AEG ganhou autonomia ________________________________________________
Another European country which was
empresarial na virada do século, conquistando ________________________________________________
outstanding in the electrical sector was
importantes fatias do mercado europeu e sul- ________________________________________________
Switzerland. Its principal company,
americano. ________________________________________________
Brown-Boveri, was founded in 1891
________________________________________________
by Englishman Charles Brown and the
________________________________________________
German Walter Boveri. Due to the small
Mediante a incorporação das firmas concorren-
________________________________________________
size of the Swiss market, the company, in
tes, o estabelecimento de filiais, a fabricação
________________________________________________
its expansion process, was installed in
de uma ampla lista de produtos (lâmpadas, ________________________________________________
Germany, France, Italy, Norway, Austria,
acumuladores, motores, geradores etc.) baratos ________________________________________________
and even in the United States, where it
e de boa qualidade, e o concurso de um sólido ________________________________________________
arrived in 1916. The Swiss electrical
esquema financeiro que lhes permitia oferecer ________________________________________________
industry comprised, besides Brown-Boveri,
crédito fácil aos clientes, a Siemens e a AEG ________________________________________________
three other important firms: Oerlikon,
________________________________________________
Escher Wiss and Compagnie de l’Industrie
criaram um poderoso parque industrial que,
________________________________________________
Eléctrique et Mecanique (CIEM).
em 1914, empregava cerca de 150.000 pessoas.
________________________________________________
Às vésperas da Primeira Guerra Mundial, a in- ________________________________________________
Two other large European firms of the
dústria elétrica alemã era a segunda maior do ________________________________________________
electrical sector were the Allemänna
mundo quanto à produção, vindo logo abaixo ________________________________________________
Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget (ASEA)
da norte-americana, e a primeira em volume de ________________________________________________
of Sweden and Philips of Holland, both
exportação. ________________________________________________
appearing in the 1890’s. Based on
________________________________________________
the performance of Swedish electrical
________________________________________________
engineering, especially in the field of
Outro país europeu que se destacava no se-
________________________________________________
turbines, ASEA soon crossed its country’s
tor elétrico era a Suíça. Sua maior empresa, a ________________________________________________
borders and began to compete on the
Brown-Boveri, foi fundada em 1891, pelo inglês ________________________________________________
European market. Philips, which initially
Charles Brown e pelo alemão Walter Boveri. De- ________________________________________________
operated under manufacturing licenses
vido às pequenas dimensões do mercado suíço, ________________________________________________
from American firms, underwent a

Introdução
Introduction

33
________________________________________________
tremendous expansion during the First a companhia foi levada em seu processo de ex-
________________________________________________
World War when, taking advantage of pansão a se instalar na Alemanha, França, Itália,
________________________________________________
Dutch neutrality, it exported its products Noruega, Áustria e mesmo nos Estados Unidos,
________________________________________________
to the countries involved in the conflict.
onde chegou em 1916. A indústria elétrica suí-
________________________________________________
ça compreendia, além da Brown-Boveri, outras
________________________________________________
This was the picture of the international
________________________________________________
electrical industry at the turn of três importantes empresas: a Oerlikon, a Escher
________________________________________________
the century, the moment at which Wiss e a Compagnie de l’Industrie Électrique et
________________________________________________
the first foreign electric power Mécanique (Ciem).
________________________________________________
concessionaires entered Brazil.
________________________________________________ Outras duas grandes empresas européias do
________________________________________________
setor elétrico eram a Allemänna Svenska Ele-
________________________________________________
cktriska Aktiebolaget (Asea), da Suécia, e a
________________________________________________
________________________________________________ Philips, da Holanda, ambas surgidas na década
________________________________________________ de 1890. Tendo por base o desenvolvimento da
________________________________________________ engenharia elétrica sueca, particularmente no
________________________________________________ campo das turbinas, a Asea em pouco tempo
________________________________________________ ultrapassou as fronteiras do país, passando a
________________________________________________
concorrer no mercado europeu. Já a Philips, que
________________________________________________
inicialmente operava sob o regime de licenças de
________________________________________________
________________________________________________ fabricação firmadas com empresas norte-ame-
________________________________________________ ricanas, apresentou grande expansão durante
________________________________________________ a Primeira Guerra Mundial quando, aproveitan-
________________________________________________ do-se da neutralidade holandesa, exportou seus
________________________________________________ produtos para os países envolvidos no conflito.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Esse era o quadro da indústria elétrica interna-
________________________________________________
________________________________________________ cional na virada do século, momento em que
________________________________________________ ingressaram no Brasil as primeiras concessioná-
________________________________________________ rias de energia elétrica de origem estrangeira.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

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Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

34
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Capítulo 1 ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
A FORMAÇÃO DA INDÚSTRIA DE ________________________________________________
ENERGIA ELÉTRICA NO BRASIL ________________________________________________
(1880-1930) ________________________________________________
Chapter 1
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
THE CONSTITUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
SECTOR ________________________________________________
INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL
________________________________________________
(1880-1930)
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
In the last years of the empire, the
________________________________________________ NOS ÚLTIMOS ANOS do império, a economia
________________________________________________
Brazilian economy continued to be based brasileira continuava assentada nas atividades
________________________________________________
on the exportation of raw material. primário-exportadoras. O desenvolvimento do
________________________________________________
The development of the country was
país caracterizava-se, exatamente, pelo aumento
________________________________________________
characterized by the increase in value
do valor e, sobretudo, pela elevação do volume
________________________________________________
and volume of exports: in first place, the
________________________________________________
coffee grown in the southeastern region; das exportações: em primeiro lugar, de café,
________________________________________________
followed by the rubber extracted in the cultivado na região Sudeste; em seguida, de
________________________________________________
Amazon Basin. This significant growth of borracha, extraída na Amazônia. Esse significa-
________________________________________________
exports gave impetus to the modernization tivo crescimento das exportações impulsionou
________________________________________________
of the infrastructure of services in Brazil. a modernização da infra-estrutura de serviços
________________________________________________
do Brasil.
________________________________________________
Indispensable for the production
________________________________________________
and circulation of merchandise, the
________________________________________________
infrastructure services covered the Indispensável à produção e à circulação de
________________________________________________
transportation system (railways, harbor mercadorias, os serviços de infra-estrutura
________________________________________________
installations, maritime navigation), abrangiam o sistema de transportes (ferrovias,
________________________________________________
the communications system (telegraph, instalações portuárias, navegação marítima),
________________________________________________
telephone) and urban public services o sistema de comunicações (telégrafo, telefo-
________________________________________________
(tram lines, public lighting, water
ne) e os serviços públicos urbanos (linhas de
________________________________________________
and sewage, and generation and
bondes, iluminação pública, águas e esgotos,
________________________________________________
distribution of power). This broad
________________________________________________
range of activities was financed mainly produção e distribuição de energia). Esse
________________________________________________
by the large oligopolies of the more amplo leque de atividades era financiado,
________________________________________________
developed capitalist countries. em sua maior parte, pelas grandes empresas
________________________________________________ oligopolistas dos países capitalistas mais de-
________________________________________________
At that time, the export of capital to senvolvidos.
________________________________________________
Brazil and other peripheral areas became
________________________________________________
crucially important for the expansion of
Nesse momento, a exportação de capitais para
________________________________________________
the central capitalist economies, which
________________________________________________
were in strong competition for new o Brasil e outras áreas periféricas se revestia de
________________________________________________
markets and sources of raw material. crucial importância para a expansão das econo-
________________________________________________
Up to the eve of the First World War, mias capitalistas centrais, envolvidas em forte
________________________________________________
capital of British origin represented, concorrência pela conquista de novos mercados
________________________________________________
by far, the major portion of the foreign e fontes de matérias primas. Até as vésperas da
________________________________________________
investments in Brazil. This situation
Primeira Guerra Mundial, os capitais de origem
________________________________________________
was to change after the war when
inglesa representavam, de longe, a maior par-
________________________________________________
American capital took over the lead.
________________________________________________ cela dos investimentos externos no Brasil. Esse
________________________________________________
Internally, the coffee exporting complex quadro seria alterado, de modo irreversível, após
________________________________________________
constituted the main support for the o conflito, quando os capitais norte-americanos
________________________________________________
development of the Brazilian economy, assumiram a liderança.

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Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

36
No plano interno, o complexo exportador cafeei- ________________________________________________
offering the most attractive opportunities
ro constituía a viga mestra do desenvolvimento ________________________________________________
for the investment of foreign capital. The
da economia brasileira, oferecendo as oportuni- ________________________________________________
expansion of the state of São Paulo’s
________________________________________________
coffee plantations, already following
dades mais atraentes de investimento para os
________________________________________________
capitalistic models, necessitated the
capitais estrangeiros. A expansão da cafeicultura
________________________________________________
extension of the railway network, the
paulista, efetuada já em moldes capitalistas, ________________________________________________
expansion of port facilities and the
necessitava da extensão da malha ferroviária, ________________________________________________
vitalizing of urban services. Besides
da ampliação dos portos e da dinamização dos ________________________________________________
this, by utilizing non-slave manpower
serviços urbanos. Além disso, ao utilizar a mão- ________________________________________________
– the European immigrant – in a nation
de-obra livre – o imigrante europeu – em um ________________________________________________
where, until Abolition, slave labor was
________________________________________________
predominant, coffee was responsible
país onde até a Abolição as relações de trabalho
________________________________________________
for the introduction of wage-based
escravistas eram dominantes, o café foi respon-
________________________________________________
work in the countryside and for its
sável pela introdução do trabalho assalariado no ________________________________________________
spread to urban centers, stimulating
campo e por sua difusão nos centros urbanos, ________________________________________________
the expansion of the domestic market.
permitindo o alargamento do mercado interno. ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
On the other hand, the investment
Por outro lado, a inversão dos excedentes gera- ________________________________________________
in industrial activities of the coffee-
________________________________________________
exporting complex generated a
dos no complexo exportador cafeeiro em ativida-
________________________________________________
surplus, especially as of the end of
des industriais, particularmente a partir do final
________________________________________________
the 1880’s, and provided conditions
da década de 1880, proporcionava as condições ________________________________________________
for the emergence of the industrial
para o surgimento do capital industrial, que seria ________________________________________________
capital which would immediately
favorecido em seguida pela disponibilidade de ________________________________________________
be fostered by the availability of
mão-de-obra abundante e barata. ________________________________________________
abundant and cheap manpower.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
In short, coffee was the prime mover in
O café foi, em síntese, o principal motor do
________________________________________________
the process of economic diversification
processo de diversificação econômica em mar-
________________________________________________
on the march in Brazil at the end
cha no Brasil no final do século XIX, desem- ________________________________________________
of the nineteenth century and also
penhando, igualmente, papel fundamental na ________________________________________________
performed a fundamental role in the
integração da economia brasileira ao conjunto ________________________________________________
integration of the Brazilian economy
da economia mundial. ________________________________________________
to the body of world economy.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The development of urbanization, with
O avanço da urbanização, com o conseqüente
________________________________________________
the consequent increase in demand
aumento da demanda por serviços públicos, e o
________________________________________________
for public services and the growth
incremento das atividades industriais, observa- ________________________________________________
of industrial activities found in the
das no sudeste do país, abriram boas perspecti- ________________________________________________
southeast of the country, opened up
vas para investimentos no incipiente campo da ________________________________________________
good perspectives for investments in
energia elétrica. ________________________________________________
the incipient field of electric power.

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

37
Electric power shows off
________________________________________________ A ENERGIA ELÉTRICA ENTRA EM CENA
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The first practical experiments with As primeiras experiências práticas com energia
________________________________________________
electric power in Brazil took place during
elétrica no Brasil ocorreram ainda na época
________________________________________________
imperial times, being contemporary,
imperial, sendo contemporâneas, portanto, das
________________________________________________
therefore, with the initial applications
________________________________________________
of this new form of energy in the United aplicações iniciais dessa nova forma de energia
________________________________________________
States and Europe. Just as soon as nos Estados Unidos e na Europa. Tão logo sur-
________________________________________________
improvements in the electricity industry giam, os diversos aperfeiçoamentos relaciona-
________________________________________________
appeared, they were tried out here. dos com a indústria da eletricidade iam sendo
________________________________________________ experimentados aqui.
________________________________________________
At the beginning of 1879, the Emperor
________________________________________________
Dom Pedro II granted Thomas Alva
Já no início de 1879, D. Pedro II concedeu a Tho-
________________________________________________
Edison the privilege of introducing into
________________________________________________
Brazil the equipment and processes of his mas Alva Edison o privilégio de introduzir em
________________________________________________
inventions for the utilization of electric nosso país os aparelhos e processos inventados
________________________________________________
light which the Emperor had seen at pelo engenheiro norte-americano para a utiliza-
________________________________________________
the Philadelphia Exposition three years ção da luz elétrica, que o imperador conhecera
________________________________________________
before. It was Dom Pedro II’s intention na Exposição de Filadélfia três anos antes. Era
________________________________________________
to bring these inventions immediately to
intenção de D. Pedro II que esses inventos fos-
________________________________________________
Brazil. However, the widespread use of
sem logo introduzidos no Brasil. No entanto, a
________________________________________________
electric power really began in the last
________________________________________________
years of the nineteenth century under disseminação do uso da energia elétrica só teve
________________________________________________
the newly instituted Republican regime. início de fato nos últimos anos do século XIX, já
________________________________________________ sob o regime republicano.
________________________________________________
In 1879, the year of the first public
________________________________________________
demonstration of Edison’s electric Em 1879, ano da primeira demonstração públi-
________________________________________________
lamp in Rio de Janeiro, the electrical
ca da lâmpada elétrica de Edison, foi inaugu-
________________________________________________
illumination of the main station of the
rada, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, a ilumina-
________________________________________________
Estrada de Ferro Dom Pedro II (public
________________________________________________
railway company), which was named ção elétrica da estação central da Estrada de
________________________________________________
Estrada de Ferro Central do Brasil Ferro D. Pedro II denominada Estrada de Ferro
________________________________________________
(EFCB) after the Proclamation of the Central do Brasil (EFCB) após a proclamação
________________________________________________
Republic, was inaugurated. Six arc da República. Seis lâmpadas de arco, do tipo
________________________________________________
lamps of the Jablochkoff type, using Jablochkoff, acionadas a partir da energia
________________________________________________
the energy generated by two dynamos,
gerada por dois dínamos, substituíram os 46
________________________________________________
replaced 46 gas jets which, up to
bicos de gás que até então iluminavam o local,
________________________________________________
that time, had illuminated the station
________________________________________________
and had been functioning for at least funcionando durante pelo menos sete anos.
________________________________________________
seven years. This initiative marked the Esta iniciativa marcou o início do emprego,
________________________________________________
beginning of the use of mechanically- no Brasil, de energia elétrica produzida me-
________________________________________________
produced electric power in Brazil. canicamente.

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

38
Dois anos mais tarde, por ocasião da primeira ________________________________________________
Two years later, on the occasion of
visita do imperador à Escola de Minas, em Ouro ________________________________________________
the Emperor’s first visit to the Escola
Preto, o fundador e diretor desta instituição, ________________________________________________
de Minas at Ouro Preto in the state of
________________________________________________
Minas Gerais, the founder and director
Claude Henri Gorceix, demonstrou o funciona-
________________________________________________
of the institution, Claude Henri Gorceix,
mento de lâmpadas elétricas, usando para isso
________________________________________________
demonstrated the operation of electric
um dínamo manual e lâmpadas de arco com ________________________________________________
lamps, using a manually-driven dynamo
regulador de distancia entre os carvões. ________________________________________________
and arc lamps whose gaps between
________________________________________________
carbon electrodes could be regulated.
Ainda em 1881, a Diretoria Geral dos Telégrafos ________________________________________________
instalou 16 lâmpadas, do mesmo tipo daquelas ________________________________________________
Also in 1881, the Telegraph Department
________________________________________________
installed 16 lamps of the same type as
utilizadas na estação ferroviária Pedro II, em um
________________________________________________
those used at the Pedro II Railroad
trecho do jardim do Campo da Aclamação (atual
________________________________________________
Station on a stretch of the Campo da
Praça da República), no Rio de Janeiro. Foram ________________________________________________
Aclamação gardens (present day Praça
utilizados dois dínamos e essa iluminação per- ________________________________________________
da República) in Rio de Janeiro. Two
mitiu que se realizassem serviços de calçamento ________________________________________________
dynamos were used and this illumination
durante a noite. ________________________________________________
made nighttime street paving possible.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
In December of the same year, during
Em dezembro desse mesmo ano, na cerimônia
________________________________________________
the inaugural ceremony of the Industrial
de inauguração da Exposição Industrial, no edi-
________________________________________________
Exposition at the Ministry of Transport
fício do Ministério da Viação, fronteiro ao Largo ________________________________________________
building facing the Largo do Paço
do Paço (atual Praça 15 de Novembro), no Rio ________________________________________________
(present day Praça XV de Novembro)
de Janeiro, procedeu-se à iluminação do recinto ________________________________________________
in Rio de Janeiro, the illumination
em 60 lâmpadas da Edison Electric Company, ________________________________________________
of the premises was carried out with
alimentadas pela energia produzida por um ________________________________________________
60 Edison Electric Company lamps
________________________________________________
with energy supplied by a dynamo.
dínamo. Nesta mesma ocasião, foi também
________________________________________________
inaugurada uma linha telefônica que ligava o
________________________________________________
The first utilization of hydroelectric
prédio onde se realizava a mostra ao Largo do ________________________________________________
power in the country took place in
Machado. ________________________________________________
1883, at the Ribeirão do Inferno, a
________________________________________________
tributary of the Jequitinhonha River
A primeira utilização de energia hidrelétrica no ________________________________________________
in the district Diamantina, state of
país ocorreu em 1883. Foi instalada no Ribeirão ________________________________________________
Minas Gerais. A plant was installed for
________________________________________________
generating electric power to drive two
do Inferno, afluente do rio Jequitinhonha, em
________________________________________________
hydraulic earthmoving pumps whose
Diamantina, Minas Gerais, uma usina para gera-
________________________________________________
jets of water excavated the diamond-
ção de energia elétrica, com a finalidade de mo- ________________________________________________
rich gravel. A 2 km-long transmission
vimentar duas bombas de desmonte hidráulico ________________________________________________
line transported the electric energy
que, com os jatos d’água, revolviam o terreno, ________________________________________________
used by the machinery which
rico em diamantes. Uma linha de transmissão de ________________________________________________
extracted the gravel from the mine.

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

39
________________________________________________
Also in 1883, the first electric tramway 2 km de extensão fazia o transporte da energia
________________________________________________
was officially inaugurated in Brazil. utilizada pelas máquinas que extraíam cascalho
________________________________________________
This was the Fonseca line in the na mina.
________________________________________________
city of Niterói in the state of Rio de
________________________________________________
Janeiro, which operated precariously
Também em 1883, foi inaugurada oficialmente a
________________________________________________
and irregularly for only two years.
________________________________________________ primeira linha de bondes elétricos no país. Tra-
________________________________________________
In 1887, another hydroelectric plant tava-se da linha Fonseca, na cidade de Niterói,
________________________________________________
began to operate; this time on the Rio de Janeiro, que funcionou precária e irregu-
________________________________________________
Macacos River, in Nova Lima, state larmente durante apenas dois anos.
________________________________________________
of Minas Gerais. An initiative of the
________________________________________________
Compagnie des Mines d’Or du Faria,
Em 1887, começou a operar uma outra usina
________________________________________________
this hydroelectric development allowed
hidrelétrica, desta vez no Ribeirão dos Macacos,
________________________________________________
the company to use electric power
________________________________________________
in mining. A short transmission line, em Nova Lima, Minas Gerais. Iniciativa da Com-
________________________________________________
similar to that existing at the Ribeirão do pagnie des Mines d’Or du Faria, esse aproveita-
________________________________________________
Inferno, made electric lighting possible mento hidrelétrico permitiu à empresa utilizar
________________________________________________
for the mine buildings and homes of energia elétrica nos trabalhos de mineração.
________________________________________________
workers and employees of the company. Uma pequena linha de transmissão, similar à
________________________________________________
existente na usina do Ribeirão do Inferno, per-
________________________________________________
Also in 1887, the Companhia de Força
mitia o fornecimento de iluminação elétrica às
________________________________________________
e Luz was founded in the city of Rio de
________________________________________________
Janeiro for the purpose of supplying dependências da mina e às casas dos trabalha-
________________________________________________
electric lighting to certain areas of dores e funcionários da empresa.
________________________________________________
the capital of the Empire by means
________________________________________________
of the utilization of electric storage Ainda em 1887, foi criada no Rio de Janeiro a
________________________________________________
batteries invented by engineer Edmond Companhia de Força e Luz, com o objetivo de
________________________________________________
Julien. The power was generated by
fornecer iluminação elétrica a alguns pontos
________________________________________________
a small thermoelectric plant installed
da capital do Império, por meio da utilização
________________________________________________
in a building at the Largo de São
________________________________________________
Francisco, a square in the center of Rio dos acumuladores elétricos inventados pelo
________________________________________________
de Janeiro. However, due to serious engenheiro Edmond Julien. A energia era
________________________________________________
financial problems, the company was gerada por uma pequena central termelétrica
________________________________________________
dissolved in 1888. While it operated, the instalada em um prédio do Largo de São Fran-
________________________________________________
Companhia de Força e Luz had as many cisco. Entretanto, em função de sérios proble-
________________________________________________
as 100 public lighting lamps installed
mas financeiros, a empresa foi dissolvida em
________________________________________________
in several streets in the center of the
1888. Enquanto funcionou, a Companhia de
________________________________________________
city and at some private residences.
________________________________________________ Força e Luz chegou a manter mais de 100 lâm-
________________________________________________
Another similar enterprise was started padas de iluminação pública em várias ruas
________________________________________________
in the city of São Paulo in 1889, when do centro da cidade e em algumas residências
________________________________________________
the first thermoelectric power plant was particulares.

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

40
Outro empreendimento semelhante registrou-se ________________________________________________
erected at Água Branca. Planned initially
na cidade de São Paulo, em 1889, quando foi ins- ________________________________________________
to supply water, the plant furnished
talada a usina termelétrica Água Branca. Desti- ________________________________________________
electric power for public, as well as
________________________________________________
private, lighting to the Água Branca
nada, inicialmente, ao serviço de abastecimento
________________________________________________
district. This plant was shut down in 1901.
de água, a usina forneceu energia elétrica para
________________________________________________
fins de iluminação pública e particular ao bairro ________________________________________________
However, aside from the experimental
de Água Branca. Essa termelétrica foi desativada ________________________________________________
and short-duration applications
em 1901, após ter passado por uma ampliação ________________________________________________
described earlier, some permanent
cinco anos depois de inaugurada. ________________________________________________
activities also took place in the eighties
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
In June 1883, the first municipal
Entretanto, além das aplicações experimentais
________________________________________________
public lighting service in Brazil was
ou de curta duração descritas anteriormente,
________________________________________________
commissioned at Campos in the state
ocorreram, também, ainda na década de 1880, ________________________________________________
of Rio de Janeiro. Inaugurated by
algumas iniciativas de caráter permanente, que ________________________________________________
Emperor Pedro II, this service was fed
tiveram continuidade. ________________________________________________
by a thermoelectric station composed of
________________________________________________
three dynamos driven by a steam engine
Em junho de 1883, foi inaugurado o primeiro ________________________________________________
prime mover which supplied power to
________________________________________________
39 lamps. Since then, Campos has been
serviço de iluminação pública municipal do
________________________________________________
able to count on electric illumination
Brasil e da América do Sul, em Campos, Rio de
________________________________________________
services without interruption except for
Janeiro. Inaugurada pelo imperador Pedro II, ________________________________________________
a few short downs due to machinery
essa instalação era térmica e funcionava com ________________________________________________
and distribution line defects.
uma máquina motriz a vapor que, acionando ________________________________________________
três dínamos, tornava possível a iluminação ________________________________________________
In 1885, two years after the inauguration
com 39 lâmpadas. Desde então, Campos pôde ________________________________________________
of the electric lighting service in Campos,
________________________________________________
at Rio Claro in the state of São Paulo
contar com serviços de iluminação elétrica, pra-
________________________________________________
the supply of electric power was begun
ticamente sem solução de continuidade, tendo
________________________________________________
with a view toward public lighting for
havido apenas rápidas interrupções motivadas ________________________________________________
the city. The services started with 10 arc
por defeitos apresentados nas máquinas e na ________________________________________________
lamps that used electricity generated
rede distribuidora. ________________________________________________
by one steam engine-driven dynamo
________________________________________________
identical to those operating in Campos.
Em 1885, dois anos depois da inauguração dos ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
In 1895, the Corumbataí Hydroelectric
serviços de iluminação elétrica em Campos, teve
________________________________________________
Plant was concluded. Its main purpose
início em Rio Claro, São Paulo, o fornecimento
________________________________________________
was to improve the quality of the lighting
de energia elétrica, visando à iluminação públi- ________________________________________________
at Rio Claro. However, due to technical
ca da cidade. Os serviços foram iniciados com ________________________________________________
problems, the day after its inauguration it
10 lâmpadas de arco, que funcionavam com a ________________________________________________
was shut down. The investment brought no
energia produzida por uma máquina a vapor, ________________________________________________
return and the Companhia Mecânica Rio

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

41
________________________________________________
Clarense, responsible for the enterprise, acionando um dínamo idêntico aos que opera-
________________________________________________
was obliged to auction off its assets. vam em Campos.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Only in 1900 were the lighting services
Em 1895, foi concluída a usina hidrelétrica de
________________________________________________
resumed, now under the direction of the
Corumbataí, cujo principal objetivo era me-
________________________________________________
German firm Theodor Wille & Co., one
________________________________________________
of the major coffee exporting houses lhorar a qualidade da iluminação de Rio Claro.
________________________________________________
in Brazil, which also dealt with the No entanto, devido a problemas técnicos, suas
________________________________________________
importation of machinery and textiles. atividades foram paralisadas no dia seguinte
________________________________________________
At this time, the company changed its ao da inauguração. O investimento realizado,
________________________________________________
name to Central Elétrica Rio Claro. virtualmente, não teve retorno e a Companhia
________________________________________________
Mecânica Rio Clarense, empresa responsável
________________________________________________
Porto Alegre was the first Brazilian state
pelo empreendimento, viu-se obrigada a leiloar
________________________________________________
capital to have a public electric lighting
________________________________________________
system. In 1887, a thermoelectric plant seus bens.
________________________________________________
belonging to Companhia Fiat Lux was
________________________________________________
inaugurated for the supply of electric light Somente em 1900 foram retomados os serviços
________________________________________________
to commerce and residences in the center de iluminação, paralisados cinco anos antes,
________________________________________________
of town. Payment for these services was agora sob a direção da firma alemã Theodor Wil-
________________________________________________
calculated based on the lamps installed
le & Cia., uma das maiores casas exportadoras
________________________________________________
by the company itself. Initially equipped
de café do país, que também se dedicava à im-
________________________________________________
with a single dynamo, the plant was
________________________________________________
expanded as soon as a generator with a portação de máquinas e tecidos. Nessa ocasião,
________________________________________________
160 kW capacity entered into operation. a companhia fornecedora passou a chamar-se
________________________________________________ Central Elétrica Rio Claro.
________________________________________________
In 1890, one more generating unit
________________________________________________
was added. This plant was taken over Porto Alegre foi a primeira capital brasileira a
________________________________________________
in 1908, by the local city government
contar com um serviço público de iluminação
________________________________________________
of Porto Alegre, the capital of the
elétrica. Em 1887, foi inaugurada a usina térmi-
________________________________________________
state of Rio Grande do Sul.
________________________________________________ ca da Companhia Fiat Lux para o fornecimento
________________________________________________
The first hydroelectric plant of a major de iluminação elétrica a casas comerciais e
________________________________________________
capacity erected in Brazil to supply electric residências particulares no centro da cidade.
________________________________________________
power for public lighting was Marmelos- A cobrança dos serviços era calculada com base
________________________________________________
0, which was put in service in 1889, in nas lâmpadas instaladas pela própria empresa.
________________________________________________
the city of Juiz de Fora in the state of
Inicialmente equipada com um dínamo, a usina
________________________________________________
Minas Gerais. The plant was conceived
logo foi ampliada com a entrada em operação
________________________________________________
by Minas Gerais industrialist Bernardo
________________________________________________
Mascarenhas, who, after having visited de um gerador de 160 kW.
________________________________________________
the Universal Exposition in Paris in
________________________________________________
1878, decided to install a textile factory A primeira usina hidrelétrica de maior porte ins-
________________________________________________
in Juiz de Fora which was to be driven talada no Brasil a fim de fornecer energia elétrica

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

42
para iluminação pública foi Marmelos-0, que ________________________________________________
by hydroelectric power, thus avoiding
entrou em operação no ano de 1889, na cidade ________________________________________________
the use of expensive imported coal. At the
de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. ________________________________________________
same time, it was his intention to provide
________________________________________________
Juiz de Fora with electric lighting.
________________________________________________
Essa usina foi idealizada pelo industrial mineiro
________________________________________________
In December 1887, Bernardo Mascarenhas
Bernardo Mascarenhas, que, após ter visitado ________________________________________________
signed a contract with the city of Juiz de
a Exposição Universal de 1878, em Paris, deci- ________________________________________________
Fora, which determined the number of arc
diu instalar uma fábrica de tecidos em Juiz de ________________________________________________
lamps to be installed in the urban perimeter
Fora, que seria acionada com energia de origem ________________________________________________
and also authorized him to supply lamps to
hidráulica, dispensando assim o caro carvão ________________________________________________
individuals. The next step was the founding
________________________________________________
of the Companhia Mineira de Eletricidade
importado. Ao mesmo tempo era sua intenção
________________________________________________
in January 1888, of whose shares Bernardo
dotar Juiz de Fora de iluminação elétrica.
________________________________________________
Mascarenhas subscribed to one third. As
________________________________________________
early as 1888, the design of the Marmelos-
Em dezembro de 1887, Bernardo Mascarenhas ________________________________________________
0 Plant to be installed on the banks of
assinou com a Câmara Municipal de Juiz de ________________________________________________
the Paraibuna River was contracted for
Fora contrato que estabelecia o número de lâm- ________________________________________________
with the firm Max Nothman & Co. and its
padas de arco a serem instaladas no perímetro ________________________________________________
equipment was ordered from Westinghouse.
________________________________________________
Immediately after the conclusion of the
urbano e o autorizava a fornecer lâmpadas a
________________________________________________
plant, which had two turbines with a total
particulares. O passo seguinte foi dado em
________________________________________________
capacity of 250 kW, the public lighting
janeiro de 1888 com a constituição da Compa- ________________________________________________
service at Juiz de Fora was officially
nhia Mineira de Eletricidade, na qual Bernardo ________________________________________________
inaugurated in September 1889.
Mascarenhas subscrevia um terço das ações. ________________________________________________
O projeto da usina Marmelos-0, a ser instalada ________________________________________________
This pioneer hydroelectric plant was
às margens do rio Paraibuna, foi entregue à ________________________________________________
expanded with another generating
________________________________________________
group of 125 kW in 1892. The company
firma Max Nothman & Co., ainda em 1888, e os
________________________________________________
was authorized to extend the services it
equipamentos encomendados à Westinghouse.
________________________________________________
rendered within the city to Juiz de Fora’s
Logo após a conclusão da usina, que dispunha ________________________________________________
perimeter and outskirts and to take on
de duas turbinas com potência total de 250 kW, ________________________________________________
the city’s telephone services. The same
foi inaugurado oficialmente o serviço público ________________________________________________
year, a new plant, Marmelos-1, was
de iluminação em setembro de 1889. ________________________________________________
inaugurated alongside the existing one.
________________________________________________
Marmelos-O was shut down in 1896,
________________________________________________
the year Marmelos-1 was expanded.
Essa hidrelétrica pioneira foi ampliada com mais
________________________________________________
um grupo gerador de 125 kW em 1892, tendo
________________________________________________
In short, between 1880 and 1900, the
sido a empresa autorizada, no ano seguinte, a ________________________________________________
emergence of small generating plants
estender os serviços que prestava dentro e fora ________________________________________________
was due basically to power supply
do perímetro urbano de Juiz de Fora, além de ter ________________________________________________
requirements of public lighting services
assumido o serviço de telefonia da cidade. Ainda ________________________________________________
and for economic activities such as mining,

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

43
________________________________________________
the processing of agricultural products, durante este ano, foi inaugurada uma nova usina,
________________________________________________
textile mills and sawmills. The high cost Marmelos-I, junto à já existente. Marmelos-0 dei-
________________________________________________
of large generating plants, combined xou de funcionar em 1896, ano em que ocorreu
________________________________________________
with a low reliability as far as the steady
uma ampliação de Marmelos-I.
________________________________________________
operation of these plants was concerned,
________________________________________________
contributed to the preferential utilization of
________________________________________________
the steam engine and the direct utilization Em síntese, entre 1880 e 1900, o aparecimento
________________________________________________
of hydraulic energy which required de pequenas usinas geradoras deveu-se ba-
________________________________________________
factories to be located close to waterfalls. sicamente à necessidade de fornecimento de
________________________________________________ energia para serviços públicos de iluminação e
________________________________________________
During this period, the majority of para atividades econômicas como mineração,
________________________________________________
generating units had a low power rate and
beneficiamento de produtos agrícolas, fábricas
________________________________________________
in 1900, ten generating plants with a total
de tecido e serrarias. O alto custo de grandes ins-
________________________________________________
installed capacity of merely 12,085 kW
________________________________________________
were listed. The predominance of thermal talações geradoras, aliado à baixa confiabilidade
________________________________________________
generated power lasted until the turn quanto à regularidade do funcionamento dessas
________________________________________________
of the century when the first of Light’s instalações, concorreu para que se utilizassem
________________________________________________
plants came into service, thus inverting preferencialmente as máquinas a vapor e os
________________________________________________
the situation in favor of hydroelectricity. aproveitamentos diretos da força hidráulica, que
________________________________________________
determinavam a localização das fábricas junto
The arrival of the Light group
________________________________________________
às quedas d’água.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The history of the Light group in Brazil
________________________________________________
began in the last years of the nineteenth Nesse período, a grande maioria das unidades
________________________________________________
century. On June 15, 1897, Francesco era de pequena potência, registrando-se, em
________________________________________________
Antonio Gualco, an Italian Naval captain 1900, a existência de 10 usinas geradoras para
________________________________________________
and businessman living in Canada, and uma capacidade instalada total de apenas
________________________________________________
the Commander Antônio Augusto de Sousa
12.085 kW. O predomínio da energia de origem
________________________________________________
obtained from the city of São Paulo a
térmica durou até a virada do século, quando
________________________________________________
forty-year concession for urban passenger
________________________________________________
and cargo transportation on electric trams. a entrada em funcionamento da primeira usina
________________________________________________
Immediately thereafter, Gualco returned da Light reverteu a situação em favor da hidre-
________________________________________________
to Canada in order to acquire technical letricidade.
________________________________________________
assistance and to raise the financial
________________________________________________
resources necessary for the undertaking. A CHEGADA DA LIGHT
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The concession was easily secured thanks
A história do grupo Light no Brasil começa nos
________________________________________________
to the free transit of the Commander Sousa
________________________________________________
on the São Paulo political scene. His son- últimos anos do século XIX. Em 15 de junho de
________________________________________________
in-law, lawyer Carlos de Campos, was 1897, o capitão da Marinha italiana e homem de
________________________________________________
at the time São Paulo State Secretary of negócios Francesco Antonio Gualco, residente
________________________________________________
Justice and an influential member of the no Canadá, e o comendador Antônio Augusto de

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

44
Sousa obtiveram da Câmara Municipal de São ________________________________________________
powerful Partido Republicano Paulista
Paulo a concessão do serviço de transporte urba- ________________________________________________
- PRP (São Paulo Republican Party).
no de passageiros e cargas em bondes elétricos, ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
In the same year of 1897, the renowned
por um prazo de 40 anos. Em seguida, Gualco
________________________________________________
American engineer and capitalist,
regressou ao Canadá com o objetivo de reunir
________________________________________________
Frederick Stark Pearson, on a holiday
os recursos técnicos e financeiros necessários ________________________________________________
trip to Brazil, visited the city of São
ao empreendimento. ________________________________________________
Paulo. Certain of the fact that the
________________________________________________
process of urban expansion which the
A concessão fora obtida com facilidade graças ________________________________________________
city was undergoing would require
ao livre trânsito do comendador Sousa nos ________________________________________________
the installation of electric tramways,
________________________________________________
Pearson returned to the United States in
meios políticos paulistas. Seu genro, o advo-
________________________________________________
search of financing for the project and
gado Carlos de Campos, era, naquele momen-
________________________________________________
established his first contacts with Gualco.
to, secretário de Justiça do estado e membro ________________________________________________
influente do poderoso Partido Republicano ________________________________________________
In December 1898, with Pearson’s
Paulista (PRP). ________________________________________________
orientation, the São Paulo city government
________________________________________________
gave Gualco and Sousa the rights to
Nesse mesmo ano de 1897, o renomado enge- ________________________________________________
expand the original concession, making
________________________________________________
the installation of new tramways possible.
nheiro e capitalista norte-americano Frederick
________________________________________________
Besides this, they obtained a second
Stark Pearson, em viagem de férias ao Brasil,
________________________________________________
concession by means of which they could
visitou a capital paulista. Certo de que o pro- ________________________________________________
work on the generation and distribution
cesso de expansão urbana por que passava a ________________________________________________
of electric power as well. At the same
cidade exigiria a instalação de linhas de bondes ________________________________________________
time, they entered into negotiations
por tração elétrica, Pearson voltou aos EUA em ________________________________________________
with Pearson for the purpose of later
busca de financiamento para o projeto, estabe- ________________________________________________
transferring their two concessions to him.
________________________________________________
lecendo os primeiros contatos com Gualco.
________________________________________________
On April 7, 1899, in Toronto, Canada,
________________________________________________
the São Paulo Railway, Light and Power
Orientados por Pearson, Gualco e o comenda- ________________________________________________
Company, Ltd. was founded due to
dor Sousa receberam, em dezembro de 1898, ________________________________________________
the initiative of a group of Canadian
autorização da Câmara Municipal de São Paulo ________________________________________________
capitalists. The initial capital of the
para ampliar a concessão original, permitindo ________________________________________________
company was 6 million dollars. Pearson,
a instalação de novas linhas de bondes. Além ________________________________________________
named technical consultant of the new
________________________________________________
enterprise, played a decisive role in
disso, obtiveram uma segunda concessão, por
________________________________________________
its creation and was responsible for
meio da qual poderiam também atuar no campo
________________________________________________
bringing together the founding partners.
da geração e da distribuição de energia elétrica. ________________________________________________
Paralelamente, entraram em negociações com ________________________________________________
It was also Pearson who suggested the
Pearson, visando a uma posterior transferência ________________________________________________
coming to Brazil of lawyer Alexander
das duas concessões. ________________________________________________
Mackenzie to study the juridical aspects of

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

45
________________________________________________
the relevant concession laws; of hydraulic Em 7 de abril de 1899, foi então constituída em
________________________________________________
engineer Hugh Cooper to find a waterfall Toronto, Canadá, a São Paulo Railway, Light and
________________________________________________
fit for supplying the required energy Power Company Ltd., por iniciativa de um grupo
________________________________________________
for Light’s first undertakings; and of
de capitalistas canadenses. O capital inicial da
________________________________________________
engineer Robert Brown to hold the office
companhia era de 6 milhões de dólares. Desig-
________________________________________________
of company superintendent in São Paulo.
________________________________________________ nado consultor técnico da nova empresa, Pear-
________________________________________________
The São Paulo Light and Power’s son teve participação decisiva na sua criação,
________________________________________________
objective was not only to produce, use tendo sido responsável pela aproximação entre
________________________________________________
and sell electricity provided by any os sócios fundadores.
________________________________________________
source of energy (coal, firewood, oil,
________________________________________________
gas), but also to operate railways,
Foi ainda Pearson quem sugeriu a vinda para o
________________________________________________
telegraphs and telephones. The company
Brasil do advogado Alexander Mackenzie, para
________________________________________________
also intended to acquire movable
________________________________________________
property and real assets, comprising estudar os problemas jurídicos atinentes aos de-
________________________________________________
lakes, reservoirs, rivers, waterfalls and cretos das concessões, do engenheiro hidráulico
________________________________________________
river rapids necessary for its activities. Hugh Cooper, para escolher uma queda d’água
________________________________________________ que fornecesse a energia necessária aos empre-
________________________________________________
In July 1899, an Executive Order from endimentos iniciais da Light, e do engenheiro
________________________________________________
Brazilian President Campos Sales
Robert Brown, para exercer o cargo de superin-
________________________________________________
authorized the São Paulo Light and
tendente da companhia em São Paulo.
________________________________________________
Power to operate in Brazil. In September,
________________________________________________
Gualco and Sousa transferred their
________________________________________________
concessions to the Canadian group. In O objetivo da São Paulo Light and Power ia
________________________________________________
December, the name of the company além da produção, da utilização e da venda de
________________________________________________
underwent a change: “Railway” became eletricidade, gerada por qualquer tipo de força
________________________________________________
“Tramway”. This was due to the presence (vapor, gás, pneumática, mecânica e hidráuli-
________________________________________________
in São Paulo, since the 1860’s, of the São
ca), abrangendo igualmente o estabelecimento
________________________________________________
Paulo Railway Company Ltd., an English
de linhas férreas, telegráficas e telefônicas.
________________________________________________
firm responsible for the construction and
________________________________________________
operation of the Santos-Jundiaí railroad. A empresa pretendia ainda adquirir bens móveis
________________________________________________
Therefore, Light gave up operating e imóveis, que incluíam terras, lagos, açudes,
________________________________________________
in the railway sector and limited its rios, quedas e correntes d’água, necessários às
________________________________________________
activities to urban transportation. suas atividades.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The preference of the Canadian company
Em julho de 1899, decreto do presidente da Repú-
________________________________________________
for the city of São Paulo did not happen
blica Campos Sales autorizava a São Paulo Light
________________________________________________
by chance. At the turn of the century,
________________________________________________
São Paulo concentrated within its and Power a funcionar no Brasil. Em setembro,
________________________________________________
boundaries the principal results of the Gualco e o comendador Sousa transferiram
________________________________________________
huge expansion of the coffee exporting suas concessões para o grupo canadense. Em
________________________________________________
complex: large population growth, a dezembro, a razão social da companhia sofreu

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

46
uma alteração: a palavra “Railway” foi substitu- ________________________________________________
marked diversification of commercial
ída por “Tramway”. Isso se deveu à presença em ________________________________________________
activities, strengthening of the banking
São Paulo, desde a década de 1860, da São Paulo ________________________________________________
establishments and a substantial
________________________________________________
increase in industrial undertakings.
Railway Company, empresa de origem inglesa
________________________________________________
Due to this set of favorable elements,
responsável pela construção e operação da fer-
________________________________________________
São Paulo offered extremely interesting
rovia Santos-Jundiaí. Desistia assim a Light de ________________________________________________
investment opportunities for Light’s two
atuar no setor de estradas de ferro, restringindo- ________________________________________________
main activities: mass transportation
se ao transporte urbano. ________________________________________________
by electric traction and electric
________________________________________________
power generation and distribution.
A preferência da companhia canadense pela ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Actually, São Paulo had these services
cidade de São Paulo não foi fortuita . Na passa-
________________________________________________
even prior to Light’s arrival. The public
gem do século, a capital paulista concentrava,
________________________________________________
transportation sector was virtually
em seu espaço, os principais resultados da notá- ________________________________________________
monopolized by the Companhia Viação
vel expansão do complexo exportador cafeeiro: ________________________________________________
Paulista, whose trams with animal
grande crescimento populacional, acentuada ________________________________________________
traction crisscrossed the main streets of
diversificação das atividades comerciais, for- ________________________________________________
the city. The production and distribution
talecimento dos estabelecimentos bancários ________________________________________________
of electric power were in the hands
________________________________________________
of the Companhia Água e Luz de São
e substancial aumento de empreendimentos
________________________________________________
Paulo which generated energy at a
fabris. Reunindo esse conjunto de elementos
________________________________________________
small steam plant located in the center
favoráveis, São Paulo oferecia oportunidades ________________________________________________
of the city. Both the Viação Paulista
de investimento extremamente interessantes às ________________________________________________
and the Água e Luz were companies
duas principais atividades da Light: o transporte ________________________________________________
controlled by Brazilian capital.
coletivo acionado a tração elétrica e a geração e ________________________________________________
distribuição de energia elétrica. ________________________________________________
The Light immediately entered into
________________________________________________
conflict with both companies. Besides
________________________________________________
holding concessions which granted it
Na verdade, São Paulo dispunha desses serviços
________________________________________________
the right to dispute the market, Light
antes mesmo da chegada da Light. O setor de ________________________________________________
had technical and financial resources
transportes públicos era praticamente monopo- ________________________________________________
on such a scale that it was able to
lizado pela Companhia Viação Paulista, cujos ________________________________________________
eliminate or absorb its competitors
bondes de tração animal cruzavam as principais ________________________________________________
with no great problems. Defended
ruas da cidade. Já a produção e a distribuição de ________________________________________________
in the courts by the brothers Carlos
________________________________________________
and Américo de Campos, Light, in
energia elétrica estavam a cargo da Companhia
________________________________________________
a little over a year, had already
Água e Luz de São Paulo, que produzia energia
________________________________________________
purchased the Viação Paulista and
numa pequena usina a vapor, situada no centro ________________________________________________
held stock control of the Força e Luz.
da capital. Tanto a Viação Paulista quanto a Água ________________________________________________
e Luz eram companhias controladas por capital ________________________________________________
With the monopoly of the electric
nacional. ________________________________________________
tramway services and the supply of

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The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

47
________________________________________________
power secured, the Canadian company Logo a Light entrou em conflito com as duas
________________________________________________
was able to enjoy the benefits offered empresas. Além de dispor de concessões que
________________________________________________
by the accelerated urban growth of São lhe conferiam o direito de disputar o mercado, a
________________________________________________
Paulo as demonstrated by the rhythm
Light contava com recursos técnicos e financei-
________________________________________________
of construction of the electric plants
ros de tal monta que lhe permitiram eliminar ou
________________________________________________
and the consequent increase in the
________________________________________________
generating capacity during the first absorver, sem maiores problemas, os concorren-
________________________________________________
two decades of the twentieth century. tes. Defendida nos tribunais pelos irmãos Carlos
________________________________________________ e Américo de Campos, a Light, em pouco mais
________________________________________________
In May 1900, even before the purchase of de um ano, já havia comprado a Viação Paulista
________________________________________________
the Viação Paulista, Light inaugurated the e detinha o controle acionário da Força e Luz.
________________________________________________
first track for electric trams in São Paulo,
________________________________________________
linking the Barra Funda quarter with the
Garantido o monopólio dos serviços de bondes
________________________________________________
center of town. Another five routes were
________________________________________________
inaugurated by February of the following elétricos e de fornecimento de energia, a com-
________________________________________________
year. The electric power was generated panhia canadense pôde desfrutar das vantagens
________________________________________________
by a steam plant installed by the company oferecidas pelo acelerado crescimento urbano
________________________________________________
at the end of 1899, at São Caetano Street. de São Paulo, o que é atestado pelo ritmo de
________________________________________________
With a modest generating capacity of construção das usinas e pelo conseqüente au-
________________________________________________
1,000 kW, this thermoelectric plant was
mento da capacidade geradora nas duas primei-
________________________________________________
in no condition to supply enough power to
ras décadas do século XX.
________________________________________________
meet either the continued expansion of the
________________________________________________
tramways or public and residential lighting,
________________________________________________
and even less to meet industrial demand. Em maio de 1900, antes mesmo da compra da
________________________________________________ Viação Paulista, a Light inaugurou a primeira
________________________________________________
To fulfill these objectives, São Paulo linha de bondes elétricos de São Paulo, ligando o
________________________________________________
Light entrusted Hugh Cooper to find bairro de Barra Funda ao centro da cidade. Mais
________________________________________________
the most adequate location for the
cinco linhas foram inauguradas até fevereiro do
________________________________________________
construction of a hydroelectric power
ano seguinte. A energia era produzida em uma
________________________________________________
plant. The choice fell on the Inferno
________________________________________________
Falls on the Tietê River, 33 km from São usina a vapor, instalada pela companhia no final
________________________________________________
Paulo. In January 1900, after the first de 1899, na rua São Caetano. Com uma capaci-
________________________________________________
purchases of material and equipment dade geradora modesta, 1.000 kW, essa usina
________________________________________________
in the United States, the construction of termelétrica não tinha condições de fornecer
________________________________________________
the plant was begun under the direction energia suficiente para a ampliação continua-
________________________________________________
of Cooper himself. In September 1901,
da das linhas de bonde, nem para a iluminação
________________________________________________
the Parnaíba Hydroelectric Plant (later
pública e doméstica ou sequer para a utilização
________________________________________________
called Edgard de Souza) was inaugurated
________________________________________________
as Light’s first plant in Brazil. nas indústrias.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
By the standards of the time, Parnaíba Para cumprir essas metas, a São Paulo Light
________________________________________________
was also Brazil’s first large-scale encarregou Hugh Cooper de escolher o local

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

48
mais adequado para a construção de uma usi- ________________________________________________
hydroelectric plant. Its initial
na hidrelétrica. A escolha recaiu na cachoeira ________________________________________________
generating capacity was 2,000 kW and
do Inferno, no rio Tietê, a 33 km de São Paulo. ________________________________________________
its transmission lines extended to the
________________________________________________
Paula Souza distributing substation
Depois de efetuadas as primeiras compras de
________________________________________________
built in the central area of São Paulo.
equipamentos e material nos Estados Unidos,
________________________________________________
The plant’s installed capacity was
tiveram início, em janeiro de 1900, as obras de ________________________________________________
increased by 1,000 kW in February
construção da usina, sob a direção do próprio ________________________________________________
1902, and by another 1,000 kW in March
Cooper. Em setembro de 1901, foi inaugurada a ________________________________________________
1903. Initially, the power generated at
usina hidrelétrica de Parnaíba (depois denomi- ________________________________________________
Parnaíba met the urban transport and
nada Edgard de Souza), situada no município ________________________________________________
lighting network needs. However, the
________________________________________________
growth of these services forced Light
de Santana do Parnaíba, a primeira da Light no
________________________________________________
to periodically increase the generating
Brasil.
________________________________________________
capacity of the plant. This expansion was
________________________________________________
simultaneous with Light’s construction of
Parnaíba foi também a primeira hidrelétrica bra- ________________________________________________
the Guarapiranga Dam near São Paulo.
sileira de grande porte, para os padrões da época. ________________________________________________
Inaugurated in 1907, the Guarapiranga
Sua capacidade geradora inicial era de 2.000 kW ________________________________________________
Reservoir could store 196 million cubic
e suas linhas de transmissão estendiam-se até a ________________________________________________
meters of water, thus ensuring the
________________________________________________
company’s necessary hydraulic resources.
subestação distribuidora de Paula Sousa, erguida
________________________________________________
The expansion was concluded in 1912,
na área central de São Paulo. A potência instalada
________________________________________________
when the Parnaíba Plant reached its
da usina recebeu um acréscimo de 1.000 kW em ________________________________________________
maximum capacity of 16,000 kW.
fevereiro de 1902 e mais 1.000 kW em março de ________________________________________________
1903. Inicialmente, a energia produzida pela usina ________________________________________________
Industrial consumption was another cause
de Parnaíba atendeu às necessidades da rede de ________________________________________________
of growth of the electric power demand
transportes urbanos e da iluminação. Entretan- ________________________________________________
in São Paulo. During the 1910’s, there
________________________________________________
was not only an increase in the number
to, com a expansão desses serviços, a Light foi
________________________________________________
of industrial establishments, but also a
obrigada a ampliar sucessivamente a capacidade
________________________________________________
gradual shifting from steam to electric
geradora da usina. Ao lado dos trabalhos de am- ________________________________________________
power as prime mover in the factories
pliação da usina, a Light construiu a represa de ________________________________________________
of the state, as well as in the rest of the
Guarapiranga nas imediações de São Paulo. Inau- ________________________________________________
country. Although the industrial census
gurada em 1907, a represa era capaz de armazenar ________________________________________________
of 1907 showed that a mere 4.3 % of
196 milhões de m de água, garantindo à empresa
3 ________________________________________________
the energy used by manufacturing was
________________________________________________
electric, the consumption of electric
os recursos hídricos necessários. Esse processo
________________________________________________
power in 1910 by the São Paulo factories
chegou ao fim em 1912, quando Parnaíba atingiu
________________________________________________
was already beginning to be significant.
a potência máxima de 16.000 kW. ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
At this stage, the presence of the Light
O consumo industrial foi outro elemento respon- ________________________________________________
group in Brazil was not limited to São
sável pelo crescimento da demanda de energia ________________________________________________
Paulo. Already consolidated in the capital

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

49
________________________________________________
of the state of São Paulo, in 1904, Light elétrica em São Paulo. No decorrer da década de
________________________________________________
began to move toward Rio de Janeiro, 1910, verificou-se não só o aumento, em termos
________________________________________________
then the capital of the Republic and the absolutos, do número de estabelecimentos in-
________________________________________________
largest urban center of the country.
dustriais, mas também a paulatina substituição
________________________________________________
do vapor pela energia elétrica nas fábricas do
________________________________________________
At the beginning of that same year,
________________________________________________
Alexander Mackenzie, impressed by the estado e igualmente no restante do país. Embora
________________________________________________
urban transformation process which o censo industrial de 1907 revelasse que apenas
________________________________________________
Rio de Janeiro was undergoing, foresaw 4,3% da energia empregada pelo parque fabril
________________________________________________
good prospects for the installation in the brasileiro fossem de origem elétrica, já em 1910
________________________________________________
city of an enterprise which would bring o consumo de energia elétrica por parte das
________________________________________________
together the services of electric power
fábricas paulistas começava a se tornar signi-
________________________________________________
generation and distribution and electric
ficativo.
________________________________________________
transportation, copied from those already
________________________________________________
installed in São Paulo by the São Paulo
________________________________________________
Light. His ideas were well received by A essa altura, a intervenção do grupo Light
________________________________________________
Pereira Passos, Rio de Janeiro mayor no Brasil não se limitava a São Paulo. Com a
________________________________________________
at the time, and by Rodrigues Alves, presença já consolidada na capital paulista, a
________________________________________________
President of the Republic, with whom the Light iniciou, em 1905, sua penetração no Rio
________________________________________________
Light maintained excellent relations.
de Janeiro, então capital da República e maior
________________________________________________
centro urbano do país.
________________________________________________
Mackenzie then traveled to Canada
________________________________________________
where, counting on the support of
________________________________________________
Canadian and American capitalists, on No começo de 1904, Alexander Mackenzie, im-
________________________________________________
June 9, 1904, in Toronto he founded pressionado com o processo de reforma urbana
________________________________________________
the Rio de Janeiro Tramway, Light and que o Rio de Janeiro atravessava, vislumbrou
________________________________________________
Power Company, Ltd. It is rumored, boas perspectivas para a instalação na cidade de
________________________________________________
however, that Percival Farquhar, an
uma empresa que reunisse os serviços de pro-
________________________________________________
American entrepreneur and speculator
dução e distribuição de energia elétrica aos de
________________________________________________
who later became involved in a series of
________________________________________________
businesses in the service sector of Brazil viação elétrica, nos moldes dos já operados pela
________________________________________________
had taken the initiative, in May 1904, São Paulo Light. Suas idéias foram bem recebi-
________________________________________________
of incorporating that company in New das pelo prefeito carioca Pereira Passos e pelo
________________________________________________
Jersey, USA. The final incorporation presidente da República, o paulista Rodrigues
________________________________________________
in Canada was explained because of Alves, com quem a Light mantinha excelentes
________________________________________________
the greater financing facilities found
relações.
________________________________________________
in that country. At any rate, Mackenzie
________________________________________________
and Frederick Pearson were appointed
________________________________________________
procurators of the company in Brazil. Em seguida, Mackenzie viajou para o Canadá,
________________________________________________ onde, contando com o apoio de capitalistas
________________________________________________
In January 1905, Mackenzie acquired canadenses e norte-americanos, constituiu em
________________________________________________
in his own name a concession granted Toronto, em 9 de junho de 1904, a Rio de Janei-

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

50
ro Tramway, Light and Power Company Ltd. Há ________________________________________________
in 1899 to William Reid for the supply
informações, porém, de que a empresa teria ________________________________________________
of hydroelectric power to the urban
sido incorporada inicialmente em Nova Jersey, ________________________________________________
perimeter of the city of Rio de Janeiro,
________________________________________________
at that time the Federal District. In
Estados Unidos, em maio de 1904, por iniciativa
________________________________________________
March, Mackenzie signed an agreement
do empresário e especulador norte-americano
________________________________________________
with the state of Rio de Janeiro to
Percival Farquhar, que se envolveu com uma ________________________________________________
develop the hydroelectric power of
série de negócios no Brasil na área dos serviços ________________________________________________
the Lajes and Paraíba do Sul Rivers.
públicos. A incorporação definitiva no Canadá ________________________________________________
In May, the Rio de Janeiro Tramway,
teria como explicação as maiores facilidades ________________________________________________
Light and Power Company, Ltd. was
de financiamento encontradas nesse país. De ________________________________________________
granted federal authorization to operate
________________________________________________
in Brazil. At the end of 1905, Reid’s
qualquer modo, Mackenzie e Frederick Pearson
________________________________________________
former concession and the rights to
foram indicados procuradores da empresa no
________________________________________________
develop the Lajes and Paraíba do Sul
Brasil, o que atesta claramente os elos entre a ________________________________________________
rivers had already been transferred
Rio Light e a São Paulo Light. ________________________________________________
by Mackenzie to the new company.
________________________________________________
Em janeiro de 1905, Mackenzie adquiriu, em ________________________________________________
The construction of the Fontes
seu nome pessoal, uma concessão, outorgada ________________________________________________
Hydroelectric Plant at the Lajes
________________________________________________
River in the town of Piraí began in
em 1899 a William Reid, para fornecimento de
________________________________________________
December 1905. In its first stage, the
energia elétrica gerada por força hidráulica ao
________________________________________________
works consisted of the installation of a
perímetro urbano do Distrito Federal. Em mar- ________________________________________________
provisional power-house which would
ço, assinou acordo com o governo do Estado ________________________________________________
supply power to the jobsite and meet the
do Rio de Janeiro para a exploração industrial ________________________________________________
demands of the capital of the country. The
da força hidráulica do Ribeirão das Lajes e do ________________________________________________
powerhouse was completed in January
rio Paraíba do Sul. Em maio, a Rio de Janeiro ________________________________________________
1907, and the power produced was used,
________________________________________________
as of March, for the Rio de Janeiro
Tramway, Light and Power recebeu autorização
________________________________________________
public and residential lighting and the
federal para funcionar no país. No final de 1905,
________________________________________________
driving of electric trams. In April 1908,
a antiga concessão de Reid e os direitos de ________________________________________________
the Fontes Hydroelectric Plant already
exploração de Lajes e do rio Paraíba já haviam ________________________________________________
had an installed capacity of 12,000 kW
sido transferidos por Mackenzie para a nova ________________________________________________
and it reached 24,000 kW in June 1909.
companhia. ________________________________________________
At the time, Fontes was the largest plant
________________________________________________
in Brazil. In order to store the water
________________________________________________
necessary for its operation, during
A construção de uma hidrelétrica no Ribeirão
________________________________________________
this period the first dam of the Lajes
das Lajes, no município de Piraí, a usina de
________________________________________________
Reservoir – the Salto Dam – was built.
Fontes, começou em dezembro de 1905. Em ________________________________________________
sua primeira etapa, os trabalhos constaram da ________________________________________________
Shortly, Light monopolized the Rio de
instalação de uma casa de força provisória, que ________________________________________________
Janeiro electric lighting and gas supply
forneceria energia às obras da usina e já aten- ________________________________________________
and its tram and telephone services.

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The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

51
________________________________________________
In 1905, the company took over the deria à demanda da capital do país. A casa de
________________________________________________
total capital of the Rio de Janeiro força foi concluída em janeiro de 1907 e a energia
________________________________________________
Gas Company which controlled the nela produzida foi empregada, a partir de março,
________________________________________________
capital of the Belgian company, Société
na iluminação pública e residencial do Rio e na
________________________________________________
Anonyme du Gaz de Rio de Janeiro, at
tração dos bondes elétricos. Em abril de 1908,
________________________________________________
that time concessionaire for the gas and
________________________________________________
electric lighting services of the city. a usina de Fontes já dispunha de uma potência
________________________________________________ instalada de 12.000 kW, que atingiu 24.000 kW em
________________________________________________
In 1905, the Société Anonyme du Gaz junho de 1909. Fontes era, na época, a maior usi-
________________________________________________
which, despite its takeover by Light, kept na do Brasil e uma das maiores do mundo. Para
________________________________________________
its corporate entity, contracted the firm permitir o armazenamento de água necessário
________________________________________________
Braconnot to install electric lamps on
à sua operação, foi construída, nesse período,
________________________________________________
the Central Avenue (present Rio Branco
a primeira barragem do reservatório de Lajes
________________________________________________
Avenue). High point of the remodeling
________________________________________________
and decorating works of the capital of – barragem de Salto.
________________________________________________
the Republic, the Central Avenue was
________________________________________________
officially inaugurated on November Em pouco tempo, a Light monopolizou os ser-
________________________________________________
15, 1905. One of its main innovations viços de iluminação elétrica e fornecimento
________________________________________________
was the selfsame electric lighting, de gás, de bondes e de telefonia do Rio de Ja-
________________________________________________
considered dazzling for its time, fed by
neiro. A companhia absorveu, no ano de 1905,
________________________________________________
a small thermoelectric plant installed
todo o capital da Rio de Janeiro Gaz Company,
________________________________________________
by Braconnot on Quitanda Street in the
________________________________________________
heart of downtown Rio de Janeiro. detentora do capital da empresa belga Société
________________________________________________ Anonyme du Gaz de Rio de Janeiro, concessio-
________________________________________________
The services of Braconnot, later extended nária dos serviços de gás e iluminação elétrica
________________________________________________
to the Beira Mar Avenue and some of da cidade.
________________________________________________
the main streets of the Flamengo and
________________________________________________
Botafogo quarters, were dispensed with
A Société Anonyme du Gaz, que, apesar de in-
________________________________________________
in March 1907, when the provisional
corporada pela Light, manteve personalidade
________________________________________________
power-house of the Fontes Hydroelectric
________________________________________________
Plant came into operation. As of then, jurídica própria, contratou, ainda em 1905, a fir-
________________________________________________
the Société Anonyme du Gaz itself ma Braconnot para instalar lâmpadas elétricas
________________________________________________
became directly responsible for the na Avenida Central (atual Avenida Rio Branco).
________________________________________________
lighting services in Rio de Janeiro, Ponto alto das obras de remodelação e embe-
________________________________________________
utilizing the electric power supplied lezamento da capital da República, a Avenida
________________________________________________
by its controller – the Light.
Central foi oficialmente inaugurada em 15 de
________________________________________________
novembro de 1905. Uma de suas principais no-
________________________________________________
In the area of urban transport, the Light
________________________________________________
purchased the Companhia de Bondes vidades era exatamente a iluminação elétrica,
________________________________________________
de Vila Isabel and the Carris Urbanos; considerada feérica para a época, alimentada
________________________________________________
it acquired 98% of the stock of São por uma pequena termelétrica instalada pela
________________________________________________
Cristovão and 75% of the shares of the Braconnot na Rua da Quitanda.

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Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

52
Os serviços da Braconnot, estendidos posterior- ________________________________________________
Companhia Ferro-Carril do Jardim
mente à Avenida Beira-Mar e a algumas artérias ________________________________________________
Botânico. The latter was the pioneer
do Flamengo e de Botafogo, foram suspensos ________________________________________________
in the regular use of electric trams in
________________________________________________
Brazil, having inaugurated a tramline
em março de 1907, quando entrou em operação
________________________________________________
in 1892, which served the quarter of
a casa de força provisória da usina de Fontes.
________________________________________________
Flamengo and environs. Later, the
A partir de então, a própria Société Anonyme ________________________________________________
Estrada de Ferro Corcovado and the
du Gaz passou a responder diretamente pelos ________________________________________________
Companhia Ferro Carril Carioca,
serviços de iluminação do Rio, utilizando ener- ________________________________________________
which served the quarter of Santa
gia elétrica fornecida pela sua incorporadora ________________________________________________
Teresa, were transferred to the Light.
– Light. ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The monopoly of the telephone services
________________________________________________
was assured by means of the purchase by
Nos transportes urbanos, a Light comprou a
________________________________________________
Rio Light of the Rio de Janeiro Telephone
Companhia de Bondes de Vila Isabel e a Carris ________________________________________________
Company, an American firm which
Urbanos, adquiriu 98% do capital da São Cris- ________________________________________________
controlled the Brazilienische Elektrizitäts
tóvão e 75% do ativo da Companhia Ferro-Carril ________________________________________________
Gesellschaft. This German firm had
do Jardim Botânico. Esta última foi a pioneira no ________________________________________________
years previously received from the city
emprego regular de bondes elétricos no Brasil, ________________________________________________
of Rio de Janeiro the rights to exploit
________________________________________________
its telephone services as a monopoly.
inaugurando, em 1892, uma linha que servia ao
________________________________________________
bairro do Flamengo e adjacências, acionada por
________________________________________________
At the beginning of the 1910’s, the
pequena usina termelétrica. Mais tarde, foram ________________________________________________
increase in the demand for electric
transferidos para a Rio Light a Estrada de Ferro ________________________________________________
power caused Rio Light to augment
Corcovado e a Companhia Ferro-Carril Carioca, ________________________________________________
the installed capacity of the Fontes
que atendia ao bairro de Santa Teresa. ________________________________________________
Hydroelectric Plant. To achieve this, the
________________________________________________
waters of the Piraí River were diverted
________________________________________________
to the ocean watershed of the Paraíba
O monopólio dos serviços telefônicos foi asse-
________________________________________________
do Sul River by means of an 8.5 km-
gurado por meio da compra, pela Rio Light, da
________________________________________________
long tunnel. A second dam – Tocos
Rio de Janeiro Telephone Company, empresa ________________________________________________
– augmented the reservoir area which
norte-americana que detinha o controle da Bra- ________________________________________________
was of vital importance to ensure the
zilianische Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft. Essa firma ________________________________________________
increase in the plant’s capacity.
alemã havia recebido, anos antes, autorização ________________________________________________
da Câmara Municipal do Rio para explorar os ________________________________________________
The tunneling work lasted from November
________________________________________________
1911, to September 1913, whereas the
serviços de telefonia da cidade, com exclusi-
________________________________________________
construction of the Tocos Dam, begun
vidade.
________________________________________________
in April 1912, was concluded in October
________________________________________________
of the following year. Now storing more
O aumento da demanda de energia elétrica le- ________________________________________________
than 1,800,000 m3 of water which flooded
vou a Rio Light a ampliar, no início da década ________________________________________________
an area of close to 430 km2, the Lajes
de 1910, a potência instalada na hidrelétrica de ________________________________________________
Reservoir made the installation of two

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The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

53
________________________________________________
12,500 kW generating units possible. The Fontes. Com esse objetivo, as águas do rio Piraí
________________________________________________
Fontes Hydroelectric Plant thus came foram desviadas para a vertente oceânica do
________________________________________________
to have a rated capacity of 49,000 kW rio Paraíba, através de um túnel de 8,5 km de
________________________________________________
and a peak load power of 64,000 kW.
extensão; uma segunda barragem – a de Tocos
________________________________________________
– aumentou a área do reservatório, o que era de
________________________________________________
Besides the expansion of Fontes in
________________________________________________
December 1911, Rio Light erected a vital importância para garantir o incremento da
________________________________________________
small steam plant in the São Cristovão capacidade da usina.
________________________________________________
quarter on land belonging to the Société
________________________________________________
Anonyme du Gaz to generate power during As obras de abertura do túnel se estenderam de
________________________________________________
periods of drought. In January 1913, novembro de 1911 a setembro de 1913, ao passo
________________________________________________
the four generating groups of the plant
que a construção da barragem de Tocos, inicia-
________________________________________________
totalized 12,000 kW of installed capacity.
da em abril de 1912, foi concluída em outubro
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The Light’s entry to Rio de Janeiro was do ano seguinte. Armazenando agora mais de
________________________________________________
not at all peaceful. As it also intended 1.800.000 m3 de água, que cobriam uma área de
________________________________________________
to supply electric power to the capital of cerca de 430 km2, o reservatório de Lajes permitiu
________________________________________________
the Republic, the national group led by a instalação de mais duas unidades geradoras,
________________________________________________
Cândido Gafrée and Eduardo Palassin cada uma com 12.500 kW de potência. A usina
________________________________________________
Guinle felt discriminated against by the
de Fontes passou então a somar uma capacidade
________________________________________________
Canadian company and tried to make
nominal de 49.000 kW e, em regime de sobrecar-
________________________________________________
a stand. Percival Farquhar, a director
________________________________________________
of the Light, availed himself of his ga, de 64.000 kW.
________________________________________________
acquaintances to make the interests of his
________________________________________________
company prevail. Counting on the U.S. Além da ampliação de Fontes, a Rio Light insta-
________________________________________________
State Department and the pressure of lou, em dezembro de 1911, uma usina a vapor no
________________________________________________
American diplomats on Brazilian Foreign bairro de São Cristóvão, nos terrenos da Société
________________________________________________
Minister, the Baron Rio Branco, as well
Anonyme du Gaz, para produzir energia nos perí-
________________________________________________
as on Lauro Müller, Minister of Transport
odos de estiagem. Em janeiro de 1913, os quatro
________________________________________________
and Public Works, Farquhar succeeded in
________________________________________________
setting aside the Brazilian capitalists and grupos geradores da usina perfaziam o total de
________________________________________________
secured the publication of the Decree that 12.000 kW de potência instalada.
________________________________________________
established the Light’s domicile in Brazil.
________________________________________________ A entrada da Light no Rio de Janeiro não foi pa-
________________________________________________
Gaffrée and Guinle’s disagreement with cífica. Sentindo-se prejudicada pela companhia
________________________________________________
Farquhar and the Light group did not end
canadense, uma vez que também tencionava
________________________________________________
there. In February 1909, after years of
fornecer energia elétrica à capital da Repúbli-
________________________________________________
small skirmishes, the conflict took on a new
________________________________________________
dimension when the Brazilians requested ca, o grupo nacional, capitaneado por Cândido
________________________________________________
authorization from the city of São Paulo Gaffrée e Eduardo Palassin Guinle, tentou opor-
________________________________________________
to sell off surplus power from the Itatinga lhe resistência. Membro da direção da Light
________________________________________________
Plant erected in 1906, by the Companhia até 1907, Percival Farquhar lançou mão de seus

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

54
conhecimentos para fazer impor os interesses ________________________________________________
Docas de Santos, one of their companies,
da sua empresa. Valendo-se do Departamento ________________________________________________
and which met the needs of the port of
de Estado e da intervenção de diplomatas nor- ________________________________________________
Santos. Mayor Antonio Prado granted the
________________________________________________
request due to the low rates, but the city
te-americanos junto ao ministro das Relações
________________________________________________
council supported the continuation of the
Exteriores do Brasil, o barão do Rio Branco, e ao
________________________________________________
monopoly of São Paulo Light. Despite a
ministro da Indústria, Viação e Obras Públicas, ________________________________________________
few contretemps, Light ended up securing
Lauro Müller, Farquhar conseguiu afastar os ________________________________________________
its privileges concerning the supply of
capitalistas brasileiros da disputa e garantir a ________________________________________________
electric power to the city of São Paulo.
publicação do decreto de domicílio da Rio Light ________________________________________________
no país. ________________________________________________
The third company of the Light group
________________________________________________
installed in Brazil was the São Paulo
________________________________________________
Electric Company, Ltd. Its creation at
Os desentendimentos de Gaffrée e Guinle com
________________________________________________
the beginning of the decade of 1910
Farquhar e o grupo Light não terminaram aí. ________________________________________________
is closely related to the increasing
Em fevereiro de 1909, após anos de pequenas ________________________________________________
difficulties which São Paulo Light
escaramuças, o conflito ganhou nova dimensão ________________________________________________
had been facing to meet the rapid
quando os brasileiros solicitaram autorização ________________________________________________
growth in consumption of electricity,
da prefeitura de São Paulo para vender na ca- ________________________________________________
aggravated by long periods of drought.
________________________________________________
pital o excesso de energia da usina de Itatinga,
________________________________________________
Since the possibilities of expanding the
construída em 1906 pela Companhia Docas
________________________________________________
Parnaíba Hydroelectric Plant were
de Santos, empresa de sua propriedade, para ________________________________________________
exhausted, the remaining alternative
atender às necessidades do porto de Santos. O ________________________________________________
was the construction of a new hydro
prefeito Antônio Prado deferiu o pedido, devido ________________________________________________
plant because the thermoelectric
ao baixo preço da tarifa, mas a Câmara Municipal ________________________________________________
plant in operation since 1912, with a
defendeu a manutenção do monopólio da São ________________________________________________
mere 4,000 kW of installed capacity,
________________________________________________
was not a solution to the problem.
Paulo Light. Apesar de algumas contramarchas,
________________________________________________
a Light acabou garantindo seus privilégios quan-
________________________________________________
Several projects had been studied for
to ao fornecimento de energia elétrica à capital ________________________________________________
some time. At the end of 1910, Frederick
paulista. ________________________________________________
Pearson opted for one that called for
________________________________________________
the development of the Itupararanga
A terceira empresa do grupo Light instalada no ________________________________________________
Falls on the Sorocaba River. In order
Brasil foi a São Paulo Electric Company Ltd. Sua ________________________________________________
to make the enterprise feasible, the
________________________________________________
São Paulo Electric was founded with
criação, no início da década de 1910, guarda
________________________________________________
head office in Toronto, and Alexander
estreita relação com as dificuldades cada vez
________________________________________________
Mackenzie was given a power-of-attorney
maiores que a São Paulo Light vinha enfrentando ________________________________________________
for the São Paulo Electric in Brazil.
para atender ao rápido crescimento do consumo ________________________________________________
de eletricidade, agravadas por longos períodos ________________________________________________
Authorized to operate in Brazil in June
de estiagem. ________________________________________________
1911, after some months, the company

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The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

55
________________________________________________
purchased the Empresa de Eletricidade Esgotadas as possibilidades de ampliação da
________________________________________________
de Sorocaba, property of the Banco usina de Parnaíba, a alternativa que restava era
________________________________________________
União de São Paulo and responsible a construção de uma nova hidrelétrica, já que
________________________________________________
for the supply of electric power to the
a usina termelétrica, em funcionamento desde
________________________________________________
towns of Sorocaba and São Roque. The
1912, ao lado da subestação da Rua Paula Sousa,
________________________________________________
construction of the plant began in the same
________________________________________________
year and in April 1912, the provisional com somente 4.000 kW instalados, não represen-
________________________________________________
plant was put in service with an installed tava uma solução para o problema.
________________________________________________
capacity of 4,000 kW. The Itupararanga
________________________________________________
Hydroelectric Plant was put into operation Diversos projetos já vinham sendo estudados
________________________________________________
in May 1914, and three months later had há algum tempo. No final de 1910, Frederick
________________________________________________
an installed capacity of 37,500 kW.
Pearson acabou optando por aquele que previa
________________________________________________
o aproveitamento do salto de Itupararanga, no
________________________________________________
Thus, it was due to the São Paulo
________________________________________________
Electric Company, Ltd. that the Light rio Sorocaba, em área do município de mesmo
________________________________________________
group extended beyond the limits of nome, atualmente pertencente ao município de
________________________________________________
the city of São Paulo and began to Votorantim. Para viabilizar o empreendimento,
________________________________________________
expand its sphere of influence to the foi constituída a São Paulo Electric com sede
________________________________________________
interior of the state of São Paulo. em Toronto. Comprovando a ligação da nova
________________________________________________
empresa com a São Paulo Light e a Rio Light,
________________________________________________
In terms of structure, the Light group
Alexander Mackenzie foi indicado procurador
________________________________________________
had two years before undergone an
________________________________________________
important reorganization. In Canada, in da São Paulo Electric no Brasil.
________________________________________________
1912, the Brazilian Traction, Light and
________________________________________________
Power Company, Ltd. was set up as a Autorizada a funcionar no país em junho de
________________________________________________
holding company which embraced the 1911, nos meses seguintes a companhia ad-
________________________________________________
three companies existing in Brazil: the quiriu a Empresa de Eletricidade de Sorocaba,
________________________________________________
São Paulo Tramway, Light and Power
propriedade do Banco União de São Paulo
________________________________________________
Company; the Rio de Janeiro Tramway,
e responsável pelo fornecimento de energia
________________________________________________
Light and Power Company, Ltd., and
________________________________________________
the São Paulo Electric Company, Ltd. elétrica a Sorocaba e São Roque, e o salto de
________________________________________________
With a capital equivalent to 23 millions Itupararanga. A construção da usina teve início
________________________________________________
pounds, the Canadian holding company ainda naquele ano e em abril de 1912 entrou
________________________________________________
concentrated the major portion of the em operação uma usina provisória, com capa-
________________________________________________
electric light, tram and telephone services cidade instalada de 4.000 kW. A hidrelétrica de
________________________________________________
of the most developed area of the country:
Itupararanga foi inaugurada em maio de 1914
________________________________________________
the Rio-São Paulo axis. Nevertheless,
e contava três meses depois com 37.500 kW
________________________________________________
each one of the three companies
________________________________________________
maintained its corporate entity. instalados.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Similarly to other companies operating in Assim, foi por intermédio da São Paulo Electric
________________________________________________
Latin America, the Light group was only que o grupo Light ultrapassou os limites da ca-

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

56
pital, começando a estender seu raio de ação ________________________________________________
nominally Canadian. On the one hand,
pelo interior do estado. ________________________________________________
the controlling capitalists were partly
________________________________________________
Americans and the management and
________________________________________________
financing methods were clearly American.
Em termos organizacionais, dois anos antes, o ________________________________________________
On the other hand, shortly the major
grupo Light havia sofrido uma importante rees- ________________________________________________
capital invested in the company became
truturação. Em 1912, foi constituída no Canadá a ________________________________________________
British. Closely tied to the large business
Brazilian Traction, Light and Power Company Ltd., ________________________________________________
banks, the Light should not be considered
________________________________________________
simply as a foreign electric power
empresa holding que consolidava as três empresas
________________________________________________
company located in Brazil, but rather
já atuantes no Brasil: a São Paulo Tramway, Light ________________________________________________
as an integral part of a vast financial
and Power, a Rio de Janeiro Tramway, Light and ________________________________________________
and industrial conglomerate whose
Power e a São Paulo Electric. Reunindo um capital ________________________________________________
investments were not limited to Brazil but
________________________________________________
also extended into Mexico and Cuba.
equivalente a 23 milhões de libras, a empresa hol-
________________________________________________
ding canadense concentrava a maior parcela dos
The performance of the
________________________________________________
serviços de energia elétrica, bondes e telefones da ________________________________________________
smaller concessionaires
região mais desenvolvida do país: o eixo Rio-São ________________________________________________
Paulo. No entanto, cada uma das três companhias ________________________________________________
The generation and distribution of electric
________________________________________________
power in Brazil up to 1929 was not
manteve sua identidade jurídica.
________________________________________________
restricted to that carried out by the Light.
________________________________________________
Other than the Canadian concessionaire
A exemplo de outras empresas que agiam na ________________________________________________
which operated in the most dynamic
América Latina, o grupo Light era apenas nomi- ________________________________________________
axis of the economy of the country
nalmente canadense. Por um lado, os capitalis- ________________________________________________
and was responsible for a system of
________________________________________________
generation, transmission and distribution
tas que detinham seu controle eram, em parte,
________________________________________________
of electric power compatible with that
naturais dos Estados Unidos e os métodos de ________________________________________________
existing in the developed countries,
gestão e de financiamento eram marcadamen- ________________________________________________
there were many isolated units installed
te norte-americanos. Por outro lado, o capital ________________________________________________
at various sites throughout Brazil.
________________________________________________
investido na companhia, em pouco tempo, pas-
________________________________________________
This widespread and heterogeneous group
sou a ser majoritariamente de origem inglesa.
________________________________________________
was comprised of small thermoelectric
Estreitamente articulada aos grandes bancos ________________________________________________
and hydroelectric plants belonging
de negócios, a Light não deve ser pensada sim- ________________________________________________
to local companies and which quite
plesmente como uma empresa estrangeira de ________________________________________________
often supplied the needs of one single
________________________________________________
township; or self-producers belonging to
energia elétrica instalada no Brasil, mas sim
________________________________________________
industrial establishments; and of small
como parte integrante de um vasto conglome- ________________________________________________
units for residential consumption in
rado financeiro e industrial, cujos investimentos ________________________________________________
farming areas. Within this group, the first
não se limitavam ao nosso país, estendendo-se ________________________________________________
– that of the companies of a municipal
também ao México e a Cuba. ________________________________________________
ambit – was the most significant.

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The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

57
________________________________________________
Following the same procedure as A ATUAÇÃO DAS CONCESSIONÁRIAS DE
________________________________________________
the Light, these small electric power MENOR PORTE
________________________________________________
companies concentrated their investments
________________________________________________
on hydro resource developments,
As atividades de geração e distribuição de ener-
________________________________________________
abundant in the country. However, in
gia elétrica no Brasil, até 1920, não se restringiam
________________________________________________
the states where the hydraulic potential
________________________________________________
was modest or technically difficult and/or às desenvolvidas pelo grupo Light. Ao lado da
________________________________________________
expensive, the thermoelectric solution was concessionária canadense, que atuava no eixo
________________________________________________
made use of. Thus, in 1920, São Paulo mais dinâmico da economia do país e era respon-
________________________________________________
and Rio de Janeiro together possessed sável por um sistema de geração, transmissão e
________________________________________________
over two thirds of the installed capacity distribuição de energia elétrica compatível com
________________________________________________
in Brazil, due chiefly to the Light group’s
os existentes nos países desenvolvidos, havia um
________________________________________________
plants. In the state of Minas Gerais,
grande número de unidades isoladas, instaladas
________________________________________________
the overwhelming majority of electric
________________________________________________
power was also of a hydraulic origin. em diversos pontos do território brasileiro.
________________________________________________
The states of the northeast – excepting
________________________________________________
Bahia – of the north and of the central Esse conjunto, amplo e heterogêneo, era consti-
________________________________________________
west, as well as the states of Rio Grande tuído por pequenas usinas térmicas e hidrelétri-
________________________________________________
do Sul and Paraná – in the south – based cas, pertencentes a empresas de caráter local,
________________________________________________
their production on thermal power.
que atendiam, muitas vezes, ao consumo de um
________________________________________________
único município; por instalações autoprodutoras
________________________________________________
Power plant construction underwent a
________________________________________________
considerable increase in the first twenty de estabelecimentos industriais; e por peque-
________________________________________________
years of the twentieth century. According nas unidades de consumo doméstico nas áreas
________________________________________________
to the 1920 census, between 1901 and agrícolas. Dentro desse conjunto, o primeiro
________________________________________________
1910, a total of 77 new electric power segmento – o relativo às empresas de âmbito
________________________________________________
generating units came into operation municipal – era o mais significativo.
________________________________________________
and in the following decade another
________________________________________________
164, despite the difficulties faced by
Seguindo o mesmo procedimento adotado pela
________________________________________________
the sector during the years of the First
________________________________________________
World War when international commerce Light, essas pequenas empresas de energia
________________________________________________
underwent serious restrictions. Thus, in elétrica concentravam seus investimentos na
________________________________________________
1920, there were 343 plants operating utilização dos recursos hídricos, abundantes no
________________________________________________
in Brazil and installed capacity reached país. Entretanto, nos estados onde o potencial
________________________________________________
349, 604 kW. It should be pointed hidráulico era mais modesto ou de aproveita-
________________________________________________
out, however, that these totals include
mento tecnicamente difícil e/ou oneroso, recor-
________________________________________________
data pertinent to the Light group.
reu-se à solução térmica. Assim, enquanto em
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
It was also during the 1910’s that the São Paulo e no Rio de Janeiro, que somavam
________________________________________________
plant centralization process was begun. mais de dois terços da potência instalada no
________________________________________________
Furthered by large-scale regionally- Brasil em 1920, devido sobretudo às usinas do
________________________________________________
bound companies, this process grupo Light, também em Minas Gerais a maioria

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

58
esmagadora da energia elétrica produzida era de ________________________________________________
occurred mainly in the interior of the
origem hidráulica. Os estados do Nordeste, com ________________________________________________
state of São Paulo and determined
exceção da Bahia, do Norte e do Centro-Oeste e ________________________________________________
a significant expansion of the area
________________________________________________
served by each concessionaire. In
mais o Rio Grande do Sul e o Paraná, baseavam
________________________________________________
the 1920’s, as we will see later, this
sua produção na termeletricidade.
________________________________________________
process would be greatly intensified.
________________________________________________
A construção de usinas experimentou um no- ________________________________________________
São Paulo, as of the first decade of this
tável incremento nos primeiros vinte anos do ________________________________________________
century, had an expressive number of
século XX. De acordo com o recenseamento ________________________________________________
small city companies operating in the
de 1920, entre os anos de 1901 e 1910, 77 novas ________________________________________________
area of the production of electric power.
________________________________________________
Generally organized by local businessmen
unidades produtoras de energia elétrica entra-
________________________________________________
and farmers, these companies were
ram em funcionamento e, na década seguinte,
________________________________________________
founded based on public lighting
mais 164, apesar das dificuldades enfrentadas ________________________________________________
concessions granted by local townships.
pelo setor durante os anos da Primeira Guer- ________________________________________________
ra Mundial, quando o comércio internacional ________________________________________________
Therefore, in 1910, several towns in
passou por sérias restrições. Desse modo, em ________________________________________________
the interior of the state of São Paulo
1920 operavam no Brasil 343 usinas e a potência ________________________________________________
were already regularly served by
________________________________________________
electric power companies which took
instalada chegava a 349.604 kW. Cabe salientar,
________________________________________________
care of the illumination of the main
porém, que esses totais incluem os dados refe-
________________________________________________
squares and, in some cases, of private
rentes ao grupo Light. ________________________________________________
homes. Among the towns which had
________________________________________________
these services, besides the pioneer
Foi também na década de 1910 que se iniciou o ________________________________________________
Rio Claro, worthy of mention are:
processo de concentração de usinas por empre- ________________________________________________
Ribeirão Preto, Campinas, Araraquara,
sa. Promovido por companhias de âmbito regio- ________________________________________________
Sorocaba, Piracicaba, Botucatu, Jaú,
________________________________________________
São Manoel, Bragança Paulista and
nal de maior porte, ele ocorreu principalmente
________________________________________________
Guaratinguetá, to mention only a few.
no interior de São Paulo, determinando uma
________________________________________________
sensível ampliação da área de atendimento de ________________________________________________
Reflecting the economic development
cada concessionária. Na década de 1920, como ________________________________________________
observed in a large part of the state
veremos mais adiante, esse processo seria ex- ________________________________________________
of São Paulo, brought about by the
tremamente intensificado. ________________________________________________
continued expansion of the coffee
________________________________________________
complex, by the diversification of
________________________________________________
agricultural production and by the
São Paulo apresentava, desde a primeira década
________________________________________________
progressive penetration of the interior by
desse século, um número expressivo de peque-
________________________________________________
some branches of industry, the electric
nas empresas municipais atuando na área de ________________________________________________
power concessionaires began to merge.
produção de energia elétrica. Organizadas ge- ________________________________________________
As early as the 1910’s, they controlled
ralmente por comerciantes e fazendeiros locais, ________________________________________________
rather extensive areas of the territory
essas companhias se constituíram a partir de ________________________________________________
of the state. Generally, the promoters of

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The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

59
________________________________________________
this concentrating movement were the concessões para iluminação pública, que eram
________________________________________________
companies located in districts which garantidas por contrato pelas câmaras munici-
________________________________________________
polarized the economic activities of pais. Caso as concessões não fossem transfe-
________________________________________________
one region or another. These groups
ridas para terceiros, tinham início as obras de
________________________________________________
were responsible for the first attempts
construção das unidades geradoras de energia
________________________________________________
to create an integrated system for
________________________________________________
the generation, transmission and elétrica.
________________________________________________
distribution of electric power in the
________________________________________________
interior of the state of São Paulo. Assim, no ano de 1910, diversas cidades do
________________________________________________ interior paulista já eram regularmente atendi-
________________________________________________
The Companhia Paulista de Força e das por empresas de energia elétrica, que se
________________________________________________
Luz (CPFL) was founded in November
encarregavam da iluminação dos principais
________________________________________________
1912, on the initiative of the engineers
logradouros públicos e, em alguns casos, de
________________________________________________
and capitalists Manfredo Antônio da
________________________________________________
Costa and José Balbino de Siqueira. residências particulares. Entre outras cidades
________________________________________________
Having as a starting point the Empresa que contavam com esse serviço, merecem ser
________________________________________________
Força e Luz de Botucatu, the CPFL took citadas, além da pioneira Rio Claro, Ribeirão Pre-
________________________________________________
over the Empresa Força e Luz de São to, Campinas, Araraquara, Sorocaba, Piracicaba,
________________________________________________
Manuel and the Companhia Elétrica Botucatu, Jaú, São Manoel, Bragança Paulista
________________________________________________
do Oeste de São Paulo, both in 1913;
e Guaratinguetá.
________________________________________________
and the Empresa Força e Luz Agudos-
________________________________________________
Pederneiras in the following year,
________________________________________________
thus expanding its original concession Refletindo o desenvolvimento econômico obser-
________________________________________________
area. In 1919, the company also took vado em grande parte do estado de São Paulo,
________________________________________________
over the Empresa de Eletricidade consubstanciado na contínua expansão do
________________________________________________
de Bauru which, besides this town, complexo cafeeiro, na diversificação da produ-
________________________________________________
served the neighboring areas. ção agrícola e na progressiva interiorização de
________________________________________________
alguns ramos industriais, as concessionárias
________________________________________________
Another group headed by engineers
de energia elétrica começaram a se aglutinar,
________________________________________________
Ataliba Vale, José Antônio da Fonseca
________________________________________________
Rodrigues and Francisco Ramos de vindo a constituir, ainda na década de 1910,
________________________________________________
Azevedo was derived from the Empresa grupos que controlavam áreas mais ou menos
________________________________________________
de Eletricidade de Araraquara, which extensas do território estadual. Em geral, os
________________________________________________
was also founded in November 1912. promotores desse movimento de concentração
________________________________________________
Undergoing a slight development during eram as companhias localizadas nos municípios
________________________________________________
subsequent years when it extended its
que polarizavam as atividades econômicas desta
________________________________________________
concession area to the towns of Ribeirão
ou daquela região. Esses grupos foram respon-
________________________________________________
Bonito and Rincão, the company arrived
________________________________________________
at 1920 considerably strengthened, sáveis pelas primeiras tentativas de criação de
________________________________________________
rendering services not only to the um sistema integrado de produção, transmissão
________________________________________________
Araraquara region but also to a part e distribuição de energia elétrica no interior de
________________________________________________
of the valley of the Paraíba River, São Paulo.

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

60
A Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz (CPFL) foi ________________________________________________
through the share control of the Empresa
criada em novembro de 1912, por iniciativa dos ________________________________________________
de Eletricidade de São Paulo e Rio.
engenheiros e capitalistas Manfredo Antônio da ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Having controlled the Empresa de Força
Costa e José Balbino de Siqueira. Tendo como
________________________________________________
e Luz de Ribeirão Preto prior to 1910,
ponto de partida a Empresa Força e Luz de Bo-
________________________________________________
and later controlling the Empresa Força
tucatu, a CPFL incorporou a Empresa Força e ________________________________________________
e Luz de Jaú and the Companhia Força
Luz de São Manoel e a Companhia Elétrica do ________________________________________________
e Luz de Avanhandava, the Silva Prado
Oeste de São Paulo, em 1913, e a Empresa For- ________________________________________________
family was responsible for supplying
ça e Luz Agudos-Pederneiras, no ano seguinte, ________________________________________________
electric power to various townships.
ampliando assim sua área original de conces- ________________________________________________
In 1918, the concession area of the
________________________________________________
business group included the towns of
são. Em 1919, a companhia incorporou também
________________________________________________
Barretos, Jardinópolis, Igarapava,
a Empresa de Eletricidade de Bauru que, além
________________________________________________
Pedregulho, Bebedouro, and others.
deste município, atendia às áreas vizinhas. ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The nucleus of the group headed by
Um outro grupo, liderado pelos engenheiros ________________________________________________
Armando de Salles Oliveira and his
Ataliba Vale, José Antônio da Fonseca Rodrigues ________________________________________________
father-in-law, Júlio de Mesquita,
e Francisco Ramos de Azevedo, originou-se da ________________________________________________
director of the newspaper O Estado
________________________________________________
de São Paulo, was the Empresa de
Empresa de Eletricidade de Araraquara, fundada
________________________________________________
Eletricidade de Rio Preto, founded in
igualmente em novembro de 1912. Experimen-
________________________________________________
March 1912, to exploit the concessions of
tando uma discreta expansão nos anos poste- ________________________________________________
São José do Rio Preto. At the end of the
riores, quando estendeu sua área de concessão ________________________________________________
decade of 1910, the group was already
aos municípios de Ribeirão Bonito e Rincão, a ________________________________________________
established in Jaboticabal, Bebedouro,
empresa chegou a 1920 sensivelmente fortale- ________________________________________________
São Simão, Cajuru and other districts.
cida, servindo não só à região de Araraquara ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Along with these large national groups,
mas também a uma parte do vale do Paraíba,
________________________________________________
other small concessionaires exploited the
mediante o controle acionário da Empresa de
________________________________________________
generation and distribution of electric
Eletricidade de São Paulo e Rio. ________________________________________________
power, among which the already-
________________________________________________
mentioned Central Elétrica Rio Claro
Controlando a Empresa Força e Luz de Ribeirão ________________________________________________
S.A. Property of the German company,
Preto desde antes de 1910 e, mais tarde, a Em- ________________________________________________
Theodor Wille & Co. since 1900, in
presa Força e Luz de Jaú e a Companhia Força ________________________________________________
1913, the company was taken over by
________________________________________________
a group of São Paulo entrepreneurs,
e Luz de Avanhandava, a família Silva Prado
________________________________________________
among whom were lawyer and politician,
era a responsável pelo fornecimento de energia
________________________________________________
Elói Chaves, and two members of the
elétrica a diversos municípios. Em 1918, a área ________________________________________________
important Rodrigues Alves family. The
de concessão do grupo empresarial incluía ________________________________________________
expansion of the Central Elétrica Rio
Barretos, Jardinópolis, Igarapava, Pedregulho, ________________________________________________
Claro in the following years was modest,
Bebedouro etc. ________________________________________________
being limited to the supply of light and

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The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

61
________________________________________________
power to Rio Claro itself and to the O núcleo do grupo capitaneado por Armando de
________________________________________________
districts of Limeira, Araras and Cordeiro. Salles Oliveira e seu sogro, Júlio de Mesquita, di-
________________________________________________ retor do jornal O Estado de S. Paulo foi a Empresa
________________________________________________
Aside from the São Paulo Electric of
de Eletricidade de Rio Preto, fundada em março
________________________________________________
the Light group, foreign capital was
de 1912 para explorar as concessões de São José
________________________________________________
also present in the interior of the state
________________________________________________
of São Paulo through a British-owned do Rio Preto. No final da década de 1910, o grupo
________________________________________________
concessionaire, The Southern Brazil já estava estabelecido em Jaboticabal, Bebedou-
________________________________________________
Electric Company, that in 1913 took ro, São Simão, Cajuru e outros municípios.
________________________________________________
over the controlling interest of the
________________________________________________
Empresa Elétrica de Piracicaba. Two Ao lado desses grupos nacionais de maior porte,
________________________________________________
years later, Southern also began to
exploravam a geração e a distribuição de energia
________________________________________________
exploit the tramway and water supply
elétrica outras concessionárias menores, entre
________________________________________________
services in the district of Piracicaba.
________________________________________________ as quais a já mencionada Central Elétrica Rio
________________________________________________
The representative of this company in Claro S.A. Propriedade da firma alemã Theodor
________________________________________________
Brazil was Alberto Byington, an American Wille & Cia. desde 1900, a empresa passou em
________________________________________________
engineer with several undertakings in 1913 para o controle de um grupo de empresários
________________________________________________
the area of electric power in São Paulo. paulistas, entre os quais o advogado e político
________________________________________________
Through Byington’s intermediation,
Elói Chaves e dois membros da importante fa-
________________________________________________
Southern was a stockholder of the
mília Rodrigues Alves. A expansão da Central
________________________________________________
Companhia Mogiana de Luz e Força
________________________________________________
and of the Companhia Campineira de Elétrica Rio Claro, nos anos seguintes, foi mo-
________________________________________________
Tração, Luz e Força. Founded in 1912, desta, limitando-se ao fornecimento de luz e
________________________________________________
the latter, which operated in Campinas, força à própria Rio Claro, a Limeira, a Araras e à
________________________________________________
the most important town in the interior localidade de Cordeiro.
________________________________________________
of the state of São Paulo, held the
________________________________________________
concessions for electric lighting and for
Além da São Paulo Electric, do grupo Light, o
________________________________________________
the exploitation of the city tramways.
capital estrangeiro marcava presença no interior
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The data available on the electric paulista por intermédio da concessionária ingle-
________________________________________________
power activities in the rest of Brazil are sa The Southern Brazil Electric Company, que em
________________________________________________
insufficient to affirm with certainty that 1913 assumiu o controle acionário da Empresa
________________________________________________
the process of concentration seen in the Elétrica de Piracicaba. Dois anos depois, a Sou-
________________________________________________
state of São Paulo in the decade of 1910, thern passou a explorar os serviços de bonde e
________________________________________________
was common to the remaining regions.
o fornecimento de água em Piracicaba.
________________________________________________
The sources regarding the major number
________________________________________________
of states provide scattered information
________________________________________________
that is always restricted to public lighting O representante desta companhia no Brasil era
________________________________________________
services of the state capitals and to Alberto Byington, engenheiro norte-americano
________________________________________________
the main plants in existence. Even so, com vários empreendimentos na área de ener-
________________________________________________
it is possible to make a summarized gia elétrica em São Paulo. Por intermédio de

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

62
Byington, a Southern era acionista da Compa- ________________________________________________
description of the condition of the sector
nhia Mogiana de Luz e Força e da Companhia ________________________________________________
in some of the states of the Federation.
Campineira de Tração, Luz e Força. Fundada em ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Second major producer of electric power
1912, esta última empresa, que atuava em Cam-
________________________________________________
in Brazil, thanks to the Light group, the
pinas, o mais importante município do interior
________________________________________________
state of Rio de Janeiro consumed a small
paulista, era detentora das concessões para o ________________________________________________
amount of the power it generated because
fornecimento de luz elétrica e a exploração das ________________________________________________
the Fontes Plant, even after its expansion
linhas de bonde da cidade. ________________________________________________
in the decade of 1910, allocated almost all
________________________________________________
of its production to the Federal District,
Os dados disponíveis sobre as atividades de ener- ________________________________________________
the nation’s capital city of Rio de Janeiro.
________________________________________________
gia elétrica no restante do Brasil não são suficien-
________________________________________________
In reality, the main supplier of power
tes para que se possa afirmar, com segurança, que
________________________________________________
to the state of Rio de Janeiro was the
o processo de concentração observado no estado ________________________________________________
Companhia Brasileira de Energia
de São Paulo, na década de 1910, fosse comum ________________________________________________
Elétrica (CBEE) founded in June 1909.
às demais regiões brasileiras. As fontes relativas ________________________________________________
Its founders, Cândido Gaffrée and
à maior parte dos estados trazem informações ________________________________________________
Eduardo Guinle, were the proprietors
esparsas, que se restringem quase sempre ao ________________________________________________
of the powerful Companhia Docas de
________________________________________________
Santos, the company that exploited the
serviço de iluminação pública das capitais e às
________________________________________________
port facilities of Santos in the state of
principais usinas existentes. Ainda assim, é pos-
________________________________________________
São Paulo and the busiest in the nation.
sível fazer uma descrição sumária da situação do ________________________________________________
setor em algumas unidades da federação. ________________________________________________
Attracted by the potential of electric power,
________________________________________________
Gaffrée and Guinle began to invest in the
Segundo maior produtor de energia elétrica ________________________________________________
sector, not only in the state of São Paulo
do Brasil, graças à presença do grupo Light, o ________________________________________________
where, as we have already seen, in 1906
________________________________________________
they constructed the Itatinga Plant, but also
estado do Rio consumia uma reduzida parcela
________________________________________________
in the states of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro.
da energia que gerava, uma vez que a usina de
________________________________________________
In the latter state, in 1908, they installed
Fontes destinava quase toda a sua produção ao ________________________________________________
the Alberto Torres Hydroelectric Plant in
mercado do Distrito Federal. ________________________________________________
the town of Paraíba do Sul, utilizing the
________________________________________________
hydraulic potential of the Piabanha River.
Na realidade, o principal fornecedor de energia ________________________________________________
para o território fluminense era a Companhia ________________________________________________
These works, as well as their respective
________________________________________________
concessions, were transferred to the
Brasileira de Energia Elétrica (CBEE), criada em
________________________________________________
CBEE when it was founded by the firm
junho de 1909. Seus fundadores, Cândido Gaffrée
________________________________________________
Guinle & Cia, the incorporator of the new
e Eduardo Guinle, eram proprietários da podero- ________________________________________________
company and its principal stockholder. The
sa Companhia Docas de Santos, empresa que ________________________________________________
capital of the company was controlled by
explorava os serviços daquele porto paulista, o ________________________________________________
Brazilians, among who was the well-known
mais movimentado do país. ________________________________________________
São Paulo industrialist, Jorge Street.

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63
________________________________________________
In the decade of 1910, the CBEE was Atraídos pelas potencialidades que a energia elé-
________________________________________________
granted the right to utilize several trica apresentava, Gaffrée & Guinle passaram a
________________________________________________
waterfalls on the Piabanha River, as well investir no setor, não só no estado de São Paulo,
________________________________________________
as on its tributary, the Fagundes River,
onde, conforme já foi visto, construíram em 1906
________________________________________________
where, during the following decade, it
a usina de Itatinga, como também na Bahia e no
________________________________________________
was to construct a second hydroelectric
________________________________________________
plant and extend its transmission lines Rio de Janeiro. Nesse último estado, instalaram
________________________________________________
to the towns of Petrópolis, Magé, São em 1908 a hidrelétrica de Piabanha, no rio de
________________________________________________
Gonçalo and Niterói, the Rio de Janeiro mesmo nome, em área atualmente pertencente
________________________________________________
state capital. At the end of the decade ao município de Três Rios. Com capacidade de
________________________________________________
of 1910, the company was responsible 9.000 kW, a usina de Piabanha era uma das maio-
________________________________________________
for the tram service in Petrópolis, as
res do país na época de sua inauguração.
________________________________________________
well as for the distribution of electric
________________________________________________
power in Niterói and São Gonçalo.
________________________________________________ Essas obras, da mesma forma que as respectivas
________________________________________________
Besides the Companhia Brasileira de concessões, foram transferidas à CBEE quando
________________________________________________
Energia Elétrica, among other small de sua fundação pela empresa Guinle & Cia.,
________________________________________________
concessionaires, the following operated firma incorporadora da nova companhia e sua
________________________________________________
in the state of Rio: Companhia Força e principal acionista. Todo o capital da empresa
________________________________________________
Luz Norte Fluminense whose plant was
era controlado por brasileiros, entre os quais o
________________________________________________
installed at the district of Santo Antônio
conhecido industrial paulista Jorge Street.
________________________________________________
de Pádua; Empresa Força e Luz Íbero-
________________________________________________
Americana which served Cantagalo and
________________________________________________
environs; and Julius Arp & Co., which Na década de 1910, a CBEE obteve os direitos de
________________________________________________
served Nova Friburgo. This last company exploração de diversas quedas d’água no rio Pia-
________________________________________________
would later become the Companhia de banha e em seu afluente, o rio Fagundes, onde
________________________________________________
Eletricidade de Nova Friburgo (Cenf). construiria, no decênio seguinte, uma segunda
________________________________________________
hidrelétrica, e estendeu as linhas de transmis-
________________________________________________
In 1920, Minas Gerais was the third
são a Petrópolis, Magé, São Gonçalo e Niterói,
________________________________________________
Brazilian state as far as installed
________________________________________________
capacity is concerned, and the one which a capital do estado. No final da década de 1910,
________________________________________________
comprised the greatest number of electric a companhia era responsável pelo serviço de
________________________________________________
power companies and plants. However, bondes de Petrópolis, além de distribuir energia
________________________________________________
the large majority of these companies elétrica em Niterói e São Gonçalo.
________________________________________________
were municipally contained and their
________________________________________________
generating units had a low power rate.
Além da Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elé-
________________________________________________
trica, atuavam no estado do Rio, entre outras
________________________________________________
There were, however, some medium-
________________________________________________
size firms. The Companhia Mineira de pequenas concessionárias, a Companhia Força e
________________________________________________
Eletricidade, founded in 1888 by the Luz Norte Fluminense, cuja usina estava instala-
________________________________________________
pioneer Bernardo Mascarenhas, was da em Santo Antônio de Pádua, a Empresa Força
________________________________________________
the oldest Brazilian company of the e Luz Ibero-Americana, que servia a Cantagalo

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

64
e adjacências, e a Julius Arp & Companhia, que ________________________________________________
sector. It supplied electric power to
atendia a Nova Friburgo. Esta última empresa ________________________________________________
Juiz de Fora, an important industrial
daria origem, mais tarde, à Companhia de Ele- ________________________________________________
center, and neighboring towns. In 1905,
________________________________________________
the company took over the concession
tricidade de Nova Friburgo (Cenf).
________________________________________________
for the tram services of that town.
________________________________________________
Minas Gerais era em 1920 o terceiro estado brasi- ________________________________________________
Another company worthy of note was the
leiro em potência instalada e aquele que reunia ________________________________________________
Companhia Força e Luz Cataguazes-
o maior número de empresas de eletricidade e ________________________________________________
Leopoldina founded in February 1905.
de usinas. Entretanto, a grande maioria dessas ________________________________________________
Run by the influential politician, José
companhias era de âmbito municipal e suas ________________________________________________
Monteiro Ribeiro Junqueira, Minas
________________________________________________
Gerais state deputy during almost all
unidades geradoras possuíam reduzida capaci-
________________________________________________
the First Republic, in July 1908, the
dade instalada.
________________________________________________
company inaugurated the Mauricio
________________________________________________
Hydroelectric Plant of a 800 kW capacity.
Havia, porém, algumas empresas de porte médio. ________________________________________________
Besides the two towns of Cataguazes
A Companhia Mineira de Eletricidade, fundada ________________________________________________
and Leopoldina which gave it its
em 1888 pelo pioneiro Bernardo Mascarenhas, ________________________________________________
name, the company also served São
era a mais antiga empresa brasileira do setor. ________________________________________________
João Nepomuceno and Rio Novo, both
________________________________________________
towns also located in the Zona da Mata
Fornecia energia elétrica a Juiz de Fora, impor-
________________________________________________
Region of the state of Minas Gerais.
tante centro industrial, e a municípios vizinhos.
________________________________________________
Em 1905, a empresa assumiu a concessão do ________________________________________________
Companhia de Eletricidade e Viação
serviço de bondes daquela cidade. ________________________________________________
Urbana de Minas Gerais was responsible
________________________________________________
for the supply of electric power to Belo
Outra empresa de destaque era a Companhia ________________________________________________
Horizonte. The state capital received
Força e Luz Cataguazes-Leopoldina, fundada ________________________________________________
power from two hydroelectric plants
________________________________________________
built by the state government, and from
em fevereiro de 1905. Dirigida pelo influente
________________________________________________
a thermoelectric plant installed in the
político José Monteiro Ribeiro Junqueira, de-
________________________________________________
center of the city by the city hall. The
putado federal por Minas durante quase toda a ________________________________________________
hydroelectric plant of Rio de Pedras was
República Velha, a companhia inaugurou, em ________________________________________________
the largest, with a 1,800 kW capacity.
julho de 1908, a usina hidrelétrica Maurício, no ________________________________________________
It was situated on the Velhas river in
rio Novo, município de Leopoldina, com 800 kW ________________________________________________
Itabirito, and inaugurated in 1907. The
de potência instalada. Além dos dois municípios ________________________________________________
electricity, transportation and telephone
________________________________________________
services of Belo Horizonte were leased
que lhe emprestavam o nome, a empresa atendia
________________________________________________
to Companhia de Eletricidade e Viação
a São João Nepomuceno e Rio Novo, também
________________________________________________
Urbana de Minas Gerais in 1912, a
localizados na Zona da Mata mineira. ________________________________________________
private company founded by Engineer
________________________________________________
José Matoso de Sampaio Correia. Before
A Companhia de Eletricidade e Viação Urbana ________________________________________________
long, the company also exploited Peti
de Minas Gerais respondia pelo fornecimento ________________________________________________
on the Santa Bárbara river, being given

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

65
________________________________________________
the concession for illumination and de energia elétrica de Belo Horizonte, capital do
________________________________________________
power services of the Santa Bárbara estado desde 1897. O sistema elétrico da capital
________________________________________________
municipality, in the vicinity of the capital. contava com a energia de duas hidrelétricas,
________________________________________________
construídas pelo governo estadual, e uma ter-
________________________________________________
Two British-owned mining companies,
melétrica, instalada no centro da cidade pela
________________________________________________
the Saint John d’El Rey Mining
________________________________________________
Company, Ltd., owner of the Morro prefeitura. A mais importante era a hidrelétrica de
________________________________________________
Velho mine in Nova Lima, and Rio de Pedras, com 1.800 kW, no rio das Velhas,
________________________________________________
the Conquista-Xicão Gold Mines em Itabirito, inaugurada em 1907. Os serviços de
________________________________________________
Company, Ltd., located in the district of eletricidade, viação e telefones de Belo Horizonte
________________________________________________
Campanha, had their own hydroelectric foram arrendados em 1912 à Companhia de Ele-
________________________________________________
installations to drive their machinery.
tricidade e Viação Urbana de Minas Gerais, em-
________________________________________________
presa privada organizada pelo engenheiro José
________________________________________________
The largest producer of electric power
________________________________________________
in the northeast and fourth in Brazil Matoso de Sampaio Correia. Logo em seguida, a
________________________________________________
during the first decade of the twentieth companhia passou a explorar também o aprovei-
________________________________________________
century, the state of Bahia staged one tamento de Peti, no rio Santa Bárbara, assumindo
________________________________________________
more showdown between two well- a concessão dos serviços de iluminação e força do
________________________________________________
known adversaries: Guinle & Company município de Santa Bárbara, vizinho à capital.
________________________________________________
and the Bahia Tramways, Light and
________________________________________________
Power Company, an American firm
Duas empresas de mineração, ambas inglesas,
________________________________________________
belonging to Percival Farquhar.
________________________________________________ a The Saint John d’El Rey Mining Company
________________________________________________
Founded in 1905, with a capital of seven Ltd., proprietária da mina de Morro Velho em
________________________________________________
million dollars, the Bahia Tramways, Nova Lima, e The Conquista-Xicão Gold Mines
________________________________________________
Light and Power Company took over Company Ltd., localizada no município de Cam-
________________________________________________
the Compagnie d’Éclairage de Bahia, panha, dispunham de instalações hidrelétricas,
________________________________________________
which monopolized the electric power
cuja energia era empregada para acionar suas
________________________________________________
and gas supply services, and bought
máquinas.
________________________________________________
the Companhia Linha Circular de
________________________________________________
Carris da Bahia, responsible for the
________________________________________________
tram services in the state capital of Maior produtor de energia elétrica do Nordeste
________________________________________________
Salvador. In 1907, the Circular, which e quarto em todo o Brasil, a Bahia serviu de
________________________________________________
kept its own corporate entity, installed palco, na primeira década do século XX, a mais
________________________________________________
the Preguiça Thermoelectric Plant in um confronto entre dois conhecidos adversários:
________________________________________________
Salvador. Besides this, Farquhar was also
a Guinle & Cia. e a Bahia Tramways, Light and
________________________________________________
granted the right to utilize the Santarém
Power Company, empresa norte-americana de
________________________________________________
Falls on the Jequiriçá river, where he
________________________________________________
built a small hydroelectric plant. propriedade de Percival Farquhar.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Guinle & Cia. appeared in Bahia in Constituída em 1905 com o capital de sete mi-
________________________________________________
1906-07, when the state government lhões de dólares, a Bahia Tramways, Light and

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

66
Power passou a deter o controle acionário da ________________________________________________
granted it the authorization to develop
Compagnie d’Éclairage de Bahia, que monopo- ________________________________________________
the Marcela, Gameleira and Bananeiras
lizava os serviços de fornecimento de energia ________________________________________________
Falls, all on the Paraguaçu River. With
________________________________________________
the founding of the Companhia Brasileira
elétrica e gás, e adquiriu a Companhia Linha
________________________________________________
de Energia Elétrica in 1909, Guinle &
Circular de Carris da Bahia, responsável pelo ser-
________________________________________________
Cia. transferred its exploitation rights to
viço de bondes de Salvador. Em 1907, a Circular ________________________________________________
the new company. In 1920, the CBEE put
de Carris – que manteve personalidade jurídica ________________________________________________
in service its Bananeiras Hydroelectric
própria – instalou a usina termelétrica de Pregui- ________________________________________________
Plant located in the town of Cachoeira,
ça em Salvador. Além disso, Farquhar também ________________________________________________
serving Salvador and environs.
conseguiu os direitos de exploração da queda ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Despite the available sources not
de Santarém, no rio Jequiriçá, onde construiu
________________________________________________
presenting any concrete data concerning
uma pequena central hidrelétrica.
________________________________________________
the dispute involving the CBEE and
________________________________________________
the Bahia Tramways, Light and Power
A entrada da Guinle & Cia. na Bahia ocorreu em ________________________________________________
Company, one can infer that it was
1906 e 1907, quando o governo estadual lhe conce- ________________________________________________
probably related to the struggle for the
deu autorização para o aproveitamento das que- ________________________________________________
concessions relevant to rendering public
das de Marcela, Gameleira e Bananeiras, todas ________________________________________________
services to Salvador. There is also no
________________________________________________
precise information available about the
no rio Paraguaçu. Com a fundação da Companhia
________________________________________________
outcome of the dispute. It is known only
Brasileira de Energia Elétrica em 1909, a Guinle
________________________________________________
that in the early 1920’s, due, perhaps, to
& Cia. transferiu seus direitos de exploração ________________________________________________
an agreement between them, part of the
para a nova empresa. Em 1920, a CBEE colocou ________________________________________________
electric power generated by the Circular
em operação a hidrelétrica de Bananeiras para ________________________________________________
de Carris was distributed by the CBEE
atendimento de Salvador e localidades da região ________________________________________________
for public and residential lighting.
do Recôncavo Baiano. Situada no município de ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
In Pernambuco, practically all the
Cachoeira, em área posteriormente incorporada
________________________________________________
electric power produced was of thermal
pelo município de Conceição da Feira, a usina
________________________________________________
origin and came from one sole plant
contava com 9.000 kW de capacidade instalada. ________________________________________________
installed in Recife in 1914, by the
________________________________________________
Pernambuco Tramways and Power
Apesar de as fontes disponíveis não fornecerem ________________________________________________
Company, Ltd. This British firm,
dados concretos sobre a contenda envolvendo ________________________________________________
authorized in 1913 to exploit the public
a CBEE e a Bahia Tramways, Light and Power, ________________________________________________
and residential lighting services of the
________________________________________________
Pernambuco state capital for a period
pode-se inferir que ela provavelmente se relacio-
________________________________________________
of 50 years, soon monopolized virtually
nava com a disputa pelas concessões referentes
________________________________________________
all the city’s urban undertakings.
à prestação de serviços públicos em Salvador. ________________________________________________
Besides holding the concession for
Não há igualmente informações precisas sobre ________________________________________________
Recife’s lighting, Pernambuco Tramways
o desfecho da luta. Sabe-se apenas que no início ________________________________________________
exploited its gas supply, the telephone
da década de 1920, fruto talvez de um acordo ________________________________________________
service and urban transport system.

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

67
________________________________________________
In 1920, close to 90% of the electric power entre as partes, a CBEE vendia a energia elé-
________________________________________________
production in the state of Rio Grande trica que a Circular de Carris distribuía para os
________________________________________________
do Sul was generated by thermal power serviços de bonde e de iluminação particular da
________________________________________________
plants. The most powerful plant of the
capital baiana.
________________________________________________
state was the coal-driven thermoelectric
________________________________________________
plant Fiat Lux in Porto Alegre, with an
________________________________________________
approximate 2,000 kW installed capacity. Em Pernambuco, praticamente toda a energia
________________________________________________
This plant was acquired in 1923, by elétrica produzida era de origem térmica e pro-
________________________________________________
Companhia de Energia Elétrica Rio- vinha sobretudo de uma única usina, instalada
________________________________________________
Grandense (Ceerg), controlled by Cia. em Recife, em 1914, pela Pernambuco Tramways
________________________________________________
Estrada de Ferro and Minas de São and Power Company Ltd. Essa companhia ingle-
________________________________________________
Jerônimo, the main coal mining company
sa, autorizada em outubro de 1913 a explorar os
________________________________________________
of the state. The Rio Grande do Sul capital
serviços de iluminação pública e particular da
________________________________________________
had two more thermal plants, both also
________________________________________________
driven by coal: one was owned by the capital pernambucana, por um prazo de 50 anos,
________________________________________________
city and was responsible for the supply em pouco tempo monopolizava virtualmente
________________________________________________
of power for urban public lighting, and todos os serviços urbanos da cidade. Além de
________________________________________________
the other, privately owned by Companhia deter as concessões referentes à iluminação, a
________________________________________________
Força e Luz Porto-Alegrense, was the Pernambuco Tramways explorava o fornecimen-
________________________________________________
concessionaire of the city’s electric
to de gás, as linhas telefônicas e os transportes
________________________________________________
tramways. In 1926, the latter changed
coletivos de Recife.
________________________________________________
its name to Cia. Carris Porto Alegrense.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
In the interior, the thermoelectric plant Em 1920, cerca de 90% da produção de energia
________________________________________________
of Pelotas was the most important. It elétrica do Rio Grande do Sul eram gerados em
________________________________________________
was built by a British company, The Rio termelétricas. A usina mais potente do estado
________________________________________________
Grandense Light & Power Syndicate era a termelétrica a carvão da Companhia Fiat
________________________________________________
Ltd. Other major thermoelectric plants
Lux, em Porto Alegre, com cerca de 2.000 kW de
________________________________________________
were the Rio Grande, expropriated in
capacidade instalada. Essa usina seria adquirida
________________________________________________
1919, by the state government, together
________________________________________________
with the entire assets of the Compagnie em 1923 pela Companhia de Energia Elétrica Rio-
________________________________________________
Française du Port du Rio Grande do Sul Grandense (Ceerg), constituída sob o controle
________________________________________________
and the assets of that of Uruguaiana, da Cia. Estrada de Ferro e Minas de São Jerôni-
________________________________________________
exploited by B.M. & Barbará. The largest mo, principal mineradora de carvão do estado.
________________________________________________
hydroelectric plant operating in the state A capital gaúcha contava com mais duas usinas
________________________________________________
was the Passo Fundo plant with a 400
térmicas também alimentadas a carvão: uma
________________________________________________
kW capacity, on the Taquari River.
de propriedade municipal, responsável pelo for-
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Similarly to Rio Grande do Sul, the state necimento de energia para iluminação pública
________________________________________________
of Paraná’s electric power production urbana, e outra de propriedade privada, perten-
________________________________________________
was based on thermoelectricity. Its first cente à Companhia Força e Luz Porto-Alegrense,
________________________________________________
plant came on stream in September concessionária dos serviços de bondes elétricos

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

68
da cidade, que mudaria sua razão social para ________________________________________________
1892, in Curitiba. It was an initiative of
Cia. Carris Porto-Alegrense em 1926. ________________________________________________
Companhia Água e Luz de São Paulo, and
________________________________________________
inaugurated the electric public lighting
________________________________________________
service in the state capital. In 1898, this
No interior, a usina mais importante era a terme-
________________________________________________
service was passed on to José Hauer &
létrica de Pelotas, construída e operada desde
________________________________________________
Filhos, a company responsible for the
1912 pela companhia inglesa The Rio Grandense ________________________________________________
construction of a larger generating plant,
Light & Power Syndicate Ltd. Também merecem ________________________________________________
the thermoelectric plant of Curitiba,
destaque a termelétrica de Rio Grande, encam- ________________________________________________
also known as Capanema. In 1910, the
pada em 1919 pelo governo estadual juntamente ________________________________________________
Capanema plant and the concession of
com todo o acervo da Compagnie Française du ________________________________________________
the lighting service of the capital came
________________________________________________
under the control of the British-owned
Port du Rio Grande do Sul, e a de Uruguaiana,
________________________________________________
South Brazilian Railways Company
explorada pela firma B. M. & Barbará. A maior hi-
________________________________________________
Ltd. which, in 1912, extended the use of
drelétrica em operação no estado era a de Passo ________________________________________________
electricity to the Curitiba tram lines.
Fundo, no rio Taquari, com 400 kW de potência. ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
In Santa Catarina, the implementation
A exemplo do Rio Grande do Sul, o Paraná tam- ________________________________________________
of electric power services depended in
bém tinha na termeletricidade a base da sua ________________________________________________
its majority on hydroelectric sources.
________________________________________________
In 1909, public electric illumination in
produção de energia elétrica. A primeira usina
________________________________________________
Joinville was inaugurated thanks to the
paranaense entrou em operação em setembro de
________________________________________________
entry into operation of the 400 kW
1892, em Curitiba, por iniciativa da Companhia ________________________________________________
Piraí plant on the river of the same
Água e Luz de São Paulo, propiciando a inaugu- ________________________________________________
name as a result of an initiative taken by
ração do serviço de iluminação pública elétrica ________________________________________________
Empresa Sul Brasileira de Eletricidade
na capital estadual. Em 1898, esse serviço pas- ________________________________________________
(Empresul). The following year, a regular
sou à responsabilidade da empresa José Hauer ________________________________________________
electric lighting service was also made
________________________________________________
available to Florianópolis, based on
& Filhos, responsável pela construção de uma
________________________________________________
power furnished by the Maruim plant
central geradora de maior porte, a termelétrica
________________________________________________
on the river of the same name. Located
de Curitiba, também conhecida por Capanema. ________________________________________________
in the state capital in an area later
Em 1910, a usina de Capanema e a concessão do ________________________________________________
incorporated by the municipality of São
serviço de iluminação da capital passaram a ser ________________________________________________
José, the plant had an installed capacity
controladas pela companhia inglesa The South ________________________________________________
of 650 kW. In 1915, the Salto Weisbash
Brazilian Railways Company Ltd., que, em 1912, ________________________________________________
hydroelectric plant, also known as the
________________________________________________
plant of the Salto, went into operation with
estendeu o emprego da eletricidade às linhas de
________________________________________________
a capacity of 3,000 kW. It was located
bonde de Curitiba.
________________________________________________
on the Itajaí-Açu River in Blumenau,
________________________________________________
the states’s major industrial city.
Em Santa Catarina, a implantação de serviços ________________________________________________
de energia elétrica dependeu em ampla medida ________________________________________________
In the state of Espírito Santo, the
do aproveitamento de fontes de geração hidre- ________________________________________________
predominance of electric power of

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

69
________________________________________________
hydraulic origin was undisputed, létrica. Em 1909, a iluminação pública elétrica
________________________________________________
comprising almost 90% of the total de Joinville foi inaugurada graças à entrada em
________________________________________________
generated. The first public electric lighting operação da usina de Piraí, com potência de
________________________________________________
service of the state began operating
400 kW, construída no rio de mesmo nome, em
________________________________________________
in November 1903, at Cachoeiro do
Joinville, por iniciativa da Empresa Sul Brasilei-
________________________________________________
Itapemirim. It was the town government
________________________________________________
itself which carried out the task, ra de Eletricidade (Empresul). No ano seguinte,
________________________________________________
constructing a small plant driven by the Florianópolis também passou a dispor de um
________________________________________________
waterpower of the Itapemirim River. serviço regular de iluminação elétrica com a
________________________________________________ energia fornecida pela hidrelétrica de Maruim,
________________________________________________
However, the first important hydroelectric no rio de mesmo nome. Localizada na capital,
________________________________________________
plant in terms of power was Jucu, installed
em área depois incorporada pelo município de
________________________________________________
on the river of the same name in the
São José, a usina contava com 650 kW. Em 1915,
________________________________________________
district of Domingos Martins. Finished
________________________________________________
in 1909, with an installed capacity of 720 entrou em funcionamento a hidrelétrica de Salto
________________________________________________
kW, the plant was constructed by the state Weisbash, também conhecida como usina do
________________________________________________
government of Espírito Santo in order to Salto, com capacidade de 3.000 kW, situada no
________________________________________________
supply the state capital of Vitória’s lighting rio Itajaí-Açu, em Blumenau, principal centro
________________________________________________
system. Thanks to the Jucu Hydroelectric industrial do estado.
________________________________________________
Plant, the state capital could partake of
________________________________________________
other benefits of electric power. In 1911,
No Espírito Santo, o predomínio da energia elé-
________________________________________________
the sewer system was inaugurated and
________________________________________________
used electric motor-driven pumps to trica de origem hidráulica era inconteste, che-
________________________________________________
dump the sewage outside the urban limits. gando a quase 90% do total gerado. O primeiro
________________________________________________
The following year, the city trams were serviço público de iluminação elétrica do estado
________________________________________________
electrified and later, but still in the 1910’s, começou a funcionar em novembro de 1903, em
________________________________________________
the telephone system was put in service. Cachoeiro do Itapemirim. Foi a própria Câmara
________________________________________________
Municipal que se encarregou da tarefa, cons-
________________________________________________
The state of Espírito Santo was also
truindo uma pequena usina que aproveitava a
________________________________________________
responsible for the construction of the
________________________________________________
Fruteiras Hydroelectric Plant which was força hidráulica do rio Itapemirim.
________________________________________________
concluded in 1910. Located at Cachoeiro
________________________________________________
do Itapemirim, the plant was to meet the No entanto, a primeira hidrelétrica de dimensões
________________________________________________
electric power consumption of this and mais significativas foi a usina de Jucu, instalada
________________________________________________
other towns in the south of the state. no rio do mesmo nome, no município de Domin-
________________________________________________
gos Martins. Concluída em 1909, com uma capa-
________________________________________________
In the Amazon Region, all the electric
cidade instalada de 720 kW, a usina foi construída
________________________________________________
power was produced by thermal plants.
________________________________________________
Two British companies controlled the pelo governo do Espírito Santo com o objetivo de
________________________________________________
generation and distribution of electric atender a Vitória. Graças à hidrelétrica de Jucu, a
________________________________________________
power, supplying the only two important capital do estado passou a dispor de outros bene-
________________________________________________
urban centers of the north of the country: fícios possibilitados pela energia elétrica, além de

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

70
iluminação. Em 1911, foi inaugurado o serviço de ________________________________________________
the Pará Electric Railway and Lighting
esgotos, que utilizava bombas acionadas por dois ________________________________________________
Company, Ltd., whose plant – in service
motores para a elevação dos detritos, despejan- ________________________________________________
as of 1905 – was responsible for supplying
________________________________________________
power to Belém, the capital of the state
do-os fora do perímetro urbano. No ano seguinte,
________________________________________________
of Pará; and the Manaus Tramways
os bondes da cidade foram eletrificados. Mais
________________________________________________
and Light Company, Limited, which in
tarde, ainda na década de 1910, tiveram início os ________________________________________________
1910 installed a thermoelectric plant
serviços de telefonia. ________________________________________________
to supply electricity to Manaus, the
________________________________________________
capital of the state of Amazonas.
O governo estadual foi também o responsável ________________________________________________
pela construção da usina hidrelétrica de Fru- ________________________________________________
One of the first hydroelectric plants of the
________________________________________________
northeast was inaugurated in January
teiras, cujas obras chegaram ao fim em 1910.
________________________________________________
1913 by industrialist Delmiro Gouveia
Situada em Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, a usina se
________________________________________________
from the state of Ceará. Installed at the
destinava ao consumo deste e de outros muni- ________________________________________________
Paulo Affonso Falls on the São Francisco
cípios do sul do Espírito Santo. ________________________________________________
River in the state of Alagoas, the small
________________________________________________
hydroelectric plant drove the machinery
Na região Amazônica, a totalidade da energia ________________________________________________
of the thread mill of the Companhia
elétrica era produzida por termelétricas. Duas ________________________________________________
Agro-Fabril Mercantil, also belonging to
________________________________________________
Delmiro Gouveia, located 23 km away.
empresas inglesas dominavam a geração e a
________________________________________________
The power from the plant was also used
distribuição de energia elétrica, atendendo aos
________________________________________________
to supply electric light to the Pedra
dois únicos centros urbanos importantes do nor- ________________________________________________
village, where the textile mill workers
te do país: The Pará Electric Railway and Lighting ________________________________________________
lived and who, besides lighting, had
Company Ltd., cuja usina – em operação desde ________________________________________________
piped running water in their homes.
1905 – respondia pelo abastecimento de Belém, ________________________________________________
e The Manaus Tramways and Light Company ________________________________________________
The intention of the entrepreneur was
________________________________________________
to expand his Paulo Afonso generating
Ltd., que instalou em 1910 uma termelétrica para
________________________________________________
plant to supply electric power to the
servir à capital amazonense.
________________________________________________
states of Alagoas, Pernambuco, Sergipe
________________________________________________
and Bahia. However, these plans were
Uma das primeiras usinas hidrelétricas do Nor- ________________________________________________
not implemented. Delmiro Gouveia
deste foi a inaugurada em janeiro de 1913 pelo ________________________________________________
was assassinated in October 1917.
industrial cearense Delmiro Gouveia. Instalada ________________________________________________
According to one of the tales about the
junto à cachoeira de Paulo Afonso, no rio São ________________________________________________
crime which circulated at the time, the
________________________________________________
industrialist’s death had been planned
Francisco, em Alagoas, a pequena hidrelétrica
________________________________________________
by Machine Cottons, a British company
acionava a maquinaria da fábrica de linhas e
________________________________________________
which, before the Agro-Fabril, had
fios da Companhia Agro-Fabril Mercantil – tam- ________________________________________________
dominated the Brazilian thread market.
bém de propriedade de Delmiro Gouveia – si- ________________________________________________
tuada a 23 km de distância. A energia da usina ________________________________________________
Table 1, reproduced from the 1920
era utilizada igualmente para o fornecimento ________________________________________________
census, presents, among other

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

71
________________________________________________
information, a general picture de luz elétrica à Vila Operária da Pedra, onde
________________________________________________
of the distribution by state of the residiam os trabalhadores da fábrica de tecidos,
________________________________________________
companies of the electric power que podiam dispor, além de iluminação, de água
________________________________________________
sector and of the hydroelectric and
encanada em suas casas.
________________________________________________
thermoelectric generating plants.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________ A intenção do empresário era suprir os estados
________________________________________________ de Alagoas, Pernambuco, Sergipe e Bahia de
________________________________________________ energia elétrica pela ampliação das instalações
________________________________________________ da usina de Paulo Afonso. Entretanto, esses
________________________________________________ planos não se concretizaram. Delmiro Gouveia
________________________________________________
foi assassinado em outubro de 1917. Segundo
________________________________________________
uma das versões que circulou na época, a morte
________________________________________________
________________________________________________ do industrial teria sido planejada pela Machine
________________________________________________ Cottons, firma inglesa que, antes da Agro-Fa-
________________________________________________ bril, dominava o mercado brasileiro de linhas
________________________________________________ e fios.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
A Tabela 1, reproduzida do recenseamento de
________________________________________________
1920, traz, entre outras informações, um quadro
________________________________________________
________________________________________________ geral da distribuição, por estado, das empresas
________________________________________________ do setor de energia elétrica e das usinas hidre-
________________________________________________ létricas e térmicas.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

72
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

Potência HP (1)
Capacity HP (1)
1.471
2.382
24..067
115
30.000
7.534
100
335
1.316
58.414
6.800
1.798
6.715
15.196
760
82.980
1.759
14.247
7.671
211.168
629
195
475.652
________________________________________________

MINISTÉRIO DA AGRICULTURA, INDÚSTRIA E COMÉRCIO. Recenseamento do Brasil. Realizado em 01 de setembro de 1920. Volume V (1ª parte). Rio

(2) Operando-se a conversão, a potência total seria de 349.604 kW. Convém frisar que os dados estatísticos do Conselho Nacional de Águas e Energia Elétrica apresentam

(2) Using the conversion, the total, capacity would be 349,604 kW. It should be pointed out that the statistical data of the Conselho Nacional de Águas e Energia Elétrica
(2)
________________________________________________

TOTAL
________________________________________________
Total
________________________________________________

Nº de instalações
Installations
________________________________________________

5
3
8
3
1
11
1
3
8
92
4
8
20
17
2
18
5
42
11
81
6
4
356
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
INDÚSTRIA DA ELETRICIDADE POR UNIDADES DA FEDERAÇÃO (1920)

________________________________________________
Potência HP(1)
Capacity HP (1)

________________________________________________
-
-
16.600
-
-
7.434
-
-
350
56.934
-
50
1.537
45
-
82.815
-
1.204
7.581
195.494
-
-
370.074
GERADORES HIDRÁULICOS
Electric Power Industry per State/Territory of the Federation (1920)

(Turbines and water wheels)


(Turbinas e rodas d’água)

________________________________________________
Hydro generators

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Nº de instalações

________________________________________________
Installations
-
-
3
-
-
10
-
-
1
90
-
1
7
1
-
15
-
7
9
65
-
-
209
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
(Steam and internal combustion machines)

________________________________________________
Potência HP(1)
TABELA 1/Table1:

Capacity HP (1)
1.471
2.382
7.467
115
30.000
100
100
335
966
1.480
6.800
1.748
5.178
15.151
760
135
1.759
13.043
90
15.674
629
195
105.578
________________________________________________
GERADORES TÉRMICOS

________________________________________________
Thermal generators

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Nº de instalações
Installations

________________________________________________
5
3
5
3
1
1
1
3
7
2
4
7
13
16
2
3
5
35
2
19
6
4
147
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Number of electric plants

________________________________________________
Nº DE USINAS

de Janeiro. Typ. da Estatística, 1927, p. VII.


________________________________________________
4
3
8
3
1
11
1
2
8
91
4
7
20
16
2
18
4
41
11
78
6
4
343

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Number of electric firms
Nº DE EMPRESAS

present a capacity of 367,018 kW.

________________________________________________
uma potência de 367.018 kW.
4
3
8
3
1
11
1
2
7
72
4
7
20
15
2

________________________________________________
17
4
40
11
66
6
2
306

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
(1) 1 HP = 0,735 kW

(1) 1 HP = 0.735 kW

________________________________________________
Rio Grande do Norte
Rio Grande do Sul
State/Territory of
UNIDADES DA

Fonte/Source:
FEDERAÇÃO

________________________________________________
Território do Acre
Federation

Distrito Federal

Santa Catarina
Rio de Janeiro
Espírito Santo

Minas Gerais
Mato Grosso

Pernambuco

________________________________________________
Amazonas

São Paulo
Maranhão
Alagoas

Paraíba

Sergipe

TOTAL
Paraná

________________________________________________
Ceará

Goiás
Bahia

Piauí
Pará

________________________________________________

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

73
The 1920’s: the concentration of
________________________________________________ A DÉCADA DE 1920: CONCENTRAÇÃO
enterprises and expansion of the
________________________________________________ EMPRESARIAL E AMPLIAÇÃO DO PARQUE
generating system
________________________________________________ GERADOR
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Two basic elements characterized
Dois elementos básicos caracterizavam a in-
________________________________________________
the electric power industry in Brazil
________________________________________________
during the 1920’s: the construction of dústria de energia elétrica no Brasil durante a
________________________________________________
larger-size generating plants to meet década de 1920: a construção de centrais gera-
________________________________________________
the constantly-expanding power market doras de maior envergadura, capazes de atender
________________________________________________
needs and intensification of the merging à constante ampliação do mercado de energia,
________________________________________________
process; and the centralization of the e a intensificação do processo de concentração
________________________________________________
concessionaires which culminated in
e centralização das empresas concessionárias,
________________________________________________
the almost complete denationalization
que culminou, no final do decênio, com a quase
________________________________________________
of the sector at the end of the decade.
________________________________________________ completa desnacionalização do setor.
________________________________________________
The development of electric power
________________________________________________
activities continued to be based on O desenvolvimento das atividades de energia
________________________________________________
the dynamism of the urban markets elétrica permanecia assentado no dinamismo
________________________________________________
of the large cities, especially Rio de dos mercados urbanos das grandes cidades,
________________________________________________
Janeiro and São Paulo. The speedy and
sobretudo Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. A rápida
________________________________________________
continued spread of electric tramways
e contínua difusão dos bondes elétricos e da
________________________________________________
and of electric public lighting which, on
________________________________________________
the other hand, led to the progressive iluminação pública gerada pela eletricidade, que
________________________________________________
disappearance from the urban scene of tinha como contrapartida o progressivo desa-
________________________________________________
the animal-drawn trams and gas lights, parecimento do cenário urbano dos bondes de
________________________________________________
transformed these two public services into tração animal e das lâmpadas a gás, fez desses
________________________________________________
the main consumers of electric power. dois serviços públicos os principais consumido-
________________________________________________
res de energia elétrica.
________________________________________________
However, industry demanded more and
________________________________________________
more electric power. In fact, the data of
________________________________________________
the 1920 census demonstrate that 47% of Entretanto, era crescente a participação da de-
________________________________________________
the motive power used by industry was manda industrial no consumo de eletricidade.
________________________________________________
electric, a percentage ten times greater Com efeito, os dados do recenseamento de 1920
________________________________________________
than that recorded for 1907. The census revelam que 47% da força motriz utilizada pela
________________________________________________
also demonstrates the ascent of São indústria correspondiam à energia elétrica, per-
________________________________________________
Paulo to the position of the country’s
centual dez vezes superior ao registrado em 1907.
________________________________________________
main industrial center. The state of
O recenseamento atesta igualmente a ascensão
________________________________________________
São Paulo was already responsible
________________________________________________
for 33% of the value of industrial de São Paulo à posição de principal centro fabril
________________________________________________
production and for 31% of the work do país, superando o Distrito Federal. O estado
________________________________________________
force employed in domestic industries, de São Paulo já era responsável por 33% do valor
________________________________________________
against 22% and 20% respectively for da produção industrial e por 31% da mão-de-obra

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

74
empregada na indústria nacional, contra 22% e ________________________________________________
the country’s capital, Rio de Janeiro. In
20% respectivamente, relativos à capital da Repú- ________________________________________________
the 1920’s São Paulo consolidated its
blica. Na década de 1920, São Paulo consolidou ________________________________________________
leadership. The commodity industries
________________________________________________
(textiles, footwear, foodstuffs and
sua liderança. Continuaram predominando no
________________________________________________
beverages) continued to predominate
país as indústrias de bens de consumo não-du-
________________________________________________
in the country, while other industries
ráveis (tecidos, calçados, alimentos e bebidas), ________________________________________________
appeared or were expanded, the steel
mas surgiram ou ampliaram-se alguns ramos ________________________________________________
and cement industries being preeminent.
novos, notadamente as indústrias siderúrgicas ________________________________________________
e de cimento, podendo-se observar um início de ________________________________________________
In the 1920’s, the growth of the electric
diversificação industrial. ________________________________________________
power industry was quite significant,
________________________________________________
and this forced the country to more
________________________________________________
than double its installed generating
Na década de 1920, o crescimento da indústria
________________________________________________
capacity: an increase of 429,000 kW.
de energia elétrica foi bastante significativo, o ________________________________________________
que fez com que a capacidade geradora instala- ________________________________________________
In São Paulo, the Light group faced
da no país mais do que duplicasse. Em termos ________________________________________________
a serious power supply crisis,
absolutos, isso representou um acréscimo de ________________________________________________
considerably worsened by the long
429.000 kW. ________________________________________________
drought of 1924 and 1925. In these
________________________________________________
two years, one of the worst droughts
________________________________________________
in the history of São Paulo occurred,
A atuação do grupo Light, tanto em São Paulo
________________________________________________
reducing by close to 40% the Tietê
quanto no Rio de Janeiro, no curso da década ________________________________________________
and Sorocaba Rivers’ stream flows,
de 1920, foi condicionada basicamente pela já ________________________________________________
sources of the electric power supplied
apontada ampliação da demanda de energia ________________________________________________
to the capital of the state of São Paulo
elétrica e por seus corolários. ________________________________________________
and its environs. Thus, at the same
________________________________________________
time that power consumption was
________________________________________________
greatly increasing due to growing
Em São Paulo, a empresa enfrentou uma grave
________________________________________________
industrial development and increased
crise de suprimento de energia, consideravel-
________________________________________________
urbanization, the electric power
mente agravada pela prolongada seca ocorrida ________________________________________________
available underwent a drastic reduction.
em 1924 e 1925. Nesses dois anos, registrou-se ________________________________________________
uma das mais sérias estiagens da história de ________________________________________________
The restriction of the supply of electric
São Paulo, reduzindo em cerca de 40% a vazão ________________________________________________
power over several months forced the city
dos rios Tietê e Sorocaba, utilizados na produ- ________________________________________________
government of São Paulo to ration power
________________________________________________
as of February 1925. However, since
ção de energia elétrica para a capital paulista e
________________________________________________
the power crisis had affected several
áreas próximas. Assim, ao lado do incremento
________________________________________________
neighboring towns whose governments
acentuado do consumo de energia, provocado ________________________________________________
had not taken similar measures, the
pela expansão do desenvolvimento industrial ________________________________________________
state intervened temporarily in the
e do processo de urbanização, a oferta sofria ________________________________________________
electric power industry to centralize
drástica redução. ________________________________________________
decisions and coordinate rationing.

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

75
________________________________________________
An Executive Order signed on March A restrição à oferta de energia elétrica durante
________________________________________________
28, 1925 by the president of the state vários meses levou a prefeitura de São Paulo a
________________________________________________
of São Paulo, Carlos de Campos, racionar o consumo a partir de fevereiro de 1925.
________________________________________________
an ex-employee and good friend of
Entretanto, como a crise energética havia atingido
________________________________________________
Light’s, determined that the generation
diversos municípios próximos à capital, cujas ad-
________________________________________________
and distribution of electric power,
________________________________________________
not only in the concession areas of ministrações não tomaram medidas semelhantes,
________________________________________________
the Light group (São Paulo Light and o governo estadual interveio temporariamente
________________________________________________
the São Paulo Electric Company), na indústria de energia elétrica, centralizando as
________________________________________________
but also in the concession areas of decisões e coordenando o racionamento.
________________________________________________
the Companhia Docas de Santos, the
________________________________________________
Campineira de Tração, Luz e Força and
Decreto datado de 28 de março de 1925 e assi-
________________________________________________
the Empresa Luz e Força de Jundiaí,
nado pelo presidente de São Paulo, Carlos de
________________________________________________
should be directly subordinated to
________________________________________________
the state Secretariat of Agriculture, Campos, ex-funcionário e velho amigo da Light,
________________________________________________
Commerce and Public Works. determinou que a geração e a distribuição de
________________________________________________ energia elétrica, luz e força motriz, não só nas
________________________________________________
To overcome the deficiencies in the áreas de concessão das empresas do grupo Light
________________________________________________
electric power supply that affected not (a São Paulo Light e a São Paulo Electric), mas
________________________________________________
only industry, where it caused a decrease
também nas da Companhia Docas de Santos, da
________________________________________________
in production and dismissal of manpower,
Campineira de Tração, Luz e Força e da Empre-
________________________________________________
but also commerce, tram and public
________________________________________________
lighting services, Light faced the problem sa Luz e Força de Jundiaí, ficariam diretamente
________________________________________________
on two fronts. On the one hand, the power subordinadas à Secretaria de Agricultura, Co-
________________________________________________
supply from its existing generating units mércio e Obras Públicas.
________________________________________________
which, as a matter of fact, were operating
________________________________________________
at their full capacity, was increased to Para superar as deficiências do suprimento de
________________________________________________
the maximum bearable overload and, on
energia elétrica, que atingiam não apenas a indús-
________________________________________________
the other hand, it began the construction
tria, determinando a queda da produção e a dispen-
________________________________________________
of large-scale hydroelectric plants.
________________________________________________ sa dos trabalhadores, mas igualmente o comércio,
________________________________________________
São Paulo Light added two more os serviços de bonde e a iluminação pública, a
________________________________________________
2,000 kW units to its Paula Sousa Light atacou o problema de duas maneiras. Por
________________________________________________
Thermoelectric Plant between April and um lado, ampliou ao limite máximo a capacidade
________________________________________________
June 1925. Still in June, a 19,000 kW das unidades geradoras existentes, que, aliás, já
________________________________________________
turbine was added to the Itupararanga
operavam praticamente sob regime de utilização
________________________________________________
Hydroelectric Plant, not only to meet
plena; por outro lado, deu início à construção de
________________________________________________
the demand increase, but also to comply
________________________________________________
with the terms of the contract signed usinas hidrelétricas de grande porte.
________________________________________________
in 1919 by which Light was committed
________________________________________________
to supply electric power to electrify A empresa promoveu a ampliação da potência
________________________________________________
the Jundiaí-Campinas stretch of the instalada na usina a vapor de Paula Sousa, acres-

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

76
centando, entre abril e junho de 1925, mais duas ________________________________________________
Companhia Paulista de Estradas de
máquinas de 2.000 kW a essa termelétrica. Ainda ________________________________________________
Ferro to be inaugurated in 1921.
em junho, a hidrelétrica de Itupararanga recebeu ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The first new plant constructed by
um reforço de 19.000 kW, por meio da instalação
________________________________________________
São Paulo Light in the 1920’s was the
de mais uma turbina, a fim de atender não só ao
________________________________________________
Rasgão Hydroelectric Plant on the
incremento da demanda para usos diversos, mas ________________________________________________
Tietê River. Supervised by renowned
também ao contrato firmado em 1919 entre a Li- ________________________________________________
engineer, Asa White Kenney Billings,
ght e a Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro, ________________________________________________
who would later become vice-president
pelo qual a empresa se comprometia a fornecer ________________________________________________
of the Brazilian Traction, Light and
energia para a eletrificação da linha ferroviária ________________________________________________
Power Company, the work began in
________________________________________________
October 1924 and was concluded in
Jundiaí-Campinas, inaugurada em 1921.
________________________________________________
September 1925, in only 11 months.
________________________________________________
In November, Rasgão had an installed
A primeira nova usina construída pela São Pau- ________________________________________________
capacity of 22,000 kW. Two transmission
lo Light na década de 1920 foi a hidrelétrica de ________________________________________________
lines transported the power from there
Rasgão, no rio Tietê, município de Pirapora de ________________________________________________
to the Parnaíba Hydroelectric Plant.
Bom Jesus. Supervisionadas pelo renomado ________________________________________________
engenheiro Asa White Kenney Billings, que, ________________________________________________
However, São Paulo Light’s great
________________________________________________
feat was, without doubt, the Cubatão
mais tarde, seria vice-presidente da Brazilian
________________________________________________
Hydroelectric Plant (today called Henry
Traction, Light and Power, as obras da usina co-
________________________________________________
Borden), built in the town of the same
meçaram em outubro de 1924 e foram concluídas ________________________________________________
name located between São Paulo and
em setembro de 1925, em um prazo recorde de ________________________________________________
Santos, by taking advantage of the
11 meses. Em novembro, Rasgão contava com ________________________________________________
difference in level due to the seaward
uma capacidade instalada de 22.000 kW. Duas ________________________________________________
watershed of the Serra do Mar. Engineer
linhas de transmissão transportavam a energia ________________________________________________
Asa Billings was again responsible
________________________________________________
for the planning and execution of
nela gerada para a usina de Parnaíba.
________________________________________________
this monumental engineering tour
________________________________________________
de force. The so-called Projeto da
Entretanto, a grande realização da São Paulo ________________________________________________
Serra comprised, the installation of a
Light foi, sem sombra de dúvida, a usina de ________________________________________________
sophisticated system of dams, reservoirs,
Cubatão (atual Henry Borden), construída no ________________________________________________
tunnels, canals and pumping stations to
município do mesmo nome, entre São Paulo e ________________________________________________
progressively impound the waters of the
Santos, aproveitando o desnível oferecido pela ________________________________________________
Tietê river and of some of its tributaries
________________________________________________
in the Cubatão plant. The waters dammed
vertente oceânica da Serra do Mar. O responsável
________________________________________________
in the Grande and Pedras rivers would
pelo planejamento e pela execução dessa monu-
________________________________________________
be thrown through large penstocks in a
mental obra de engenharia foi, mais uma vez, o ________________________________________________
practically vertical fall of 715 meters.
engenheiro Asa Billings. O chamado projeto da ________________________________________________
Serra compreendia a instalação de um sofistica- ________________________________________________
Employing close to 4,000 workers and
do sistema de barragens, reservatórios, túneis, ________________________________________________
using modern, heavy machinery, the

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

77
________________________________________________
Projeto da Serra was begun in April canais e estações de bombeamento, visando a
________________________________________________
1925. In October 1926, the first 20,000 utilização progressiva das águas do rio Tietê e
________________________________________________
kW generating unit of Cubatão was put de alguns de seus afluentes na usina de Cuba-
________________________________________________
in service; in March of the following
tão. Desse modo, as águas represadas nos rios
________________________________________________
year, the installed capacity of the plant
Grande e das Pedras seriam lançadas, através
________________________________________________
doubled with the inauguration of the
________________________________________________
second unit. In January 1928, new units de grandes tubos adutores, numa queda quase
________________________________________________
were installed, adding about 20,000 vertical de 715 m.
________________________________________________
kW to the total capacity of the system.
________________________________________________ Dando emprego a cerca de 4.000 trabalhadores
________________________________________________
The greater electric power availability e utilizando máquinas modernas e de grande
________________________________________________
provided by the expansion of the
dimensões, o Projeto da Serra foi iniciado em
________________________________________________
Cubatão Plant, representing an
abril de 1925. Em outubro de 1926, entrou em
________________________________________________
increase of close to 70% to Light’s
________________________________________________
total installed capacity in São Paulo at funcionamento a primeira unidade geradora
________________________________________________
that time, would for many years meet de Cubatão, dispondo de 28.000 kW instalados;
________________________________________________
the power demand of the city of São em março do ano seguinte, a capacidade da
________________________________________________
Paulo. The inauguration of the Cubatão usina dobrou, com a inauguração da segun-
________________________________________________
Hydroelectric Plant relieved the critical da unidade. Em janeiro de 1928, a capacidade
________________________________________________
condition of Light’s concession area,
instalada foi aumentada em aproximadamente
________________________________________________
since the plant’s installed capacity was
20.000 kW, com a inclusão de novas geradoras
________________________________________________
greater than the system’s demand.
________________________________________________ no sistema.
________________________________________________
After that, Light concentrated its
________________________________________________
business policy on the purchase of A maior disponibilidade de energia elétrica pro-
________________________________________________
other concessionaires, which generated porcionada pela usina de Cubatão, que repre-
________________________________________________
and distributed electric power to São sentou um acréscimo de cerca de 70% ao total
________________________________________________
Paulo’s neighboring towns and to those
instalado nas demais unidades geradoras da
________________________________________________
located on the stretch of the Paraíba
Light em São Paulo, atenderia por muitos anos
________________________________________________
River upstream from Rio de Janeiro. At
________________________________________________
that time, the Light group had already o mercado energético da cidade de São Paulo.
________________________________________________
foreseen the future interconnection Com a inauguração da usina de Cubatão, o qua-
________________________________________________
of the Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo dro de crise nas zonas de concessão da Light
________________________________________________
electric systems, which would later foi amplamente superado, passando a oferta de
________________________________________________
occur. Of those concessionaires, many energia elétrica a exceder a demanda.
________________________________________________
had their generating capacity exhausted
________________________________________________
and some were already buying electric
Esgotadas as possibilidades de investimento na
________________________________________________
power from São Paulo Light itself. In
________________________________________________
order to meet the demand of these towns, área representada pela capital, a Light centrou
________________________________________________
São Paulo Light installed transmission sua política empresarial na compra de conces-
________________________________________________
lines and power substations to enable sionárias nacionais que produziam e distribuí-
________________________________________________
its electric system and the small am energia para iluminação e força motriz em

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

78
municípios vizinhos a São Paulo e em municí- ________________________________________________
generating stations of said towns to
pios paulistas localizados no vale do Paraíba, ________________________________________________
be interconnected, thus improving the
na direção do Rio de Janeiro. Nessa ocasião, o ________________________________________________
electric power distribution in the region.
________________________________________________
grupo Light já antevia a futura integração dos
________________________________________________
The process of concentration undertaken
sistemas de energia elétrica de São Paulo e do
________________________________________________
by São Paulo Light was extremely fast. In
Rio, o que se efetivaria posteriormente. Muitas ________________________________________________
a mere two years, 1927-28, the company
dessas concessionárias estavam com a capaci- ________________________________________________
took over eight concessionaires, among
dade das suas usinas totalmente aproveitadas e ________________________________________________
which the Empresa de Eletricidade de São
algumas já vinham adquirindo energia da própria ________________________________________________
Paulo e Rio and the Empresa Hidrelétrica
São Paulo Light. A empresa instalou estações ________________________________________________
Serra da Bocaina, both belonging to the
________________________________________________
Ataliba Vale-J.A. Fonseca Rodrigues
transformadoras e linhas de transmissão para
________________________________________________
-Ramos de Azevedo group. Besides
poder operar as pequenas usinas, integrando-as
________________________________________________
other towns, Jundiaí, Mogi das Cruzes,
ao seu sistema. ________________________________________________
Taubaté, Itu, Guaratinguetá and
________________________________________________
Caçapava began to be served by Light.
O processo de concentração empreendido pela ________________________________________________
São Paulo Light foi extremamente rápido. Em ________________________________________________
The need for expansion of Rio Light
apenas dois anos, 1927 e 1928, a companhia incor- ________________________________________________
was not as great as that of São Paulo’s.
________________________________________________
Besides its concession area not having
porou oito empresas, entre as quais a Empresa de
________________________________________________
suffered the climatic problems of São
Eletricidade São Paulo e Rio e a Empresa Hidre-
________________________________________________
Paulo, the growth in demand for electric
létrica Serra da Bocaina, ambas pertencentes ao ________________________________________________
power in the Rio de Janeiro region
grupo Ataliba Vale-J. A. Fonseca Rodrigues-Ramos ________________________________________________
was less significant than that in the
de Azevedo. Jundiaí, Mogi das Cruzes, Taubaté, Itu, ________________________________________________
area supplied by São Paulo Light.
Guaratinguetá e Caçapava, entre outros municí- ________________________________________________
pios, passaram a ser servidos pela Light. ________________________________________________
Even so, the widespread use of electric
________________________________________________
power in the country’s capital – which
________________________________________________
in 1920 surpassed 1,200,000 inhabitants
As necessidades de expansão da Rio Light não fo-
________________________________________________
– required new investments. During the
ram tão grandes quanto as de sua coirmã paulista. ________________________________________________
1920’s, the whole public lighting system
Além da sua área de concessão não ter sofrido os ________________________________________________
of the city became electrified when its last
problemas climáticos ocorridos em São Paulo, o ________________________________________________
gas lamps were deactivated; up to the
aumento da demanda de energia elétrica na região ________________________________________________
end of the decade, the animal-tractioned
do Rio de Janeiro foi menos significativo do que o ________________________________________________
trams stopped circulating in the streets
________________________________________________
of Rio de Janeiro once and for all.
da área atendida pela São Paulo Light.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
During this period, the principal initiative
Ainda assim, a ampla disseminação do uso da ________________________________________________
of Rio Light to increase the installed
energia elétrica na capital do país – que em 1920 ________________________________________________
capacity of its generating system was
superara a casa dos 1.200.000 habitantes – exi- ________________________________________________
the construction of the Ilha dos Pombos
giu novos investimentos por parte da empresa. ________________________________________________
Hydroelectric Plant on the Paraíba do Sul

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

79
________________________________________________
River in the district of Carmo. In January Durante a década de 1920, todo o sistema de
________________________________________________
1921, the Minister of Transportation iluminação pública da cidade passou a ser feito
________________________________________________
and Public Works authorized Frederick com base na eletricidade, sendo desativados os
________________________________________________
Huntress to exploit the hydraulic
últimos postes de iluminação a gás; no final do
________________________________________________
potential of the Paraíba do Sul River
decênio, os bondes de tração animal deixaram
________________________________________________
near the Ilha dos Pombos. In July 1922,
________________________________________________
a company connected with Rio Light, definitivamente de circular pelas ruas do Rio.
________________________________________________
called Brazilian Hydro Electric Company,
________________________________________________
Ltd., which in May of the same year was Nesse período, a principal iniciativa da Rio Light
________________________________________________
granted permission to operate in Brazil, no sentido de aumentar a capacidade instala-
________________________________________________
succeeded in having Huntress’ previous da do seu sistema gerador foi a construção da
________________________________________________
concession transferred to itself, and
usina hidrelétrica da Ilha dos Pombos, no rio
________________________________________________
shortly thereafter started constructing the
Paraíba do Sul, município do Carmo. Em janeiro
________________________________________________
Ilha dos Pombos Hydroelectric Plant.
________________________________________________ de 1921, o Ministério da Viação e Obras Públi-
________________________________________________
Both the concept and execution of the cas autorizou Frederick Huntress a explorar o
________________________________________________
Ilha dos Pombos Plant were entrusted to potencial hidráulico do rio Paraíba, na altura da
________________________________________________
engineer Asa Billings. Water was brought Ilha dos Pombos. Em julho de 1922, a Brazilian
________________________________________________
to the plant by means of a 2.5 km-long Hydro Electric Company Ltd., empresa ligada à
________________________________________________
canal which, beginning at a large dam,
Rio Light, que, em maio daquele ano, obtivera
________________________________________________
ran parallel to the Paraíba do Sul River.
licença para funcionar no Brasil, conseguiu a
________________________________________________
Ilha dos Pombos was put in service in
________________________________________________
July 1924 with one 22,000 kW generating transferência da concessão obtida por Huntress
________________________________________________
unit. The following December, the second e, pouco depois, deu início aos trabalhos de
________________________________________________
generating group of like capacity was construção da hidrelétrica.
________________________________________________
put in service. The plant’s capacity
________________________________________________
was once again expanded in November Tanto a concepção quanto a execução do pro-
________________________________________________
1929 when a third 29,000 kW unit
jeto da usina da Ilha dos Pombos couberam ao
________________________________________________
began generating. With a total installed
engenheiro Asa Billings. As águas chegavam à
________________________________________________
capacity of 73,000 kW, the Ilha dos
________________________________________________
Pombos Hydroelectric Plant practically usina através de um canal de 2,5 km de extensão,
________________________________________________
doubled Rio Light’s generating capacity. que, partindo de uma grande barragem, corria
________________________________________________ paralelo ao curso do rio Paraíba. Ilha dos Pombos
________________________________________________
Simultaneously with the expansion of its foi inaugurada em julho de 1924, contando com
________________________________________________
installed capacity, Rio Light took over um grupo gerador de 22.000 kW. Em dezembro
________________________________________________
small electric power concessionaires in
seguinte, entrou em operação o segundo grupo
________________________________________________
the south of the state of Rio de Janeiro,
gerador, de igual potência. A capacidade da
________________________________________________
using a similar process, though on a
________________________________________________
smaller scale, to that carried out by São hidrelétrica foi mais uma vez ampliada em no-
________________________________________________
Paulo Light. In 1920, it assumed control vembro de 1929, com a inauguração do terceiro
________________________________________________
of a concessionaire which rendered grupo, que dispunha de 29.000 kW de potência.
________________________________________________
service to a part of the Paraíba do Sul Contando em seu conjunto com 73.000 kW insta-

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

80
lados, a usina da Ilha dos Pombos praticamente ________________________________________________
River valley, adding to its assets the Santa
duplicou o potencial das unidades geradoras da ________________________________________________
Helena and the Lucas power plants, both
Light no Rio de Janeiro. ________________________________________________
located in the town of Paraíba do Sul.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Resuming this centralizing movement in
Ao lado da ampliação da capacidade instalada,
________________________________________________
1929, with the acquisition of the Empresa
a Rio Light incorporou pequenas empresas con- ________________________________________________
Força e Luz de Floriano and the Salto
cessionárias de serviços de energia elétrica do sul ________________________________________________
Plant, Rio Light would, between 1930 and
fluminense, empreendendo um processo seme- ________________________________________________
1934, take over five more plants. At the
lhante, embora em menor escala, ao promovido ________________________________________________
end of this expansion process, the districts
pela São Paulo Light. Em 1920, ela assumiu o con- ________________________________________________
of Paraíba do Sul, Valença, Vassouras,
________________________________________________
Barra Mansa and Barra do Piraí now
trole de uma concessionária que atendia a parte
________________________________________________
had the Light in their territories. Thus,
do vale do Paraíba, incorporando ao seu acervo
________________________________________________
the control of the whole Paraíba do
as usinas de Santa Helena e de Lucas, ambas ________________________________________________
Sul River valley in the states of Rio de
localizadas no município de Paraíba do Sul. ________________________________________________
Janeiro and São Paulo was completed
________________________________________________
and in the hands of the Light group.
Retomando esse movimento de centralização ________________________________________________
em 1929, com a aquisição da Empresa Força e ________________________________________________
The expansion process of the installed
________________________________________________
capacity and the concentration of
Luz de Floriano e da usina de Salto, a Rio Light
________________________________________________
companies in Brazil in the 1920’s
daria continuidade às incorporações no início da
________________________________________________
was not restricted to that carried
década seguinte, comprando mais cinco usinas ________________________________________________
out by the Light group, the largest
entre 1930 e 1934. Ao final desse processo de ________________________________________________
electric power enterprise in Brazil.
expansão, os municípios de Paraíba do Sul, Va- ________________________________________________
lença, Vassouras, Barra Mansa e Barra do Piraí ________________________________________________
In the interior of the state of São Paulo,
já contavam com a presença da Light em seus ________________________________________________
the expansion and centralization
________________________________________________
movement of national groups that
territórios. Completava-se assim o controle de
________________________________________________
produced electric power was intensified.
todo o vale do Paraíba, paulista e fluminense,
________________________________________________
During the 1920’s, there was an
nas mãos do grupo Light. ________________________________________________
accelerated increase in electric power
________________________________________________
consumption in the region, thus
O processo de ampliação da potência instalada e ________________________________________________
making new growth opportunities
de concentração empresarial no Brasil dos anos ________________________________________________
available to these groups.
1920 não se limitou ao promovido pela Light, ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
This expansion took two forms: an
maior empresa de energia elétrica no país.
________________________________________________
increase in generation, as was happening
________________________________________________
with the Light group, with a view to
No interior de São Paulo, intensificou-se o movi- ________________________________________________
centralizing the power supply to various
mento de expansão e centralização dos grupos ________________________________________________
municipal concessionaires; and a
nacionais que se dedicavam à produção de ________________________________________________
takeover of the smaller concessionaires
energia elétrica. No decorrer da década de 1920 ________________________________________________
by the four major regional groups, that

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

81
________________________________________________
is: the Companhia Paulista de Força e verificou-se uma rápida elevação no consumo
________________________________________________
Luz; the Armando de Salles Oliveira-Júlio de energia elétrica nessa região, proporcionan-
________________________________________________
Mesquita group; the Silva Prado family do novas oportunidades de crescimento para
________________________________________________
group; and the Ataliba Vale-J.A. Fonseca
aqueles grupos. Essa expansão deu-se de duas
________________________________________________
Rodrigues-Ramos de Azevedo group.
formas, distintas mas articuladas: pelo aumento
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The construction of the Marimbondo da escala de produção das centrais geradoras, a
________________________________________________
Plant well illustrates the interrelation exemplo do que ocorria com as do grupo Light,
________________________________________________
of the need to expand installed capacity visando a centralizar o suprimento de energia
________________________________________________
and the dynamics of the concentrating a várias concessionárias municipais, e pela in-
________________________________________________
movement. The concessionaires taken corporação das concessionárias menores pelos
________________________________________________
over by Armando Salles were not
quatro maiores grupos regionais, ou seja, a Com-
________________________________________________
properly coping with the demand
panhia Paulista de Força e Luz, o grupo Armando
________________________________________________
from several towns for the installation
________________________________________________
of electric power. Due to these de Salles Oliveira-Júlio Mesquita, o grupo da
________________________________________________
difficulties, the directors of the smaller família Silva Prado e o grupo Ataliba Vale-J.A.
________________________________________________
companies came to an agreement Fonseca Rodrigues-Ramos de Azevedo.
________________________________________________
with Armando Salles and decided to
________________________________________________
install a large hydroelectric plant. A construção da usina de Marimbondo ilustra
________________________________________________
bem a inter-relação entre a necessidade de am-
________________________________________________
It was this conjuncture that made a
pliação da capacidade instalada e a dinâmica
________________________________________________
long-standing project of Salles’ feasible:
________________________________________________
the construction of Marimbondo plant do movimento de concentração. As conces-
________________________________________________
on the Grande River, on the border sionárias absorvidas por Armando Salles não
________________________________________________
between the states of São Paulo and estavam conseguindo atender satisfatoriamente
________________________________________________
Minas Gerais. The Companhia Central às solicitações para a instalação de força e luz
________________________________________________
Elétrica de Icém was set up in 1924, and provenientes de diversos municípios. Em função
________________________________________________
the following year it began to construct
dessas dificuldades, os diretores das pequenas
________________________________________________
its hydroelectric plant. Due to its size,
empresas entraram em entendimento com Ar-
________________________________________________
the undertaking would allow the supply
________________________________________________
of electric power to the companies mando Salles e decidiram instalar uma hidrelé-
________________________________________________
belonging to the Armando Salles group trica de maior envergadura.
________________________________________________
and also to the concessionaires of the
________________________________________________
districts of Taquaritinga and Monte Alto Foi essa conjuntura que tornou viável um antigo
________________________________________________
from one sole source. Thus, the trend projeto de Salles: a construção de uma usina
________________________________________________
for the power generating companies to
no rio Grande, na divisa São Paulo com Minas
________________________________________________
prevail over those that were limited to
Gerais, aproveitando o potencial energético da
________________________________________________
power distribution was strengthened.
________________________________________________ cachoeira de Marimbondo. Em 1924, foi orga-
________________________________________________
However, the investments necessary nizada a Companhia Central Elétrica de Icém,
________________________________________________
to keep the Marimbondo works que, no ano seguinte, iniciou a construção da
________________________________________________
progressing, as well as to revamp hidrelétrica. O empreendimento permitiria, pelas

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

82
suas dimensões, agrupar em torno de uma única ________________________________________________
the electric distribution facilities in
usina as empresas do grupo Armando Salles e ________________________________________________
the already-mentioned towns and
também fornecer energia às concessionárias ________________________________________________
to build the necessary transmission
________________________________________________
lines, were extremely great. Armando
dos municípios de Taquaritinga e Monte Alto.
________________________________________________
Salles and his partners did not have
Reforçava-se, assim, uma tendência já em curso
________________________________________________
enough capital to carry out such
de as empresas geradoras de energia elétrica ________________________________________________
heavy investments and, besides that,
dominarem aquelas que se limitavam a distribuir ________________________________________________
they faced great difficulty in raising
em algumas poucas cidades a energia produzida ________________________________________________
funds on the international market.
pelas primeiras. ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The expansion limit reached by
________________________________________________
the Armando Salles group applied
Entretanto, os investimentos necessários para dar
________________________________________________
generally also to other national
prosseguimento às obras de Marimbondo, bem
________________________________________________
groups. In reality, these companies,
como para promover a reforma das instalações ________________________________________________
despite undeniable advances in
da rede elétrica das cidades a serem atendidas ________________________________________________
their technical and organizational
e construir novas linhas de transmissão, eram ________________________________________________
capacities, could not meet the interior
extremamente elevados. Armando Salles e seus ________________________________________________
of the state of São Paulo’s growing
sócios não dispunham de capitais suficientes ________________________________________________
demand for electricity, fruit of its
________________________________________________
industrial production increase, as
para efetuar inversões tão vultosas e, além disso,
________________________________________________
well as of its demographic growth.
enfrentavam grandes dificuldades para obtenção
________________________________________________
de recursos no mercado internacional. ________________________________________________
It was at this moment of growing
________________________________________________
concentration of the activities of electric
Essa situação-limite vivida pelo grupo Armando ________________________________________________
power production that the American
Salles em seu processo de expansão era com- ________________________________________________
and Foreign Power Company (Amforp),
partilhada, em linhas gerais, pelos outros grupos ________________________________________________
a subsidiary of the American group,
________________________________________________
Electric Bond and Share Corporation,
nacionais. Na realidade, essas empresas, apesar
________________________________________________
settled in the interior of the state of
de inegáveis avanços em sua capacidade técnica
________________________________________________
São Paulo and other locations in
e organizacional, não foram capazes de respon- ________________________________________________
the country, determining a speedy
der à crescente demanda de energia do interior ________________________________________________
and profound change in the rules
paulista, fruto do crescimento da produção in- ________________________________________________
of ownership and operation of the
dustrial e do incremento demográfico. ________________________________________________
national companies of the sector.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The Electric Bond and Share
Foi nesse momento de crescente concentração
________________________________________________
Corporation was founded at the
das atividades de produção de energia elétri-
________________________________________________
beginning of the century for the
ca que a American & Foreign Power Company ________________________________________________
purpose of operating in the electric
(Amforp), empresa do grupo norte-americano ________________________________________________
power business. In 1905, it was taken
Electric Bond & Share Corporation penetrou no ________________________________________________
over by General Electric, the largest
interior de São Paulo e em outros pontos do país, ________________________________________________
company of the sector in the world.

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

83
________________________________________________
Initially operating in the United States, determinando uma rápida e profunda alteração
________________________________________________
the Bond and Share later turned to the nos regimes de propriedade e de funcionamento
________________________________________________
Latin American countries where, through das empresas nacionais do setor.
________________________________________________
concessions, it began to exploit the public
________________________________________________
utility services relevant to the generation
A Electric Bond & Share Corporation foi formada
________________________________________________
and distribution of electric power.
________________________________________________ no início do século, com a finalidade de atuar em
________________________________________________
In mid-1923, the Bond and Share created todos os segmentos das atividades de energia
________________________________________________
the Amforp, whose prime objective was to elétrica. Em 1905, foi incorporada pela General
________________________________________________
expedite the Bond and Share’s business Electric, uma das maiores companhias do setor
________________________________________________
abroad and implement the acquisition em todo o mundo.
________________________________________________
by the company of properties outside the
________________________________________________
United States. Two years later, General
Agindo inicialmente nos Estados Unidos, a Bond
________________________________________________
Electric officially withdrew from the
________________________________________________
generation and distribution of electric & Share voltou-se mais tarde para os países da
________________________________________________
power, transferring its shares of the Bond América Latina, onde passou a explorar, através
________________________________________________
and Share to its stockholders, but without de concessões, serviços de utilidade pública na
________________________________________________
breaking its ties with its former subsidiary. área da produção e da distribuição de energia
________________________________________________
This was to occur years later during the elétrica.
________________________________________________
Franklin Delano Roosevelt government.
________________________________________________
Em meados de 1923, a Bond & Share criou a
________________________________________________
Operating first in Central America
________________________________________________
(Cuba, Guatemala and Panama), the Amforp, cujo principal objetivo era agilizar seus
________________________________________________
Amforp made its first move in Brazil negócios no exterior e concretizar a aquisição
________________________________________________
in 1927. In September of that year, de propriedades para a empresa fora dos EUA.
________________________________________________
the Americans founded the Empresas Dois anos depois, a General Electric distribuiu as
________________________________________________
Elétricas Brasileiras (EEB), the future ações da Bond & Share entre seus acionistas, re-
________________________________________________
Companhia Auxiliar de Empresas
tirando-se oficialmente da produção de energia
________________________________________________
Elétricas Brasileiras (Caeeb). This
elétrica, sem contudo romper definitivamente
________________________________________________
company’s task was to establish the legal
________________________________________________
basis which would make the operation of os vínculos com sua antiga subsidiária. Isso só
________________________________________________
Amforp on Brazilian territory feasible. aconteceria anos depois, durante o governo de
________________________________________________ Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
________________________________________________
At this point, Amforp had already carried
________________________________________________
out a survey of the electric power sector in Operando num primeiro momento na Amé-
________________________________________________
Brazil and chosen the areas which seemed
rica Central (Cuba, Guatemala e Panamá), a
________________________________________________
most attractive. Coming up against the
Amforp deu seus primeiros passos no Brasil
________________________________________________
Light group’s monopoly on the Rio de
________________________________________________
Janeiro-São Paulo corridor, the Empresas em 1927. Em setembro desse ano, os norte-
________________________________________________
Elétricas Brasileiras concentrated its americanos constituíram a Empresas Elétricas
________________________________________________
action on the interior of the state of Brasileiras (EEB), futura Companhia Auxiliar
________________________________________________
São Paulo and on a certain number de Empresas Elétricas Brasileiras (Caeeb).

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

84
A tarefa dessa empresa era montar a base legal ________________________________________________
of state capitals from the northeast to
que viabilizaria as operações da Amforp em ________________________________________________
the south of Brazil, taking over several
território brasileiro. ________________________________________________
concessionaires between 1927 and 1930.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The interior of the state of São Paulo was
A essa altura, a Amforp já havia efetuado um le-
________________________________________________
the target of another company founded
vantamento do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil ________________________________________________
by Amforp shortly before the Empresas
e selecionado as áreas que lhe pareceram mais ________________________________________________
Elétricas Brasileiras. Incorporated in
atraentes. Esbarrando no monopólio do grupo ________________________________________________
July 1927, in New York, the Companhia
Light sobre o eixo Rio-São Paulo, a Empresas ________________________________________________
Brasileira de Força Elétrica (CBFE)
Elétricas Brasileiras concentrou sua atuação ________________________________________________
also took over electric power generating
________________________________________________
and distributing companies.
no interior paulista e em um certo número de
________________________________________________
capitais estaduais, do Nordeste ao Sul do país,
________________________________________________
All the concessionaires taken over by the
incorporando diversas concessionárias entre ________________________________________________
two Amforp subsidiaries were privately
1927 e 1930. ________________________________________________
owned, some of them belonging to
________________________________________________
non-Brazilians and, in their majority,
O interior de São Paulo foi alvo de uma outra ________________________________________________
facing serious technical and financial
empresa formada pela Amforp, um pouco antes ________________________________________________
difficulties. The strategy of the Americans
________________________________________________
was extremely simple: once having
da Empresas Elétricas Brasileiras. Incorporada
________________________________________________
secured the complete stock control of a
em julho de 1927, em Nova Iorque, a Companhia
________________________________________________
certain company, its assets were then
Brasileira de Força Elétrica (CBFE) também ________________________________________________
amalgamated with Amforp’s, but it was
atuou na aquisição de empresas produtoras e ________________________________________________
allowed to keep its corporate entity.
distribuidoras de eletricidade. ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The four largest groups in the interior
Todas as concessionárias do país incorporadas ________________________________________________
of the state of São Paulo were all taken
________________________________________________
over by the large foreign concessionaires:
pelas duas subsidiárias da Amforp eram proprie-
________________________________________________
Amforp and Light. While the Light,
dade de particulares, incluindo algumas estran-
________________________________________________
as we have already seen, took over
geiras, e enfrentavam, em sua maioria, sérias ________________________________________________
the companies of the Ataliba Vale-
dificuldades técnicas e financeiras. A estratégia ________________________________________________
J.A. Fonseca Rodrigues-Ramos de
seguida pelos norte-americanos era extremamen- ________________________________________________
Azevedo group, located in the Paraíba
te simples: assegurado o completo controle acio- ________________________________________________
River valley, Amforp, in a practically
nário de uma determinada companhia, esta era ________________________________________________
simultaneous move, absorbed the
________________________________________________
Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz
incluída no patrimônio da Amforp, permanecen-
________________________________________________
(CPFL), the Armando Salles group
do, porém, com personalidade jurídica própria.
________________________________________________
and the Silva Prado family group.
________________________________________________
Os quatro grupos de maior porte que atuavam no ________________________________________________
In October 1927, the stockholders of
interior do estado de São Paulo passaram todos ________________________________________________
the CPFL transferred their control
para o controle das grandes concessionárias es- ________________________________________________
of the share capital of this company

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85
________________________________________________
to Amforp through the Empresas trangeiras: a Amforp e a Light. Enquanto a Light,
________________________________________________
Elétricas Brasileiras. At that time, the conforme já foi visto, incorporava as empresas
________________________________________________
Brazilian officers, led by the president, do grupo Ataliba Vale-J.A. Fonseca Rodrigues-
________________________________________________
José Balbino de Siqueira, resigned
Ramos de Azevedo, localizadas no vale do Pa-
________________________________________________
their positions in the company.
raíba, a Amforp, num processo praticamente
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Despite the fact that the available sources simultâneo, absorvia a Companhia Paulista de
________________________________________________
are not precise, it is probable that the Força e Luz, o grupo Armando Salles e o grupo
________________________________________________
two other groups of the state of São da família Silva Prado.
________________________________________________
Paulo had been taken over by Amforp
________________________________________________
via the Companhia Brasileira de Força Em outubro de 1927, os acionistas da CPFL trans-
________________________________________________
Elétrica: The Silva Prado group in August
feriram o controle acionário da companhia para
________________________________________________
1927, and the Armando Salles group in
a Amforp, através da Empresas Elétricas Brasi-
________________________________________________
January 1928. Besides these companies,
________________________________________________
between 1927 and 1930, the Companhia leiras. Nessa mesma ocasião, os diretores brasi-
________________________________________________
Brasileira de Força Elétrica took over, leiros, tendo à frente o presidente José Balbino
________________________________________________
among others, the Southern Brazilian de Siqueira, renunciaram aos seus cargos.
________________________________________________
Electric Company of Piracicaba, the
________________________________________________
Empresa Elétrica de Araraquara Apesar de as fontes disponíveis não serem
________________________________________________
(which belonged to the Ataliba Vale and
precisas, é provável que os outros dois grupos
________________________________________________
associates group) the Campineira de
paulistas tenham sido incorporados à Amforp
________________________________________________
Tração, Luz e Força and a great number
________________________________________________
of smaller concessionaires spread over via Companhia Brasileira de Força Elétrica: o
________________________________________________
the territory of the state of São Paulo. grupo Silva Prado em agosto de 1927 e, meses
________________________________________________ depois, em janeiro de 1928, o grupo Armando
________________________________________________
The takeovers having been concluded, Salles. Além deles, a Companhia Brasileira de
________________________________________________
Amforp’s main concern was the Força Elétrica absorveu, entre 1927 e 1930, a Sou-
________________________________________________
organization of the vast, newly-acquired
thern Brazilian Electric Company, de Piracicaba,
________________________________________________
complex in São Paulo, with a view
a Empresa Elétrica de Araraquara (que pertencia
________________________________________________
to reducing the existing oscillations
________________________________________________
in voltage and frequency, renovating ao grupo Ataliba Vale e sócios), a Campineira
________________________________________________
transmission lines and increasing de Tração, Luz e Força e um grande número de
________________________________________________
installed capacity. Regarding this last concessionárias menores, espalhadas pelo ter-
________________________________________________
item, the most important initiative of the ritório de São Paulo.
________________________________________________
American group was the conclusion of
________________________________________________
the 7,950 kW Marimbondo Hydroelectric
Concluído o processo de incorporações, a prin-
________________________________________________
Plant, put in service in 1929.
cipal preocupação da Amforp dirigiu-se para a
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Outside the state of São Paulo and organização do vasto conjunto recém-adquirido
________________________________________________
by means of the Empresas Elétricas em São Paulo, eliminando as grandes variações
________________________________________________
Brasileiras, Amforp took over the de voltagem e freqüência existentes, moderni-
________________________________________________
Pernambuco Tramways and Power zando as linhas de transmissão e aumentando

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

86
a capacidade instalada. Quanto a esse último ________________________________________________
Company Ltd. and its subsidiary, the
item, a iniciativa mais importante do grupo ________________________________________________
Telephone Company of Pernambuco
norte-americano foi a conclusão da usina hi- ________________________________________________
Ltd, both of Recife, the capital of the
________________________________________________
state of Pernambuco; the Companhia
drelétrica de Marimbondo, inaugurada em 1929
________________________________________________
Linha Circular de Carris da Bahia and
com 7.950 kW de potência.
________________________________________________
the Companhia de Energia Elétrica
________________________________________________
da Bahia, both located in Salvador,
Fora do estado de São Paulo, agindo por intermé- ________________________________________________
the capital of the state of Bahia.
dio da Empresas Elétricas Brasileiras, a Amforp ________________________________________________
Still in the northeast, the Americans
________________________________________________
incorporated the Companhia Força
assumiu o controle acionário da Pernambuco
________________________________________________
e Luz Nordeste do Brasil to supply
Tramways and Power Company Ltd. e da subsidi-
________________________________________________
electric power to Natal and Maceió,
ária desta, a Telephone Company of Pernambuco ________________________________________________
the state capitals of Rio Grande do
Ltd., ambas em Recife, da Companhia Linha ________________________________________________
Norte and Alagoas respectively.
Circular de Carris da Bahia e da Companhia de ________________________________________________
This company took over the former
________________________________________________
concessionaires which were supplying
Energia Elétrica da Bahia, as duas em Salvador.
________________________________________________
those two state capitals with electricity.
Ainda no Nordeste, os norte-americanos criaram ________________________________________________
a Companhia Força e Luz Nordeste do Brasil, ________________________________________________
In 1927, in the state of Espírito Santo,
que atendia a Natal e a Maceió. Essa empresa ________________________________________________
the Empresas Elétricas Brasileiras
incorporou concessionárias preexistentes, que ________________________________________________
incorporated the Companhia Central
________________________________________________
Brasileira de Força Elétrica (CCBFE),
prestavam serviços na área de energia elétrica
________________________________________________
which was granted a 50-year concession
àquelas duas capitais. ________________________________________________
to exploit the services of electricity,
________________________________________________
telephone, and transportation by barge
No Espírito Santo, a Empresas Elétricas Bra- ________________________________________________
between the Island of Vitória and the
sileiras formou em 1927 a Companhia Central ________________________________________________
mainland, as well as tramways. The
Brasileira de Força Elétrica (CCBFE), que obteve ________________________________________________
CCBFE operated in the state capital of
________________________________________________
Vitória and environs, and in Cachoeiro
uma concessão para explorar, por 50 anos, os
________________________________________________
do Itapemirim and neighboring towns,
serviços de eletricidade, telefones e de trans-
________________________________________________
areas previously under the responsibility
portes por lanchas entre a ilha de Vitória e o ________________________________________________
of two national concessionaires.
continente, além das linhas de bonde. A CCBFE ________________________________________________
atuava em Vitória e adjacências, em Cachoeiro ________________________________________________
Other companies taken over by Amforp
do Itapemirim e nos municípios vizinhos, zonas ________________________________________________
in the southeast by means of the
exploradas anteriormente por duas concessio- ________________________________________________
Empresas Elétricas Brasileiras were:
________________________________________________
the Companhia Brasileira de Energia
nárias nacionais.
________________________________________________
Elétrica, belonging to Guinle & Co.,
________________________________________________
in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and the
Outras empresas incorporadas pela Amforp, por ________________________________________________
Companhia Força e Luz de Minas
intermédio da Empresas Elétricas Brasileiras, ________________________________________________
Gerais, whose area of concession
no Sudeste, foram a Companhia Brasileira de ________________________________________________
comprised the city of Belo Horizonte.

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The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

87
________________________________________________
In 1928, in the south of the country, Energia Elétrica, pertencente à Guinle & Cia.,
________________________________________________
the Americans set up the Companhia no estado do Rio, e a Companhia Força e Luz de
________________________________________________
Força e Luz do Paraná (CFLP) which Minas Gerais, cuja área de concessão compre-
________________________________________________
was absorbed the British company, The
endia os municípios de Belo Horizonte e Santa
________________________________________________
South Brazilian Railways Company,
Bárbara.
________________________________________________
then the public lighting and tram
________________________________________________
services concessionaire in Curitiba,
________________________________________________
the Paraná state capital. In 1930, No sul do país, os norte-americanos consti-
________________________________________________
the new company put the Chaminé tuíram em 1928 a Companhia Força e Luz do
________________________________________________
Hydroelectric Plant in service to meet Paraná, empresa que absorveu a firma inglesa
________________________________________________
Curitiba’s increased power demand. The South Brazilian Railways Company, conces-
________________________________________________
sionária dos serviços de iluminação pública e
________________________________________________
In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Amforp,
de bondes de Curitiba. Em 1930, a Companhia
________________________________________________
through Companhia Brasileira de Força
________________________________________________
Elétrica (CBFE), took over the control Força e Luz do Paraná inaugurou a usina hidre-
________________________________________________
of electrical services in Porto Alegre in létrica de Chaminé, construída para atender
________________________________________________
1928, and in Pelotas the following year. ao aumento da demanda de energia da capital
________________________________________________
In the capital, the Americans acquired paranaense.
________________________________________________
the municipal plant Cia. Carris Porto-
________________________________________________
Alegrense and the Companhia de Energia
No Rio Grande do Sul, agindo por intermédio da
________________________________________________
Elétrica Rio-Grandense (Ceerg) which
Companhia Brasileira de Força Elétrica (CBFE),
________________________________________________
became the sole supplier of electric
________________________________________________
power in Porto Alegre and, later Canoas. a Amforp assumiu o controle dos serviços de
________________________________________________
Also in 1928, Ceerg inaugurated the eletricidade em Porto Alegre, em 1928, e em
________________________________________________
thermoelectric plant of the Gasômetro Pelotas, no ano seguinte. Na capital, os norte-
________________________________________________
in Porto Alegre which had a 10,000 kW americanos adquiriram a usina municipal, a
________________________________________________
capacity. Once it had established itself Cia. Carris Porto-Alegrense e a Companhia de
________________________________________________
in the capital, the American group
Energia Elétrica Rio-Grandense (Ceerg), que
________________________________________________
acquired a majority stock of The Rio
passou a responder com exclusividade pelo for-
________________________________________________
Grandense Light & Power Syndicate,
________________________________________________
which operated in Pelotas. It also necimento de energia elétrica em Porto Alegre
________________________________________________
endeavored, but without avail, to obtain e, posteriormente, também em Canoas. Ainda
________________________________________________
concession for the electricity services em 1928, a Ceerg inaugurou a central térmica
________________________________________________
in other Rio Grande do Sul towns. do Gasômetro em Porto Alegre com 10.000 kW
________________________________________________ de potência. Uma vez fixada sua posição na
________________________________________________
It is important to point out that, besides
capital, o grupo norte-americano adquiriu a
________________________________________________
Amforp, another American company
maioria das ações da The Rio Grandense Light &
________________________________________________
connected with the electric power
________________________________________________
business became interested in investing Power Syndicate, atuante em Pelotas, e tentou
________________________________________________
in Brazil in the 1920’s. It was the Ulen obter, sem êxito, concessões para a exploração
________________________________________________
Company which, after three years of dos serviços de eletricidade em outras cidades
________________________________________________
negotiations with the government of gaúchas.

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

88
Cabe salientar que, além da Amforp, uma outra ________________________________________________
the state of Maranhão, incorporated
companhia norte-americana ligada às atividades ________________________________________________
in July 1927, a subsidiary, the Ulen
de energia elétrica interessou-se em realizar in- ________________________________________________
Management Company, to render public
________________________________________________
services to São Luís, one of the state
vestimentos no Brasil na década de 1920. Trata-
________________________________________________
capitals whose urban infra-structure
se da Ulen Company, que, depois de três anos de
________________________________________________
was the most underdeveloped in Brazil.
negociações com o governo do Maranhão, orga- ________________________________________________
In March 1928, the Ulen Management
nizou em julho de 1927 uma subsidiária, a Ulen ________________________________________________
Company was granted the concession
Management Company, para atuar na prestação ________________________________________________
to exploit the services of water and
de serviços de utilidade pública em São Luís, ________________________________________________
sewage, public lighting and electric
uma das capitais estaduais de infra-estrutura ________________________________________________
trams in the state capital of Maranhão.
________________________________________________
urbana mais precária em todo o país. Em março
________________________________________________
The vigorous movement of concentration
de 1928, a Ulen Management Company obteve
________________________________________________
undertaken by the Light and by Amforp
concessão para explorar os serviços de água e ________________________________________________
in the second half of the 1920’s brought
esgoto, iluminação pública e bondes elétricos ________________________________________________
about profound changes in Brazil’s
na capital maranhense. ________________________________________________
electric power industry. Thus, in 1930,
________________________________________________
most of the country’s more developed
O vigoroso movimento de concentração empre- ________________________________________________
areas, as well as those which presented
________________________________________________
greater development possibilities,
endido pela Light e pela Amforp na segunda
________________________________________________
fell under the virtual monopoly of
metade dos anos 1920 determinou profundas
________________________________________________
those two large foreign companies.
alterações no quadro da indústria de energia ________________________________________________
elétrica no Brasil. Assim, em 1930, praticamen- ________________________________________________
What remained outside Light’s
te todas as áreas mais desenvolvidas do país ________________________________________________
and Amforp’s domination was not
e também aquelas que apresentavam maiores ________________________________________________
particularly expressive. The states of
possibilidades de desenvolvimento, caíram sob ________________________________________________
the north and northeast, the poorest of
________________________________________________
the Federation, certainly did not offer
o virtual monopólio das duas grandes empresas
________________________________________________
any special attraction for those two
estrangeiras.
________________________________________________
companies for investment. In the interior
________________________________________________
of these states, a large number of very
O que restou fora do alcance da Light e da ________________________________________________
small companies, several of which
Amforp era pouco expressivo. Os estados das ________________________________________________
were run by municipal governments to
regiões Norte e Nordeste, os mais pobres de ________________________________________________
meet the minuscule local consumption,
federação, certamente não ofereciam nenhum ________________________________________________
operated small thermal units.
________________________________________________
atrativo especial de investimento para as duas
________________________________________________
In the south and southeast, the conditions
companhias. No interior desses estados, con-
________________________________________________
were somewhat different. The survival of
tinuaram operando numerosas empresas, de ________________________________________________
some of the smaller companies in these
porte reduzido, muitas delas mantidas pelas ________________________________________________
economically more dynamic regions
prefeituras, que atendiam ao diminuto consumo ________________________________________________
(like the Cataguazes-Leopoldina in the
local, fornecendo eletricidade, quase sempre, ________________________________________________
state of Minas Gerais, and the Central

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

89
________________________________________________
Elétrica Rio Claro in the state of São por intermédio de pequenas unidades termelé-
________________________________________________
Paulo) seemed to indicate that the tricas.
________________________________________________
continuity of the process of absorption
________________________________________________
of national concessionaires by Light
No sul e no sudeste do país, a situação era um
________________________________________________
and by Amforp had become more
pouco diferente. A sobrevivência de algumas
________________________________________________
difficult, among other reasons, because
________________________________________________
of the institutional changes brought empresas de menor porte nessas regiões eco-
________________________________________________
about by the Revolution of 1930. nomicamente mais dinâmicas (como a Cata-
________________________________________________ guazes-Leopoldina, em Minas Gerais, e a Central
________________________________________________
However, during this period, the new Elétrica Rio Claro, em São Paulo) parece indicar
________________________________________________
profile of the Brazilian electric sector que o processo de absorção das concessionárias
________________________________________________
was outlined. Still characterized
nacionais pela Light e pela Amforp teria tido sua
________________________________________________
by massive foreign investments,
continuidade dificultada, entre outros fatores,
________________________________________________
it remained unchanged, at least
________________________________________________
for the following two decades. pelas mudanças institucionais trazidas pela
________________________________________________ Revolução de 1930.
________________________________________________
Table 2 presents the position of
________________________________________________
the electric power industry in De qualquer maneira, foi definido, nesse perío-
________________________________________________
1930, listing the plants belonging do, o novo perfil do setor elétrico brasileiro, que,
________________________________________________
to electric power companies
caracterizado pela maciça presença do capital
________________________________________________
(suppliers) and to self-producers.
estrangeiro, se manteve sem grandes modifi-
________________________________________________
________________________________________________ cações pelo menos durante as duas décadas
________________________________________________ seguintes.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________ A Tabela 2 apresenta a situação da indústria de
________________________________________________ energia elétrica em 1930. Nela aparecem discri-
________________________________________________
minadas as usinas pertencentes a empresas de
________________________________________________
eletricidade (fornecedoras) e a autoprodutores
________________________________________________
________________________________________________ (privativas).
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

90
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

9.863
2.824
22.2264
6.651
15.576
8.301
1.171
1.320
1.413
90.750
6.998
5.278
10.056
30.783
993
178.088
1.812
40.154
9.270
331.164
3.476
197
778.802
TOTAL
Total
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

Privativas
________________________________________________

-
-
-
-
376
75
-
-
-
1.482
-
-
2.642
941
-
2.303
-
-
50
6.598
405
-
14.872
Private
ORIGEM HIDRÁULICA
________________________________________________

Hydro origin
________________________________________________

Fornecedoras
________________________________________________
POTÊNCIA (kW)
Capacity (kW)

Suppliers

2.831
-
15.563
99
-
7.282
1.141
-
859
85.416
-
105
2.673
1.999
-
172.600
-
5.668
7.905
311.037
-
-
615.178
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
INDÚSTRIA DA ELETRICIDADE POR UNIDADES DA FEDERAÇÃO (1930)

________________________________________________
Electric Power Industry per State/Territory of the Federation (1930)

Privativas
Private

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.477
-
-
800
-
2.277
________________________________________________
ORIGEM TÉRMICA

________________________________________________
Thermal origin

________________________________________________
Fornecedoras
Suppliers

________________________________________________
7.032
2.824
7.101
6.552
15.200
944
30
1.320
554
3.852
6.998
5,173
4.741
27.843
993
3.185
1.812
33.009
1.315
13.529
2.271
197
146.475
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
TOTAL

38
10
39
35
3
33
24
10
10
319
16
40
39
99
7
86
20
159
30
166
21
7
1.211
Total

________________________________________________
TABELA 2/Table 2:

Fonte/Source: IBGE. Anuário Estatístico do Brasil, ano XI – 1950. Rio de Janeiro, 1951, p. 159-160.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Hydro
Hidro

-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
13
-
-
3
7
-
11
-
-
1
13
1
-
52
PRIVATIVAS

________________________________________________
Private

________________________________________________
Thermal
Termo
USINAS GERADORAS

________________________________________________
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
3
Generating plants

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Mistas
Mixed

2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
1
1
-
-
11
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
FORNECEDORAS

________________________________________________
Hydro
Suppliers

Hidro

5
-
14
2
-
26
23
-
4
292
-
2
17
8
-
60
-
55
20
128
-
-

________________________________________________ 656

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Thermal
Termo

31
10
25
32
1
6
1
10
6
12
16
38
19
83
7
15
20
99
8
24
19
7
489

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
EMPRESAS
Number of
Nº DE

firms

39
9
336
35
1
31
23
10
10
252
16
40
31
91
7
62
20
134
29
108
18
7
1.009

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Rio Grande do Norte
State/Territory of

Rio Grande do Sul


UNIDADES DA

________________________________________________
FEDERAÇÃO

Federation

Distrito Federal

Santa Catarina
Rio de Janeiro
Espírito Santo

Minas Gerais
Mato Grosso

Pernambuco

________________________________________________
Amazonas

São Paulo
Maranhão
Alagoas

Paraíba

Sergipe

TOTAL
Paraná

________________________________________________
Ceará

Goiás
Bahia

Piauí
Pará

Acre

________________________________________________

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The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

91
The demand for electric equipment
________________________________________________ A DEMANDA POR EQUIPAMENTOS
________________________________________________ ELÉTRICOS
________________________________________________
Up to the end of the 1920’s, Brazil
________________________________________________
still did not have a technical, financial
Até o final dos anos vinte, o Brasil ainda não
________________________________________________
and institutional basis strong enough
dispunha de uma base técnica, financeira e
________________________________________________
to foster its industrial development.
________________________________________________
Thus, during this time, the import institucional suficiente que favorecesse o de-
________________________________________________
business underwent great expansion. senvolvimento industrial. Assim, nesse período,
________________________________________________
Importations covered a wide range of os negócios de importação experimentaram
________________________________________________
products, from textiles to locomotives, um grande crescimento. As atividades dos
________________________________________________
which demonstrated the important role importadores abrangiam uma diversidade de
________________________________________________
played by those businessmen in the
produtos, desde tecidos até locomotivas, o que
________________________________________________
total economy. However, their activities
demonstra a importância do papel exercido por
________________________________________________
did not constitute a hindrance to
________________________________________________
industrialization. On the contrary, some esses comerciantes no conjunto da economia.
________________________________________________
factors helped establish a link between Porém, sua atuação não se constituiu inteira-
________________________________________________
importers and industrial enterprises. mente num empecilho à industrialização. Ao
________________________________________________ contrário, alguns fatores concorreram para
________________________________________________
It should be taken into consideration, estabelecer um elo entre importadores e em-
________________________________________________
for example, that importation quite often
presas industriais.
________________________________________________
required certain technical expertise
________________________________________________
for the installation of the purchased
________________________________________________
goods. In the case of equipment for Deve-se considerar, por exemplo, que a importa-
________________________________________________
hydroelectric plants, the buyer generally ção requeria, muitas vezes, certa perícia técnica
________________________________________________
relied on the importer himself to carry para a instalação do bem adquirido. No caso
________________________________________________
out the machinery erection tasks. dos equipamentos hidrelétricos e das fiações, o
________________________________________________ comprador geralmente contava com o próprio
________________________________________________
In this case, the arrival of foreign
importador para a execução das tarefas de mon-
________________________________________________
technicians frequently took place. Mainly
tagem da maquinaria.
________________________________________________
charged with the erection of components
________________________________________________
and technical assistance services, these
________________________________________________
professionals ended up carrying out more Nesse quadro, freqüentemente ocorria a vinda
________________________________________________
complex projects, which even included de técnicos do exterior. Encarregados, a princí-
________________________________________________
the completion of several unfinished pio, da montagem de componentes industriais
________________________________________________
products. Besides this, the importers e da prestação de assistência técnica, esses
________________________________________________
had exclusive and easy access to credit,
profissionais acabavam realizando projetos mais
________________________________________________
knowledge of the market, and distributing
complexos, que incluíam até mesmo a finaliza-
________________________________________________
channels for industrialized products.
________________________________________________ ção de vários produtos.
________________________________________________
In Brazil, the demand for electric
________________________________________________
products practically began at the same Ao lado disso, os importadores detinham, com
________________________________________________
moment that the first applications of exclusividade, fácil acesso ao crédito, conheci-

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

92
mento do mercado e canais para a distribuição ________________________________________________
electric power took place. If during
dos produtos industrializados. ________________________________________________
the last years of the Empire pioneer
________________________________________________
experiments were made, followed by
________________________________________________
uninterrupted large-size applications,
No Brasil, a demanda por produtos elétricos teve
________________________________________________
it was as of the beginning of the
início praticamente no mesmo momento em que
________________________________________________
Republic that a substantial growth in
ocorreram as primeiras aplicações de energia ________________________________________________
generating capacity was recorded.
elétrica. Se, ainda nos últimos anos do período ________________________________________________
imperial, ocorreram experimentações pioneiras ________________________________________________
At first, the acquisition of electric
e, em seguida, utilizações de maior porte que ________________________________________________
goods was generally conditioned to the
tiveram continuidade, foi a partir do início da ________________________________________________
purchasing contracts entered into with
________________________________________________
foreign monopolies through importers
República que se registrou, conforme já foi visto,
________________________________________________
who were located in Rio de Janeiro
um crescimento substancial da capacidade de
________________________________________________
and São Paulo and who were agents of
geração. ________________________________________________
these companies. Marketing of electric
________________________________________________
goods and equipment was carried out by
A princípio, a aquisição de artigos elétricos esta- ________________________________________________
importing companies such as Zerrener
va em geral condicionada aos contratos de com- ________________________________________________
Bülow, Bromberg e Cia., Byington e Cia.,
pra estabelecidos com os grupos monopolistas ________________________________________________
Aluminium Company, Casa Haupt e Cia.,
________________________________________________
Schneider e Cia., among others, who had
estrangeiros, por intermédio de importadores
________________________________________________
a distribution network for these products.
sediados nas cidades do Rio de Janeiro e de
________________________________________________
São Paulo, que representavam essas grandes ________________________________________________
In the interior of the state of São Paulo,
empresas. A comercialização de material e ________________________________________________
one of the outlets of this network was
equipamentos elétricos era feita por firmas im- ________________________________________________
the Central Elétrica Rio Claro which,
portadoras como a Zerrener Bülow, Bromberg e ________________________________________________
besides buying electric equipment
Cia., Byington e Cia., Aluminium Company, Casa ________________________________________________
for its own plant, retailed light bulbs,
________________________________________________
insulators, ventilators, fuses, electrical
Haupt e Cia., Schneider e Cia., entre outras, que
________________________________________________
insulating tape and lamps, besides
dispunham de uma rede de distribuição para
________________________________________________
transformers and motors. In Rio Claro
esses artigos. ________________________________________________
around 1910, doorbells, electric irons
________________________________________________
and, in the 1920’s, various models
No interior de São Paulo, um dos pontos dessa ________________________________________________
of refrigerators were for sale.
rede era a Central Elétrica Rio Claro, que, além ________________________________________________
de adquirir equipamentos elétricos para sua ________________________________________________
As of the time the Light group appeared
________________________________________________
in Brazil, the importation of electric
usina, revendia lâmpadas, isoladores, ventila-
________________________________________________
equipment and goods began to be carried
dores, fusíveis, fitas isolantes, lustres, além de
________________________________________________
out by Light itself, and later by Amforp,
transformadores e motores. Por volta de 1910, ________________________________________________
both of which had privileged access to
encontravam-se à venda, em Rio Claro, campai- ________________________________________________
international financing sources. The
nhas de porta, ferros elétricos de engomar e, na ________________________________________________
largest generating units of São Paulo
década de 1920, vários modelos de geladeira. ________________________________________________
Light were purchased from the General

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

93
________________________________________________
Electric Co. (GE), from Westinghouse A partir da entrada da Light no Brasil, as im-
________________________________________________
and also from European suppliers. portações de equipamento e material elétricos
________________________________________________ passaram a ser feitas também pela própria Light
________________________________________________
In the state of Espírito Santo at the
e, mais tarde, pela Amforp, que tinham acesso
________________________________________________
end of the 1920’s, at its premises, the
privilegiado às fontes de financiamento inter-
________________________________________________
Companhia Central Brasileira de Força
________________________________________________
Elétrica, belonging to Amforp, began to nacionais. As maiores unidades geradoras da
________________________________________________
sell previously almost unknown electric São Paulo Light foram compradas da General
________________________________________________
appliances with the purpose of increasing Electric (GE), da Westinghouse e também de
________________________________________________
the consumption of electric power. fornecedores europeus.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The activities of the international electric
No Espírito Santo, no final da década de 1920, a
________________________________________________
equipment and goods oligopolies in
Companhia Central Brasileira de Força Elétrica,
________________________________________________
Brazil were not limited to the sale of their
________________________________________________
products to traditional importers and to de propriedade da Amforp, com a finalidade
________________________________________________
large foreign concessionaires. Even prior de aumentar o consumo de energia elétrica,
________________________________________________
to 1890, Thomson-Houston, predecessor passou a vender a crédito, nas dependências
________________________________________________
of the General Electric Co., had already de seus escritórios, diversos aparelhos eletro-
________________________________________________
established a sales subsidiary in Rio de domésticos pouco difundidos, a essa época,
________________________________________________
Janeiro. In 1900, the Swedish company
no estado.
________________________________________________
Ericsson and GE also had offices in Rio.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Other foreign companies established A atuação dos oligopólios internacionais de
________________________________________________
subsidiaries in Brazil, such as the equipamentos e materiais elétricos no Brasil não
________________________________________________
Allgemeine Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft se limitou à venda de seus produtos às firmas
________________________________________________
(AEG), in 1913; Ericsson in 1924; importadoras tradicionais e às grandes conces-
________________________________________________
Philips in 1925; and Standard Electric sionárias estrangeiras. Antes mesmo de 1890,
________________________________________________
in 1926. General Electric, which in
a Thomson-Houston, predecessora da General
________________________________________________
1919 had established a company,
Electric, já havia estabelecido uma subsidiá-
________________________________________________
controlled the Brazilian market in the
________________________________________________
1920’s. Around 1921, GE renewed ria para vendas no Rio de Janeiro. Em 1900, a
________________________________________________
license agreements it maintained with Ericsson sueca e a GE dispunham de escritórios
________________________________________________
the principal European producers and também no Rio.
________________________________________________
began to assemble incandescent light
________________________________________________
bulbs in Brazil which, until 1930, it Outras empresas estrangeiras incorporaram
________________________________________________
had made with imported components.
subsidiárias em território nacional, como a
________________________________________________
Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG),
________________________________________________
At the end of the First Republic, the
________________________________________________
production of electric equipment em 1913, a Ericsson, em 1924, a Philips, em
________________________________________________
was virtually non-existent, despite 1925, e a Standard Electric, em 1926. A General
________________________________________________
the fact that the installed capacity of Electric, que organizara, em 1919, uma socie-
________________________________________________
electric power had grown over 700 dade anônima, tornou-se, na década de 1920,

Panorama do setor de energia elétrica no Brasil


Panorama of electric power sector in Brazil

94
a empresa hegemônica no mercado brasileiro. ________________________________________________
times during the period. Brazil met
Por volta de 1921, a GE renovou os acordos ________________________________________________
its demand for electric equipment
de licença que mantinha com os principais ________________________________________________
almost exclusively via importation.
________________________________________________
produtores europeus e deu início à montagem
The State and electric power:
________________________________________________
de bulbos incandescentes no Brasil, que, até
first attempts at regulation
________________________________________________
1930, foi realizada a partir da importação dos ________________________________________________
componentes. ________________________________________________
The role of the State in the development
________________________________________________
of the electric power industry during
Ao final da República Velha, apesar de a capa- ________________________________________________
the First Republic was quite limited.
cidade instalada de energia elétrica ter experi- ________________________________________________
From 1889 to 1930, the State in Brazil
________________________________________________
remained relatively non-interventionist
mentado o crescimento vertiginoso de mais de
________________________________________________
in the economy. During this period, the
700 vezes no decorrer do período, a produção
________________________________________________
government was basically preoccupied
de equipamentos elétricos virtualmente inexis- ________________________________________________
with the stability of exchange, the
tia no país. O Brasil satisfazia sua demanda de ________________________________________________
balancing of public finances and the
aparelhagem elétrica quase exclusivamente via ________________________________________________
defense of production activities linked
importação. ________________________________________________
to foreign trade. In 1906, with the
________________________________________________
signing of the Convênio de Taubaté,
________________________________________________
intervention mechanisms were created
ESTADO E ENERGIA ELÉTRICA:
________________________________________________
to check the fall of coffee prices on
PRIMEIRAS TENTATIVAS DE REGULAMENTAÇÃO
________________________________________________
the international market and the
________________________________________________
destruction of the economic-financial
O papel do Estado no desenvolvimento da in- ________________________________________________
structure of Brazil itself. But, at
dústria de energia elétrica, durante a Primeira ________________________________________________
that time, the State was not ready to
República, foi bastante limitado. De 1889 a 1930, ________________________________________________
establish the infrastructure conditions
o Estado no Brasil se manteve relativamente ________________________________________________
necessary for economic development.
________________________________________________
não-intervencionista no domínio da economia.
________________________________________________
Due to the federalism chosen, the political
Nesse período, o governo preocupou-se basica-
________________________________________________
regime promulgated the Constitution of
mente com a estabilidade cambial, o equilíbrio ________________________________________________
1891, which assured state governments
das finanças públicas e a defesa das atividades ________________________________________________
ample autonomy and restricted the
produtivas ligadas ao setor externo. Em 1906, ________________________________________________
action of the Federal Government and
com a assinatura do Convênio de Taubaté, fo- ________________________________________________
the role of Congress. The few powers
ram criados mecanismos de intervenção para ________________________________________________
delegated to the Federal Government
________________________________________________
in the economic area expressed the
impedir a queda dos preços do café no mercado
________________________________________________
decentralization of responsibilities that
internacional e a derrocada da própria estrutura
________________________________________________
characterized the exploitation of natural
econômico-financeira do país. Mas, na época, ________________________________________________
resources, chiefly for power purposes.
o Estado não estava preparado para criar as ________________________________________________
Thus Congress, in respect to natural
condições infra-estruturais necessárias ao de- ________________________________________________
resources, could only legislate concerning
senvolvimento econômico. ________________________________________________
land and mines owned by the Federal

A formação da indústria de energia elétrica no Brasil (1880-1930)


The constitution of electric power sector industry in Brazil (1880-1930)

95
________________________________________________
Government. All other mines belonged Por força do federalismo, o regime político ado-
________________________________________________
to the owners of the land and there was tado na Constituição de 1891 assegurou ampla
________________________________________________
no differentiation between subsoil and autonomia aos governos estaduais, restringindo
________________________________________________
waterfall ownership and ownership of the
a ação do governo federal e o papel representado
________________________________________________
land where these happened to be found.
pelo Legislativo. As raras atribuições da União
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Therefore, the State’s interference in na área econômica refletiam a descentralização
________________________________________________
the electric power industry during the que caracterizava a exploração dos recursos
________________________________________________
First Republic was limited to isolated naturais, sobretudo para fins energéticos. Ao
________________________________________________
measures to regulate the sector. The Congresso Nacional, competia legislar apenas
________________________________________________
legislators were not concerned with the sobre terras e minas de propriedade da União.
________________________________________________
development of the hydraulic potential
As minas pertenciam aos proprietários do solo,
___________________________