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Experiment No.

8: Titration Curve
Laforteza, Mervin Emir J., Estacio, Franz Wilhelm B.
Group 2, Chem 18.1 SAD, Prof. Jayson Vedad
I. Abstract

A titration curve is a plot of pH as a function of an added titrant. A titration curve helps to


determine the feasibility of the reaction for titration and helps to select a suitable indicator for it. There are
different types of titrations but in this experiment, acid-base titrations are used. In this experiment, we
delved upon the different types of acid-base titration – weak acid by a strong base, strong acid by a
strong base, and a weak base by a strong acid and with their respective results, compared the differences
between the three. The latter part of the experiment was to determine the acidity/basicity of an unknown
based on its titration curve. We used theoretical values for the entire experiment since a pH meter was
not available during the time of experiment.

II. Keywords: Titration, Titration Curve, Equivalence point, End point, pH

III. Introduction The solution is then continually titrated until the


pH is 5-6 units past neutral.
Titration is a method used mainly to
solve for the concentration of a known reactant. The same procedures were done using
It is done by mixing a sample of the solution with 0.1M HCl with 0.1M NaOH and 0.1M NH4OH
a reagent solution of known concentration. In with 0.1M HCl
titration, two key points are to be observed
namely equivalence point, and end point. Part B. Analysis of Unknown
Equivalence point refers to the point at which the
added solute reacts completely with the solute 25mL of the unknown was used after
present in the solution. The end point, on the determining whether it was an acid or a base.
other hand, refers to point at which the indicator The initial pH was recorded and the titrant(.1M
changes color in a colorimetric titration. HCl for base; .1M NaOH for acid) was added to
the unknown in increments of 1mL and pH was
In acid-base titration several methods recorded after each addition. When the pH
can be employed to determine the endpoint of a changes abruptly, the titrant is added in
reaction. The most commonly used method is increments of only 0.5mL. The solution is then
the addition of an indicator. An indicator is a continually titrated until the pH is 5-6 units past
substance that undergoes a change in colour neutral.
when the end-point of a titration is reached. An
acid-base indicator is a weak acid having a V. Results:
different colour in aqueous solution from its
conjugate base. One of the most commonly Part A. Preparation of Standard Titration
used indicators is phenolphthalein which Curves
becomes pink when a certain pH is reached
signalling that the titrated substance has been Set I. Titration of 50mL of 0.1 M HOAc with
neutralized. Results are recorded on graphs 0.1 M NaOH
known as titration curves which compose of the
pH relative to the volume of the titrant added. Table 1. Value of pH of solution relative to volume of titrant
added for Set I
IV. Experimental Volume (mL) of titrant
pH
added
Part A. Preparation of Standard Titration Curves 0 2.5
10 3.5
25mL of 0.1M HOAc is transferred to a 20 4.0
beaker and the pH was recorded using a pH 30 4.2
meter. The titrant (0.1M NaOH) was then added 40 4.5
in increments of 1mL and pH was recorded after 45 5.0
each addition. When the pH changes abruptly, 46 5.2
the titrant is added in increments of only 0.5mL. 47 5.4

Chem 18.1, Titration Curve Page 1


48 5.6 47 8.7
49 5.8 48 8.5
50 6.0 49 8.0
51 11.1 50 7.8
52 11.3 51 3.0
53 11.4 52 2.8
54 11.5 53 2.5
55 11.6 54 2.3
60 11.6 55 2.2
60 2.0

Figure 1. Plot of pH vs. volume of titrant (Set I)


Figure 3. Plot of pH vs. volume of titrant (Set III)

Set II. Titration of 50mL of 0.1 M HCl with 0.1 Part B. Analysis of Unknown
M NaOH
Table 4. Value of pH of solution relative to volume of titrant
added for the analysis of the unknown
Table 2. Value of pH of solution relative to volume of titrant Volume (mL) of titrant
added for Set II pH
added
Volume (mL) of titrant 0 11.5
pH
added 10 10.2
0 1.0 20 10.0
10 1.4 30 9.8
20 1.6 40 9.2
30 1.8 45 9.0
40 2.0 46 8.8
45 2.3 47 8.7
46 2.4 48 8.5
47 2.6 49 8.0
48 2.8 50 7.8
49 3.0 51 3.0
50 4.0 52 2.8
51 10.0 53 2.5
52 10.3 54 2.3
53 10.6 55 2.2
54 11.0 60 2.0
55 11.5
60 12.0
Figure 4. Plot of pH vs. volume of titrant (Analysis of
Unknown)
Figure 2. Plot of pH vs. volume of titrant (Set II)
V. Discussion
Set III. Titration of 50mL of 0.1 M NH4OH with
0.1 M HCl Part A. Preparation of Standard Titration
Curves
Table 3. Value of pH of solution relative to volume of titrant
added for Set III For this experiment, we performed acid-
Volume (mL) of titrant base titrations. We recorded this data and
pH
added produced a titration curve. A titration curve is a
0 11.5 visual output which describes the changes in
10 10.2 pH. It is obtained by plotting, in this case, the pH
20 10.0 against the volume of the titrant used (Ilao and
30 9.8 Engle, 2007).
40 9.2
45 9.0 However, the three titration curves
46 8.8 differ. One of the reason is that one of the sets is

Chem 18.1, Titration Curve Page 2


a base being titrated by a strong acid while the
other two are acids titrated by a strong base. CH3COOH + OH- CH3COO-+ H2O
Another reason is that the analytes have
differing strengths of electrolytes (Brown, Analyzing the equation above, it is obvious
LeMay, Bursten and Burdge, 2004). that the reaction led to the formation of acetate,
the conjugate base of acetic acid. This satisfies
A titration curve between an acid and the requirements to form a buffer solution. It is
base generally has three parts: the region before due to this reason that there was an observed
the equivalence point, or the pre-equivalence buffered region before the equivalence point.
point; the point when the number of moles of the But, the equivalence point of a weak acid/base-
titrant is, ideally, equal to that of the analyte, or strong acid/base is not equal to 7. The presence
the equivalence point; and the region after the of a salt produced by the reaction greatly affects
equivalence point, post-equivalent. But this is the pH of the solution. And thus, a weak acid
not true for all titrations. The reason is, as stated -strong base will yield an equivalence point with
above, the difference in the strength of a pH greater than 7, while a weak base -strong
electrolytes. acid will yield an equivalence point with a pH
less than 7.
A strong acid-strong base titration curve
follows the general curve. This can be seen at VI. Guide Questions
graph no. 2. The region of the pre-equivalence 1. Construct the titration curve of the following,
point starts with the initial pH and ends just in increments of 5mL:
before the equivalence point. If analyzed, it is A. 50mL 0.1 M HOAc with 0.1M NaOH
shown as slight changes in pH and ends as the
pH starts to change abruptly. At the equivalence HOAc + NaOH NaOAc + H2O
point, the pH is 7. This is because the reaction
was neutralized and what was left were HOAc + OH- OAc-+ H2O
hydronium and hydroxide ions. And after the
equivalence point, all which is left is the excess a. 0mL
of the titrant. This is signified by the abrupt pH HOAc + H2O OAc-+
change from the acid to base followed by H3O+
minimal change. This is due to the fact that it is I 0.1M - 0 0
the excess of the titrant that determines the pH C -x - +x +x
of the solution. E 0.1M - x x
-x
The weak acid/base-strong acid/base
Ka = 1.8x10-5
titration curve also shows the three general parts
Ka = [H3O+] [OAc-]
but it also has an additional part. The part added
[HOAc]
is the buffered region. This is because of the
[H3O+] = [OAc-]
conjugate acid-base pair that is present as the
reaction occurs. To further elaborate on this, the [H3O+] =HOAc*Ka
reaction in Set I can be used: =0.1*1.8*10-5
= 1.34 x 10-3 M
CH3COOH + NaOH NaCH3COO + pH = -log [H3O+]
H2O = -log [1.34x10-3]
= 2.87
Since NaOH is a strong base, it is therefore a
strong electrolyte. As a result, it completely b. 10mL
dissociates into the Na+ and OH- ions. For that HOAc OH- OAc- +
reason, we can write the equation as: H2O
I 5.0 mmoles 1.0 mmoles 0 -
CH3COOH + Na+ + OH- Na+ + C -1.0 mmoles -1.0 mmoles +1.0 mmoles -
CH3COO-+ H2O E 4.0 mmoles 0 1.0 mmoles -
pKa = -log Ka = -log 1.8x10-5
Now that the equation has become like this, = 4.74
we can remove the Na+ ion since it appears in Henderson-Hasselbach equation
both reactant and product side. Doing that, we pH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid]
get: = 4.74 + log [(1mmol/60mL) / (4mmol/60mL)]

Chem 18.1, Titration Curve Page 3


= 4.14 E 0.4 0 4.6 -
mmoles mmoles
c. 20mL pH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid]
HOAc + OH- OAc- + =4.74+log[(4.6mmol/96mL)/ (0.4mmol/96mL)]
H2O = 5.80
I 5.0 2.0 0 -
mmoles mmoles h. 47mL
C -2.0 -2.0 +2.0 - HOAc + OH- OAc- +
mmoles mmoles mmoles H2O
E 3.0 0 2.0 - I 5.0 4.7 0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles mmoles
pH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid] C -4.7 -4.7 +4.7 -
= 4.74 + log [(2mmol/70mL) / (3mmol/70mL)] mmoles mmoles mmoles
= 4.56 E 0.3 0 4.7 -
mmoles mmoles
d. 30mL pH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid]
HOAc + OH-
OAc + - =4.74+log[(4.7mmol/96mL) /(0.3mmol/96mL)]
H2O = 5.93
I 5.0 3.0 0 -
mmoles mmoles i. 48mL
C -3.0 -3.0 +3.0 - HOAc + OH- OAc- +
mmoles mmoles mmoles H2O
E 2.0 0 3.0 - I 5 mmoles 4.8 0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles
pH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid] C -4.8 -4.8 +4.8 -
= 4.74 + log [(3mmol/80mL) / (2mmol/80mL)] mmoles mmoles mmoles
= 4.92 E 0.2 0 4.8 -
e. 40mL mmoles mmoles
HOAc + OH- OAc- + pH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid]
H2O =4.74+log[(4.8mmol/96mL)/ (0.2mmol/96mL)]
I 5.0 4.0 0 - = 6.12
mmoles mmoles
C -2.0 -4.0 +4.0 - k. 49mL
mmoles mmoles mmoles HOAc + OH- OAc- +
E 1.0 0 4.0 - H2O
mmoles mmoles I 5 mmoles 4.9 0 -
pH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid] mmoles
= 4.74 + log [(4mmol/90mL) / (1mmol/90mL)] C -4.9 -4.9 +4.9 -
= 5.34 mmoles mmoles mmoles
E 0.1 0 4.9 -
f. 45mL mmoles mmoles
HOAc + OH- OAc- + pH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid]
H2O =4.74+log[(4.9mmol/96mL)/ (0.1mmol/96mL)]
I 5.0 4.5 0 - = 6.43
mmoles mmoles l. 50mL
C -4.5 -4.5 +4.5 - HOAc + OH- OAc- +
mmoles mmoles mmoles H2O
E 0.5 0 4.5 - I 5.0 5.0 0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles mmoles
pH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid] C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 -
=4.74+log[(4.5mmol/95mL)/ (0.5mmol/95mL)] mmoles mmoles mmoles
= 5.69 E 5.0 0 5.0 -
mmoles mmoles
g. 46mL OAc- + H2O HOAc +
HOAc + OH- OAc +
- OH-
H2O I 0.05 M - 0 0
I 5.0 4.6 0 - C -x - +x +x
mmoles mmoles E 0.05 M - x - x x
C -4.6 -4.6 +4.6 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles

Chem 18.1, Titration Curve Page 4


HOAc + OH- OAc- +
Kb = [HOAc][OH ]
-
H2O
Assume [HOAc] = [OH-] I 5.0 5.4 0 -
[OAc-] mmoles mmoles
[OH-] <<< [OAc-] C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 -
Kb = Kw / Ka mmoles mmoles mmoles
E 0 0.4 5.0 -
Kw / Ka = [HOAc][OH-] mmoles mmoles
[OAc-] pOH = -log [OH-]
1.0x10 / 1.8x10-5 = x2 / 0.05 – x
-14
= -log [0.4 mmoles / 104mL]
x = 5.29x10-6 = [OH-] pOH = 2.41
pOH = -log [OH-] pH = 14 – 2.41 = 11.59
= -log [5.29x10-6]
pOH = 5.28 q. 55mL
pH = 14 – 5.28 = 8.72 HOAc + OH- OAc- +
H2O
m. 51mL I 5.0 5.5 0 -
HOAc + OH- OAc- + mmoles mmoles
H2O C -5.0 -5.5 +5.0 -
I 5.0 5.1 0 - mmoles mmoles mmoles
mmoles mmoles E 0 0.5 5.0 -
C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 - mmoles mmoles
mmoles mmoles mmoles pOH = -log [OH-]
E 0 0.1 5.0 - = -log [0.5 mmoles / 105mL]
mmoles mmoles
pOH = 2.32
pOH = -log [OH-] pH = 14 – 2.32 = 11.68
= -log [0.1 mmoles / 101mL]
pOH = 3.00 r. 60mL
pH = 14 – 3.00 = 11.00 HOAc + OH- OAc- +
H2O
n. 52mL I 5.0 6.0 0 -
HOAc + OH- OAc- + mmoles mmoles
H2O C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 -
I 5.0 5.1 0 - mmoles mmoles mmoles
mmoles mmoles E 0 1.0 5.0 -
C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 - mmoles mmoles
mmoles mmoles mmoles pOH = -log [OH-]
E 0 0.1 5.0 - = -log [1 mmoles / 110mL]
mmoles mmoles
pOH = 2.04
pOH = -log [OH-] pH = 14 – 2.04 = 11.96
= -log [0.2 mmoles / 102mL]
pOH = 2.71 B. 25mL 0.1 M HCl with 0.1M NaOH
pH = 14 – 2.71 = 11.29
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
o. 53mL H3o+ + OH- H2O
HOAc + OH- OAc -
+ HCl + H2O Cl-+ H3O+
H2O a. 0mL
I 5.0 5.3 0 -
mmoles mmoles [H3O+] = VanalyteManalyte - VtitrantMtitrant
C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 - Vsolution
mmoles mmoles mmoles = [(50mL)(1M)] – [(0)(1M)]
E 0 0.3 5.0 - 50mL
mmoles mmoles = 0.1
pOH = -log [OH-] pH = - log[0.1]
= -log [0.3 mmoles / 103mL] =1
pOH = 2.54 b. 10mL
pH = 14 – 2.54 = 11.00 [H3O+] = VanalyteManalyte - VtitrantMtitrant
Vsolution
p. 54mL = [(50mL)(1M)] – [(10mL)(1M)]
50mL + 10mL

Chem 18.1, Titration Curve Page 5


= 0.067
pH = - log[0.067]
= 1.17 i. 48mL
[H3O+] = VanalyteManalyte - VtitrantMtitrant
c. 20mL Vsolution
[H3O+] = VanalyteManalyte - VtitrantMtitrant = [(50mL)(1M)] – [(48mL)(1M)]
Vsolution 50mL + 48mL
= [(50mL)(1M)] – [(20mL)(1M)] = 2.04 x 10-3
50mL + 20mL pH = - log[2.04 x 10-3]
= 0.043 = 2.69
pH = - log[0.043]
= 1.37 j. 49mL
[H3O+] = VanalyteManalyte - VtitrantMtitrant
d. 30mL Vsolution
[H3O+] = VanalyteManalyte - VtitrantMtitrant = [(50mL)(1M)] – [(49mL)(1M)]
Vsolution 50mL + 49mL
= [(50mL)(1M)] – [(30mL)(1M)] = 1.01 x 10-3
50mL + 30mL pH = - log[1.01 x 10-3]
= 0.025 = 3.00
pH = - log[0.025]
= 1.60 k. 50mL
Kw = [H3O+][OH-]
e. 40mL
[H3O+] = VanalyteManalyte - VtitrantMtitrant [H3O+] = [OH-] = x
Vsolution
= [(50mL)(1M)] – [(40mL)(1M)] x = 1* 10-14
50mL + 40mL = 1 x 10-7
= 0.011 pH = -log[1 x 10-7]
pH = - log[0.011] = 7.00
= 1.96 l. 51mL
[OH-] = VtitrantMtitrant – VanalyteManalyte
f. 45mL Vsolution
[H3O+] = VanalyteManalyte - VtitrantMtitrant = [(51mL)(1M)] – [(50mL)(1M)]
Vsolution 50mL + 51mL
= [(50mL)(1M)] – [(45mL)(1M)] = 9.90 x 10-4
50mL + 45mL pOH = - log[9.90 x 10-4] = 3.00
= 5.26 x 10-3 pH = 14.00 - 3.00 = 11.00
pH = - log[5.26 x 10-3]
= 2.28 m. 52mL
[OH-] = VtitrantMtitrant – VanalyteManalyte
g. 46mL Vsolution
[H3O+] = VanalyteManalyte - VtitrantMtitrant = [(52mL)(1M)] – [(50mL)(1M)]
Vsolution 50mL + 52mL
= [(50mL)(1M)] – [(46mL)(1M)] = 1.96 x 10-3
50mL + 46mL pOH = - log[1.96 x 10-3] = 2.71
= 4.17 x 10-3 pH = 14.00 - 2.71 = 11.29
pH = - log[4.17 x 10-3]
= 2.38 n. 53mL
[OH-] = VtitrantMtitrant – VanalyteManalyte
h. 47mL Vsolution
[H3O+] = VanalyteManalyte - VtitrantMtitrant = [(53mL)(1M)] – [(50mL)(1M)]
Vsolution 50mL + 53mL
= [(50mL)(1M)] – [(47mL)(1M)] = 2.91 x 10-3
50mL + 47mL pOH = - log[2.91 x 10-3] = 2.54
= 3.09 x 10-3 pH = 14.00 - 2.54 = 11.46
pH = - log[3.09 x 10-3]
= 2.51

Chem 18.1, Titration Curve Page 6


I 5.0 mmoles 1.0 mmoles 0 -
o. 54mL C -1.0 mmoles -1.0 +1.0 -
[OH-] = VtitrantMtitrant – VanalyteManalyte mmoles mmoles
Vsolution E 4.0 mmoles 0 1.0 mmoles -
= [(54mL)(1M)] – [(50mL)(1M)]
50mL + 54mL pKb = -log Kb = -log 1.8x10-5
= 3.85 x 10-3 = 4.74
pOH = - log[3.85 x 10-3] = 2.41 Henderson-Hasselbach equation
pH = 14.00 - 2.41 = 11.59 pOH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [base]
=4.74+ log [(1mmol/60mL) / (4mmol/60mL)]
p. 55mL = 4.14
[OH-] = VtitrantMtitrant – VanalyteManalyte pH = 14 – 4.14 = 9.86
Vsolution
= [(55mL)(1M)] – [(50mL)(1M)] c. 20mL
50mL + 55mL NH4OH + H+ NH4+ +
= 4.76 x 10-3 H2O
I 5.0 2.0 0 -
pOH = - log[4.76 x 10-3] = 2.32
mmoles mmoles
pH = 14.00 - 2.32 = 11.68 C -2.0 -2.0 +2.0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles
q. 60mL E 3.0 0 2.0 -
[OH-] = VtitrantMtitrant – VanalyteManalyte mmoles mmoles
Vsolution pOH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [base]
= [(60mL)(1M)] – [(50mL)(1M)] = 4.74 + log [(2mmol/60mL) /
50mL + 60mL (3mmol/60mL)]
= 9.09 x 10-3 = 4.56
pOH = - log[9.09 x 10-3] = 2.04 pH = 14 – 4.56 = 9.44
pH = 14.00 - 2.04 = 11.96
d. 30mL
C. 25mL 0.1 NH4OH M with 0.1M HCl NH4OH + H+ NH4+ +
H2O
NH4OH + HCl NH4Cl + H2O I 5.0 3.0 0 -
mmoles mmoles
NH4OH + H+ NH4+ + H2O C -3.0 -3.0 +3.0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles
E 2.0 0 3.0 -
a. 0mL
mmoles mmoles
NH4OH + H2O NH4 +
+
pOH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid]
OH-
= 4.74 + log [(3mmol/80mL) / (2mmol/80mL)]
I 0.1M - 0 0 = 4.92
C -x - +x +x pH = 14 – 4.92 = 9.08
E 0.1M - x x
-x e. 40mL
Kb = 1.8x10-5 NH4OH + H+ NH4+ +
Kb = [OH-] [NH4+] H2O
[NH4OH] I 5.0 4.0 0 -
[OH-] = [NH4+] mmoles mmoles
[OH-]2 = [NH4OH]*Kb C -2.0 -4.0 +4.0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles
=0.1*1.8*10-5 E 1.0 0 4.0 -
= 1.34 x 10-3 M mmoles mmoles
pOH = -log [H3O+] pOH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid]
= -log [1.34x10-3] = 4.74 + log [(4mmol/90mL) / (1mmol/90mL)]
= 2.87 = 5.34
pH = 14 – 2.87 = 11.13 pH = 14 – 5.34 = 8.66
b. 10mL f. 45mL
NH4OH + H+ NH4+ + NH4OH + H+ NH4+ +
H2O H2O

Chem 18.1, Titration Curve Page 7


I 5.0 4.5 0 -
mmoles mmoles
C -4.5 -4.5 +4.5 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles
E 0.5 0 4.5 -
mmoles mmoles
pOH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid]
=4.74+log[(4.5mmol/95mL)/ (0.5mmol/95mL)]
= 5.69
pH = 14 – 5.69 = 8.31

g. 46mL
NH4OH + H+ NH4+
+ H2O
I 5.0 4.6 0 -
mmoles mmoles
C -4.6 -4.6 +4.6 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles
E 0.4 0 4.6 -
mmoles mmoles
pOH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid]
=4.74+log[(4.6mmol/96mL)/ (0.4mmol/96mL)]
= 5.80
pH = 14 – 5.80 = 8.20

Chem 18.1, Titration Curve Page 8


NH4+ + H2O NH4OH +
H3O +

h. 47mL
NH4OH + H+ NH4+ + Ka = [NH4OH][H3O+]
H2O Assume [NH4] = [H3O+]
I 5.0 4.7 0 - [NH4+]
mmoles mmoles [H3O+] <<< [NH4+]
C -4.7 -4.7 +4.7 -
Ka = Kw / Kb
mmoles mmoles mmoles
E 0.3 0 4.7 - Kw / Kb = [NH4OH][H3O+]
mmoles mmoles [NH4+]
pOH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid] 1.0x10-14 / 1.8x10-5 = x2 / 0.05 – x
=4.74+log[(4.7mmol/96mL)/ (0.3mmol/96mL)] x = 5.29x10-6 = [H3O+]
= 5.93 pH = -log [H3O+]
pH = 14 – 5.93 = 8.07 = -log [5.29x10-6]
pH = 5.28
i. 48mL
NH4OH + H+ NH4+ + m. 51mL
H2O NH4OH + H+ NH4+ +
I 5 mmoles 4.8 0 - H2O
mmoles I 5.0 5.1 0 -
C -4.8 -4.8 +4.8 - mmoles mmoles
mmoles mmoles mmoles C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 -
E 0.2 0 4.8 - mmoles mmoles mmoles
mmoles mmoles E 0 0.1 5.0 -
pOH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid] mmoles mmoles
=4.74+log[(4.8mmol/96mL)/ (0.2mmol/96mL)] pH = -log [H3O+]
= 6.12 = -log [0.1 mmoles / 101mL]
pH = 14 – 6.12 = 7.88 pH = 3.00

k. 49mL n. 52mL
NH4OH + H+ NH4+ + NH4OH + H+ NH4+ +
H2O H2O
I 5 mmoles 4.9 0 - I 5.0 5.1 0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles
C -4.9 -4.9 +4.9 - C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles mmoles mmoles mmoles
E 0.1 0 4.9 - E 0 0.1 5.0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles mmoles
pOH = pKa + log [conjugate] / [acid] pH = -log [H3O+]
= 4.74 + log [(4.9mmol/96mL) / = -log [0.2 mmoles / 102mL]
(0.1mmol/96mL)] pH = 2.71
= 6.43
pH = 14 – 6.43 = 7.57 o. 53mL
NH4OH + H+ NH4+ +
l. 50mL H2O
NH4OH + H+ NH4+ + I 5.0 5.3 0 -
mmoles mmoles
I 5.0 mmoles 5.0 mmoles 0 - C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles
C -5.0 mmoles -5.0 mmoles +5.0 mmoles -
E 0 0.3 5.0 -
E 5.0 mmoles 0 5.0 mmoles - mmoles mmoles
pH = -log [H3O+]
H2O = -log [0.3 mmoles / 103mL]
pH = 2.54

p. 54mL
I 0.05 M - 0 0 NH4OH + H+ NH4+ +
C -x - +x +x H2O
E 0.05 M - x - x x I 5.0 5.4 0 -

Chem 18.1, Titration Curve Page 9


mmoles mmoles that 10-2.6, or 2.51 x 10-3M, is the concentration of
C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 - the acid.
mmoles mmoles mmoles
E 0 0.4 5.0 -
mmoles mmoles VII. Conclusion and Recommendations
pH = -log [H3O+]
= -log [0.4 mmoles / 104mL] We can conclude that there are three
pH = 2.41 points to be observed in strong acid-strong base
titration curves namely, pre-equivalence point
q. 55mL region, equivalence point, and post-equivalence
NH4OH + H+ NH4+ + point region. In this titration, pH is equal to 7. In
H2O weak acid-strong base titration curves, an
I 5.0 5.5 0 - addition of a buffered region can be observed
mmoles mmoles between the pre-equivalence point region and
C -5.0 -5.5 +5.0 -
mmoles mmoles mmoles the equivalence point due to the presence of a
E 0 0.5 5.0 - conjugate acid-base pair. Same mechanism can
mmoles mmoles be observed with weak-base strong acid titration
pH = -log [H3O+] curve. Their equivalence points are greater than
= -log [0.5 mmoles / 105mL] 7 and less than 7 in pH respectively.
pH = 2.32
For the experiment, we recommend the
r. 60mL addition of weak acid-weak base titration for
NH4OH + H+ NH4+ + better understanding of titration as a whole.
H2O Also, we recommend working laboratory
I 5.0 6.0 0 - equipment for the experiment to be done
mmoles mmoles correctly. Although there are always theoretical
C -5.0 -5.0 +5.0 - data, it is always better to have a hands-on
mmoles mmoles mmoles approach in every experiment.
E 0 1.0 5.0 -
mmoles mmoles
pH = -log [H3O+] VIII. Bibliography:
= -log [1 mmoles / 110mL]
pH = 2.04 Engle, H.L. and L.V. Ilao. (2007). Learning
Modules in General Chemistry 2. Manila:
University of the Philippines.
2. Discuss the results in Part A
The titration curve of the strong acid Brown, Theodore and LeMay, H.E. (2009)
with NaOH resulted in an equivalence that is Chemistry The Central Science. Pearson
close to, if not equal, to 7. The titration curves of Education Inc. Jurong, Singapore.
the weak acid and base with their respected
titrants displayed an equivalence point greater Chemistry Tutorial: Acid-Base Titration Curves
and less than 7, respectively. Retrieved on 16, March 2011 from
http://www.ausetute.com.au/titrcurv.html
3. Is your unknown a strong/weak acid/base?
Explain I hereby certify that I have given substantial
Weak acid. This is confirmed because contribution to the report
its pH is less than 7 and that it has a titration
curve that is nearly identical to that of the ______________________________
titration curve of HOAc. Mervin Emir J. Laforteza
4. Determine concentration of the unknown.
The unknown sample is a weak acid ______________________________
and therefore has not been totally dissociated. Franz Wilhelm B. Estacio
However, we can get the amount of the
hydronium ions by the antilog of the negative of
the pH. Since the initial pH is 2.6, we assume

Chem 18.1, Titration Curve Page 10