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0.5 1.0 1.5 2


Turbojet and low-by-pass ratio

Turbofan (0.3-1)

High-by-pass ration turbofan (≥5)


Reciprocating engine/propeller


o Large diameter with fans with wide –chord fan bade

o Bypass-ratios
1. From six-to-one to as high as nine-to-one
2. Typical five to one
Turbojet engine
T= mair(Ve-V∞)+(Pe-P∞)Ae
The jet engine takes in mass flow of cool air mair at velocity essentially
equal to V∞ and exhaust a mass flow of hot air and combustion product
mair+mfuel at velocity V∞. The mass fuel is added usually small compare
to the mass of air.

Exhaust nozzle
o Subsonic, Sonic –Convergent
o Supersonic—Convergent and Divergent
mair = V∞Aiρ∞
o Subsonic, Sonic –Divergent Duct
o Supersonic—Convergent and Divergent Duct

By Pass Ratio
Mass flow passing through the fan, externally to the core divided
by the mass flow through the core itself

o The higher the by pass ratio the higher the propulsion

efficiency. By pass ratio are on the order of 5
o Typical value of thrust specific fuel consumption for these
turbofan engines or 0.6 lb/ (lbh)- almost half of
conventional turbojet engine
o The low by pass ratio turbofans is much closer to that of
turbojet than that of a propeller by pass ratio between 0
and 1
o Used in many high performance jet fighter plane
o Small initial decrease at low subsonic Mach numbers, the
thrust increasing for increasing Mach number well above
Mach 1
o Ct for the low by pass ratio turbofan gradually increase as
M∞ increases for subsonic and transonic speed, and begins
to rapidly increase at Mach 2 and beyond

Ct = weight of the fuel burned per unit thrust per unit time
=weight of fuel burned for given time/ (thrust output) (time
Ct =lb/lb.s = 1/s; N/N.s = 1/s

F 119 Turbofan engine

o Two dimensional thrust vectoring exhaust nozzle

o The convergent/divergent nozzle vectors thrust 20 degrees
either up or down
o Nozzle position management—automatically controlled by
the full- authority digital electronic control

Subsonic – high-by-pass ratio turbofan engine

Supersonic - turbojet engine or low-by-pass ratio turbofan

M < 0.3 – incompressible

M ≥ 0.3 – compressible

Mach Number

Region Mach Number

Subsonic M<1
Sonic M=1
Transonic 0.8 ≤ M ≤ 1.3
Supersonic M≥1
Hypersonic 5 ≤ M ≤ 10
Hypervelocity M > 10

At subsonic speeds the Concorde was inefficient, requiring high

engine power that drained the fuel tank rapidly.