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Forward Converter

Transformer Design
Transformer Design
Forward Converter

Transformer Design for Forward Converter

Power Calculation
The forward converter circuit and secondary voltage and current and load current
waveforms are shown in figure. Referring to the figure the secondary power,𝑃02, can be related to
the output voltage and current in the following manner,

1 𝑇𝑠
𝑃02 = 𝑣2 𝑖2 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑉2𝑚 𝐼0 𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥 ; (𝑉0 = 𝐷𝑉2𝑚 ) .... (3.44)
𝑇𝑠 0

Forward Converter

In practice, one has to account for the diode drop, 𝑉𝐷 and the resistive drop in the inductor and
transformer windings, 𝑉𝑟𝑙 ∗ 𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥 is considered to take into account the lowest supply
voltage, 𝑉𝑐𝑐𝑚𝑖𝑛

Thus, 𝑉2𝑚 𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑉0 + 𝑉𝑟𝑙 + 𝑉𝐷

Substituting for 𝑉2𝑚 in equation 3.44 from 3.45, we can rewrite the secondary power, 𝑃02 as

𝑃02 = 𝑉0 + 𝑉𝑟𝑙 + 𝑉𝐷 𝐼0

We shall denote 𝑉0 + 𝑉𝑟𝑙 + 𝑉𝐷 as 𝑉0′ here after, so

Transformer Design
Forward Converter

𝑃02 = 𝑉0′ 𝐼0

In the case of multiple secondary windings, then the powers of all the secondary windings must be
considered to arrive at the total secondary power,𝑃02, i.e.

𝑃02 = 𝑖 =1 𝑉0𝑖′ 𝐼0𝑖 where m is the number of secondary windings.

Core Selection
Now, substitute the value of 𝑃02in the area product equation for forward converter

𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑃02 1+𝑛1

𝐴𝑝 =
𝐾𝑤 𝐽 𝐵𝑚 𝑓𝑠

From the 𝐴 𝑝 value calculated from above equation choose the core from the core datasheets which
has 𝐴 𝑝 value greater than the value calculated.

Determine the Number of turns

From the equation, 𝑒 = 𝑁𝐴 , we can obtain a relation for the primary number of turns, 𝑁1
, given by

𝑉𝑐𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐷𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑁1 =
𝐴 𝑐 𝐵𝑚 𝑓𝑠

Note that the Duty cycle is minimum only when 𝑉𝑐𝑐 is maximum and vice versa.

𝑉𝑐𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐷𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑉𝑐𝑐𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥

Knowing the primary number of turns, the secondary number of turns is obtained by multiplying the
primary turns by the transformation ratio.

𝑁2 𝑉0′
𝑛= =
𝑁1 𝑉𝑐𝑐𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥

The secondary number of turns is given by 𝑁2 = 𝑛. 𝑁1

The demagnetising winding 𝑁3 is usually wound bifilar with the primary winding to reduce the
leakage inductance. Hence 𝑁3 is chosen invariably chosen equal to 𝑁1.

Wire Gauge Selection

The rms currents are given by

𝐼2 = 𝐼0 𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝐼1 = 𝑛𝐼2

Equivalent primary inductance 𝐿1 is given by

Transformer Design
Forward Converter

µ 0 µ 𝑟 𝐴 𝑐 𝑁12
𝐿1 =

where 𝑙 𝑚 is the mean magnetic length which is given in the core data sheet. 𝐿1 is also given by,
𝐿1 = 𝐴 𝐿 𝑁12, where 𝐴 𝐿is in nH/turns2 which is the inductance factor available from the data sheet
The primary magnetising current is then given by, (derived from 𝑒 = 𝐿 ,)

𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑐𝑐𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑔 =
𝑓𝑠 𝐿1

The demagnetising current, I 3 flows though the demagnetising winding during the period 1 − 𝐷 𝑇𝑠 ,
as shown in the figure, and the rms value obtained is

𝐼3 = 𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑔 3

The gauge of the wire to be chosen for the windings is found from the following relationship

𝐼1 𝐼2 𝐼3
𝑎1 = and 𝑎2 = and 𝑎3 =

From the values of the required conductor cross section areas 𝑎1 , 𝑎 2 and 𝑎 3, we can choose the
gauge of the wires required for the respective winding from wire size table.

Cross Check
Even though the 𝐴 𝑝 formula takes into account various design parameters, the final solution needs
to be cross checked for the following reasons:

Wire gauges are available in discrete areas. One has to invariably select a wire whose area is
higher than the calculated one. This may necessitate higher window area
When several windings are used (e.g. pushpull with primary and secondary centre tapped,
multi output SMPS etc.) the window utilisation factor K w may go down as various windings
need more insulation layers.

Using the actual conductor areas, check back to see if the turns fit into the window area A w of the
core by checking for the inequality
𝐴 𝑤 𝐾𝑤 ≥ 𝑖=1 𝑎 𝑖 𝑁𝑖

If the above inequality is not satisfied, then choose a core with a higher 𝐴 𝑝 and re-do the calculations
till the inequality is satisfied.

𝜌𝑙 𝑒 𝑁1
𝑟1 = , where 𝝆 is the resistivity of the wire, 𝑙 𝑒, is the mean length/turn and 𝑎1 is the conductor
cross section area of the primary winding.

𝜌 𝑙 𝑒 𝑁1
The secondary winding resistance is given by 𝑟1 =