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Chapter Two Introduction to Polynomials

a(r n − 1)
1. Given that S = , find S when
r −1
(a) a = 1, r = 2 and n = 4,
(b) a = 2, r = –1 and n = 6,
(c) a = –1, r = –2 and n = 8.
(12 marks)

2. Simplify the following expressions.


(a) (64m)(4n)
(b) (27a ÷ 32a)4
125 4 x × 5
(c)
25 3 x
(12 marks)

3. Find the values of the polynomial x3 – 3x2y + 3xy2 – y3 given the following values
of x and y.
(a) x = 1, y = –1
(b) x = –2, y = 1
(c) x = –3, y = –2
(12 marks)

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4. Simplify the following polynomials.
(a) (3x3 – 2x – 5x2 + 4) – (1 + 2x2 – 6x4 – x3)
(b) (–8 – 6y4 + 5y – 2y3) + (–4y2 – y3 + 3y + 5)
(c) (–3m – 2n) – (2n + 5m) + (4m – 6n)
(d) (2a2 + 5a) – (3a – 3a2) – (8a + 6a2)
(16 marks)

5. The figure shows a rectangle ABCD.


A (8 – 2x) cm D

(3x – 1) cm

B C

(a) Find the perimeter of ABCD in terms of x.


(b) If x = 1, find the perimeter of ABCD.
(10 marks)

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6. (a) Expand (3a + 4b)(3a – 4b).
(b) A rectangular wall measures (3a + 4b) m wide and (3a – 4b) m high. The
cost of painting the wall is $(5c – 4) per meter square. Using the result of (a),
find the required cost in terms of a, b and c.
(c) If a = 2, b = 1 and c = 5, find the cost in (b).
(18 marks)

7. Factorize the following polynomials.


(a) 3a(4b – 1) + 2a(1 – 4b)
(b) (5x – 2)(y – 3z) – (2 – 5x)(3y – z)
(10 marks)

8. Factorize the following polynomials.


(a) am + bm – an – bn – m + n
(b) ax + 2y – ay – 2z – 2x + az
(10 marks)

− END OF PAPER −

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Solutions

(1)(2 4 − 1)
1. (a) S=
2 −1
= 16 – 1
= 15
(2)[(−1) 6 − 1]
(b) S =
(−1) − 1
2[1 − 1]
=
−2
=0
(−1)[(−2) 8 − 1]
(c) S =
(−2) − 1
(−1)[256 − 1]
=
−3
= 85

m
2. (a) 64m = (43) = 43 × m = 43m
(64m)(4n) = 43m × 4n
= 43m + n
a
(b) 27a = (33) = 33 × a = 33a
(27a ÷ 32a)4 = (33a ÷ 32a)4
= (3a)4
= 34a
4x
(c) 1254x = (53) = 53 × 4x = 512x
3x
253x = (52) = 52 × 3x = 56x
125 4 x × 5 512 x × 5
=
25 3 x 56 x
512 x +1
= 6x
5
12 x +1− 6 x
=5
= 5 6 x +1

3. (a) When x = 1 and y = –1,


the value of the polynomial = (1)3 – 3(1)2(–1) + 3(1)(–1)2 – (–1)3
=1+3+3+1
=8

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(b) When x = –2 and y = 1,
the value of the polynomial = (–2)3 – 3(–2)2(1) + 3(–2)(1)2 – (1)3
= –8 – 12 – 6 – 1
= –27
(c) When x = –3 and y = –2,
the value of the polynomial = (–3)3 – 3(–3)2(–2) + 3(–3)(–2)2 – (–2)3
= –27 + 54 – 36 + 8
= –1

4. (a) (3x3 – 2x – 5x2 + 4) – (1 + 2x2 – 6x4 – x3)


= 3x3 – 2x – 5x2 + 4 – 1 – 2x2 + 6x4 + x3
= 6x4 + 3x3 + x3 – 5x2 – 2x2 – 2x + 4 – 1
= 6x4 + 4x3 – 7x2 – 2x + 3
(b) (–8 – 6y4 + 5y – 2y3) + (–4y2 – y3 + 3y + 5)
= –8 – 6y4 + 5y – 2y3 – 4y2 – y3 + 3y + 5
= –6y4 – 2y3 – y3 – 4y2 + 5y + 3y – 8 + 5
= –6y4 – 3y3 – 4y2 + 8y – 3
(c) (–3m – 2n) – (2n + 5m) + (4m – 6n)
= –3m – 2n – 2n – 5m + 4m – 6n
= –3m – 5m + 4m – 2n – 2n – 6n
= –4m – 10n
(d) (2a2 + 5a) – (3a – 3a2) – (8a + 6a2)
= 2a2 + 5a – 3a + 3a2 – 8a – 6a2
= 2a2 + 3a2 – 6a2 + 5a – 3a – 8a
= –a2 – 6a

5. (a) Perimeter of ABCD = [(8 – 2x) + (3x – 1) + (8 – 2x) + (3x – 1)] cm


= [–2x + 3x – 2x + 3x + 8 – 1 + 8 – 1] cm
= (2x + 14) cm
(b) When x = 1,
perimeter of ABCD = [2(1) + 14] cm
= 16 cm

6. (a) (3a + 4b)(3a – 4b) = (3a + 4b)3a – (3a + 4b)4b


= 9a2 + 12ab – 12ab – 16b2
= 9a2 – 16b2

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(b) Cost = $[(3a + 4b)(3a – 4b)(5c – 4)]
= $[(9a2 – 16b2)(5c – 4)]
= $[(9a2 – 16b2)5c – (9a2 – 16b2)(4)]
= $[45a2c – 80b2c – 36a2 + 64b2]
(c) When a = 2, b = 1 and c = 5,
the cost = $[45(2)2(5) – 80(1)2(5) – 36(2)2 + 64(1)2]
= $[900 – 400 – 144 + 64]
= $420

7. (a) 3a(4b – 1) + 2a(1 – 4b) = 3a(4b – 1) – 2a(4b – 1)


= (4b – 1)(3a – 2a)
= a(4b – 1)
(b) (5x – 2)(y – 3z) – (2 – 5x)(3y – z) = (5x – 2)(y – 3z) + (5x – 2)(3y – z)
= (5x – 2)(y – 3z + 3y – z)
= (5x – 2)(4y – 4z)
= 4(5x – 2)(y – z)

8. (a) am + bm – an – bn – m + n = (am + bm – m) – (an + bn – n)


= m(a + b – 1) – n(a + b – 1)
= (a + b – 1)(m – n)
(b) ax + 2y – ay – 2z – 2x + az = (ax – ay + az) + (2y – 2z – 2x)
= a(x – y + z) + 2(–x + y – z)
= a(x – y + z) – 2(x – y + z)
= (x – y + z)(a – 2)