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Curso de Inglês

GIRA mundo
Content:

Topic 1 ________________________________________________________01
• Giving Personal Information
• Pronouns
• Possessive Nouns
• Family Members

Topic 2 ________________________________________________________07
• There is/ There are
• Some/ Any
• A/ An
• Preposition of place

Topic 3 ________________________________________________________16
• Simple Present
• Adverbs of frequency

Topic 4 ________________________________________________________21
• Modal Verbs (Can, Could, May, Might, Should, Have to, Must)

Topic 5 ________________________________________________________34
• Food and drinks
• Some / Any / Much / Many
• How Much / How Many
• Countable and Uncountable

Topic 6 ________________________________________________________41
• Simple Future (Will)
• Going to
• Future time expressions

Topic 7 ________________________________________________________48
• Simple Past
• Regular and Irregular Verbs

Topic 8 ________________________________________________________52
• Present Perfect
• Since / For
• Already / Yet

Grammar Summary ______________________________________________58


Créditos:

João Azevêdo Lins Filho


Governador do Estado da Paraíba

Ligia Feliciano
Vice Governadora do Estado da Paraíba

Aléssio Trindade de Barros


Secretário de Estado da Educação, Ciências e Tecnologia

Giovana Marques Lopes


Secretária Executiva de Gestão Pedagógica

José Arthur Viana Teixeira


Secretário Executivo de Adm. De Suprimentos e Logística

Tulhio Cezídio Serrano da Silva


Diretor Executivo de Desenvolvimento Estudantil
Coordenador do Programa Gira Mundo

Equipe Técnica Administrativa e Pedagógica:


Ádalla Ramos de Lima
Amanda Siebra de Araújo
Erika de Almeida Ferreira
Jerffeson Giordano Oliveira da Trindade
Jéssica Gomes Machado
Jeyce Scott Lima Alves
Luis Henrique Mello
Lucas da Silva Paulino
Mara Andréia Barbalho Gondim
Patrícia Adriana Martins Ferreira
Silvia Patrícia Sousa Viana

Equipe Centro Estadual de Línguas:

Coordenação:
Patrícia Adriana Martins Ferreira

Elaboração do Material:
Ana Paula de Sousa
Anderlane Fernandes de Lima
Clarissa Leite Marinho
Eveline Alvarez dos Santos
Moysés Barbosa da Silva
Nana Izabel Pontes Coutinho
Patrícia Adriana Martins Ferreira
Sidney Chirol da Silva
Simone Conceição de Lima Amorim

Diagramação
Luiz Fernando Dourado Bereta
APRESENTAÇÃO

O programa Gira Mundo modalidade estudante, visa proporcionar intercâmbio


internacional aos estudantes matriculados na segunda série do ensino médio,
no sentido de oportunizar o desenvolvimento linguístico e a interação com
novas culturas e métodos de ensino. Ao regressarem, os estudantes tornar-se-
-ão multiplicadores do Programa Gira Mundo em suas regiões e desenvolver
ações voltadas ao aprimoramento da educação no estado da Paraíba.
Busca-se com o referido projeto, motivar os alunos e professores da rede pública
estadual de educação na busca de melhor formação e desempenho na escola.

INSCRIÇÕES

As inscrições para o Programa “Gira Mundo” serão destina-


das aos estudantes matriculados no 2º ano do ensino médio
do Sistema Estadual de Ensino no início de cada ano letivo.
Todas as inscrições serão realizadas no portal http://paraiba.pb.gov.br/educação/.
Todos os inscritos terão que anexar cópias de documentos comprobatórios no ato
da inscrição. Os gestores expedirão, quando solicitados pelo estudante, Declaração
de matrícula contendo as médias obtidas pelo candidato/estudante no ano de 2018.
Todos os documentos originais serão conferidos e comparados com
os anexados no início das aulas do curso preparatório de línguas.

1ª ETAPA
A primeira etapa consiste na verificação dos requisitos como:

● Ter no mínimo 14 anos de idade até o dia primeiro de julho de 2018


e no máximo 17 anos e seis meses até o dia primeiro de julho de 2019;
● Ter cursado o primeiro ano no ensino médio regular, normal médio,
semi-integral, integral ou médio integral integrado à educação profissional
das escolas públicas da rede estadual de ensino da Paraíba em 2018;
● Estar regularmente matriculado no segundo ano do ensino médio
regular, normal médio, semi-integral, integral ou médio integral integrado à
educação profissional das escolas públicas da rede estadual de ensino em 2019;
● Ter obtido, ao longo do primeiro ano do ensino médio, a frequência mínima de 85%
(oitenta e cinco) nas aulas regulares da escola de ensino médio em que esteja matriculado;
● Ter alcançado a média mínima de 7,0 (sete) pontos no
desempenho acadêmico escolar na disciplina de Língua Portuguesa,
Língua Inglesa e Matemática no primeiro ano do ensino médio.

Serão selecionados para participarem da segunda etapa estudantes com as maio-


res médias no desempenho acadêmico do ano de 2018.
2ª ETAPA

Os estudantes serão selecionados para participarem do Curso Preparatório


de Línguas, por suas respectivas Gerências de ensino, de acordo o número de va-
gas oferecidas para os que obtiveram melhores médias no 1º ano do ensino médio
em 2018 conforme estabelecido em edital de seleção. Será realizada uma prova de
proficiência para cada área de caráter eliminatório. Estarão classificados, os estu-
dantes que obtiverem os melhores desempenhos e estiverem dentro do número de
vagas, distribuídas entre as Gerências de Ensino para o intercâmbio Internacional.

3ª ETAPA

Na terceira etapa, será realizada uma avaliação psicossocial, de caráter elimi-


natório.

COMO SERÁ NOS PAÍSES DE DESTINO?

Os estudantes, durante sua estadia, residirão em casa de famílias nati-


vas do país escolhido e cursarão um semestre letivo em Escolas de nível mé-
dio. Os aprovados receberão bolsa auxílio no valor total de 4.500,00 Reais,
dividido em seis parcelas. As passagens, emissão de passaporte e visto, mo-
radia, alimentação, transporte e seguro saúde para intercambistas, em um pe-
ríodo de cinco meses (um semestre letivo) bem como todos os serviços su-
pracitados, serão de responsabilidades da empresa de intercâmbio licitada.

E AO RETORNAREM?

Durante a estadia nos países, o estudante deverá desenvolver um projeto


com temática relacionada à cidadania, diferenças e similaridades socioculturais,
meio ambiente, inovação, globalização, economia criativa, empreendedorismo com
responsabilidade social, convivência pacífica e cooperativa entre os povos e nações entre
outros temas, a serem desenvolvidos em sua escola e região no seu regresso ao Brasil.
TOPIC 1 - IT IS MY FIRST DAY AT COLLEGE!

WELCOME STUDENTS!

1 Students arrive at college and are excited about meeting other


students. Listen to the conversation and write YES or NO.
a. Adam is from India. __________
b. Sayuri is crazy about books and music.__________
c. Cris wants to be an astronaut. __________
d. The students are from different countries. __________

2 Ms. Amorim invites all students to go on a tour around the college.


At the library, they need an identity card to enter in it. Complete the
card with your info.

STUDENT ID LIBRARY CARD


a. Name: ________________________________________________
b. Surname: _____________________________________________
c. Country: _______________________________________________
d. Age: __________________________________________________
e. Address: _______________________________________________
f. Phone number: __________________________________________
3 Write possible questions for each topic from the form.

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a _______________________________________________________
b _______________________________________________________
c _______________________________________________________
d _______________________________________________________
e _______________________________________________________
f________________________________________________________

4 In pairs, ask and answer the questions.

ATTENTION: Question word order is different from Portuguese.


STUDY THESE SENTENCES.

A) You are Brazilian. B) You live in Canada.


A) Are you Brazilian? B) Do you live in Canada?

What´s different from the sentences and questions?


________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Make four more questions about your classmates.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Sometimes it is OKAY to use the words to substitute nouns (names,
objects, things, etc.) It is important to identify to what they refer to.

Ex. Ms. Amorim is a good teacher.


She
Adam, Sayuri and Cris are students.
They

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Revise the subject pronouns: I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They
5 Read the sentences and use one pronoun to substitute the nouns.
a) Mary and I are in class 1A. ____________ are friends.
b) Steve and Bela study together. ____________ are Americans.
c) This is my book. ____________ is black and white.
d) That man is our teacher. ____________ works full-time.
e) Sayuri is never late for class. ____________ is responsible.

6 Read the message Sayuri writes to Ayumi, her mom. What do the
pronouns refer to?
Mom,
I miss you so much. But here in Canada is great. It is cloudy and
windy all day long.
My college is huge. It has more than two thousand students from
all over the world. They stay in dorms at college or in host families.
My teacher is Ms. Amorim. She is cool and patient. Cris and I are at
the college library to do our first assignment – we need to create a
presentation about our hopes and dreams for this exchange program. I
need to go!
Love,
Sayuri.

NOW STUDY THESE SENTENCES.

My teacher is Mr. Brown.


Cris and I are at the college library to do our first assignment.

7 Write YES or NO

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My and our are pronouns. ________
They don´t express possession. ________
They need a noun. ____________

WE CAN CONCLUDE:
These words are called possessive adjectives. They are
pronominal adjectives and they express possession.
I
YOU
HE
SHE His   my   our 
       your   her 
IT   your   its   their 
WE
YOU
THEY
For more practice, visit:
http://letshavefunwithenglish.com/games/possessive_adjectives/index.html

One possible way to understand possessive adjectives is to talk about


family. Study the family tree below.

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8 This is my family. Use the names from the family tree to complete
the sentences.
My mother´s name is _______________.
My father´s name is _______________.
My grandfather is _________ and _________ is his son.
My grandmother is _________ and _________ is her daughter-in-law.
_________ and _________ are my cousins’ names.
My uncle’s name is _________. My aunt’s name is _________.

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9 Answer the question:

Who is Rob’s son? _________________________________


Who is Randall’s daughter? __________________________
Who are Paty and Robert’s parents? ___________________
Who are Pam and Sam’s grandparents? ________________
Is Randall Robert’s uncle? __________________________
Is Luke Pam’s father? ______________________________

Script
Mr – All right, everyone. To start our class, I’d like you to talk a bit
about yourselves. Say your personal information: name, country,
interests, etc. Is there any volunteer?
1 – Me, Mr __________. I´m Adam. I´m from New Dheli, India. I´m
sixteen years old, This is my first opportunity in a different country
and I´m very happy to be here.
Mr-Thank you, Adam. Next one, please.
2- Hi, I´m Sayuri. I come from a small town near Nagoya, Japan. I am
crazy about books and fashion, as you can see. (Giggles)
Mr – Thank you, Sayuri. We have lots to learn from you and your
culture. One more student, please?
3 – Okay, My name’s Cris and I´m Chilean. I have seventeen… ops,
sorry… I am 17.
I like science and I want to be an astronaut. Yes … that´s all about me.
Mr – Thank you Cris. Hey class, listen…
[THE END] 
 

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Topic 2 There is / There are / some / any / a/an

1 – (Audio exercise) With your books closed, listen to two people 
who arrive at a hotel on an island in Scotland. Are they happy with 
the hotel and with their room? Why/(not)? 

Man: Hello, we have a reservation. 
Receptionist: Let’s see, yes Mr and Mrs Robinson. Welcome to the 
island. Your __________’s upstairs, number seven.  
Man: Is there a __________?
Receptionist: No, I’m sorry there isn’t. But I can help you with your
cases.
_______________________________________________________
_______________
Receptionist: This is your room.
Woman: It’s very small.
Receptionist: Yes, but there’s a __________ view!
Man: There are ________ ________. We wanted a double bed.
Receptionist: I’m sorry. There aren’t any rooms with a double bed.
Woman: Where’s the TV?
Receptionist: There isn’t one. There are some ________ over there.
Woman: Books!
Receptionist: This is the bathroom.
Woman: There isn’t a __________.
Receptionist: No, there is a _________. It uses less ________.
Man: Can I use the internet here?
Receptionist: No, I’m sorry you can’t.

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Woman: There isn’t a __________.
Receptionist: No, there is a _________. It uses less ________.
Man: Can I use the internet here?
Receptionist: No, I’m sorry you can’t.
Woman: Are there any ___________ near here?
Receptionist: No, madam, there aren’t. Enjoy your stay.

2- (Audio exercise) With your books open, listen again and read
the dialogue. Complete the missing words.

3- Read the dialogue again. Underline examples of there is / there


are in the affirmative, interrogative and negative forms.

4- (Audio exercise) Listen to what happens next. Do they leave


the hotel? Why/(not)? Do they like it? Why (not)?

5 – There is a…. / there are some … (= exist)

Singular Plural
(+) There’s a TV in my room. There are two beds in my
(there’s = there is) bedroom.
There are some beds in my
bedroom.
(-) There isn’t a phone here. There aren’t any towels.
(-) There isn’t a bath in our There aren’t any books.
house.
(?) Is there a radio on the Are there any pictures on your
table? walls?
(+) Yes, there is. (+) Yes, there are.
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(?) Is There a garage in your Are there any towels in your
house? bathroom?
(-) No, there isn’t. (-) No, there aren’t.

6 – Complete with the right form of there is or there are.


1- __________ a meeting room in the hotel?
2- __________ some tables in the garden.
3- __________ a car park, but we can help you park your car.
4- __________ some amazing pictures in this room!
5- __________ a remote control for the TV. Can you ask
reception for one?
6- __________ any clean towels?
7- __________ any free tables in the restaurant?
8- __________ any lifts. Would you like rooms on the ground
floor?
9- __________ a bath in the bathroom. It’s very big.
10- _________ a gym? I want to do some exercise.

7 – Answer the following questions.


a- When do we use the word some? In what kind of sentences? Is
some followed by count nouns in the singular or in the plural?
Give examples.
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_______________
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b- When do we use the word any? In what kind of sentences? Is
any followed by count nouns in the singular or in the plural? Give
examples.
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_______________

c- Do we use the indefinite articles a/an only followed by


singular or plural nouns? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

8- Complete with a/an, some or any.


1- Are there _____ restaurants in the village?
2- There are _____ good restaurants in town.
3- There are _____ shops in the street.
4- There isn’t _____ air-conditioning in our bedroom.
5- There aren’t _____ cars in the car park.
6- Is there _____ computer in your office?
7- Are there ______ minibars in your rooms?
8- Isn’t there _____ beautiful garden in Dayse’s house?
9- Are there ______ interesting films at the movie theater this
week?

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10- There aren’t ______ students in the library right now.

9 A - Make true affirmative or negative sentences about things in


your classroom:
a board – windows – table - a TV – chairs – a lamp – pictures –
computers – wifi connection – an air-conditioning

_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

B- Make true affirmative or negative sentences about things in


your school:

a garden – a car park – a cafeteria – a library - restrooms

_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
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10 – Using there is or there are in the affirmative, interrogative
or negative forms, describe your house or apartment giving as
many details as possible about the rooms and the things inside it.
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

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VOCABULARY: PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

1. ‘WHERE DO YOU LIVE?’/‘WHAT’S NEXT TO


YOUR HOUSE?’. Work in pairs. Use the nouns and
the prepositions of place below.

drugstore - supermaket -
bakery -
gas station – bookstore –
shopping mall – hospital –
university – school –
grocery store – restaurant –
petshop

2. Look at the map and describe the places using the


right prepositions:

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 There is a church ………………… the school.
 There is a car ………………… the library.
 There is a cat ……………………… the restaurant.
 There is a girl ……………… the church.
 There is a boy ……………………… a tree.
 There is a dog …………………….. the house.
 There is a motorbike ……………….. the house and the
restaurant.
 There is a lake ………………………… the park.
 There is a boy …………………………. the school.
 There is a bird …………………… the church.
 There is a tree …………………….. the bank and the
library.
 There is a bus …………………… the bus stop.

3. Try to remember! Complete the sentences with


AT/IN/ON:

a) I’m a blogger. I work ____ home.


b) Jimmy is not here. He’s ____ work.
c) I can’t find my cell phone! Oh no, it’s ______ the train.
d) Madam, here’s your key. You’re _____ room 65.

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4. Fill in the gaps with AT/IN/ON:

Where was Cindy yesterday Where was your father last


at 2 p.m.? night at 8 p. m.?

She was... He was...


____ home ____ a train
____ work ____ New York
____ the kitchen ____ the park
____university ____ the street
____ a bus ____ a café
____ a plane ____ a restaurant
____ her car ____ bed

5. Now, in pairs, ask and answer the questions below.


Follow the model:
Where were you...
at 6 a. m.? I was at home.
at 7 a.m.? ___________________________________.
at 8 a.m.? ___________________________________.
at 10 a. m? __________________________________.
at 12.00? __________________________________.
at 3 p. m.? __________________________________.
at 6 p.m.? ___________________________________.
at 10 p.m.? __________________________________.
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TOPIC 3 - WHAT IS YOUR NORMAL DAILY ROUTINE?

Your routine is your normal everyday activities. The things that you usually do on
a normal school or work day.

1. Use the present simple tense.


Forming the present simple tense is simple – use the base form of the verb.
 I play…
 You work…
 They swim…

Remember – if you are using the third person singular (he/she/it) you need to
add s/es/ies to the verb.
 He plays…
 She works…
 It swims…
 He watches
 She sdudies
2. Use adverbs of frequency.

We usually use Adverbs of Frequency with Present Simple tense. They often go before the
verb. Except the verb BE where they go after.

100% 0%
always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, hardly ever, rarely, never
I always clean my teeth before I go to school.
She is never late to school.

16
 

Read the text carefully 

Alfred is an American boy. He lives in Los Angeles,


California. He lives with his family in a modern house. He is
eleven years old and he has an older brother, David, and a
younger sister, Emma.
He starts his day at about half past seven. He gets up, goes to
the bathroom, takes a shower, brushes his teeth and gets
dressed. Then he has breakfast and at a quarter to eight he
leaves home and catches the bus to school.
Classes begin at half past eight. He usually has lunch at the school canteen at half past twelve. After
school, at a quarter past five, he goes home. There he does his school homework and when he finishes it he
helps his Mum laying the table. At half past seven the family has dinner together.
Alfred is a very helpful boy, so he helps his mother cleaning up everything after dinner.
He usually watches TV for a while after dinner and at about ten o’clock the most he brushes his teeth
again, puts on his Spider Man pajamas and goes to bed. His parents always kiss him good night before he
gets asleep. Alfred is a very happy boy!

1) True or false?
1. Alfred is an American boy. ______________
2. He lives in a modern flat. _______________
3. He is eleven years old. _________________
4. He has two brothers. __________________
5. Alfred wakes up at eight o’clock. _________
6. He walks to school. ____________________
7. His classes begin at half past eight. _______
8. Alfred and his family have dinner at half past seven. _________
2) Answer the following questions.
1. Where does Alfred live? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. What’s his sister’s name? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. What time does he wake up? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
4. Does he have breakfast at home? ------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. What time does he leave home? --------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Where does he have lunch? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. When does he return home? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Does he do homework at school or at home? ----------------------------------------------------------
9. Is he a helpful boy? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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3) Match the antonyms.
modern ● ● enters
older ● ● alone
starts ● ● end
leaves ● ● old-fasioned
begin ● ● unhappy
together ● ● younger
helpful ● ● finishes
happy ● ● unhelpful

HAVE LUNCH

PLAY KARATE

HAVE A SHOWER

GO TO BED

DO HOMEWORK

HAVE DINNER

GET UP

GO TO SCHOOL

COME BACK HOME

HAVE BREAKFAST

4) Fill in the gaps with the correct verb from the chart in the simple present tense
John __________________ at seven o’clock and ________________. Then he
____________ and _______________________. At 12 o’clock he ____________________
and ___________. In the afternoon, he __________________ and
______________________. At 7 p.m. he ____________________ and then he
______________________.
5) Put the words in the correct order to make complete sentences.
1. Eat / Lunch / Always / We / At / Cafeteria / The
_____________________________________________________
2. At 8.00 / Sue / gets up / usually.
_____________________________________________________
3. Go / To / Occasionally / My / The / Parents / Theatre
_____________________________________________________
4. Very amusing / This / is / Generally / Show
_____________________________________________________
5. Never / Rude / Is / Lucy
_____________________________________________________

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3. Negative sentences in the Simple Present

We use the auxiliary do/does and not.

I don’t like eggs.


Alan doesn't like eggs.

6) Rewrite these sentences into the negative form.


1. Paul rides a bike at weekends.
…………………………………………………………
2. Our teacher drives a red sports car.
…………………………………………………………
3. My friends play the guitar on Sunday.
…………………………………………………………
4. Mary exercises every afternoon.
…………………………………………………………
5. Those two girls dance very well.
…………………………………………………………
6. My sisters study Medicine at university.
…………………………………………………………
7. School starts at 9:00 and finishes at 3:00.
…………………………………………………………
8. It rains a lot in my town in July.
…………………………………………………………

4. Questions without question words in the Simple Present.


Do you like eggs? Yes, I do. No, I don’t.
Does Alan like eggs? Yes, he/she does. No, he/she doesn’t.

7) Complete the sentences with short answers.


a) Do you go to the cinema very often?
Yes,__________________
b) Does Ann get up early on Sundays?
No,___________________
c) Does your best friend study at school?
Yes,___________________
d) Do they work in an office?
No,___________________
e) Do you like your hometown?
Yes, __________________
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8) Listen to the conversation and complete extracts 1-5 with these words.

always – evenings – every day – four days a week


– mornings – on the weekends – usually

a) What hours do you ………………work?


b) I practice singing and guitar …………………
c) And you want to come in and work Saturday …………………. and then sing here Saturday
………………………………?
d) I work ……………… and ………………., so I understand.
e) Are you ………………busy?

9) Check √ the days Genevieve does these things.

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su
1 day off
2 go to class
3 go to the gym
4 take singing
lessons
5 sing
6 study
7 work

10) Listen again the same conversation and answer 1-3.

1) When does Rory like to put dinner specials on the menu?

( ) in the afternoon ( ) in the evening ( ) in the morning

2) What are the specials for today?


( ) a chicken sandwich and chips.
( ) a burger and French fries.
( ) a Caesar salad.

3) What doesn’t Genevieve like?


( ) vegetables
( ) beef
( ) fish

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TOPIC
4º 4 - MODAL
Encontro - MODALVERBS
VERBS

 They can dance very well!


 They could dance when they were ten.
 You should relax. Let's take dancing
classes.
 We have to practice hard. The
competition is in few days.

Modals are auxiliary verbs


that add specific meanings to
the main verb of the sentence.

 In affirmative sentences, modal verbs come after the subject and before
the main verb in the base form;
 In negative sentences, they come before the word not;
 In questions they come before the subject.

ABILITY

Look at those girls! They can dance My cousin Sarah is ten years old and
very well! she can cook really well.

21
Circle the best answer to these questions.

1. The teacher wants the students to …


a. take notes after she has finished speaking.
b. take notes while she is speaking.
c. forget about taking notes.

2. The teacher suggests eating …


a. sugary snacks.
b. only apples.
c. fruit and cereals.

3. The teacher suggests finding a study place with a lot of …


a. light.
b. space.
c. books.

4. If students feel stressed they should …


a. go to bed.
b. go out for a walk.
c. drink some water.

5. Students are advised to …


a. select the important things to learn.
b. read through everything once.
c. make notes about every topic.

6. The teacher understands that repeating things can be …


a. difficult.
b. uninteresting.
c. tiring.

7. Students can do past exam papers …


a. in the library only.
b. at home if they take photocopies.
c. in the after-school study group.

8. The teacher recommends a break of five minutes every …


a. hour.
b. two hours.
c. thirty minutes.

9. It’s important to …
a. eat regularly.
b. sleep when you feel tired.
22
c. keep hydrated.

10. The teacher is sure that the students will …


a. pass their exams.
b. fail their exams.
c. do their best.

To learn more about modals and know other meanings they can assume you
can visit:

https://www.solinguainglesa.com.br/conteudo/ModalVerbs1.php
https://www.englishexperts.com.br/modal-verbs/
https://brasilescola.uol.com.br/ingles/modal-verbs.htm
https://www.infoescola.com/ingles/verbos-modais-modal-verbs/
https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/english-grammar/modal-verbs

ANSWER KEYS

1. PERSONAL ANSWER
2.

Mark could swim two years ago, but he couldn’t ride a bicycle.

Can you play tennis?

What can you say in French?

Could you write your name when you were four?

3. PERSONAL CHOICES
4. 1. False 2. True 3. True 4. False 5. True 6. False 7. False 8. True  
5. a) mustn't 
b) must 
c) must / must 
d) mustn't 
e) must 
f) must   

6. E

7. a) should

b) shouldn't 
c) should 
d) shouldn't 
23
e) should 
f) shouldn't   

LISTENING #1

1. Where can I go to get some gas?

2. She can't see through the windshield.

3. They can't find their gloves.

4. How far can you throw this?

5. You can't leave until 5:00.

6. How can I help you?

7. The doctor can see you now.

8. The kids can enter through that door.

9. There can only be one answer.

10. No can do. *(This is an expression)

LISTENING #2

1. We might see a movie later today.

2. John couldn't get his car started. (negative)

3. This should take an hour to finish.

4. May I help you?

5. The doctor said you must go on a diet.

6. She won't be here until 2:00. (negative)

7. How much should I do?

8. I wouldn't do that if I were you. (negative)

9. This will hurt a little bit.

10. Tom and Sue can't come. (negative)


24
LISTENING #3

1. b 6. b

2. c 7. b

3. a 8. c

4. b 9. c

5. a 10. c

25
He could swim when he was a baby.
He can’t sing beautifully.

 We use can to express skill or general ability at a given time in the


present.
 I can speak four languages.
 I can fix computers.
 We use could to express skill or general ability about past time.

 My mom could read when she was 4.

 My dad could drive a car when he was 16.

Let’s Practice More!

1. Write sentences that are true for you. Use can/can’t or could/couldn’t.

1. I __________________ play an instrument.

2. I __________________ use a computer.

3. I __________________ fly a plane.

4. I __________________ cook.

5. I __________________ ride a bike when I was six.

6. I __________________ swim when I was two.

7. I __________________ speak two languages when I was eight.

8. I __________________ swim when I was seven.

2. Correct the sentences.


26
1. Tanya can sing, but she couldn’t dance.

Tanya can sing, but she can’t dance.

2. Mark could to swim two years ago, but he couldn’t ride a bicycle.

_______________________________________________________________

3. Do you can play tennis?

_______________________________________________________________

4. What you can say in French?

_______________________________________________________________

5. Could you to write your name when you were four?

______________________________________________________________

LISTENING #1
https://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Listening_Lab/Listening_Lab_Exercise_17_modal_ve
rb_can.html

Directions: Complete each sentence or question with the modal verb, "can."
Some of these verbs are negative.

1. Where ________ I _________ to get some gas?

2. She ________ _________ through the windshield.

3. They ________ _________ their gloves.

4. How far ________ you ________ this?

5. You ________ ________ until 5:00.

6. How ________ I ________ you?

7. The doctor ________ _________ you now.

8. The kids ________ ________ through that door.

9. There ________ only _________ one answer.

10. No ________ ________. * (*This is an expression)

27
POSSIBILITY

 We use the modals might and may to show that something is


possible, but not certain.

From: https://www.quora.com/Which-one-is-the-correct-sentence-It-may-rain-or-it-might-rain

3. Look at the picture and write sentences. Use may or might (not).

28
1. These girls / be at home

_____________________________________________________________

2. They / be in a movie theater

_____________________________________________________________

3. They / be watching a comedy

_____________________________________________________________

4. They / feel cold

_____________________________________________________________

5. They / be studying

_____________________________________________________________

READING

4. Look at the train ticket and timetable and do the exercises to practice
your reading skills.

29
https://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/sites/teens/files/a_train_timetable_-_exercises_1.pdf

Circle True or False for these sentences.  

1. The ticket is for trains to Oxford.                                                                    True False  

2. All trains leave from platform 1.                                                                     True False  

3. The first train leaves Oxford at 10:43.                                                            True False  

4. The 10:43 train from Oxford takes 58 minutes to get to London.             True False  

5. You don't have to change trains if you take the 11:01 train.                      True False  

6. The 11:16 train from Oxford arrives in London on platform 3.                  True False  

7. The ticket is for a single journey only.                                                            True False  

8. With this ticket you can go to any station in London.                                  True False 

OBLIGATION AND NECESSITY


30
https://blog.off2class.com/how-to-teach-must-and-have-to/

LET’S PRACTICE!

5. (G1 1996) Complete the sentences using MUST or MUSTN'T:


a) You ____________ smoke inside a hospital.
b) Children ____________ be well educated to become good citizens.
c) You are too fat. You ____________ see a doctor. You ____________ lose
weight.
d) You ____________ cheat on tests.
e) I have a problem. I ____________ find a solution.
f) You look tired and stressed. You ____________ either rest or have vacation.

31
‘King County Kicks Off Bag Recycling Campaign With ‘Bus Full Of Bags’

6. (Upf 2015) In the sentence ‘All bags must be dry and clean with no
food residue’, the expression ‘must’ indicates the individual who
participates in the campaign:

a) has the possibility to deliver wet and dirty bags.


b) does not have the obligation to wet and clean bags to be delivered.
c) has the permission to deliver dirty bags.
d) does not have the permission to deliver dry and clean bags.
e) has the obligation to deliver dry and clean bags.

LISTENING #2
https://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Listening_Lab/Listening_Lab_Exercise_27_modal_verbs.html

Directions: Complete each sentence or question with the correct modal


verb and main verb. Some are negative.

1. We __________ __________ a movie later today.

2. John __________ __________ his car started. (negative)

3. This __________ __________ an hour to finish.

4. _________ I __________ you?


32
5. The doctor said you __________ __________ on a diet.

6. She __________ __________ here until 2:00. (negative)

7. How much __________ I __________?

8. I __________ __________ that if I were you. (negative)

9. This __________ __________ a little bit.

10. Tom and Sue __________ __________. (negative)

ADVICE AND SUGGESTIONS

            

 We use should to make strong suggestions or give advice.

 You should obey your parents.


 Marcy has a headache. She should take an aspirin.

Now it’s your turn!

7. (G1 1996) Complete as orações com SHOULD ou SHOULDN'T:

a) You're eating too much. You ___________ see a doctor.


b) If you don't like John, you ___________ go out with him.
c) Men ___________ be polite and gentle.
d) Women ___________ be jealous.
e) Students ___________ pay attention to classes.
f) You ___________ work too much. You'll get sick.

LISTENING #3
https://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening/intermediate-b1-listening/advice-exams
33
TOPIC 5

Food and drinks

It’s important to know vocabulary related to food and drinks, especially when you’re
ordering food at a restaurant or buying food at a supermarket or grocery store.

1. Match the food and the drinks with the pictures.

Food and Drinks

____ eggs _____ coffee

____ cookies _____ tea

____ apples _____ milk

____ bananas _____ soda

____ bread _____ juice

____rice _____ water

____ chicken _____ ice cream

____ pasta _____ sandwich

____ cheese _____ yogurt

____ salad _____steak

022 04
4
011 033

055 06 6 07
7
8 08

099 10
1 111 12
12

34
13
1 14
14
15
15
16
1

18 2
171
18 19
1 20

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Countable nouns are the ones which can be counted. We use numbers, a/
an, and determiners (like many, a few) to count them. Example: bananas,
eggs.
Uncountable nouns can’t be separated or counted, they’re are seem as a
whole or a mass. We don’t use numbers with them or a/an and they are not
used in the plural. Example: tea, coffee.

2. Look at the food and drinks in exercise 1. Put them in the correct column.

COUNTABLE UNCOUNTABLE

35
3. Read these recipes and write C for countable and U for uncountable.

(Disponível em https://www.richmond.com.br/portal-educacional-1/area-
exclusiva/log-in-to-english-2nd-edition/professor/banco-de-questoes/# Acesso em
Fevereiro de 2019)

Listen and do the exercises that folllow.

1. Listen and circle TRUE or FALSE


a) They are at the cinema. TRUE / FALSE
b) There are two customers eating together. TRUE/ FALSE
c) They order the same food. TRUE/ FALSE
d) The woman wants to drink mineral water. TRUE/ FALSE
e)They both order desserts. TRUE/ FALSE

36
2. Listen and complete the gaps with a word from the box.
(Disponível em
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/sites/teens/files/eating_out_-
_exercises_5.pdf Acesso em Fevereiro de 2019)

4. Read the text and answer the questions that follow.

HEALTHY EATING TIPS FOR TEENAGERS

37
(Disponível em https://www.richmond.com.br/portal-educacional-1/area-
exclusiva/log-in-to-english-2nd-edition/professor/banco-de-questoes/# Acesso em
Fevereiro de 2019)

A/AN

We use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word
that starts with a vowel sound.
Examples: A man
An elephant
But pay attention:
We say an hour and a house. The key here is the sound!

SOME/ANY
We use some:
● In affirmative sentences with uncountable and plural nouns. Examples:
There is some bread on the table; There are some oranges on the table.
● In questions when we are asking for things or offering things. Examples:

38
Can I have some grapes, please?; Would you like some coffee?

We use any:
● In questions and negative sentences with uncountable nouns and plural
nouns. Examples:
Is there any water?; We don’t have any rice.

5. Complete the gaps with many, much, some or any.

Sharon: Hey, Bob, how ___________ eggs are there in the fridge?
Bob: More than a dozen. Are we baking a cake? How ___________ sugar do we
have?
Sharon: Just ____________. Are there ____________ carrots? I love carrot cake!
Bob: No, we don’t have ________ carrots, but we have __________ bananas. How
about a banana cake?
Sharon: How ____________ bananas are there in the basket?
Bob: Not ____________, just two small ones.
Sharon: Let’s go to the supermarket and buy ____________ milk, carrots and
bananas.
(Disponível em https://www.richmond.com.br/portal-educacional-1/area-
exclusiva/log-in-to-english-2nd-edition/professor/banco-de-questoes/# Acesso em
Fevereiro de 2019)

How much or how many?


We use How much with uncountable nouns and How many with plural
countable nouns.

Examples: How much sugar do you put in your coffee?


How many apples are there in the fridge?

6. Look at the picture and complete the questions using How much or How
many.

39
a) ________________ cans of corn are there?
b) ________________ meat is there?
c) ________________ cartons of milk are there?
d) ________________ yogurt is there?
e) ________________ bottles of mineral water are there?
f) ________________ bags of cookies are there?

40
TOPIC 6 – THE FUTURE IS IN YOUR HANDS
BE GOING TO
We use be going to:
1- To talk about future plans
2- In predictions about the future

1) (Listening 6.1) Complete the conversation. Then listen and check your answers. Practice
the conversation with a partner.

a. FIVE DAYS b. PLANE c. ROME d. AUNT AND UNCLE

Ana Hey! No classes next week! What are you going to do?
Anthony I’m going to visit my 1_______________________________.
Ana Where do they live?
Anthony They live in 2_____________________.
Ana Wow! That’s far. How are you going to get there?
Anthony I’m going to go by 3______________________________.
Ana How long are you going to stay?
Anthony I’m going to stay for 4_____________________________, maybe a
little longer.
Ana And what are you going to do?
Anthony Nothing! I’m going to chill out!

2) Practice the conversation again. Use the ideas below. Add your own ideas.
1 2 3 4
Classmates Buenos Aires Train Two days
Best friends Mexico City Bus A week

3) Read the dialogue again in number 1. Underline all the questions asked by Ana. Then
answer the following questions.

a) How many questions are about the future? Circle them in the text.
_______________________________________________
b) What do those questions have in common?
_______________________________________________

41
Grammar Corner

Affirmative Negative

I __________________ camping in California I’m not going to stay at home.


Michael is going to go on a trip with Alicia. Alicia isn’t going to go skiing.
We __________________ in a tent. We ___________________ in the motorhome.

Interrogative Short Answers

______ you _______________ tell her that? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.
______ she _______________ talk to Sylvia? Yes, she is/ No, she isn’t.
______ he ________________ wait forever? Yes, he is / No, he isn’t.

Question words

_________ are you going to do?


_________ are you going to get another
opportunity?

4) Complete the sentences. Use be going to and the verb in the parentheses.

a) Cars ____________________________ safer in the future. (get)


b) Fewer people ______________________ by plane in the future. (travel)
c) More people _______________________ streetcars to work. (ride)
d) People ________________________ shorter vacations. (have)
e) I _______________________ around the world someday. (travel)

5) Answer the questions with information about you. Use be going to.

a) Are you going to take a vacation next year?


_____________________________________________________________.
b) Are you going to study a language next year?
_____________________________________________________________.
c) Are you going to try a new sport?
_____________________________________________________________.

6) Make sentences about Abdul’s week. Follow the examples bellow:

Morning Afternoon Evening


Monday Go to college Visit mother
Tuesday Play table tennis
Wednesday Clean the house Watch football
Thursday Study English Go to the gym
Friday Stay in bed Go to the disco

a) On Monday morning, he is going to go to college.


b) On Monday evening, ___________________________________________________.

42
c) On Tuesday __________________________________________________________.
d) ____________________________________________________________________.
e) ____________________________________________________________________.
f) ___________________________________________________________________.
g) ___________________________________________________________________.
h) ___________________________________________________________________.
i) ___________________________________________________________________.

7) Now, now make a timetable with your activities and write true sentences about yourself.
Share with your classmates.

Morning Afternoon Evening


Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

Future Time Expressions


We often use the following future time expressions with be going to:
This Morning/ afternoon/evening/ week/ weekend/month/year/spring/ summer/
autumn/ winter/ January, etc.
Tomorrow Morning / afternoon / evening / night
Next Week / month / year / spring / summer / autumn / winter / January, etc.
In The morning / afternoon / evening / spring / summer / autumn / winter / January,
etc.

Future Simple:
We use will:
1- To make predictions about the future.

43
a) __________________________ b) _________________________

1) Look at the pictures and listen to the description. What are the names of the boys? Write.

2) Here are some adjectives used to describe Tyler and Joshua. Listen to the descriptions
again and write T for Tyler and J for Joshua.
a) Strong _______
b) Honest ______
c) Lazy ______
d) Sincere _____
e) Good-hearted ____
f) Worried ____

3) Make collocations by matching the two columns. Then listen and check.

1 live around the world _____


2 start children ______
3 graduate married ______
4 travel from a university _____
5 have abroad ______
6 get a business ______

4) Tyler and Joshua are having an argument. Read their dialogue and check the correct
statement about it.

Joshua I don’t believe it, Ty! You got an F on the Science Test! You’ll fail
Science, man!
Tyler Don’t worry, I’ll be Ok.
Joshua No, you won’t, Tyler. In fact, your life is a mess. You won’t graduate!
Tyler What?
Joshua You’re lazy. You keep getting bad grades, because you’re always
playing video games.
Tyler You love video games too, don’t you?
Joshua Yeah, but I do my homework as well. Organize yourself, man. Plan
your day. Whatever!
Tyler Come on, Josh! You sound like my mom!
Joshua Your mom’s right. You’ll be sorry some day, you know.

a) Joshua is worried about Tyler. ____


b) Tyler thinks Joshua is right. ____
c) Joshua doesn’t like computer games. ____

44
d) Joshua thinks Tyler should change his lifestyle. ____

5) Unscramble the words to make predictions about Joshua’s future.

a) will / Joshua / get / married / .


________________________________________________
b) from / will / graduate / university / a / he / .
________________________________________________
c) playing / he / stop / sports / won’t / .
________________________________________________

6) Choose THREE collocations from exercise 3 to make predictions about Tyler’s future.
a)____________________________________________
b)____________________________________________
c)____________________________________________
7) Write a small paragraph with predictions about your future. Use the collocations from
exercise 3 or different ones.
Example: I don’t think I will get married before I graduate from university. I think I’ll live abroad.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Grammar Corner
Affirmative Negative
I be OK. I stay here.
She WILL talk to him. He WON’T make new friends.
You fail. We go out together.

Interrogative Short Answers

it cost over a million dollars? No, it won’t.


WILL we have zero gravity? No, you won’t.
they be comfortable? Yes, they will.

Attention

I will  I’ll
You will  You’ll
Will not  won’t

8) Complete using WILL or GOING to in the sentences below.

1- They ______________________________ (watch) music videos on MTV this afternoon.


2- We ______________________________(go) to the shopping centre to see our favorite
rappers.
3- Wait for me. I______________________________(go) with you.
4- If you visit the shopping malls, you ________________________(see) rap's influence on teen

45
style.
5- I promise I _________________________________(give) you your favorite CD.
6- I think he________________________________(win) the contest.
7- _________________________(you/lend) me your new video game?
8- They ________________________(spend) the weekend at Peter's.
9- I _____________________________ (listen) to some music this afternoon.
10- It _______________________________ (be) summer soon.

“My future plans and expectations”

I often wonder about my future as I am about to finish Secondary School. The number one
question on my mind is which profession should I choose? I want a profession that will satisfy me,
challenge me, and bring me joy. I believe that a job should be like a hobby. I want to love my work.
First of all, As soon as I finish Secondary School, I will take the first important exam of my life -
the final graduation exam. I will be tested in four different subjects: the English and German
languages, biology, and chemistry. After my graduation, I will study at the Medical University to
become a doctor.
But now, I am focusing my attention on finishing my studies. Also, before I have a family, I
would like to travel overseas. I want to see countries like Japan, Finland and travel through the
African continent. After I finish my education and travels, I plan to get married and have a family.
I would like to live with my future family in a quiet, natural countryside setting.

Part One

A - Reading Comprehension: Read the text carefully and do these activities:

1) Answer the following questions.

1- Will the student in the text above be tested in French language? ___________________
2- What will he do after his graduation? _________________________________________
3- Does he want to travel and visit other countries? _______________________________

2) Say whether the sentences are true or false.

1‐ The student is always thinking about his future job. ( …………… )


2‐ He wants a well paid profession. ( ………………… )

3) Match each word with its appropriate meaning.


1. Career a. To get a university or college degree.
2. Graduate b. Profession or job that people have a salary for the performed
work.
3. Hobby c. Arrangement for doing something.
4. Plan d. An activity that we do for pleasure in our free times.

Part Two
Situation of integration.
Everyone in this life has his own future plans. You are that one who has a lot of expectations
and you would like to achieve them. Specially because you want to be in an exchange program.

46
 Write a paragraph of not more than (08 ) lines in which you describe your future plans and
expectations for your life in the exchange program.

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

47
Topic 7 – Simple Past

Did you know them?

1. __________________________

2. ___________________________

3. ______________________________

48
Who am I talking about? Match the personalities above with the right
information:

( ) He took part in Rock in Rio with Barão Vermelho in 1985.


( ) He won Formula One Grand Prix championship in 1988, 1990 and 1991.
( ) He died in a racing accident during San Marino Grand Prox.
( ) She died from accidental alcohol poisoning.
( ) She won five Grammy Awards.
( ) In 1989, he admitted publicly for the first time that he had AIDS.

Reflect!

1. What do these people have in common?

2. Take a look at the question in the top of the topic: “Did you know them?”

3. Take a look at the words in bold present in the sentences. What can you realize?

PAY ATTENTION!

When we need to talk about things that happened in a specific time in the past, we use
the Simple Past.

In negative and interrogative sentences, we must use did as an auxiliary.


Examples: Did you know them?
Ayton Senna did not (didn’t) take part in Rock in Rio with Barão
Vermelho.

In affirmative sentences we must add –ed in regular verbs.


Examples: She died from accidental alcohol poisoning.
In 1989, he admitted publicly for the first time that he had AIDS

But we also have irregular verbs and there is no rule for them, you have to study, learn
and remember.
Examples: He took part in Rock in Rio with Barão Vermelho in 1985.
He won Formula One Grand Prix championship in 1988, 1990 and 1991.

It’s time to talk!

Find someone in class to make questions about the personalities and check your answers
in the Match exercise above.
Example: Who did win five Grammy Awards?

49
Super Bowl 2019 result: New England Patriots beat Los Angeles Rams to win
historic sixth title

In Pictures | LA Rams vs New England Patriots, Super Bowl LIII

The New England Patriots edged the Los Angeles Rams 13-3 in the lowest
scoring Super Bowl in NFL history to claim their sixth Vince Lombardi trophy.
Tom Brady became the first player to _______ six Super Bowl rings, all in partnership
with head coach Bill Belichick, as the Patriots moved level with the Pittsburgh Steelers
as the joint most successful NFL franchise of all-time.
Rookie running back Sony Michel scored the game’s only touchdown midway through
the fourth quarter as Sean McVay’s much-lauded Rams side fell short on the biggest
stage.
It was a first half dominated by defense, as young quarterback Jared Goff, playing in his
first Super Bowl, struggled to get anything going on the Rams offense.
Los Angeles managed just two first downs all half, with Goff completing only five
passes and star running back Todd Gurley once again a peripheral figure, with only
three carries for ten yards.
https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/super-bowl-2019-result-new-england-patriots-beat-los-angeles-
rams-to-win-historic-sixth-title-a4056391.html

1. Who did win the Super Bowl this year?


a) Rams
b) Los Angeles
c) New England Patriots
d) Vince Lombardi

2. The pronoun their, in the second line, refers to:


a) Rams
b) Los Angeles
c) New England Patriots
d) Vince Lombardi

3. The word only, in the twelfth line, could be replaced by:


a) Just
b) All
c) More than
d) Over

50
4. What is suggested about Jared Goff?
a) He scored a touchdown
b) He won six Super Bowl rings
c) He didn’t have an easy game
d) He is the coach

5. Tom Brady became the first player to ____________ six Super Bowl rings
a) Winned
b) Won
c) Winner
d) Win

6. Reading the text we can infer that:


a) Rams winned the Super Bowl in 2019.
b) Rams won the Super Bowl in 2019.
c) Rams don’t win the Super Bowl in 2019.
d) Rams didn’t win the Super Bowl in 2019.

Attention!

Expressions of time related to the Past


1. Last Week
2. Last Month
3. Last Year
4. Yesterday
5. .... year ago
6. .... days ago
7. A long time ago

Exercise

1. Write 2 truths and a lie using the past and expressions of time above and
share with your classmates. Did they discover which one was a lie?

51
Topic 8 - Using the Present Perfect Tense

Brazilian students that are English learners usually have problems to understand
and learn Present Perfect tense. Sometimes, it happens because the students try to
translate it into Portuguese Language and most of the time, it does not work because our
language is different and it has a different linguistic structure. More important than
translate Present Perfect is to understand the meaning and the different senses of it.
Here, we have a list of its uses that are going to help you to learn it better.

The present perfect is formed from the present tense of the verb have.

For I, you, we and they we use the auxiliary verb have + the past participle of a verb
and for he, she and it we use the auxiliary verb has + the past participle of a verb.

Notice thar it is important to pay attention that the TIME of the present perfect tense is
unknown. Actually, the most important thing about this tense is that we have a link
between the past and the present. Look at the picture bellow.

(Source: https://writingexplained.org/grammar-dictionary/present-perfect-tense)

Uses:
52
 For something we have done many times in the past and we still do in the
present:
My sister’s played the piano ever since she was a teenager.
She has drawn five paints and she is working on a new one.

We often use a clause with since to show when something started in the past:
I have worked in this company since I left Paris.

 For something that started in the past and continues in the present:
They’ve been married for nearly 30 years.
Michael has lived in Brazil all his life.

 For something that happened in the past but is important at the time of
speaking:
I can’t find in my wallet. I’ve lost all my documents.
My father isn’t at home. I think he has gone dancing.

We use the present perfect of be when someone has gone to a place and returned:
A: Where have you been?
B: I’ve just been out to the cinema.
A: Have you ever been to Holland?
B: No, but I’ve been to England.
But when someone has not returned we use have/has gone:
A: Where is your father? I haven’t seen him for weeks.
B: He's gone to Brazil for a month. He’ll be back tomorrow.

 When we are talking about our experience up to the present:


Pay attention: We often use the adverb ever to talk about experience up to the
present:
My birthday this year was the best day I have ever had.
Pay attention: We use never for the negative form:
Have you ever written a poem?
Yes, but I’ve never written a short story.

 We often use the present perfect with time adverbials which refer to
the recent past: just; recently just; already, only
Scientists have recently discovered a new breed of whale.
She has just got back from her holidays.
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or adverbials which include the present: ever (in questions); so
far; until now; up to now; yet (in questions and negatives)
Have you ever cooked a cake?
Where has she been up to now?
Have you finished your composition yet? No, so
far I’ve only done some lines.
Pay attention:
We do not use present perfect with an adverbial which refers to past
time which is finished:
She has seen that movie last Saturday.
They have just bought a new house last month.
When we were children we have been to USA.
In this case, when we mention the specific time of a fact in the past, we use
simple past:
Ex: She saw the movie yesterday.
But we can use it to refer to a time which is not yet finished:
Have you seen Michael today?
My mother has bought a new car this month.

What's the difference? Present Perfect and Past Simple

Present Perfect Simple Past Simple


Unfinished actions that started in the
Finished actions:
past and continue to the present:
I knew Rita, but then she
I've known Rita for more than
moved away and we lost touch.
twenty years.

A finished action in someone's life life A finished action in someone's life:


experience):
Anna went to Mexico three times
Anna has been to Mexico three when she was younger.
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times.

A finished action with no result in the


A finished action with a result in the
present:
present:
I lost my wallet on Saturday.
I've lost my wallet!
It was terrible!

Exercises
1) Add already or yet to these sentences in the correct place.
Exemplo: 1 She's done the washing. - She's already done the washing .

a) Has your mother made any plans for the weekend? _______________________
b) Anna has tidied her bedroom. ________________________________________
c) We haven´t finished dinner. __________________________________________
d) I’ve done the exercise. ______________________________________________

2) Complete with Present Perfect simple.

a) I ______________________(not see) my relatives since January.


b) How long __________________(you / have) your new computer?
c) My friends __________________________(be) in the pool for over an hour.
d) Peter isn't here. He ____________________________(go) to the cinema with
Mariane.
e) Me and Anna _____________________________________(make) some
cupcakes. Would you like one?
f) It's my birthday today but you_______________________________ (not give)
me a gift.
g) Your hair looks different. ___________________________(you / go) to the
hairdresser's?
h) ________________________(they / have) their composition yet?

3) Choose the correct answer.

a) She’s really hungry. She (hasnt’t eaten / didn’t eat) yet.


b) Anna (arrived / have arrived) a month ago.
c) They (have worked / worked) at that company for five years.
d) Peter (didn’t recognise / hasn’t recognised) me at yesterday’s party.
e) Our friend (was / has been) in hospital since Sunday.
f) (Has your mother travelled / Did your mother travel) abroad many times?

4) Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use
the Past Simple or the Present Perfect Simple.

a) Your father ........................... (not call) me recently.


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b) We ........................... (buy) a new car last week.
c) The English teacher ........................... (not return) the exercise yet.
d) How long ........................... she ........................... (know) about this case?
e) ........................... you ever ........................... (hear) such an incredible story?
f) When I was a teenager, I ........................... (live) in Amsterdam for five years.
g) Andrea........................... (buy) me a nice gift for our last anniversary.
h) She is so excited to have a cat. She ......................................... (always / want)
one.

5) Listen and put a tick ( ) for what Dave has done or a cross (X) for what he
hasn’t done.

( ) go to exciting countries ( ) Go rock climbing

( ) Climb a mountain ( ) Swim with sharks

( ) Swim a lake ( ) See the waterfalls

( ) Sleep under the stars

6)  Read the following article, Are the sentences true (T) or false (F).

SOME WILL GO THE EXTRA MILE

Unlike most people, Marty O'Brien loves long car trips. In fact, he often tries to make
them longer. Marty is a member of the Extra Miler Club. His goal is to visit every one
of the 3.145 counties in the United States. So far, he has visited 1.441 and he says, "I
look for new places to go." That's the philosophy of the people in the Extra Miler Club.
The club began in 1973, and it now has 207 members. Twelve of these members have
even traveled by seaplane to get to counties in Alaska that are hard to reach. Some
others have been to every state. Roy Carson is one of the people who started the club. In
1985 he traveled to his last county. But he didn't take any photograph on his trips. So
now he is trying again. This time he is taking photographs of himself in front of each
county sign. So far, he has covered 538,427 miles." It's just as much fun the second time
around, but it's a lot more expensive, “he says. Gas cost just 39 cents a gallon when he
first started-in 1949.

(http://salleenvigado.edu.co/images/2017/Sislenguas/REFUERZOS_2DO_PERIODO/B
ACHILLERATO/CHOICES_PRE_INTERMEDIATE_REFUERZO_2DO_PERIODO.
pdf)

1. Marty O’Brien has travelled to many counties outside America. ___

2. Marty has never tried to make the car trips longer. ___

3. The philosophy of the Extra Miler club is to travel by seaplane. ___

4. The Club started in 1973, and it currently has a lot of members. ___
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5. Roy Carson was one of the founders of the club. ___

6. The members have never travelled to Alaska. ___

7. None of the members have travelled to every state. ___

8. Roy didn’t take any photos the first time he travelled. ___

9. Gas is more expensive now than in 1949. ___

10. Roy has gone to 538,427 counties. ___

7. Write about some important experiences you had in your life and mention some of
them that are still happening nowadays.

______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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GRAMMAR SUMMARIES

1.Verb To Be 7.Past Continuous


2.Present Simple 8.Future with going to and will
3.Past Simple 9.Like + verb (ing form)
4.Prepositions 10.Would like + to verb
5. Can and Could 11.First Conditional
6.Present Continuous 12.Second Conditional

VERB TO BE
One of the most common verbs in the English language is the verb to be. It also
has many different meanings.

Ex. There is a cat under the chair. (Exists)


The tennis game is tonight. (Happens)
Our children are at school now. (Location)
My son is a dentist. (Identity)
The teacher is very kind. (Quality)

In the simple present tense, to be has the following conjugation:

I am We are
Affirmative You are You are
He/She/It is They are

Present simple Am I? Are we?


Question form Are you? Are you?
Is he/she/ it? Are they?

I am not/ I’m not We are not/aren’t


Negative You are not/ aren’t You are not/aren’t
He/She/It is not/ isn’t They are not/aren't

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Interrogative form: Is my girlfriend cooking now?

Short answers: Yes, she is.

No, she isn’t.

Negative form: Sally couldn’t/could not play the piano when she was 12.

Past Continuous

The past continuous is formed from the past tense of be with the -ing form of
the main verb:
We use the past continuous to talk about the past:
I was watching a game at this time last night.

for something which continued before and after another action:


The children were doing their homework when I got home.

for something that happened before and after a particular time:


It was eight o’clock. I was writing a letter.

YES/NO QUESTIONS

Past Tense Base For of Short Answers Short Answers


Subject
of Be Verb + Ing Affirmative Negative

I I I
he he he was not
Was studying Yes, Was No
she she she (wasn't)
it it it

we we we
were not
Were you studying Yes, you Were you
(weren't)
they they they

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Forms

E.g.: Affirmative form: Craig was cooking dinner at 7:30 yesterday.

Interrogative form: Was Craig cooking dinner at 7:30 yesterday?

Short answers: Yes, he was.

No, he wasn’t.

Negative form: Craig wasn’t cooking dinner at 7:30 yesterday.

Futures with WILL and GOING TO

We use both will and going to to talk about future actions,but there is a clear
difference between them. We use will with all subjects (I,you,he,she,it,we,they).
The negative of will is won`t / will not.

WILL
Will is used to express the future as a fact. It is used to express what we think
might happen in the future and when we decide at the time of speaking that
something has to be done in the future.
Ex. It will be Christmas in a week.
I believe I will go for a movie today.

It is raining. I will tell mom to take an umbrella.

Forms

E.g.: Affirmative form: Chris will teach you how to drive.

Interrogative form: Will Chris teach you how to drive

Short answers: Yes, he will.

No, he won’t.

Negative form: Chris won’t teach you how to drive.

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GOING TO
The going to form is used for a decision that has been taken before speaking;
for something which is likely to happen for sure in the future; and to express an
action at the point of happening. It is also used to make predictions.

Ex. A: There is a good film on TV tonight.


B: Yes, I know. I’m going to watch it.
I am going to Los Angeles next vacation.
My brother and I are going to start a language course in March.
It is going to rain this afternoon, the sky is grey.
My stomach is hurting. I think I am going to be sick.

Formation: Subject + present of be + going to + verb (+complement).


He + is + going to + dance + a lot tonight.

Forms

E.g.: Affirmative form: They are going to take Alice to the park today.

Interrogative form: Are they going to take Alice to the park today?

Short answers: Yes, they are.

No, they aren’t.

Negative form: They are not going to take Alice to the park today.

Love, Like, Hate

The verbs love, like and hate + verb(ing) form.

We use like to talk about things that we enjoy, love doing all the time. It is
common to use the verbs LIKE, LOVE AND HATE followed by a verb in the ing
form. It is also possible though to use them followed by an infinitive with to.
E.g.: I like dancing a lot.
We love watching movies. It`s our hobby.
Does she hate swimming?
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Do you like playing soccer?

Would like

Would like + to verb

We use would like with polite expressions. It has the same meaning of want.
E.g.: Would you like some coffee?
Would you like to join us for a walk?
They would like to travel abroad next vacation.
She wouldn`t like to try raw fish.

Forms

E.g.: Affirmative form: They would like to meet Sally before dinner.

Interrogative form: Would the like to meet Sally before dinner.

Short answers: Yes, they would.

No, they wouldn’t.

Negative form: They wouldn’t like to meet Sally before dinner.

First Conditional

We use the first conditional when we want to talk about possible and
real situations.
There are two clauses to express a condition. One with the verb in
the Present tense and the other clause in the Future. The structure is:
if + present simple -- will + infinitive.
These clauses may be inverted without any change in meaning. This is the
most used way to express the first conditional, although there other ways.
To connect the clauses we can use more words: (when, until, if, while, as
soon as, after, before).
E.g.: As soon as I get back home, I`ll take a shower.
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She’ll call her mother when she finishes cooking dinner.
After I do my homework, I’ll watch a film on TV.

Second Conditional
We use the second conditional to talk about impossible or unreal
situations.
There are two clauses, one with the verb in the past tense and the
other clause with the conditional would + verb. The structure is:
if + past simple -- would + infinitive with to.
These clauses may be inverted without any change in meaning.
E.g.: If she lived in a house, she would have some pets.
What would you do if you won the lottery?
I would build a lot of hospitals if I were the president.

It is highly recommended that your teacher give you


supplementary material on:
 Present perfect tense with ever, never, just,
already, yet.
 Comparative and superlative forms.

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E.g.: Affirmative form: They are from a very hot country in Africa.

Interrogative form: Are they from a very hot country in Africa?

Short answers: Yes, they are.


No, they aren’t.

Negative form: They aren’t from a very hot country in Africa.

Simple Present

Use

We use the simple present tense to talk about habitual actions, daily situations
and real facts, and we use it to talk about feelings, desires and opinions.

ATTENTION with the third person singular (he,she,it). The verb ends in –‘s’ in
affirmative sentences: E.g.: he works…, she takes…, he thinks…, it rains….

Verbs ending in –y preceded by a consonant: in the third person singular,


change -y for -ies: fly > flies, cry > cries. When there is a vowel before –y, you
just add -s: play > plays, pray > prays.

Add “es“ to verbs ending in: ch, sh, o, x, s and z: he passes…, she catches…,
he fixes…, it pushes…, he does….

E.g.: My brother washes his car twice a month.

When we want to make some questions in English in the present tense we


use the auxiliaries “do” or “does”.
We use “do” with the subjects: I, you, we and they.

Examples: Short answers


Do I know you? Yes, you do. No, you don`t.
Do we have to get up early? Yes, we do. No, we don`t.
Do they go out on weekends? Yes, they do. No, they don`t.

E.g.: Affirmative: You and your sister study at the same school?

Interrogative: Do you and your sister study at the same school?

Short answers: Yes, we do.


No , we don’t.

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Negative form: You and your sister don’t study at the same school.

We use “does” with third person singular subjects: He, she and it.

Examples: Short answers


Does he study Spanish? Yes, he does. No, he doesn`t.
Does she love you? Yes, she does. No, she doesn`t.
Does it rain in August? Yes, it does. No, it doesn`t.

E.g.: Affirmative form: Paul takes his dog for a walk at night?

Interrogative form: Does Paul take his dog for a walk at night?

Short answers: Yes, he does.


No, he doesn’t.

Negative form: Paul doesn’t take his dog for a walk at night.

Past Simple

Use

We use The Past Simple with finished actions, states or habits in the past when
we have a finished time word and we know when the action happened. (yesterday
morning, last week, at 2 o'clock, a year ago, in 2003).

Ex. They went to the movies last night.


Susan traveled to Japan in 2007.

The difference between a regular and an irregular verb is the formation of the
simple past and past participle. Regular verbs are dependably consistent—the
simple past ends in ed just like the past participle. In contrast, the simple past
and past participle of irregular verbs can end in a variety of ways, with absolutely
no consistent pattern.

The rules of the simple past tense forms:

1. Regular verbs ending in a silent e take /-d/ in the simple past and past
participle: Example: close=closed

2. Regular verbs ending in a vowel + y take /-ed/ in the simple past and past
participle: E.g.: stay = stayed

3. Regular verbs ending in a consonant + y take /-ied/ in the simple past and
past participle (the y becomes an i followed by /-ed/) E.g.: marry=married

1. All the other regular vebs take /-ed/ in the simple past and past participle.
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Example: want = wanted

2. If there is a consonant after a stressed vowel at the end of the word, double
the consonant. E.g: stop – stopped ban - banned

3. If the vowel is not stressed, we do not double it:

Example: open - opened (Here the stress is on'o', not the 'e'.)

offer - offered ( Here the stress is on 'o', not the 'e'.)

Questions in the Past Tense

We use did to make a question in the past tense. This is auxiliary is used for
regular and irregular verbs in English.

The auxiliaries don't and doesn't in the present tense become didn't in the
past tense.

In questions that use DID we can give short answers as follows:

Short Answer Short Answer


Simple Questions
(Affirmative) (Negative)

Did I pass the test? Yes, you did. No, you didn't.
Did you need a dictionary? Yes, I did. No, I didn't.
Did you both like the movie? Yes, we did. No, we didn't.
Did they finish their homework? Yes, they did. No, they didn't.
Did he have a good time? Yes, he did. No, he didn't.
Did she want to leave early? Yes, she did. No, she didn't.
Did it have blue buttons? Yes, it did. No, it didn't.

Attention: Study a list of irregular verbs. It is extremely


important to have these verbs in mind.

E.g.: Regular verb:

Affirmative form: Daniel and Laura lived in Sydney in 2017.

Interrogative form: Did Daniel and Laura live in Sydney in 2017

Short answers: Yes, they did.

No, they didn’t.

Negative form: Daniel and Laura didn’t live in Sydney in 2017


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E.g.: Irregular verb:

Affirmative form: Simon bought a pair of jeans last night.

Interrogative form: Did Simon buy a pair of jeans last night?

Short answers: Yes, he did.

No, he didn’t.

Negative form: Simon didn’t buy a pair of jeans last night.

Prepositions

Prepositions of place

Use “on” with lines and surfaces.

Vancouver is on the west coast of Canada.


Put the vase on the table.
They were sitting on the grass.

Use “in” with areas that have boundaries and enclosed places.

I was born in England, but I grew up in Canada.


We had a picnic in the park last Saturday.
I think I left my keys in the bedroom.

Use arrive + at with buildings and general locations.

Everyone arrived at the picnic at the same time.


The tour group will arrive at the Empire State Building at three o'clock.
The bus arrived at the station earlier than we expected.

Use arrive + in with countries, cities, towns.

They arrived in Brazil early last night.

My cousins will arrive in Los Angeles at 7am.

Some other prepositions of location are: next to, beside, between, in front
of, under.

On my desk, the telephone is next to the lamp.


The computer monitor is beside the lamp.
The speaker is between the telephone and the monitor.
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The keyboard is in front of the monitor.
The computer is under the desk.

Prepositions of time ( in,on,at )

Use in for centuries, decades, years, seasons, and months:


In the 19th century, In the 1970’s, In 2005, In the summer, In December

Use on for days: On Sunday On my birthday On the weekend

Use on for dates: On 12th of August (or On August 12th)

Use at for times: At 11:45. At midnight. At half past six.

ATTENTION: with the words morning, afternoon, evening, and night!


You say: In the morning, In the afternoon, In the evening.
But with the word night you have to say: At night.

Past Simple of the verb to be

It is similar to the present simple of the verb, because it has the same
rules. Am, is and are become 'was' or 'were' in the past:

I, He, She, It - WAS You, We, They - WERE

Short Answer Short Answer (Negative)


Question (Affirmative)
Was I wrong? Yes, you were. No, you weren't.
Were you right? Yes, I was. No, I wasn't.
Was he bored? Yes, he was. No, he wasn’t.
Was she from Germany? Yes, she was. No, she wasn't.
Was it a small room? Yes, it was. No, it wasn’t.
Were we late? Yes, you were. No, you weren't.
Were you sick? Yes, we were. No, we weren't.
Were they at work? Yes, they were. No, they weren't.

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CAN and COULD

We use the modal verb can to make general statements with possible things or
the ability someone has to do something. The negative is CAN`T ( Cannot).

Notice that after the verb can, you have a verb in the infinitive without to.

E.g.: They can see a nice view of the sea from their bedroom window.

Can she speak three languages?

Sorry, I can`t come to his party.

We use can to talk about someone’s skill or general abilities:

E.g.: She can dance and sing.


He can play the guitar very well.
We can’t swim very well.

Forms

E.g.: Affirmative form: David can ski.

Interrogative form: Can David ski?

Short answers: Yes, he can.

No, he can’t.

Negative form: David can’t/cannot ski.

We use the modal COULD to talk about the past. The negative is COULDN`T
(could not).

Could (past form of can)

E.g.: I knew it could not be true.


She was obviously joking. She could not be serious.
Could describes an ability that someone had in the past:

E.g.: I could swim when I was Young.

You could speak French well in the past.

We use CAN or COULD with all subjects (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they).
CAN and COULD also make the questions and the negatives.

E.g.: Can she drive fast? He can`t swim well.

Could they play tennis? We couldn`t do any sports.

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Forms

E.g.: Affirmative form: Sally could play the piano when she was 12.

Interrogative form: Could Sally play the piano when she was 12?

Short answers: Yes, she could.

No, she couldn’t.

Negative form: Sally couldn’t/could not play the piano when she was 12.

Present Continuous

We use the present continuous to talk about events which are in progress at the
moment of speaking. We use am, are, is + the -ing form of the verb.

Eg.: She’s pressing the button, but nothing is happening.

He can`t answer the phone. He’s taking a shower.

I’m just leaving work. I’ll be home in an hour.

Please be quiet. The children are sleeping.

Questions and short answers:

Are you cleaning the car? Is it snowing a lot?


Yes, I am.
No, I am not. Yes, it is.
No, it isn't.
Is she speaking English? Are they playing games on the
Yes, she is. computer?
No, she isn't. Yes, they are.
No, they aren't.
Is he speaking French?
Yes, he is. Are you and your wife having
No, he isn't. dinner?
Yes, we are.
No, we aren't

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Spelling rules
General rule:
Add -ing to the main verb:
do doing
ask asking
silent 'e'
When the verb ends with a silent e, drop the e and add -ing:
Have having
take taking

one-syllable verbs

For short, one-syllable verbs, that end with consonant + vowel +


consonant (CVC), we must double the last consonant and then add -ing:

swim swimming
get getting

w, x and y

For words that end w, x and y, just add -ing:

enjoy enjoying
study studying

two-syllable words

When verbs have two or more syllables ending in CVC, you must double
the last consonant if the last syllable is stressed. When the last syllable is
not stressed, just add -ing.

The last syllable is stressed:


commit committing

The last syllable is not stressed:


whisper whispering

-ie verbs

For verbs that end in -ie, change the ie to y before adding -ing:

die dying

Forms

E.g.: Affirmative form: my girlfriend is cooking now.

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