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Educational Handbook: A Guide to Livestock at the Fair
Professor Jacky Eshelby
Introduction -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 3 General Exhibitor Regulations -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 4 Large Animals -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 5 Swine Showmanship -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 5 Market Swine -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 7 Cattle Showmanship -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 10 Market Cattle -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 12 Dairy Showmanship -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐Pg. 15 Sheep Showmanship -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 20 Market Sheep -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 22 Goat Showmanship -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 24 Market Goat -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 26 Small Animals -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 28 Rabbit -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 28 Cavy -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 29 Pygmy Goat -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 30 Poultry -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 31 Works Cited -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Pg. 32
The purpose of this booklet is to serve as a teaching tool for educators
Focused on animal’s appearance, with attention to muscle, structural composition, frame, style, and balance. Animals are determined either market-‐ ready or non-‐market ready. Still important to maintain control of animal, allowing the judge to examine it thoroughly.
Judged on your ability to exhibit an animal to its best advantage. Success is based on how well one control’s the animal. Practice is the key to successful showmanship.
Exhibitor Age: (See local fair Exhibitor Guide for location-specific Rules and Information.)
Exhibitor Appearance: (Adapted from Yuba-Sutter Fair Exhibitor Guide)
less than nine (9) years on January 1, 2010. Individuals five (5) to less than nine (9) years as of the current year may not exhibit Beef, Sheep, Hog, Dairy Cattle or Dairy Goats and may not participate in the Junior Livestock Market Divisions or Auction. Independent Junior Exhibitors: Ages nine (9) through thirteen (13) must compete in 4-‐H Divisions. Ages fourteen (14) through nineteen (19) must often compete in FFA Divisions. (See additional Independent Junior Exhibitor information in the Local Rules and Information section.)
Primary 4-H Members & Independent Exhibitors: youth five (5) to
Junior Livestock Exhibitors must wear the appropriate uniform of their respective organization when showing and selling livestock: FFA show uniform white pants, white dress shirt, the official FFA Jacket with the official FFA four-in-hand necktie. Shirts must be tucked in and have short or long sleeves (not sleeveless). 4-H show uniform white pants and white dress shirt. Shirt must be tucked in and have short or long sleeves (not sleeveless). The 4-‐H tie or scarf and hat must be worn. Independent Exhibitors must wear white pants and white dress shirts. Shirts must be tucked in and have short or long sleeves (not sleeveless). Belt is optional for added neatness. Leather shoes or boots should be worn for safety and appearance. If the animal steps on your foot, it is much easier for the hog's foot to slip off a leather boot. Do not wear anything that may take the judge's concentration away from the animal.
Animal Ownership: Swine must have been owned by and under the management and direct care of the exhibitor for at least sixty (60) consecutive days prior to opening day of fair.
A driving tool is required to guide or drive the hog. You can use a livestock cane, whip, riding crop, or stick.
You should use a small hand brush to brush the hog if needed in the show ring. The brush needs to be small enough to fit in your back pocket.
Use a spray bottle of water to groom and cool the hog. Do not take the bottle into the ring during the show. Your need for the spray bottle is discussed later in this publication.
You must thoroughly wash your hog, and be sure there is no remaining dirt, shavings, etc. Hair can be trimmed if desired, but be careful to not trim too short to prevent difficulty for the packers following the animal’s sale. Just before entering the ring, mist the hog with water from your spray bottle. Brush the hog's hair the way the part naturally falls; this will give the hog the appearance of a meatier top. Generally avoid spraying oils on the hog, which can make it too hot.
1. Be prompt and on time for your class. 2. Drive the hog 10 to 15 feet in front of the judge, only using the driving tool when it is needed. 3. Always keep the hog between you and the judge. When you move or change directions, switch the driving tool to the other hand. 4. Be aware of "danger zones" to avoid, such as groups of other hogs or the corner of the show ring. 5. If you are selected to be penned, do not stop showing. Work your hog toward the pen area, and drive it into the designated pen, closing and latching the gate behind you. 6. Maintain eye contact with the judge. Good eye contact ensures you will not miss a cue to be penned or to follow some other request. Additionally, the judge is more likely to look at your hog. 7. Be ready to answer questions about your project. The judge may ask any number of questions about your animal and the swine industry to find out what you have learned from your swine project. 8. Continue to show the hog as you leave the ring when the show is completed. Listen to the judge's comments to improve your next experience in the ring.
May show either a gilt (female) or barrow (male) swine. Sale Weight: 200-‐260 pounds. (For top weight limits, see local fair Exhibitor Guide.) Animals judged market ready must sell in the Jr. Livestock Auction. Animals judged not market ready are required to be removed from the grounds.
A hog should move with ease and take long strides. There should be no angles to their joints. Below is an example of proper structure: (from Rich
“Muscle refers to meat or the amount of meat within each individual market swine. Muscle can be evaluated in several areas. When viewing the side, it is important to look for the expression through the shoulder and forearm. However, it is the view from behind and down the top that gives the evaluator the most accurate view. Remember, muscle is bulging and roundish in shape. Thus, when viewing a hog from behind it is imperative to look for these types of shapes down the top, from stifle and throughout all portions of the ham.” (Chris T. Boleman, Texas A&M University)
National Swine Registry)
today. These breeds are determined largely by judge’s preference. (Images from 3. Duroc
Products Produced: “Everything but the Oink!” is a common phrase, since
virtually every part of a hog is used to make a variety of products. The following is a short list of products known to contain swine by-‐products: Fabric softener Crayons Lipstick Anti Freeze Rubber Insulation Chalk Floor Wax
Halter-‐Use the halter to lead. When walking on the left side of the animal, use your right hand. Grip your lead so your thumb is pointing upwards and you little finger is nearest the chain which ensures your wrist—which is stronger—is in control.
Show Stick-‐The show stick can be used to:
Help in placing and setting the feet. Keeping the top of the animal level. Controlling and calming the animal.
Comb-‐Used to groom the animals after being handled by the judges. However, for short-‐ haired cattle a wipe cloth should be used instead.
1. Begin work with your calf at a young age to develop a strong relationship with trust. 2. Walk into the ring on the left side of your steer with your lead strap shortened. 3. Carry show stick in your left hand in a vertical position. 4. Keep the steer in line with 3 feet of space from the next animal. 5. When setting the calf put the lead strap in your left hand and the show stick in your right hand. 6. When the judge begins to examine your animal, rub the show stick under the animal’s stomach to calm it.
This competition is focused on the appearance and body composition of your animal. It is important that the animal is handled well, but the judge’s main focus is on the animal itself. The steers must be between about 1000 and 1400 pounds depending on the fairs. The cattle are judged on muscle, structural correctness, frame size, style and balance. The animal should move with ease in a smooth manner. An animal that is complete in their frame size with good muscle development is ideal, the more muscle the animal has maximizes the profit for the seller. A good head carriage, a broad neck that is even on the shoulders and in line with the spine. A long straight body with a slight bend in the back. The cattle must have strong legs that are sturdy. They shouldn’t show signs of being cow-‐hocked, bow-‐legged, or sickle-‐hocked because this could be a sign of serious injury for the animal. As much rib extension as possible and a deep bodied steer ideal.
Judge’s Criteria: (Adapted from University of Kentucky Agripedia)
Muscles are used for dietary needs, including different steaks, ribs, hamburger, and hot dogs. Hinds and hair are used for leather products, baseball gloves and baseballs, paint brushes, wallpaper, and furniture glue. Fats and fatty acids are used in lipsticks, shampoos, deodorant, running shoes, fishing waders, and floor wax. Bones, horns, hooves, blood and gelatin are used in china dishes, ice cream, camera film, dog food, and fire extinguisher foam. Lastly, the cattle pancreas is used in many medicines.
Dairy Cow: Dairy cow are judged on 5 categories: Frame, Dairy Character, Body
Capacity, Feet and Legs, and Udder. Scores range from 50-‐100, with breed variation. Generally, 90+ is considered excellent, 85-‐89 is very good, etc. and down to poor. Frame- 15% (Adapted from University of Minnesota) Rump, Stature, and Front End receive primary consideration when evaluating Frame. Rump-‐ long and wide throughout with pin bones slightly lower than hipbones. Stature-‐ height, including length in the leg bones. A long bone pattern throughout the body structure is desirable. Height at the withers and hips should be relatively proportionate. Front End-‐ adequate constitution with front legs straight, wide apart and squarely placed. Shoulder blades and elbows need to be firmly set against the chest wall. The crops should have adequate fullness. Dairy Character- 20% (Adapted from University of Minnesota) Major consideration is given to general openness and angularity while maintaining strength, flatness of bone and freedom from coarseness. Consideration is given to stage of lactation. Ribs-‐ wide apart. Rib bones are wide, flat, deep, and slanted toward the rear. Thighs-‐ lean, incurving to flat, and wide apart from the rear. Withers-‐ Sharp with the chine prominent. Neck-‐ long, lean, and blending smoothly into shoulders. Skin-‐ thin, loose, and pliable. Body Capacity- 10% (Adapted from University of Minnesota) The volumetric measurement of the capacity of the cow is evaluated with age taken into consideration. Barrel-‐ long, deep, and wide. Depth and spring of rib increase toward the rear with a deep flank. Chest-‐ deep and wide floor with well-‐sprung fore ribs blending into the shoulders. Feet and Legs-15% (Adapted from University of Minnesota) Feet-‐ steep angle and deep heal with short, well-‐rounded closed toes. Rear Legs: Rear View-‐ straight, wide apart with feet squarely placed. Side View-‐ a moderate set (angle) to the hock. Hocks-‐ cleanly molded, free from coarseness and puffiness with adequate 15
River Youth Fair)
flexibility. Pasterns-‐ short and strong with some flexibility.
• Organize reasons in the following order: o State the class (age and breed) o Your Placing o Placing comparisons with at least one grant for each placing o Re-‐state the class and placing o Optional opening and closing statements can be added to reasons as contestant gains experience for the oral presentation
De-‐shedding tool: gently massages and calms your animal while removing undercoat and loose hair.
Leather Neck Strap: The only this thing the cow should be wearing when being showed.
As the exhibitors lead their animals slowly, with short steps, around the show ring, they should continually watch the judge and their animals to show it to the best advantage. Exhibitors may “circle” a nervous animal and regain their same position by turning toward the center of the ring and return. Exhibitors should not crowd the animal in front nor interfere with the animal behind. (Adapted from Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service) • It is important the exhibitor learn to watch the animal and the judge at all times. Do not be distracted by persons and things outside the ring. Keep your animal under complete control at all times. • Quickly recognize the conformation faults of the animal you are leading, and show to overcome them. You may be asked to exchange with another exhibitor and show a different animal. • A rolled leather halter is recommended; color is optional but should complement the breed of animal. The halter should fit properly and be placed correctly on the animal. The noseband should fit across the bridge of the nose midway between the eyes and the muzzle. A leather halter with leather or chain lead is preferred.
• Brown Swiss:
Animal Anatomy: (from huhs.org)
• Butter – a solid made from fat, air, and water when cream is churned; butter is 80% fat • Buttermilk – cultured milk made by adding certain bacteria to sweet milk • Cheese – food made from fermented milk curd that has been compressed and usually aged • Evaporated milk – pasteurized milk that is vacuum-‐heated to remove 60% of water; it is then homogenized, fortified with Vitamin D, and sealed in containers for long, room-‐temperature storage • Ice cream – a sweetened, frozen food containing cream or butterfat and flavorings • Ice milk -‐ a sweetened, frozen food containing skim milk and flavorings • Low-‐fat milk – milk that contains only 1-‐2% butterfat • Skim milk – or fat free milk (milk with less than 0.5% fat) • Sour cream – a product made from cream and bacteria that form lactic acid • Whole milk – milk containing 3-‐4% butterfat (no butterfat has been removed) • Yogurt – a fermented, semisolid food made from milk and the cultures of two certain bacteria
General Rules: (from Sheridan County 4-H and FFA)
There is no artificial color, paint or powder to be allowed on the sheep. The slapping or lifting of labs in the showing ring is never allowed—lambs must keep all feet on the ground during inspection and handling. If judges find exhibitors to place the feet on any other surface a warning will be given first, with disqualification for a second offense. The last rule and regulation worth noting is drenching the animal as a source of nutrition is not allowed; drenching is only allowed with the approval by a licensed veterinarian. Equipment Needed: (from Goats4H.com) Sheep shears can be bought in two different forms: machine and blade. The purpose of shears is to cut the wool layer away from the sheep while preserving the quality. Mechanical sheers are more expensive but make for an easier job to shear the wool from the sheep. Blade shears are relatively inexpensive and work in the same way as scissors. Blade sheers are in more limited use today as they leave more wool on the sheep compared to mechanical. Mechanical Blade
In addition to shears there are many pieces of daily equipment that is needed. Some of these daily supplies include: a halter, shampoo, a grain container, hoof trimmers, and a scrub brush. Also, it is common to use baby wipes to clean the inside of a lamb's ears and the groin area. Other optional equipment includes sweaters to keep the skin taut and blankets to keep them clean at show time.
Have complete control over the animal at all times. Have your animal clean and properly groomed. The animal’s rear should be facing the judge. The exhibitor should be facing his animal with each hand grasping a check. At this point the exhibitor can be kneeling, squatting, or which position they prefer to control the animal. The exhibitor should be far enough away from the animal so that the judge can see the whole animal. The animal should be standing on level ground. When the judge comes up to view the animal from the right side the exhibitor should be kneeling or squatting on the left side near the head with his or her hand under the animals jaw. When the judge moves to the front of the animal the exhibitor should move to the animals left shoulder. The judge will now move to view the left side of the animal at which point the exhibitor should move to the right side of the animal. At this point many exhibitors lose control of the animal as they try to stretch their arm too far. Once the judge is done on this side the exhibitor must move the animal into line while keeping it a proper distance away from the judges and other animals in line.
1. Columbia Sheep
2. Hampshire Sheep
General Rules: (from Sheridan County 4-H and FFA)
Lambs entered into market may be either ewes (female) or wethers (male). Classes are set up by using natural or logical weight breaks. Market lambs must weigh 100 pounds and any lamb heavier than 145 pounds will be considered 145 pounds. Any market lamb that is less than 100 pounds will be put into the feeder lamb category. Market lambs must have one of their ears tagged with a State ear tag. Lambs showing signs of rectal prolapse or surgical tail removal will be disqualified. Speckled face lambs must show mottling or black and white color on the face and/or black speckles on the face, ears and below the knee joint. The order of showing at a market will be Blackface, Speckled Face, White Face, and Overall.
Judging is based on four main aspects: type, muscling, finish and balance. Type is defined as the weight of the sheep. Muscling includes thickness through leg, amount of muscle (heavy muscled sheep rated higher), natural thickness over the top and legs when spread wide apart. The finish of the animal is being fat enough to have a high carcass grade (but not too fat), having .15-‐.25 inches of back fat covering the rib eye muscle, no sign or prominence of bones, and not having too supple of a feeling to the touch. Balance includes the overall appearance of the animal and the definition in the straightness of lines. (from Purdue University) Carcass Quality grades indicate the palatability and eating characteristics of the lamb’s meat. The grades are Prime, Choice, Good, and Utility. Fatter lambs are usually graded Prime. Age, weight, and sex The average weight of a lamb in the U.S. to market and sell for slaughter is about 135 pounds. Lambs are marketed between the ages of 2 and 14 months. Two-‐month old lambs are sold as hot house lambs. A hot house lamb is a milk-‐fed lamb that is usually born out-‐of-‐season (fall or early winter) and raised indoors. Shrink (drift) Shrink is the loss in a lamb’s total body weight during shipping. A lamb’s shrink is mostly loss of stomach contents or “gut fill” during the first 20 hours off feed. After the first 20 hours, the lamb’s body compensates for restricted water and feed intake by drawing moisture and nutrients from carcass tissue. Young lambs tend to shrink more than older lambs. On 22
average 5 to 8 month old lambs will shrink at least five percent from farm to market weight. Some buyers use a "pencil shrink" before purchasing the lamb. The method of pencil shrink is subtracting 3 to 4 percent of the scale weight. When making marketing decisions, shrink needs to be considered as a cost. Shrink can be reduced some with proper handling.
Products Produced: (from Purdue University)
From the Intestines Once cleaned, intestines can be used as casings for foods such as sausages and frankfurters. Instrument strings can also be made from the intestines. From Horns, Hooves, & Bone Products include bone charcoal for high grade steel, shampoo and conditioner, bone china, collagen and bone for plastic surgery, horn and bone handles, adhesive tape, marshmallows, piano keys, and gelatin desserts (ice cream, yogurt, jello, etc). From Manure Many valuable minerals are found in the manure such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium carbonate. The manure is a valuable part of fertilizer. From Fats & Fatty Acids Sheep fat and fatty acids are sometimes added to dog and chicken feeds. The fat is also used to make items like paraffin, crayons, candles, and floor wax. Every day items like makeup, tanning lotion, shaving cream, contain sheep fat and fatty acids. From Wool The wool can create products like artists brushes, insulation, and rug pads. A baseball’s core is wrapped with yards of tightly wound wool and covered by cowhide. 23
A Collar is needed to guide or drive the goat. An Angora goat does not need a collar and should be led out with its horn. Clippers are suggested to make any last second touch ups on the day of the showing. Small link chain used to lead the goat into and around the ring.
Health and appearance are essential to goat showmanship. Make sure that the goat is on a well balanced diet, receives grooming and clippings regularly, and is in prime shape and condition at the event. Clipping the showmanship goat is to be taken very seriously as to not leave any clipper marks. The goat should have a collar that is inconspicuous and does not take attention away from the goat. Chain leads work, however leashes are not recommended.
Show Ring Tips: (Adapted from North Dakota State University)
1. Be prompt and on time for your class. Being prompt shows you are organized and ready to work; it is courtesy to the other exhibitors. 2. Keep the goat’s head up Keep the collar high on the neck, just under the jaw, and keep the head up at all times. 3. Walk slowly Imagine your goat just “loafing” around the barn, and walk the animal at that pace. 4. Don’t crowd the animal in front of you Always maintain at least a goat’s length between your animal and the animal ahead of you. 5. Be ready to answer questions about your project. Questions may be easy and include such items as the weight, gender, breed, age, or parts of the animal. They may also include carcass composition, feeding and nutrition, or marketing systems. 6. Set your goat up in line, pose the feet squarely under the body with the hind feet slightly spread. It is usually easiest to set up the hind feet first. 7. Keep your hands off the animal as much as possible. Do not draw the judge’s attention away from the animal to you. 8. Show your animals the whole time you are in the ring, until the judge has dismissed the class.
General Rules: (Adapted from Cleveland county livestock)
Exhibitors will be allowed to tag-‐in an unlimited number of goats, but only show one goat. Market goats must have both ear tags when it comes to show. If the goat loses one tag, the exhibitor must contact the Market Goat Chairman immediately. If the goat loses both ear tags, it will not be eligible to show. The market goat must not weigh less than 60 pounds at the weigh-‐ in. Goats will have one opportunity to go across the official scales. If animal does not make the weight, it may be (at exhibitor’s request) backed off the scales; scales will be re-‐balanced, and animal will be re-‐weighed immediately. It is recommended that all market goats should be slick shorn above the hock and knee joints, excluding the switch, before being presented for weighing at the show. Goats must be dehorned or their horns must be tipped at time of show. All goats must be carrying their milk teeth at the time of tag-‐in. Goats showing either, or both, of the first pair of permanent incisors will not be allowed to enter. Breed: The list below includes some of the most common breeds shown today. These breeds are determined largely by judge’s preference. (Images from Google) 1. Nubian (dairy) 3. Boers (meat) 2. LaMancha (dairy) 4. Kiko (meat)
Meat goats are used for their meat and eaten. Angora goats are bred for their wool like sheep. Dairy goats are raised for their milk, which can be used for butter and cheese. Horns of goats are still used to make tools such as spoons and handles. Other uses for goats include the goat intestine, which is used in making musical strings and human surgical structures. They also have other uses such as hides used for rugs, skin for fine leather, gelatin, fertilizers, surgical supplies, medicine, soaps, ceramics, pet food and in some cases are used for making luggage and footwear. Goat meat from younger animals is called kid or cabrito, and from older animals is sometimes called chevon, or in some areas “mutton”.
1. Netherland Dwarf 3. Mini Lop
2. New Zealand
1. Rabbits must have a tattoo for identification in order to be shown, most often in the left ear. 2. Carry the rabbit with its head should be tucked under exhibitor’s arm, much like carrying a football. 3. When showing, examine: sides, rump, eyes, nose, teeth, chest, abdomen, legs, sex, tail, and fur.
1. Abyssinian Satin
1. Cavy age classes typically range from Under Four (4) Months to Over Six (6) Months of Age. 2. Cavies are judged on type, fitness, and cleanliness.
Common Breeds 1. African
2. Nigerian Dwarf
1. Doe (female pygmy goat) ages range from one (1) month to over four (4) years of age. Wether (male pygmy goat) ages range from one (1) month to over three (3) years of age. 2. During the show, exhibitors walk their goat by its collar, counterclockwise around the ring. Exhibitors form a line with their animals if the judge requests.
1. Rhode Island
2. Feather Legged Bantams
1. Typically limited to ten (10) birds per exhibitor. 2. When showing the animal, bring the bird head first out of its cage, with the head toward the exhibitor. Exhibitor should open wings and examine various parts of the body for the judge. The bird should also be walked on the table for the judge to examine its movement. 3. Each bird must be leg banded with regulation bands that must correspond to the number listed on the entry form. 4. A judge may excuse a bird from competition if it appears to be fatigued, out of condition, injured, or unhealthy.
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