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Earth Quake Management

Role of a Site Engineer - A Note
Prevention Capacity Building Approach
Prior to talk about the topic, let us have a brief discussion about the
term Value Engineering.

Value Engineering: Deliberation

What is Value Engineering? Is it about cost? Is it about quantity?

Answer: No, it is none of these. It is having entirely a different

industrial meaning & a fine understanding of its construction is a must
for personnel belonging to all relevant parties involved on projects.

In Civil Engineering field, there is no limit on activities in all sections

be it designs, be it construction, be it supervision, be it office work or
site work. All engineers would carry out the work according to the
requirements as specified. Contractor would do job to contract
requirements. There would no value on the expected level of
performance. The quality system shall have to be complied with.

Any accountable professional has to carry out any job normally but,
when some job is done based on additional thoughts or research
based performance enriching the grade of the product in terms of
superior quality at cost of normal budget, saving on the cost of
project, saving quantities of expansive material, saving the contract
time based on superior alternatives, excellent methods alternatives
than usual, presenting the project with added service life, allowing
better use flexibility on designs, inducing environment friendly
provisions, adding green use capability of building by saving energy
consumptions, allowing various other benefits for the user or client at
the same or normal cost without risking safety by thoughtful approach
adoption. These benefits amount to the Value addition on the project
in any form, the project proposal overweighs the normal one or
conventional bids. This specially induced quality of performance

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amounts to be termed as Value Engineering which applies to all

parties involved on any project.

All specialists working on project should add Values to the project.

Owner has a right to expect best product out of monies spent. Work
should be awarded to a contracting party who corroborates the offer
to work & produce project with Value Engineering. Exclusive price
comparison is not suggestive to be made an exclusive basis for
deciding any contract.

Designer should produce a best design making life of all others easy.

Contractor should work in such a way that maximum level of quality

should be attained with the quantity. None of the two, quantity or
quality should lag behind each other. Both should move together.

Quality responsible personnel should encourage executive site

personnel to give their best on production more than specification
compliance. Quality should teach site personnel for better
approaches. Quality policing is not required but quality contribution is

Site Engineer: Deliberation

Prior to deliberating the role of a Site Engineer on any job, let us
understand what the definition of a Site Engineer is?

Definitions in a nutshell:

Site Engineering indicates a chain of carrying out various

engineering works descriptions belonging to all disciplines starting
from the tender stage to the handing over & maintenance stage of
any building or structure or project owned by in any sector
government or private or others.

Supervision End:
1. On any supervision level, the engineers are deployed in the
capacity of Resident Engineer to work on behalf of the
Contractual Engineer.

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2. Contractual Engineer is meant herein to an Engineer specified

or defined within the legal contract documents. Contractual
Engineer further delegates the executive supervision powers to
Resident Engineer. Within the Governments, to my awareness,
there are five categories of engineers starting from Chief to the
Junior one.

3. Since Chief Engineer is originally responsible for all

contractual decisions as the head of the department, the project
should come under the authority of Chief Engineer as a
Contractual Engineer. All further Engineers down the line of
delegated hierarchy should be described as Resident
Engineers of various levels/designations.

Construction End:
1. Project Manager/Project Engineer downwards the
organization line to Foreman, supervisor & chargehand, work in
any construction contracting company. All these designations
are factually responsible for the achievement of the project
construction execution. In case, project is designated as EPC
i.e. Engineering, Procurement & Construction, various sections
as defined, are integrated to work together with independent
authorities controlled under competent coordination.

2. An Engineer who represents the construction company on

actual site & functionally, reports to the Engineer’s
Representative/Resident Engineer on site, is designated as
Site Agent or Site Incharge or Site Manager depending upon
the contractual requirements. This Engineer is designated as
Responsible Site Engineer for the Project. Under EPC, such
engineer own responsibilities of all sections functionally.

Virtually, Resident Engineer & the Site Agent are considered equals
as project site authorities for functional purposes on site organization
from different parties.

1. Resident Engineer is responsible for all works of supervision

carried out on project. Cost responsibilities are owned by

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Engineer & not Resident Engineer. Final power still is owned by

Engineer for all contractual purposes.

2. Site Agent/Representative is responsible for all works of

constructions carried out by contractor on project. Site Agent
/Engineer posting is formally approved by Engineer on Resident
Engineer’s recommendation. Approval of Site Agent can be
withdrawn any time by Resident Engineer on behalf of
Engineer. Contractor has to produce another competent Site
Agent to replace the outgoing agent.

3. All Engineer’s supervising engineers report to Resident

Engineer & work for Contractual Engineer.

4. All Site staff of contractor including subcontractors report to the

Site Agent,

Size/Magnitude of the project demands number of further site staff to

meet the requirements. Many site engineers, to practically
dedicatedly supervise all works, may be employed on various
sections of the projects in many constituted teams under senior site
engineers or construction managers.

Various sections are organized under QA system requirements

on all projects.
1. Safety/Engineering/Planning/Contracts/Construction/Surveying/
Quality/Materials/Administration, are various strong model
typical sections established on generally, every site.

2. All these sections have relevant detailed roles to perform on

projects. Roles are defined in the project quality plans.

We have to discuss Site Execution Engineers role in this talk.

Broad Activities on Site:

a. Site Take Over
b. Site Planning
c. Site Mobilisation

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d. Site Surveying
e. Site Start or kick off
f. Site Construction
g. Site Quality
h. Site Supervision
i. Site Completion & maintenance

1. Earth Quake Management EQM is involved in general,

with the Site Engineering/Site Coordination.

2. Site Engineer has no definite independent direct role on

EQM but, indirect role to implement the design,
engineering & project decisions to comply with the quality
systems with strongly extended base supports by all
responsible discipline sections on project.

3. Site Quality plan & Site Safety Plan, must describe

functionary as well as reporting roles of all the responsible
engineers on project. Both documents are very significant
to perform on the contract project.

Since Site agent/Representative is responsible in all respects for

the site, the role multiplies as follows:

1. Design review is the first engineering activity to make sure that

design specification requirements have been included within
the design philosophy. Engineering section performs it.

2. Soil report requires a thorough review through the Engineering

section. It is to be made sure that all recommendations included
by the soil or geotechnical engineer, have been covered within
the design. In case of any pin pointed observation, it should be
brought to the notice of the designer through agreed

3. Should also be specified on the design drawings, the specific

value of the soil parameters adopted on design. Certain
parameters must be confirmed by testing preferably on site
prior to laying the foundations.

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4. In case, the localized soil does not allow the adopted design
parameters, the design should be reconsidered. It is the
responsibility of the Site Engineer to conduct this test in all
major areas of site employing approved laboratory if so required
in contract.

5. Site Quality Engineer has to involve for the quality certainty of

the test. Any variation from the soil report should immediately
be reported to the soil laboratory & designer.

6. Resident Engineer has to make sure that the testing system is

complied with in line to the standard procedures.

7. All relevant Engineers must sign the Inspection & Testing Plan/
ITP for such activity.

Testing of all materials according to the specification requirements

must be conducted to ensure the demanded quality conforming
materials. Particularly, reinforcing bars is an important item for the
purpose of procurement rightly.

Concrete trial mix should also be carried out so that right quality
required mix from RMC is produced to meet the design requirement.

Piling should be done fully in compliance to the specific design & test
load requirement. Load tests as well as integrity test must be
rightly/satisfactorily conducted. Connections between the piles cut off
level & pile cap should be rightly/satisfactorily made. Test piles
activity must be conducted much in advance.

1. Site Engineer through Engineering must make sure that all

drawings contain right ductile detaining of the reinforcement. In
case of any detail missing, should raise immediately relevant
query for confirmation. Arrangements must be indicated on
typical standard drawings by designer.

2. It is very significant for proposed materials to resist the EQ

forces which the included materials should conform to the

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standards without any adjustments. No compromise should be

made in quality of these materials.

3. Generally, it is RCC that is often included on various buildings

& it is certainly considered for the designs. It is significant to
produce concrete works with good quality & no batch of
concrete should be allowed to be poured unsupervised.

4. Site Engineer must ensure that whatever precautions are

required to be taken on site, should have been explained to
all responsible skilled craftsman as well as foremen,
supervisors & chargehands. Missing information causes
quality problems that leads to NCR i.e. Non Conformance
Report. Once NCR is opened & issued to site, its remedial
action & its closing is a must or else, payment has to be
stopped for the effected part of contract until, the NCR is closed
after satisfactory remedial measure is applied.

5. All requirements should be included on the relevant method

statements clearly. All detailed method statements should be
approved ahead of any activity. Generally, a RCC building may
require 20 to 30 standard statements while there would be any
number of specific activity statements, All approved statements
should be followed in true letter & spirit to produce quality work.

All quality controls must be conducted during the concrete pour.

These may include slump test, air voids volumes, concrete
temperature, concrete mixing to concrete finishing time etc.

1. All steel bars details must be produced in the form of BBS Bar
bending schedule prior to giving to fabrication. These should
meet the requirements to avoid the stresses’ localisations. As
far as practicable, overlaps should be avoided. Rings or
stirrups should be fixed in such a way that hooks do not
continue on one side.

2. It should be remembered that the reinforcing bars during the

earthquake action time, change the behavior drastically. Bars
provided with gravity loads start accepting the horizontal shear

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distributed stresses thereby, forcing the beams to work as

columns & columns to work as beams. That makes an essential
requirement to tightly bind all the bars & no bar should be
displaced during concrete pour or during vibrator application. All
bars should behave in a continuity.

3. Vibrator must not be allowed to touch any rebar & formwork

anytime. No over vibration should be allowed. No pulling or
pushing of concrete using vibrator should be allowed. No
segregation should be allowed. All concrete must be vibrated.
In case of voids formation, thorough investigation should be
conducted & then, remedial actions resorted to.

4. Proper inclusion of concrete spacers also called the concrete

covers should be made at the right locations so that the rebars
keep intact during the pouring activity. It has generally been
noticed that this items is neglected by the site engineers as well
as other persons.

5. Cover is too serious an issue to be considered. Precast covers

well cured can be used. Plastic covers if strong enough to bear
the loads of foundation rebars, can also be used. But below
heavy reinforcement assembly, plastic spacers have been
experienced unsuccessful though not discouraged if strong
enough to sustain required strength during preparation as well
as during concrete pouring.

6. Formwork should be erected based on correct & safe designs

of the preparatory works. Safety is of utmost importance. Safety
first criteria should be fully considered & implemented.
Particularly, large suspended slabs forms supporting system
scaffolds must be certified by third party scaffolding system
specialist before concrete is allowed to be poured. System
should be erected in conformance to the design received from
specialist based on moments, shear force etc.

7. Well, in additions to the usual quality control tests such as

slump or cubes compressive strength, additional tests should
be considered for the cores drilled or taken out from various

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locations to make sure that the site conditions match the

laboratory conditions for the cube testing purpose.

8. Curing is responsible for the life of concrete & therefore, must

be given due care & control under the direct command of a
responsible staff. No leniency or worry about the cost of water
or curing compound or hessian or polythene sheet has to be

9. Any defects observed after striking forms, should be reported

to the site engineer & through whom, to the resident engineer
for remedial actions proposals.

10. No horizontal planes of weakness should be preferred. As far

as practicable, the concrete pouring should be planned for
monolithic concrete actions. Construction joints should be
agreed in advance for an easy execution purpose. In case CJ is
in emergency required to encounter the failure of plant, the
location should be decided with an agreement with the resident

11. Wherever required, soil improvement has to be carried out to

achieve the required safe bearing capacity SBC. Imported
desert fill or graded fill has to be used for the purpose of limiting
the Liquid limit as well as plasticity index to a minimum value.
Internationally, Liquid Limit is restricted to 35% while Plasticity
index less than 6. Soil improvement shall be required for the
areas where the soft or weak soils exist. These weak soils are
required to be removed &then, placed with good granular
materials in layers duly compacted to achieve specified field

Backfill is one activity that makes a lot of difference on the future of

foundations. It must be rightly conducted. It has been observed that
site engineers try to neglect its supervision & save the project time by
filling thicker layers. It is not a good practice. Backfills should be in
good compliance to the agreed specifications respecting engineered
or structural fill to achieve 95 to 98 % field density. General fill can be
compacted to 90 % FD.

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Construction sequence should be correctly followed during

scheduling stage.

1. Foundations should be planned as far as possible to be cast


2. Columns should be cast first.

3. Beams & slabs should be cast one time monolithic.

4. All connections should be done to meet the requirements.

5. It has to be ensured that proper bands are used in brick or

stone buildings that have been required for EQ resistance.

6. Long walls should be inserted with bonding columns & bonding

beams as required by specifications.

7. In fill walls should be taken up for later, after completing the


8. Connections between columns & walls should be made with

proper fastenings.

9. Factually speaking, all the constructions activities must be

complied with the design as well as specifications
requirements. No negligence should be allowed.

10. QA engineers have to similarly involve to check & inspect

all activities by observations in addition to signing ITPs.

11. Resident Engineer should keep an eagle eye on the activities.

Contractual Engineer got full right to reject any activity
approved by the Resident Engineer. Basically, responsibility is
shared by the Site Agent in an overall perspective.

12. Quality product should be a must requirement.

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13. During EQ, any services too can break due to horizontal
forces which require strong & durable fills around with durable

14. All elements of the buildings as well as finishing should be well

secured & durable so that during EQ impact, these are not
distressed, dissociated or torn out.

Points for attention on site:

Site engineer should not decide by self about any engineering
decision on caused mistakes for any reason whatsoever. Many
aberrations from quality compliance & their suggested solutions are
noted as follows that should be taken care of:

1. Rusted & bent rebars are delivered to site or to fabrication yard.

Straight length without rust only, should be used for fabrication
after ascertaining laboratory tests.

2. Rebars are placed on ground soil & not on good wooden or

other base supports without even covering with polythene
sheets. Precaution should be resorted to, for good handling &
storage to keep the stock out of moisture contact.

3. Fabricated rebars are not properly sorted, tagged & stored in a

shed or under protection from moisture contact. Right tracking
should be maintained by designations of relevant elements.

4. Rebar Dovels may be forgotten to place in at various joint

connections. Chemical anchors should be used for inserting
forgotten dovels. Do not chip hardened concrete & insert small
hook. Drilling shall be required to comply with chemical anchor
manufacturer’s recommendations.

5. Inserts / embedment of services at various locations may be

missed. Approved shop drawing should be used for inserts
locations. Coordinate inserts locations to structural details.

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6. Block outs for various buildings services may be missed.

Approved shop drawing should be used to overcome such
problem. Coordinate these locations to structural details.

7. Sometimes due to site negligence, certain concrete elements

may be missed by overlooking. Structural drawings should be
deeply coordinated with Architectural drawings. Generally,
facets dowels are forgotten. Many lintels too are overlooked.

8. Opening or bulging of forms at one third of height from pouring

base is a common occurrence. Location requires strong
resultant supports. It should be taken care of while considering
concreting plan. Chipping should be avoided if feasible, by
providing strong supports.

9. Honey combing on surface is in general, a common

occurrence. Vibrator should be applied rightly. Produce a
smooth & a nice concrete surface, truly straight & vertical
without opening out.

10. Concrete temperatures are not ensured in the range of 5 to 32

deg C. Concrete is poured in temperature above 35 to 42 deg
C. During higher temperatures as such, ice needs be added if
Mercury is above 32 deg C. Thick elements or massive blocks
should be poured within 24 deg C concrete temperature.

11. Voids formation in concrete is a common occurrence. Void area

should be chipped out to reach the hard concrete surface
followed by application of remedial treatment. Use
recommended chemicals. For bigger voids, letter box formwork
can be used to pour new concrete to the old one by applying
bonding agents or slurry.

12. Exposition of rebars on concrete surface is a common

occurrence. Mortar is pasted on those areas to hide exposed
rebars. Concrete spacers should be placed all over to meet the
requirements. Ordinary mortar pasting is not acceptable. Chip
loose concrete from affected portion & apply proprietary
chemical such as epoxy based repair materials.

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13. Congestion of steel is generally seen not anticipated either by

site engineer or by design engineer. It should be discussed with
design engineer. If workable, the better arrangement should be
worked out & approved. It is one of many constructability

14. Rebars are often displaced by the electrical conduits fixers.

During conduits inserts fixing, steel fixers should replace the
affected rebars parallel to the conduits installations.

15. For higher size bars, overlaps do not work perfectly, Mechanical
connectors / couplers should be used. Generally rebars dia 20
& above work better when mechanically connected / coupled.

16. Hardened concrete is, as a bad practice, cut for passing any
small air conditioning duct already missed. No hardened
concrete should be cut without proper investigation by design
engineer or resident engineer.

17. Excessive slump is not reported truly. No information should be

concealed but, slump value should be tried to be brought down
by keeping truck mixer rotating for a couple of minutes. In case,
it does not work, the mix load should not be accepted.

18. During concreting pour operations, due to certain delay,

additional water is secretly / without approval added. No
additional cube sample is taken for the added water batch. If it
is allowed, special cubes should be collected for strength
confirmation test. Record ready mix concrete details such as
loading time, site arrival time, delivery starting, and delivery
completed etc. Records of element location, formwork as well
as curing should be made for reference.

19. Construction joint stop end formwork is not readily available.

Keeping any emergency in view, stop ends should be made
readily available. If required, it is fixed as an emergency
exercise when the concrete stops due to any reason

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20. Construction joint is not correctly fixed. The location should

either be indicated on drawing or should be agreed with
resident engineer prior to commencement of pour.

21. Construction joint is not correctly hacked or scabbled before

new concrete is laid. Do not move too fast but, chip out the joint
surface to expose aggregates by removing laitance, cleaning,
wetting & then, proceed for laying concrete for new work.

22. Standby vibrator is not available. It is very important to have

additional vibrator to meet working requirement whenever, any
busy vibrator fails. Vibrators should be checked for working
before commencement of pours.

23. Curing is not started in time. Curing is not continued as

required. Hot weather requires immediate curing particularly on
exposed or unformed surfaces. It can even be done by spraying
curing compound. Polythene sheet can also be spread on
concrete surface. Curing should be effectively carried out to the
defined duration by personal attention of Site Engineer.

24. Curing is not completed for the required period. Do not ignore
curing. Ignorance on concrete curing can cause a major
problem & non conformance report / NCR on this account may
have no solution for closing its validity of action. It is too easy to
pour concrete but, extremely expensive to dismantle & rebuild.

25. Incorrect cut rebars are forced to be placed in & unusually bent
further. Prepare good BBS (bar bending schedule) prior to
starting cutting & bending. BBS can be produced on excel
sheet duly using required formula. Cutting lengths should be
shown with shape codes.

26. Stirrups are not rightly centred. Do proper fixing work. Proper
work of rebars shall help satisfactory concrete pour.

27. Rebars are not centred properly. Do proper fixing work. Proper
work of rebars shall help satisfactory concrete pour.

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28. Rebars supporting chairs are not rightly cut & fixed. Check
before fabrication all required dimensions. Do not depend on
steel fixers overconfidently. Rebars fixing is a complex activity.
Make sure that it is carried our correctly.

29. Rebars are not well secured. Bind bars properly without
worrying about the binding wire cost. Check fixing
arrangements over all joints. Check continuity of reinforcement
if feasible, by using voltage or current flow method. It is usually
employed for checking cathodic protection.

30. Tie bolts are not tightened properly. Use correct dimension tie
bolts & fix properly as required. Fabrication of these bolts must
be done exactly to requirements.

31. Plumb of formwork is not inspected to the standards. It is a

difficult exercise to inspect dimensions, locations & verticality
but should be conducted particularly, for elements to bear
equipment or where facet is involved.

32. Extra previous laid concrete is not chipped out. Site should be
kept tidy in all respects. Chip all surplus required concrete.
Produce good & effective construction joints.

33. Holes are not left for cleaning out dust from the forms. It is
practically required to dust out the preparatory works. Use
compressor to clean out the preparatory works.

34. ‘Flash setting’ is not prevented. Use water to be sprayed on the

forms to keep the temperature low before concrete starts.
When steel bar is hot & concrete is cold, combination / contact
generates flash setting of concrete. Avoid it for sure.

35. Cold joints are wrongly allowed. Sequence of concrete pour

repetition should be made as such that concrete repetition is
done fast in hot conditions. Time gap should be controlled.

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36. Concrete is collected at one spot for longer than required. Do

not pool up concrete at one location. It is dangerous for
preparatory works & scaffoldings. Pulling concrete is not
recommended in any case. Use hand shovels.

37. Workers add additional water to soften the waiting mixed

concrete material that is due to delayed consumption on
pouring location. Do not allow such additions of water on
already mixed concrete for ease of handling by workers.

38. Remedial actions on the defects are cared by site staff without
even informing site engineer. Keep an eye on foreman /
supervisor & other persons responsible. It is too significant an
issue. Site Agent could be removed doing such negligence on

39. Formwork is struck before the defined time limit. Record the
dates in the concrete register for all pours. Record all test
results. Record all curing dates.

40. Concrete blocks are shifted due to shortage of storage space

from factory to site within 3 days of production. Due curing is
not allowed. Cure the delivered blocks prior to being tested &
permanently included into works.

41. Class one bricks are not procured or even not available.
Procure good bricks or blocks. Avoid using weak bricks. Do not
include inferior bricks below ground level or in foundations.

42. Wooden planks are used for formwork with leaking joints. Better
suggested to use ply for good results. Plywood can be
economically used repetitively. Decide for number of elemental
sets for formwork repetition judiciously.

43. Formwork is not correctly leveled. Set out the form work
properly. Check all lines & levels truly. Check all feasible as well
as necessary controls. Checking controls is a cumbersome

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44. Grouting for the structural steel bases that are designed
generally RCC foundations, requires a good control as it is
cement based material. Similarly, grouting for under the
anchorage plates requires good controls. Epoxy grouting under
base plates of vibratory equipment should be carried out
complying with specified requirements.

45. Do not go ahead for any work where doubts exist either in
specifications or in design. Obtain clarified answers in the form
of Site Technical Queries before carrying out ambiguous items.

a. It is emphasized that foregoing points should be considered in

true spirit. Carrying out better work on controls shall definitely
produce a good concrete work that would serve for the required
& desired durability for the whole structures on the buildings.

b. Patience pays on site. Panic harms the works. Plan properly all
day to day activities. Progress is required but not at quality cost.
Safety first & Quality must slogan has to be promoted as well
as applied in all respects. Safety is responsibility of one & all.

Site Engineer has also to be involved with retrofitting activities.

Seismic Retrofitting:
The structural modifications to upgrade the strength, ductility
and energy dissipating ability of seismically deficient or earthquake-
damaged structures with a mission to rehabilitate can be termed as

Seismic Strengthening:
The process of enhancing or augmenting the strength of existing
structures to make them resistant to seismic activity, ground motion
or soil failure due to earthquakes from the original design status
with or without including EQ forces, to be used for further
higher stresses to extend service life of structure can be
termed as Strengthening.


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Identify various priority buildings such as schools, hospitals,

nursing homes, police stations, fire brigade stations, multi
storey buildings, water reservoirs, electrical stations,
essential services buildings as well as lifeline buildings etc.

1. All surveys of the restorable/retrofittable buildings can be done

minutely by experienced site engineers for the purpose of
making a report to the decision makers.

2. All details from site observations & samples collected from sites
can be reported to the laboratories as well as to the relevant
authorized engineer.

3. It requires an extensive grasp of field knowledge of the state of

the chronic materials. Personal inspection dedicatedly needed.

4. Recording can be done by photographs, video, by taking all

measurements of locations of deteriorating areas.

5. Hand excavations should be effected for the purpose to collect

the foundation sample of old concrete. Rebar sample can also
be collected from non critical areas that require a good study of
the structure either from records or from site survey.

6. Engineer should have patience while working on retrofitting.

Detailed report should be submitted to have an understanding
about the health of the old building or structure.

7. Control Levels at various heights should also be recorded to

reflect major settlement. Deflections of the members could also
be recorded if feasible. Investigate as many members as
feasible. It shall help a making a reliable understanding of
unsound building & suggest to arrive at solutions.

8. Record all applied real loads on the buildings either by inquiring

or by observing. These can be different than what have been
used in designs. Formulate a convenient formula for adopting
new load intensities on structure for renewal of its services in

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9. Columns & beams are required to be studied with good

concentration. Strengthening of these members shall be very
difficult. Check all deformations & deteriorations.

10. Similarly, samples & integrity of the wall materials should

also be recorded for making a good report.

11. It may be proposed to add beams or extend footings in the

foundations for which all existing data must be collected.
Possibly due to long applied building loads, the safe bearing
capacity of soil might have augmented due to consolidation,
which factor should be after ensuring, positively, may be
considered advantageously.

12. Additional columns or beams could also be required to be

added to meet various requirements from EQ forces & for which
all necessary data should be recorded on the report. More
frames could also be investigated for addition into the building
existing framing.

13. Retrofitting could also demand provision of composite sections

in to the existing one. Careful study & understanding is required
for all such cases. Structural steel can also be used after
investigation during new analysis.

14. Retrofitting requires great input by the investigation

engineers prior to making any decisions. For certain structures,
it may be better to rebuild as a whole while, for others
retrofitting would be economical.

15. Whatever be the basis of considerations for retrofitting would

be, detailed method statements giving minute sequences shall
import attention & Site Engineer should include all such details
with elaborations for making a clear understanding of the
proposal. All works would certainly impact on the budgets.

16. If required, reporting can be done by conducting many stages

inspections that may depend on the size of the structure.

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Separate individual records are suggested to be made for a

proper post inspection / survey audit. Complete audit should be
worked out elaborately. What level of survey is best suited
would be dictated by the size of structure, its degree of
deterioration as well as its existing soundness.

Post Earthquake Disaster Management

No one can control disasters whether it is caused by Earthquake or is
caused by other calamities. Preparedness to mitigate any disaster is
required. Everybody should be ready to accept emergency responsibilities.

Major contribution would be required from various disciplines such as

indicated below:

1. Police/Army/Fire brigade/Civil defense/Medical

professionals/Equipment companies/Expert Operators/

2. Aviation Helicopters/Cranes/

3. Civil Engineers/NGO Activists/Volunteers etc.

In Action Being Government Constituted, to coordinate, control & assist

nation out from clutches of disasters as well mitigate them:

National Disaster Management Authority

Zero Tolerance to avoidable deaths due to earthquakes.

To formulate Guidelines for the preparation of plans to reduce
earthquake risk, and minimise these, impacts, losses of lives and
damages to properties caused by earthquakes.

Term Definitions:

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A catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area,
arising from natural or manmade causes or by accident or by
negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering
or damage and destruction of property or damage and degradation of
environment and is of such a nature or magnitude, beyond coping
capacity of the community of the affected area

A threatening event or the probability of occurrence of a potentially
damaging phenomenon (an earthquake, a cyclonic storm or a large
flood) within a given time period and area.

High Risk Areas

Geographical areas which fall under seismic zones III, IV and V,
which are vulnerable to potential impact of earthquakes, landslides,
rock falls or mudflows,

Disaster Management
A continuous and integrated process of planning, organising,
coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or
expedient for prevention of danger or threat of any EQ caused

Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or

consequences. Measures aimed at reducing the risk, impact or
effects of a disaster or threatening disaster situation.

Capacity building being preparedness to deal with any disaster,

prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster,
assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster,
evacuation, rescue and relief and rehabilitation and reconstruction.

Non Structural Measures

To reduce or avoid possible impacts of hazards such as education,
training, capacity development, public awareness, communication


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The state of readiness to deal with a threatening disaster situation or

disaster and the effects thereof.

The expected number of lives lost, persons injured, damage to
property and disruption of economic activity due to a particular natural

Risk Assessment
The determination of the nature and extent of risk by analysing
potential hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability
that could pose a potential threat or harm to people, property,
livelihoods, and the environment.

Risk Management
The systematic process of using administrative decisions,
organisation, operational skills and capacities to implement policies,
strategies and coping capacity of the society and communities to
lessen the impact of hazards.

Rapid Visual Screening RVS

A procedure requiring visual evaluation to assess the vulnerability of
buildings, by permitting vulnerability assessment based on walk
around of the building by a trained evaluator. The evaluation
procedure and system is compatible with GIS-based city database
and also permits use of the collected building information for a variety
of other planning and mitigation purposes.

Specific Risk
The expected degree of loss due to particular natural phenomenon.
EQ risk can be assessed in any area.

Seismic Retrofitting
The structural modifications to upgrade the strength, ductility and
energy dissipating ability of seismically deficient or earthquake
damaged structures.

Seismic Strengthening

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The process of enhancing the strength of existing structures to make

them resistant to seismic activity, ground motion or soil failure due to

Points Requiring Attention:

1. New buildings should be properly set out to allow easy
access to the areas for rescue operations.

2. Adequate access should be included for machines &

equipment to enter. Equipment must cover as required
in EQ situations.

3. Buildings should be located away from main roads.

4. Streets should be wide for easy access of vehicles &


5. Priority/Lifeline & essential buildings should be in the


6. Standby generators plants should be provided to meet

supply failures.

7. Fire fighting live lines should be available during


8. Road should be resistant to EQ forces.

9. All existing structures prone to failure should be

upgraded by strengthening or retrofitting.

10. Trained & Certified Engineers & other personnel should

be available all over. All these personnel should be
given updates & allowed drills. Engineers & Architects
are being trained to learn more about EQ requirements.

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11. Similarly, medical professional should be given updates

& allowed drills. They are also being trained to
effectively perform during EQ emergencies.

12. All other relevant professionals & others should

also be updated & allowed drills.

13. General public should be kept well informed & imparted

education about the methods to respond during EQ
emergencies without panic. Engineers can do this job
very well.

14. Owners should be educated about benefits to

include the EQ resistant design provisions on the new
structures. Engineers can very well explain to the

15. Similarly, Engineers can demand from architects to

include all EQR provisions on the new buildings in public
sector or in private sector. Architects are also being
trained to work effectively on designs to meet EQ

16. Engineers can deliver lectures in schools &

colleges about the EQR methods & about the role of
children & public involved.

Thanks for your attention & Regards

P Eng Suraj Singh

NCR Faridabad

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