Você está na página 1de 15

ESTUDO DOS FALSOS COGNATOS

Há centenas de palavras na língua inglesa que se parecem com outras da língua portuguesa. Isso se deve à influência que
o idioma inglês sofreu do latim e de outras línguas neo-latinas. Essas palavras são denominadas cognatas quando são
semelhantes tanto na forma como no significado. Contudo, se os cognatos forem parecidos na forma, mas possuírem
significados diferentes, eles são denominados falsos cognatos ou falsos amigos.
Os falsos cognatos não costumam ser uma armadilha para o leitor mais experiente. Porém, para o leitor em formação,
tornam-se complicados, pois podem criar confusões e prejudicar a interpretação textual, exigindo, assim, um estudo mais
aprofundado e atencioso.

Veja quais são os falsos cognatos em inglês mais conhecidos.

Perceba como os falsos cognatos têm significados bem diferentes do que parece à primeira vista:
INGLÊS PORTUGUÊS INGLÊS PORTUGUÊS
Actually (adv) na verdade, o fato é que Atualmente nowadays, today
Adept (n) especialista, profundo conhecedor Adepto supporter
Agenda (n) pauta do dia, pauta para discussões Agenda appointment book; agenda
Amass (v) acumular, juntar Amassar to crush
Anticipate (v) prever, aguardar, ficar na expectativa Antecipar to bring forward, to move forward
Apology (n) pedido de desculpas Apologia praise, defense
Aplicação (financeira
Application (n) inscrição, registro, uso Investment
)
hora marcada, compromisso
Appointment (n) Apontamento Note
profissional
Appreciation (n) gratidão, reconhecimento Apreciação Judgement
Argument (n) discussão, bate boca Argumento reasoning, point
Assist (v) ajudar, dar suporte Assistir to attend, to watch
Assume (v) presumir, aceitar como verdadeiro Assumir to take over
Attend (v) assistir, participar de Atender to help, to answer, to see, to examine
Audience (n) plateia, público Audiência court appearance, interview
Balcony (n) sacada Balcão Conter
Baton (n) batuta (música), cacetete Batom Lipstick
Beef (n) carne de gado Bife Steak
Cafeteria (n) refeitório universitário ou industrial Cafeteria coffee shop, snack bar
caixa de papelão, pacote de cigarros
Carton (n) Cartão Card
(200)
baixa (morte fruto de acidente ou
Casualty (n) Casualidade chance, fortuity
guerra), fatalidade
Cigar (n) charuto Cigarro Cigarette
Collar (n) gola, colarinho, coleira Colar Necklace
Colégio (ensino
College (n) faculdade, ensino superior high school
médio)
Commodity (n) artigo, mercadoria Comodidade Comfort
Competition (n) concorrência Competição Contest
Comprehensive (adj
abrangente, amplo, extenso Compreensivo Understanding
)
(v) entrar em acordo, fazer concessão;
Compromise Compromisso appointment; date
(n) acordo, conciliação
Confident (adj) confiante Confidente Confidant
Contest (n) competição, concurso Contexto Contexto
Convenient (adj) prático Conveniente Appropriate
Costume (n) fantasia (roupa) Costume custom, habit
Data (n) dados (números, informações) Data Date
Deception (n) logro, fraude, o ato de enganar Decepção Disappointment
Defendant (n) réu, acusado Advogado de defesa defense attorney
INGLÊS PORTUGUÊS INGLÊS PORTUGUÊS
Dent (n) amassado Dente Tooth
Design (v, n) projetar, criar; projeto, estilo Designar to appoint, to draw
Disgrace (n) vergonha, desonra Desgraça misfortune, disaster, calamity
Diversion (n) desvio Diversão amusement, fun
Editor (n) redator Editor publisher
with a good upbringing, well-
Educated (adj) instruído, com alto grau de escolaridade Educado
mannered, polite
Emission (n) descarga (de gases e outros) Emissão issuing (of a document)
Enroll (v) inscrever-se, alistar-se, registrar-se Enrolar to roll, to wind, to curl
to mistake one ting for another, to
Equivocate (v) enganar, enrolar, mentir Equivocar-se unintentionally make a wrong
statement
Eventually (adv) finalmente, consequentemente Eventualmente occasionally
Exciting (adj) empolgante Excitante thrilling
Exit (n, v) saída, sair Êxito success
Expert (n) especialista, perito Esperto smart, clever
Exquisite (adj.) belo, refinado Esquisito strange, odd
Fabric (n) tecido Fábrica plant, factory
Genial (adj) afável, aprazível Genial brilliant
Graduate program(n) curso de mestrado ou doutorado Curso de graduação undergraduate program
Gratuity (n) gratificação, gorjeta Gratuidade the quality of being free of charge
Grip (v) agarrar firme Gripe cold, flu, influenza
Hazard (n,v) risco, arriscar Azar bad luck
Idiom (n) expressão idiomática, linguajar Idioma language
Ingenuity (n) engenhosidade Ingenuidade naiveté, naivety
Injury (n) ferimento Injúria insult
gravação em relevo (sobre pedra, metal
Inscription (n) Inscrição registration, application
e outros)
Intend (v) pretender, ter intenção Entender to understand
Intoxication (n) embriaguez, efeito de drogas Intoxicação poisoning
Jar (n) pote Jarra pitcher
Journal (n) periódico, revista especializada Jornal newspaper
Lamp (n) luminária, abajur Lâmpada light bulb
Large (adj) grande, espaçoso Largo wide
Lecture (n) palestra, aula Leitura reading
Legend (n) lenda Legenda subtitle
Library (n) biblioteca Livraria book shop
Location (n) localização Locação rental
Lunch (n) almoço Lanche snack
Magazine (n) revista Magazine department store
Mayor (n) prefeito Maior bigger
Medicine (n) remédio, medicina Medicina medicine
Moisture (n) umidade Mistura mix, mixture, blend
love motel, hot-pillow joint, no-tell
Motel (n) hotel de beira de estrada Motel
motel
notar, aperceber-se, aviso,
Notice (v, n) Notícia news
comunicação
Novel (n) romance Novela soap opera
Office (n) escritório Oficial official
Parents (n) pais Parentes relatives
Particular (adj) específico, exato Particular personal, private
Pasta (n) massa (alimento) Pasta paste, folder, briefcase
INGLÊS PORTUGUÊS INGLÊS PORTUGUÊS
Policy (n) política (diretrizes) Polícia police
Port (n) porto Porta door
Prejudice (n) preconceito Prejuízo damage, loss
Prescribe (v) receitar Prescrever to expire
Preservative (n) conservante Preservativo condom
Pretend (v) fingir Pretender to intend, to plan
Private (adj) particular Privado private
Procure (v) conseguir, adquirir Procurar to look for
divulgação de ideias e fatos com intuito
Propaganda (n) Propaganda advertisement, commercial
de manipular
Pull (v) puxar Pular to jump
Push (v) empurrar Puxar to pull
Range (v) variar, cobrir Ranger to creak, to grind
notar, perceber, dar-se conta, conceber to carry out, to make come true, to
Realize (v) Realizar
uma ideia accomplish
Recipient (n) recebedor, agraciado, destinatário Recipiente container
Record (v, n) gravar, disco, gravação, registro Recordar to remember, to recall
substância refrigerante usada em
Refrigerant (n) Refrigerante soft drink, soda
aparelhos
Requirement (n) requisito Requerimento request, petition
Resume (v) retomar, reiniciar Resumir to summarize
Résumé (n) curriculum vitae, currículo Resumo summary
Retired (adj) aposentado Retirado removed, secluded
Senior (n) idoso Senhor gentleman, sir
Service (n) atendimento Serviço job
Stranger (n) desconhecido Estrangeiro foreigner
impolite, rude
Stupid (adj) burro Estúpido
(Rio Grande do Sul)
Support (v) apoiar Suportar (tolerar) to tolerate, to stand
Tax (n) imposto Taxa rate, fee
Trainer (n) preparador físico Treinador coach
Turn (n, v) vez, volta, curva, virar, girar Turno shift, round
Vegetables (n) verduras, legumes Vegetais plants

A DAY AT WORK
In the morning I  attended  a meeting between management and  union representatives.
The discussion was very  comprehensive, covering topics like working hours, days off,
retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement and ready
to  compromise. The secretary recorded  everything in the notes. Eventually, they
decided to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the agreement.
Back at the office, a colleague of mine asked me if I had  realized  that the proposed
agreement would be partially against the company policy not to accept workers that
have already  retired. I  pretended  to be really busy and late for an appointment, and
left for the  cafeteria. Actually,  I didn't want to discuss the matter at
that  particular  moment because there were some  strangers  in the  office.
After  lunch I  attended  a lecture given by the  mayor, who is
an  expert  in tax  legislation and has a graduate degree in political science. He said his government intends
to  assist  welfare programs and  senior citizens, raise funds to improve  college  education and build a public library,
because he assumes this is what the people expect from the government.

ESTRATÉGIAS DE LEITURA: ESCANEAMENTO DO TEXTO (SCANNING)

Como é sabido, o objetivo da leitura determina o grau de atenção e concentração que devemos ter ao trabalharmos um
texto. Certamente ao procurarmos informações muito específicas em um texto nos concentraremos apenas em identificá-
las, ignorando outros detalhes do texto.
Uma técnica de leitura, conhecida como scanning, se caracteriza por passarmos os olhos rapidamente sobre o texto a
fim de localizarmos aquilo que especificamente procuramos naquela leitura, nada mais nos interessando, focando apenas
naqueles caracteres que nos interessam.

Esse tipo de leitura é muito recorrente no nosso cotidiano, e de tão comum, nem percebemos que estamos usando tal
estratégia para acharmos as informações que queremos. Por exemplo, ao procuramos nosso nome em uma lista de sala de
aula para assinarmos, não nos preocupamos em ler todos os nomes que estão lá, mas inevitavelmente centramos nosso
olhar especificamente no nosso nome, ou quando vamos a um restaurante e passamos os olhos pelo cardápio para ver
qual prato escolheremos, seja pelo nosso gosto pessoal, ou pelo preço cobrado pela refeição, nos atemos àquela
informação que nos interessa.

Assim sendo, ao lermos um texto para responder determinadas questões em uma prova, o scanning passa a ser uma
estratégia muito útil, não só pela precisão das informações colhidas no texto, como também pela rapidez com a qual
podemos descobrir a informação necessária.

* TEXT 1

* TEXT 2
* TEXT 3
D) Horário do voo
____________________________________________

E) Portão de embarque
____________________________________________

Text 2

A) Almoço de terça-feira
_______________________________________________
___________________

B) Dia quando haverá peixe


____________________________________________

C) Preço do almoço especial


____________________________________________

D) Horário que o almoço é servido


_______________________________________

E) Endereço do restaurante
_____________________________________________

Text 3

A) Data e hora da infração


____________________________________________

B) Placa do veículo
_______________________________________________
___

C) Local da infração
_______________________________________________
____________________

D) Infração cometida
_______________________________________________
____________________

E) Valor da multa
_______________________________________________
____________________

01. MODERN TIMES


Modern times have created some “modern” problems to
human beings. Stress might be one of these new issues we
have to worry about. Many experts say this ailment can
impact our mental and physical health. Commuting is seen
as one of the villains for stress. The everyday need to
commute, as almost everyone must move from home to
work and all the way back on daily basis, contributes to
make people more stressed out worldwide. In countries like
the USA, people spend more than 25 minutes commuting to
and from work or school. Recent studies have found that
daily comutes which last more than 20 minutes can make
the person much more susceptible to chronic stress.

Observe rapidamente os textos 1, 2 e 3 e localize as O estresse é considerado por muitos especialistas um dos
seguintes informações: mais perigosos males do mundo moderno. Na passagem, a
palavra commute é usada como justificativa para o
Text 1 aumento desse mal, segundo recente pesquisa. Tal
vocábulo se refere
A) Trecho do voo do passageiro A) à vida corrida das pessoas em grandes cidades dos
____________________________________________ Estados Unidos.
B) ao número de habitantes que usam meios de
B) Número do voo transportes em grandes cidades.
____________________________________________ C) aos fatores de risco responsáveis no surgimento do
estresse nas pessoas.
C) Assento D) às medidas que têm sido tomadas para abrandar o
____________________________________________ estresse das pessoas nas grandes cidades.
E) ao deslocamento das pessoas de casa para o trabalho UNITED NATIONS ALLIANCE OF
ou para a escola e vice-versa.
CIVILIZATIONS. Disponível em:
02. 1984 (excerpt) www.unaoc.org. Acesso em: 16 fev. 2013
'Is it your opinion, Winston, that the past has real (adaptado). 
existence?' [...] O'Brien smiled faintly. 'I will put it more
precisely. Does the past exist concretely, in space? Is  
there somewhere or other a place, a world of solid objects, A.  “Lá na minha escola, aprendi a jogar
where the past is still happening?' capoeira para uma apresentação no
'No.'
'Then where does the past exist, if at all?' Dia da Consciência Negra.” 
'In records. It is written down.' B. “Outro dia assisti na TV uma
'In records. And — —?' reportagem sobre respeito à
'In the mind. In human memories.'
'In mernory. Very well, then. We, the Party, control all diversidade. Gente de todos os tipos,
records, and we control all memories. Then we control the várias tribos. Curti bastante.” 
past, do we not?' C. “Eu me inscrevi no Programa Jovens
ORWELL. G, Nineteen Eighty-Four. New York: Signet Classics,
1977 Embaixadores para mostrar o que
 
tem de bom em meu país e conhecer
O romance 1984 descreve os perigos de um Estado
totalitário. A ideia evidenciada nessa passagem é que o outras formas de ser.” 
controle do Estado se dá por meio do(a) D. “Curto muito bater papo na internet.
A) boicote a ideais libertários. Meus amigos estrangeiros me ajudam
B) veto ao culto das tradições. 
C) poder sobre memórias e registros. a aperfeiçoar minha proficiência em
D) censura a produções orais e escritas. língua estrangeira." 
E) manipulação de pensamentos individuais. E. “Pesquisei em sites de culinária e
preparei uma festa árabe para uns
03. Internautas costumam manifestar suas amigos da escola. Eles adoraram,
opiniões sobre artigos on-line por meio da principalmente, os doces!"
postagem de comentários. O comentário
que exemplifica o engajamento proposto na ESTRATÉGIAS DE LEITURA: SKIMMING
quarta dica da campanha apresentada no
texto é:  Skimming é a estratégia de leitura que permite, por meio
Do one thing for diversity and inclusion de uma leitura rápida, sem pausas e sem muita
preocupação com o vocabulário desconhecido, a
identificação da ideia central de cada parágrafo. Se o texto
The United Nations Alliance of Civilizations for composto por vários parágrafos, essa identificação
(UNAOC) is launching a campaign aimed at permite que, ao final da leitura, a soma de todas as ideias
se fundam em uma única, formando assim a ideia principal
engaging people around the world to Do desse texto. Se o texto tiver apenas um parágrafo, essa
One Thing to support Cultural Diversity and identificação se torna mais rápida, e não menos importante,
Inclusion. Every one of us can do ONE thing permitindo uma compreensão mais precisa da informação
central daquele parágrafo.
for diversity and inclusion; even one very Portanto, essa estratégia deve ser utilizada com o
little thing can become a global action if we objetivo de destacar a ideia principal dos textos lidos. Para
all take part in it.  uma melhor detecção dessas ideias, é necessário prestar
atenção a características de cada texto, como o gênero
Simple things YOU can do to celebrate textual, o layout do texto, as marcas tipográficas, o título e
the World Day for Cultural Diversity for subtítulo, os cognatos e eventuais estrangeirismos, as
Dialogue and Development on May 21.  palavras repetidas e, evidentemente, as primeiras e/ou
últimas linhas de cada parágrafo que, geralmente,
carregam a ideia principal desses parágrafos.
1. Visit an art exhibit or a museum Usamos o skimming com muita frequência no nosso
dedicated to other cultures.  cotidiano, quando, por exemplo, folheamos um jornal ou
revista com o objetivo de ter uma noção dos assuntos
2. Read about the great thinkers of tratados para decidirmos quais nos interessam e, a partir
other cultures.  daí, procedermos uma leitura mais aprofundada.
Essa técnica de compreensão de texto é especialmente
útil quando ele é muito grande e corre-se o risco de passar
3. Visit a place of worship different than muito tempo na interpretação. A velocidade empregada
yours and participate in the com o procedimento é de três a quatro vezes maior do que
celebration.  a leitura comum.
A técnica é sutil e exige em certa medida a experiência do
3. Spread your own culture around the leitor que a faz. Muitas pessoas leem somente a primeira
world and learn about other cultures.  frase de cada parágrafo. Outras, depois disso, leem o
3. Explore music of a different culture.  primeiro e o último parágrafo inteiro.
Dessa forma, é possível ter uma noção da problemática do
artigo e a sua conclusão. A técnica é empregada com
There are thousands of things that you can perguntas do tipo: o que o autor pensa do problema X? Por
do, are you taking part in it?  que a situação Y ocorre?
Diferentemente do scanning, essa técnica pede a
interpretação de texto. Não se busca com ela um dado
específico. A questão é que o texto não precisa ser lido em
sua forma completa para que se possa interpretá-lo. É
uma maneira de encontrar mais depressa o parágrafo de
interesse e lê-lo para depois interpretá-lo.
Tendo à mão todas essas técnicas, o tempo gasto na
leitura do texto pode ser cortado pela metade. As pessoas
que têm experiência na técnica afirmam gastar até mesmo
um terço do tempo de uma pessoa que o lê inteiramente.
A compreensão, por outro lado, não é alterada
significativamente.

Vejamos o exemplo da questão abaixo:

Bob Marley foi um artista popular e atraiu muitos fãs com


suas canções. Ciente de sua influência social, na música
War, o cantor se utiliza de sua arte para alertar sobre
War
Until the philosophy which holds one race superior
And another inferior
Is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned,
Everywhere is war — Me say war.
That until there is no longer
First class and second class citizens of any nation,
Until the color of a man‘s skin
Is of no more significance than the color of his eyes —
Me say war.
[...]
And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes
that hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique,
South Africa, sub-human bondage have been toppled,
Utterly destroyed —
Well, everywhere is war — Me say war.
War in the east, war in the west,
War up north, war down south —
War — war — Rumors of war. 02. Os aparelhos eletrônicos contam
And until that day, the African continent will not know com um número cada vez maior de
peace.
We, Africans, will fight — we find it necessary — recursos. O autor do desenho detalha
And we know we shall win os diferentes acessórios e
As we are confident in the victory.
[...] características de um celular e, a
MARLEY, B. Disponível em: http://www.sing365.com.
Acesso em: 30 jun. 2011 (fragmento). julgar pela maneira como os
descreve, ele
A) a inércia do continente africano diante das injustiças
sociais.
B) a persistência da guerra enquanto houver diferenças
raciais e sociais.
A)prefere os aparelhos celulares com
C) as acentuadas diferenças culturais entre os países flip, mecanismo que se dobra,
africanos.
D) as discrepâncias sociais entre moçambicanos e
estando as teclas protegidas contra
angolanos como causa de conflitos. eventuais danos.
E) a fragilidade das diferenças raciais e sociais como
justificativas para o início de uma guerra. B)apresenta uma opinião sarcástica
com relação aos aparelhos
Possivelmente os significados de vocábulos celulares repletos de recursos
como ignoble, bondage,  toppled e utterly adicionais.
são desconhecidos da maioria dos alunos.
C) escolhe seus aparelhos
Porém, a leitura deve ser feita de modo a
não se preocupar com os mesmos, focando celulares conforme o tamanho das
nas palavras que você conhece para teclas, facilitando o manuseio.
entender a ideia central do texto. D) acredita que o uso de aparelhos
telefônicos portáteis seja essencial
para que a comunicação se dê a
qualquer instante.
E)julga essencial a presença de
editores de textos nos celulares,
pois ele pode concluir seus
trabalhos pendentes fora do
escritório.

03. A tira, definida como um segmento de história


em quadrinhos, pode transmitir uma mensagem com
efeito de humor. A presença desse efeito no diálogo
entre Jon e Garfield acontece porque

A) Decide tirar a neve do quintal para convencer seu pai


sobre seu discurso.
B) Culpa o pai por exercer influência negativa na
formação de sua personalidade.
C) Comenta que suas discussões com o pai não
correspondem às suas expectativas.
D) Conclui que os acontecimentos ruins não fazem falta
para a sociedade.
E) Reclama que é vitima de valores que o levam a
A) Jon pensa que sua ex-namorada é maluca e que atitudes inadequadas.
Garfield não sabia disso.
B) Jodell é a única namorada maluca que Jon teve,
e Garfield acha isso estranho. COMPREENSÃO TEXTUAL – ESPECÍFICO
C) Garfield tem certeza de que a ex-namorada de
CONCURSO BANCO DO BRASIL
Jon é sensata, o maluco é o amigo.
D) Garfield conhece as ex-namoradas de Jon e
considera mais de uma como maluca. Financial System
E) Jon caracteriza a ex-namorada como maluca e People have virtually unlimited needs, but
não entende a cara de Garfield. the economic resources to supply those
04. (ENEM/2013) A partir da leitura dessa tirinha, infere- needs are limited. Therefore, the greatest
se que o discurso de Calvin teve um efeito diferente do benefit of an economy is to provide the most
pretendido, uma vez que ele desirable consumer goods and services in
the most desirable amounts - what is known
as the efficient allocation of economic
resources. To produce these consumer
goods and services requires capital in the
form of labor, land, capital goods used to
produce a desired product or service, and
entrepreneurial ability to use these resources
together to the greatest efficiency in
producing what consumers want most. Real
capital consists of the land, labor, tools and
machinery, and entrepreneurial ability to
produce consumer goods and services, and C) receive the distributed money don’t know
to acquire real capital costs money. The how to use it best.
financial system of an economy provides the D) have much money and know how to use it
means to collect money from the people best are the same.
who have it and distribute it to those who E) operate the financial system of an
can use it best. Hence, the efficient economy collect the money and keep it.
allocation of economic resources is
achieved by a financial system that 02. (ESCRITURÁRIO/2015/CESGRANRIO)
allocates money to those people and for In the fragment of the text “Hence, the
those purposes that will yield the greatest efficient allocation of economic resources”
return. The financial system is composed of (lines 18-19), the connector Hence conveys
the products and services provided by an idea of
financial institutions, which include banks, A) emphasis
insurance companies, pension funds, B) time sequence
organized exchanges, and the many other C) contrast
companies that serve to facilitate economic D) conclusion
transactions. Virtually all economic E) addition
transactions are effected by one or more of
these financial institutions. They create 03. (ESCRITURÁRIO/2015/CESGRANRIO)
financial instruments, such as stocks and In the fragment of the text “the efficient
bonds, pay interest on deposits, lend money allocation of economic resources is achieved
to creditworthy borrowers, and create and by a financial system that allocates money to
maintain the payment systems of modern those people and for those purposes that will
economies. These financial products and yield the greatest return” (lines 19-22), the
services are based on the following verb form yield can be replaced, without
fundamental objectives of any modern change in meaning, by
financial system: A) produce
• to provide a payment system; B) slow down
• to give money time value; C) cut
• to offer products and services to reduce D) interrupt
financial risk or to compensate risk-taking E) diminish
for desirable objectives;
• to collect and disperse information that 04. (ESCRITURÁRIO/2015/CESGRANRIO)
allows the most efficient allocation of According to the text, a definition for the
economic resources; expression “the efficient allocation of
• to create and maintain financial markets economic resources” (lines 6-7) is:
that provide prices, which indicates how well A) provision of the most desirable consumer
investments are performing, which also goods and services in limited amounts
determines the subsequent allocation of B) provision of the most desirable consumer
resources, and to maintain economic goods and services in unlimited amounts
stability. Available at: . Retrieved on: July C) production of economic resources in
27th, 2015. Adapted. unlimited ways
D) production of economic resources in
01. (ESCRITURÁRIO/2015/CESGRANRIO) sufficient amounts
From the sentence of the text “The financial E) provision of the most desirable consumer
system of an economy provides the means goods and services in the most desirable
to collect money from the people who have amounts.
it and distribute it to those who can use it
best” (lines 16-18), it can be inferred that 05. (ESCRITURÁRIO/2015/CESGRANRIO)
people who The relative pronoun which in the fragment
A) can use the money most efficiently are of the text “which include banks, insurance
those who have much money. companies, pension funds, organized
B) operate the financial system of an exchanges, and the many other companies”
economy collect and distribute money the (lines 24-26) refers to
best way. A) financial institutions (line 24)
B) other companies (lines 25-26)
C) purposes (line 21) Credit Card The fact that millennials are
D) return (line 22) smart enough to avoid credit card debt is a
E) products and services (lines 23-24) good thing, but that doesn’t mean the
decision has its drawbacks. According to
Experian, most adults need a positive credit
Why Millennials Don’t Like Credit Cards history in order to qualify for an auto loan or
by Holly Johnson mortgage. Even worse, having no credit
history is almost as bad as having a negative
Cheap, easy credit might have been credit history in some cases. Still, there are
tempting to young people in the past, but plenty of ways millennials can build a credit
not to today’s millennials. According to a history without a credit card. A few tips: •
recent survey by Bankrate of over 1,161 Make payments on installment loans on
consumers, 63% of adults ages 18 to 29 live time. Whether it’s a car loan, student loan or
without a credit card of any kind, and personal loan, make sure to mail in those
another 23% only carry one card. The payments on time and pay at least the
Impact of the Great Recession Research minimum amount required. • Put at least one
shows that the environment millennials grew household or utility bill in your name. Paying
up in might have an impact on their your utility or household bills on time can
finances. Unlike other generations, help you build a positive credit history. • Get
millennials lived through economic a secured credit card. Unlike traditional
hardships during a time when their adult credit cards, the funds secured credit cards
lives were beginning. According to the offer are backed by money the user
Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Great deposits. Signing up for a secured card is
Recession caused millennials to stray from one way to build a positive credit history
historic patterns when it comes to without any risk. The fact that millennials are
purchasing a home and having children, and leery of credit cards is probably a good thing
a fear of credit cards could be another in the long run. After all, not having a credit
symptom of the economic environment of card is the perfect way to stay out of credit
the times. And there’s much data when it card debt. Even though it might be harder to
comes to proving that millennials grew up build a credit history without credit cards, the
on shaky economic ground. The Pew vast majority of millennials have decided that
Research Center reports that 36% of the plastic just isn’t worth it. Available at: .
millennials lived at home with their parents Retrieved on: Nov. 10th, 2014. Adapted.
in 2012. Meanwhile, the unemployment rate
for people ages 16 to 24 was 14.2% (more
than twice the national rate) in early 2014, 06. (ESCRITURÁRIO/2015/BANCO DO
according to the BLS. With those figures, it’s BRASIL S/A/CESGRANRIO/MÉDIO) The
no wonder that millennials are skittish when
main purpose of the text is to
it comes to credit cards. It makes sense that
A) explain the millennials’ credit card
young people would be afraid to take on any
affection.
new forms of debt. A Generation Plagued
B) defend the millennials’ fear of credit card
with Student Loan Debt But the Great
use.
Recession isn’t the only reason millennials
C) describe the millennials’ attitude towards
could be fearful of credit. Many experts
the credit card.
believe that the nation’s student loan debt
D) present the millennials’ credit card
level might be related to it. According to the
historical background.
Institute for College Access & Success, 71%
E) demonstrate the millennials’ need of
of millennials (or 1.3 million students) who
credit card use to build a credit history.
graduated from college in 2012 left school
with at least some student loan debt, with
07. (ESCRITURÁRIO/2015/BANCO DO
the average amount owed around $29,400.
BRASIL S/A/CESGRANRIO/MÉDIO) In the
With so much debt already under their belts,
sentence of the text “the Great Recession
millennials are worried about adding any
caused millennials to stray from historic
credit card debt to the pile. After all, many
patterns when it comes to purchasing a
adults with student loan debt need to make
home and having children” (lines 13 – 15),
payments for years, and even decades.
How Millennials Can Build Credit Without a
the word stray can be replaced, with no Most Mutations in the Human Genome are
change in meaning, by Recent and Probably Harmful to Individuals
A) stem By Kat McGowan
B) start
C) range We really are a mutant race. Our genomes
D) follow are scattered with millions of rare gene variations,
the result of the very fast, very recent population
E) deviate growth of the human species. From an
estimated 5 million
08. (ESCRITURÁRIO/2015/BANCO DO 5 individuals just 10,000 years ago, we ballooned to
BRASIL S/A/CESGRANRIO/MÉDIO) The more than 7 billion. On average, every duplication
of the human genome includes 100 new errors, so
word skittish, in the sentence of the text all that reproducing gave our DNA many
“With those figures, it’s no wonder that opportunities to accumulate mutations. But
millennials are skittish when it comes to evolution hasn’t had
credit cards” (lines 24 – 26), can be 10 enough time to weed out the dangerous ones: gene
variants that might make us prone to illness, or
replaced, with no change in meaning, by simply less likely to survive.
A) uncertain Joshua Akey of the University of Washington
B) enthusiastic recently explored the average age of our
C) depressed species’s
15 gene variants, and unveiled that most are very
D) determined young. About three-quarters of single nucleotide
E) secure variants — a mutation that substitutes just one
nucleotide (an A, C, T or G) in the long string of
DNA — occurred within the past 5,000 years.
09. (ESCRITURÁRIO/2015/BANCO DO This is surprising considering that
BRASIL S/A/CESGRANRIO/MÉDIO) The 20 our species may be 200,000 years old. Using
sentence of the text “With so much debt several techniques to gauge the effects of these
already under their belts, millennials are mutations, which are the most common type of
variant in the human genome, Akey estimated
worried about adding any credit card debt to that more than 80 percent are probably harmful to
the pile” (lines 38 – 40) conveys the idea us.
that millenials have 25 All of these mutations — roughly 100 billion
A) piles of bills to pay every month, but they for each generation in the entire population —
potentially accelerate the pace of evolution by
can use their credit cards moderately. giving it more raw materials with which to work. A
B) so many bills to pay that credit card bills small percentage of such mutations may be
wouldn’t make much difference. beneficial and may indeed help
30 the lives of the few individuals who carry them. For
C) so many bills to pay that they have to sell
instance, not developing wisdom teeth, producing
their belongings. the right enzyme to digest milk in adulthood, being
D) so much debt to pay that they can’t afford taller than the previous generations, having lungs
another one. adapted to living at high altitudes and being born
resistant to
E) no credit cards simply because they don’t
35 diseases such as HIV are some of the few recent
like them. acquisitions of mutations in the human genome.
Given how many mutations are now circulating
10. (ESCRITURÁRIO/2015/BANCO DO among living humans, we may be evolving new
capabilities already.
BRASIL S/A/CESGRANRIO/MÉDIO) In the
sentence of the text “Still, there are plenty of
ways millennials can build a credit history
without a credit card” (lines 52 – 53), the
quantifier plenty of can be replaced, with no
change in meaning, by
A) some
B) few
C) a few
D) a little
E) lots of
Akey says that determining the age (E) possibility, as a grown-up, to break up milk into
and digestible pieces.
40 frequency of our mutations is made possible
only by the stupendous increase in gene
sequencing speed and power. Just a few years
ago, this kind of experiment was inconceivable.
Thus, only now could we understand that the
fast population growth has
45 littered our genomes with five times as many rare
gene variants as would be expected and such
mutations are certainly the cause of most deadly
diseases we fight against.
Available
at:<http://discovermagazine.com/2013/julyaug/ 07-
most-mutations-in-the-human-genome-are-recent-and-
-probably-harmful>. Retrieved on: July 2013. Adapted.

11
In Text I, the title indicates that the human genome
(A) has recently been mapped.
(B) probably harms all recent mutations.
(C) may carry health-improving mutations.
(D) is not fixed and its variation might be detrimental.
(E) was harmed due to mutations from the dawn of
our history.

12
In Text I, the author sketches a negative scenario for
our species coming from two fronts: on the first, he
argues that, due to the exponential demographic
growth, we have
(A) become subject to genetic errors; on the other,
we have had no time to eliminate such errors.
(B) turned into a mutant race; on the other, some of
the genes may carry errors.
(C) given our DNA many mutations; on the other,
such mutations are not likely to survive.
(D) ballooned to over 7 billion genes; on the other, we
still haven’t managed to eliminate errors.
(E) duplicated our chances to acquire illnesses; on
the other, we have improved gene therapy.

13
In Text I, the expression in parentheses that
describes the idea expressed by the boldfaced word
is
(A) “explored” – line 14 (looked up to).
(B) “unveiled” – line 15 (found out).
(C) “substitutes” – line 17 (puts up with).
(D) “occurred” – line 18 (looked for).
(E) “gauge” – line 21 (bring about).

14
In Text I, the author points out, as one of the
genetic advantages of mutations, the
(A) current extinction of HIV.
(B) development of healthy lungs.
(C) stature of males, who may get to be taller than
the average men in the past.
(D) presence of healthy wisdom teeth.
15 discomfiting Planck result, we must let go of all our
In Text I, Akey explains that the stupendous progress in 40 feelings of supremacy. After all, it seems possible that our
gene sequencing has revealed that galaxy lives on top of shadow galaxies without us even
knowing it.
(A) mutations happened because of the speed and power of
our genome sequencing. Available at: <http://discovermagazine.com/2013/julyaug/ 21-
the-possible-parallel-universe-of-dark-matter>. Retrieved on: July
(B) genomes have littered the mutations, defining our 2013. Adapted.
population growth.
(C) the age and frequency of the mutations are the causes of
most deadly diseases. 16
(D) the demographic explosion has generated variants that In Text II, the author makes a theoretical question about
impacted the quality of our genes. being a baryonic matter chauvinist because she knows we
tend to consider
(E) the fast population growth will determine the extinction
of most diseases. (A) males more important than females.
(B) earth more relevant than space.
The Possible Parallel Universe of Dark Energy (C) our families as the only true source of reference.
(D) atoms as the only forming particle.
By Corey S. Powell (E) visible matter more than the ones we cannot see.
Are you a baryonic matter chauvinist? Probably,
yes, but if not so sure, here is the definition of baryonic
matter. Baryonic matter is that with which we are all 17
familiar and that interacts with visible light: Protons, In Text II, the proper continuation for the second paragraph
5 neutrons and electrons; atoms and molecules; your body, (lines 13-18) is:
your car, stars, galaxies. Almost all of us are chauvinist (A) Therefore, we should always believe our eyes about
in relation to baryonic matter. We tend to think of
what we can see.
ourselves and the world immediately around us as
(B) So, Planck Spacecraft proved that baryonic matter is
something special. Then, by extension we
10 regard our kind of matter as the most important kind of dominant.
matter in the universe. We act as if the only kinds of (C) Thus, believing only in what we see restricts our
matter that mattered were the ones we can see. knowledge of cosmic facts.
Sorry to disappoint you, but science tells a starkly (D) Consequently, Planck Spacecraft came to prove what we
different story. Last spring, the European Space already assumed in our daily lives.
15 Agency’s Planck Spacecraft completed an ultraprecise (E) Despite the European Space Agency’s Planck Spacecraft,
15-month census of the composition of the universe. we will still believe in dark matter.
Baryonic matter, also named light matter, makes up
only 4.9% of the total composition of the universe.
Planck Spacecraft also found evidence that 18
20 another fundamentally invisible, cool and mysterious type
In Text II, the word in parentheses that describes the idea
of matter, named dark matter, vastly outweighs
expressed by the boldfaced word is
baryonic matter, accounting for 26.8% of the universe.
Dark matter is undetectable by its emitted radiation, but (A) “mysterious” – line 20 (blurred).
its presence can be inferred from gravitational (B) “vastly” – line 21 (massively).
25 effects on visible matter. (C) “accounting” – line 22 (describing).
The remaining 68.3 % is dark energy, an even (D) “undetectable” – line 23 (salient).
more baffling component that consists of formless (E) “inferred” – line 24 (granted).
forces. According to Einstein, dark energy is an intrinsic
property of space. As more space comes
30 into existence, more of this energy-of-space appears. A 19
hypothesis is that, as a result, this form of energy might
According to Text II, the dark energy
cause the Universe to expand faster and faster. While
this theory is still not well understood or proven, it is (A) is a component which is well understood by scientists.
certain that more than two-thirds of the universe (B) is a baffling kind of baryonic matter.
35 has no substance at all! (C) was identified as the most prevailing component in the
While we usually focus on matter made of visible universe.
atoms, researchers learn more about dark matter’s and (D) makes the universe expand faster.
dark energy’s complexities. In view of the (E) consists of formless forces located out of this universe.

20
A word that would define the overall target of the last
paragraph in Text II (lines 36-42) is The salaries of bank clerks vary widely depending on the size and
location of the bank and the clerk’s experience. According to the
(A) passion
Bureau of Labor Statistics, median salaries ranged from $23,317
(B) humbleness to $27,310 per year in 2004 depending on experience and title.
(C) certainty Generally, loan clerks are on the high end of this range, whereas
(D) pride general office clerks are on the lower end.
(E) visibility Banks typically offer their employees excelente benefits. Besides
paid vacations and more than the usual number of paid holidays,
employees may receive health and life insurance and participate in
pension and profit-sharing plans. Some banks provide financial aid
Bank Clerk Job Description Definition and Nature of the Work
so that workers can continue their education.
Banks simplify people’s lives, but the business of banking is
Available at: <http://careers.stateuniversity.com/pages/151/
anything but simple. Every transaction — from cashing a check to Bank-Clerk.html>. Retrieved on: Aug. 22, 2017. Adapted.
taking out a loan — requires careful record keeping. Behind the
scenes in every bank or savings and loan association there are 21. The main purpose of the text is to
dozens of bank clerks, each an expert at keeping one area of the A) introduce the many categories of bank clerks one can find in a
bank’s business running smoothly. New account clerks open and financial institution.
close accounts and answer questions for customers. Interest B) present an overview of the career of a bank clerk to an eventual
clerks record interest due to savings account customers, as well future professional.
as the interest owed to the bank on loans and other investments. C) denounce the disadvantages associated with the clerk
Exchange clerks, who work on international accounts, translate profession.
foreign currency values into dollars and vice versa. Loan clerks D) discuss all the benefits offered to employees who work in a
sort and record information about loans. Statement clerks are bank.
responsible for preparing the monthly balance sheets of checking E) ask for changes in the way bank recruiters select their future
account customers. Securities clerks record, file, and maintain employees.
stocks, bonds, and other investment certificates. They also keep
track of dividends and interest on these certificates. Other clerks 22. In “Candidates can also check Internet job sites and the
operate the business machines on which modern banks rely. classified ads in local newspapers as well” (lines 45- 47), the
Proof operators sort checks and record the amount of each modal verb can is replaced, without change in meaning, by
check. Bookkeeping clerks keep records of each customer’s A) should
account. In addition to these specialists, banks need general B) must
clerical help — data entry keyers, file clerks, mail handlers, and C) will
messengers — just as any other business does. Education and D) may
Training Requirements Bank clerks usually need a high school E) need
education with an emphasis on basic skills in typing,
bookkeeping, and business math. Knowledge of computers and 23. The fragment “Banks simplify people’s lives, but the business
business machines is also helpful. Prospective bank workers may of banking is anything but simple” (lines 2-3) means that banking is
be tested on their clerical skills when they are interviewed. Most a(n)
banks provide new employees with on-the-job training. Getting A) ordinary occupation
the Job Sometimes bank recruiters visit high schools to look for B) elementary job
future employees. High school placement offices can tell students C) complex activity
whether this is the practice at their school. If not, prospective bank D) trivial profession
workers can apply directly to local banks through their personnel E) easy business
departments. Bank jobs may be listed with state and private
employment agencies. Candidates can also check Internet job 24. In the sentence of the text “Generally, loan clerks are on the
sites and the classified ads in local newspapers as well. high end of this range, whereas general office clerks are on the
lower end” (lines 78-80), the word whereas
Advancement Possibilities and Employment Outlook A) expresses a contrast.
Banks prefer to promote their employees rather than hire new B) highlights a problem.
workers for jobs that require experience. C) imposes a condition.
Clerks frequently become tellers or supervisors. Many banks D) introduces an example.
encourage their employees to further their education at night. E) points out a solution.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of
bank clerks was expected to decline through the year 2014, 25. In “In addition to these specialists, banks need general clerical
because many banks are electronically automating their systems help” (lines 25-27), the phrase these specialists refers to
and eliminating paperwork as well as many clerical tasks. A) “messengers” (line 28)
Workers with knowledge of data processing and computers will B) “mail handlers” (lines 27-28)
have the best opportunities. In addition to Jobs created through C) “proof operators” (line 23) and “bookkeeping clerks” (lines 24-
expansion, openings at the clerical level often occur as workers 25)
move up to positions of greater responsibility. D) “data entry keyers” (line 27)
E) “file clerks” (line 27)
Working Conditions
Although banks usually provide a pleasant working atmosphere,
clerks often work alone, at times performing repetitive tasks. Bank
clerks generally work between thirty-five and forty hours per
week, but they may be expected to take on evening and Saturday
shifts depending on bank hours.

Earnings and Benefits