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Foreword

The name of this ENGLCOM portfolio is Unintended

Lullabies. Included in this portfolio are the two reflective

essays, extended definition and argumentative essays of

the author. This author hopes that by reading her

unintended lullabies, the reader will get a glimpse of what

is inside the mind of the author. This author hopes that

the reader will enjoy what he/she will be reading and if

criticisms will be given then the author will accept it

whole-heartedly. Enjoy reading!

About the Author

Gianna Maree D.

Peñalosa is the name of the author

of Unintended Lullabies. She is an 18 year

old, first year college student in the De La

Salle University with a degree in Bachelor of

Science in Commerce, Major in Legal


Management. She enjoys reading novels, listening to music, going out with

friends and family, writing in her journal/planner, eating and sometimes

studying. The usual first impression of her is that she is snobby, authoritative

and quiet but once you get to know her, those first impressions will most

likely change. She has a loud mouth and sometimes, she gets into trouble

because of it but one thing that no one will ever know unless you become a

close friend of hers is that she thinks a lot. She has many thoughts in her

head and most of the time she finds it hard to express those feelings. There

are times that she is hard-headed especially if it is something that she really

wants or believes in but she knows when to listen. Despite her hard-

headedness, she still knows how to be open-minded. Her dream is to become

a lawyer and she will not allow anything to get in the way of fulfilling that

dream. Seemingly uptight, she knows when to loosen up and have fun that is

why whenever there is a chance to have fun, she’ll be one of those people

who will pull you into the crowd and forget all the worries even if it is just for

a few hours on the dance floor.

Reflective Essay # 1

I am a student who is fond of reading novels and long stories. Since I

was a little girl, reading has become a part of me. I gain so much knowledge

from it and my reading skills improve every time I finish a book. My

imagination became broader and there were times that I wrote down my own

short stories. From writing short stories, I wrote in my journal. My journals


are always filled up because I have a lot of things in mind and I would rather

express my thoughts in writing than saying it out loud.

I might be fond of reading and writing but I still have things to improve

on. I sometimes forget what prepositions or conjunctions are appropriate to

use that’s why my sentences end up wrong. In writing an essay in English, I

commit the common mistakes like forgetting the indention before starting a

paragraph and wrong punctuation marks. I tend to forget that there are

mechanics to follow in writing a good essay because I am very concentrated

on what I am writing at the moment.

I only have one expectation in this ENGLCOM course and that is that

this course will help me to greatly improve on my reading and writing skills

and also add knowledge to what I have now. In my chosen profession,

knowledge in the English language is very important. If I have to defend

people in court, I have to have and know the appropriate words to say. I

can’t just say something in front of many people without understanding what

I am saying. They say that actions speak louder than words but words can hit

anyone in a place where he/she is most vulnerable. English is the universal

language today and up to now, it continues to evolve and improve. I would

like to be given a chance to help in improving this language even though I

am a Filipino.

I believe that this course will surely help me in achieving my goals in

life. I also believe that with this knowledge, I would be able to share what I
have to other people. ENGLCOM will be a way for me to become a Lasallian

achiever for God and country.

Extended Definition Essay


Let’s Talk Law
There are many professions in the world that people venture into.

Some individuals want to be part of the business world that is why they are

studying business courses. Others prefer to have a profession in Science,

Engineering, Computer Studies and Liberal Arts. Individuals who are

interested to become a lawyer or judge choose to make law their profession.

Law is a very broad topic and it is defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary

as a binding custom or practice of a community; a rule of conduct or action

prescribed or formally recognized as binding or enforced by a controlling

authority. Law is not just about the rules of conduct governing a sovereign.

There is more to law than just the mere definition of it. Law in general

shapes politics, economics and society. In order to understand law, one must

dwell deeper into its meaning. One must know why the law is such. Law is

not just a profession or subject to be taken lightly. It is a rough road to pass

but once a law student graduates from law school, that is where reality kicks

in and all the efforts done before will be rewarded in due time. A student of

law is able to define the law by looking at its history, providing its intricate

details and examining its effects to those who are under it.

The history of law is a long one for there was never a time in our

human history that law did not exist. The word “law” first appeared in

English around the year 1000 but the root of the word came from Old Norse.

It can be deduced that the word is from Old English but in fact, the Anglo-

Saxons have spoken a word that had a similar meaning. The Norse root is

lagu while the Old Norse word is lag, which was derived from the Proto-Indo-
European root legh-meaning to lie, to lay. Law was first applied by

recognizing its existence. When human society recognized the law’s

existence, society became dependent on it. Proper conduct was defined and

the rights and wrongs of society’s actions were put to light. It is because of

law that society developed to what it is now: less barbaric, more civilized.

One of the few keypoints as to why the law is unique is that it has

many intricate details. These details need to be discussed separately for

tackling it in one session is like putting one’s self in misery. Another unique

characteristic of law is that it won’t change unless it has to be done. The law

does not “go with the flow.” It remains strict and the laws that the world

have right now have been present since before. The laws don’t chance even

if time passes by. The last unique characteristic of law is that it is universally

recognized. It cannot be ignored and as the saying goes: “Ignorance of the

law excuses no one.” There are two general divisions of law according to

Hector De Leon and they are law in a strict legal sense and law in a non-legal

sense. The focus of the first general division of law is state law. State law as

defined in De Leon’s book is a law or body of laws promulgated by the state.

The second general division of law, law in a non-legal sense, consists of four

types of laws. These types of laws are: divine law, moral law, natural law and

physical law. Divine law is believed to come directly from God himself and

divine law is interpreted to the people by the church. Moral law is defined as

rules of behavior that a person follows because it comes out of personal

conscience. Moral law could have sprung out of divine law because divine
law also tells us what God thinks as right or wrong. Divine law and moral law

have in a way affected the way our state is written right now. Natural law is

law or body of laws that is derived from nature. Natural law is essential to

human society and there is only one natural law in this world. “Thou shall

now kill”, one of God’s Ten Commandments is the only natural law. Physical

law or scientific law is based on observed physical phenomena. A physical

law is true if it is within its regime/term of validity. One example of a physical

law is the law of conservation of energy. The physical law should not be

confused with natural law and one should remember that it is distinct from

divine law and state law. The sources of law can be classified into two and

they are legal sources and historical sources. Legal sources such as the

constitution, executive orders, judicial decisions and treaties are recognized

by law itself and historical sources lack the recognition of law. Historical

sources influence legal development but it does not have the same

authoritative effect like legal sources.

The positive effect of law is that it provides order. It assures the people

who are under its protection that once a wrong deed has been committed, it

will not go unpunished. Another positive effect of law is its purpose to protect

the innocent and punish the wrong-doers. The intentions of law are pure and

one should remember that the law is made by the people to protect the

people. The negative effect of law is that it can by contradicted by another

law. It makes understanding the law all the more confusing and it can also be

easily manipulated by the people and lawyers to their own advantage.


Benjamin Franklin said that “the strictest law sometimes becomes the

severest injustice” and that is a fact. It is another effect of law because it can

hinder a nation’s or people’s progress. Some laws can be so harsh that it can

disregard human rights and degrade the dignity of people. Situations like

that must be avoided and law must remain unbiased in order for it to remain

functional. To sum it all up, law brings up positive and negative effects to

those who are affected by it. The effects of law may vary in one place and

another.

References:

Books:

De Leon, H.2008.The Law on Obligations and Contracts.

Internet websites:

http://jurisonline.in/2010/03/sources-of-law/

http://podictionary.com/law-podictionary-175/

http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2092.htm

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/law

http://www.myetymology.com/english/law.html
Argumentative Essay
Fighting Temptation: Strong
Implementation of RA 1224 in DLSU
The Republic Act No. 1224 is an act amending section one of Republic

Act No. 938. It is stated here that “the municipal or city board or council of

each chartered city and the municipal council of each municipality and

municipal district shall have the power to regulate or prohibit by ordinance

the establishment, maintenance and operation of night clubs, cabarets,

dancing schools, pavilions, cockpits, bars, saloons, bowling alleys, billiard

pools, and other similar places of amusement within its territorial jurisdiction:

Provided, however, That no such places of amusement mentioned herein

shall be established, maintained and/or operated within a radius of two

hundred lineal meters in the case of night clubs, cabarets, pavilions, or other

similar places, and fifty lineal meters in the case of dancing schools, bars,
saloons, billiard pools, bowling alleys, or other similar places, except

cockpits, the distance of which shall be left to the discretion of the municipal

or city board or council, from any public building, schools, hospitals and

churches.” In support of this republic act, a Manila City ordinance has also

been passed and that is Manila Ordinance No. 3358. The said ordinance fixes

a wider distance of 200 meters. It has been explained that in the city of

Manila, it follows the 50-meter radial distance set by RA 1224 but in some

cases, the 200-meter radial distance that has been provided in the city

ordinance is followed.

The places of amusement that are stated in the Republic Act No. 1224

are as follows: night clubs, cabarets, dancing schools, pavilions, cockpits,

bars, saloons, bowling alleys and billiard places. These places are prohibited

to be operated within a certain distance from public buildings, schools,

hospitals and churches. De La Salle University is one of the many universities

that are located in the city of Manila. Unlike other universities such as

University of Santo Tomas, Adamson, Far Eastern University and the like, the

one thing that the university does not really have is space. The campus is

small in terms of space but it caters to many students that are increasing in

number every after academic year. It is situated in Taft Avenue where there

are a lot of different establishments that are being operated. Internet cafes,

arcade places, restaurants, KTV rooms and even drinking establishments are

a walking distance from the university. When it comes to drinking

establishments, there are only three places that students will normally
mention and they are Rooftop, Beach House and Green Place. These

establishments are located at the back of the university where the Br.

Andrew Gonzalez Hall and Enrique Razon Sports Complex are located.

Students frequent these places during their long breaks and after school

hours stay there as late as they can especially on Thursdays. Instead of

spending more time resting at home after a hard day in school or studying

for an upcoming exam, the students prefer to spend time and money in

these places that don’t really benefit them permanently. With this in mind,

the 200 meter rule regarding drinking establishments is beneficial in terms

of promoting proper learning environment, preventing indecent actions by

the patrons and becoming Lasallian achievers for God and country, therefore

De La Salle University should strongly implement this rule.

When one is under the influence of alcohol, it cannot be helped that

inappropriate actions will be committed. Inappropriate actions such as brawls

and public display of physical intimacy are usually happening in

establishments that sell liquor. The headline of one article published in The

Lasallian last February that supports this argument is “What happens on

happy Thursdays: Sex and drugs at DLSU.” Indecent actions are done in

these drinking establishments and students have more access to using drugs

in these establishments. The presence of drinking establishments near the

university make the students think that it is acceptable and normal to go a

little bit “wild” especially after a rough day in school or on Thursdays. In this

article, it says that in the drinking establishments, students play games, such
as truth or dare, and bottle spinning, which invoke sexual dares and foreplay.

This leads to the actual intercourse, which is usually done in the restrooms of

the drinking establishments, as well as nearby condominiums. These

drinking establishments encourage its patrons to run free and do whatever

they like since it is outside campus and the campus has no power over these

establishments because the business is not illegal in terms of permits and

the like. The RA 1224 must be applied in order to prevent indecent actions

by the patrons or in this case, students.

The ideal leader for our country is a law-abiding citizen who is not

easily tempted to do wayward things. The presence of drinking

establishments does not help in honing Lasallian achievers for the country.

These establishments encourage the students to become wayward and not

serious people it does not help in instilling in the students social awareness

and social responsibility.

Students are enrolled in schools for the purpose of learning. A school

or university cannot properly serve its purpose if establishments such as

bars and arcades are in close proximity. It cannot properly promote a proper

learning environment if temptations are just a few meters away. De La Salle

University gives its enrolled students the freedom to choose their desired

class schedule. An average student would want to have breaks during the

day especially if the subjects for that day are tough. During long breaks,

students would find ways to keep themselves busy. Some would prefer to
just stay in the library in order for them to have some peace and quiet.

Others would go out of campus and eat in some nearby restaurants. Those

students who go out of campus are most likely tempted to go to Sherwood

Place to go grab a few drinks. Others might head to Rooftop or Beach House

or GP (Green Place) to have a little fun. These places are very close to the

Bro. Andrew Gonzalez building that is located almost near Quirino. These

places are jam-packed by students especially on Thursdays because for

almost all students, Thursday is the last school day of the week. These three

establishments do not help promote the proper learning environment that

the University wants to achieve. These places tempt the students to not do

their best in their studies. The close proximity of these places is a threat to

the values that the University wants to instill in the students.

How can one say that these establishments prevent students to

become Lasallian achievers for God and country? Not all students go to these

establishments every week because there are those that have better things

to do. De La Salle University has produced some of the most notable names

in the industries that we have today. Students should not always immerse

themselves with only their students. College should also be enjoyed because

it is one of those once in a lifetime experiences. It is true that these

establishments are a distraction but these are only temporary distractions

and the presence of these establishments should not always be treated as

hindrances to the students because its presence can also serve as a test.

There are many temptations in the real world and college students are
already being exposed to the realities of this world through the presence of

amusement establishments. One can still be an achiever even if there is the

presence of temptations.

As stated before, there is nothing illegal in establishing, maintaining

and operating a business such as bars and the like if all the legalities are

settled; however operating a bar near a university is not advisable since the

reason why students are in school in the first place is for them to learn. It

does not help the students to develop their full potential if they spend their

time drinking alcohol and getting wasted. Republic Act No. 1224 is

implemented to preserve the importance of some of the institutions that are

situated in a certain place.

References:

Gamboa, M. & Ladisla, M. (2010, December 15). City Hall officials raid bars
near UST Campus. The Varsitarian.

Mendoza, J. & Pagulayan, D. (2011, February 17).What happens on happy


Thursdays: Sex and drugs at DLSU. The Lasallian, p.2

Robles, C. (n.d.) Republic Act No. 1224. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from
http://www.chanrobles.com/republicacts/republicactno1224.html
Reflective Essay # 2
ENGLCOM… After Three Months
I enrolled in the ENGLCOM course knowing that the English skills that I

acquired in my whole stay in grade school and high school will be tested.

True enough, the skills that I learned were tested and proven adequate to

meet the requirements of this course. There were times that I forgot what

skills to use in reading and writing but I remembered them easily after our

professor guides us in what to do. What I have learned in the reading and

writing component of this course is that the essays that I have written before

can be improved and classified. I was able to improve on the writing skills

that I have and I was also made to keep in mind that my essays should be

organized. There were times that my thoughts were all over the place and I

didn’t know where to start with my paper but through this course, my

scattered thoughts were replaced with organized thoughts and ideas. It is

through ENGLCOM that I was able to write and read better.

Looking back at my first reflective essay, I have written expectations

about this course and I can say that these expectations were met. I was not

disappointed with this course even if there were times that I said that this
course is such a drag. Although this is not one of my major courses, it helped

me get a head start with what I will be doing in the near future.

ENGLCOM helped me in achieving my goals this term because I believe

that I was able to write better and I was also able to let myself tackle more

mature issues or ideas in my essays. Comparing what I have written now and

what I have written in my early years is easy now because I have a basis for

my comparison. I have seen myself grow in my writing and I’m happy with

what I have now. There might be times that I will forget what I am supposed

to do but with the skills that I acquired in this course, I will be able to get by.

I am thankful to have enrolled in ENGLCOM even though I had to wake up

early and get to school on time just to attend the class it is all worth it in the

end.