Você está na página 1de 21

The Caliphate

Expansion under the Prophet Mohammad, 622-632

Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661

Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

The Caliphate is an Islamic system of governance in which the state rules under Islamic law. Caliph literally means
"successor" or "representative" and emphasizes religious authority for the head of state. It was adopted as a title by
the Ummayad Caliphs and then by the Abbasid Caliphs, as well as by the Fatimid Caliphs of North Africa, the
Almohad Caliphs of North Africa and Spain and the Ottoman Dynasty. Most historical Muslim rulers were sultans or
amirs, and gave token obedience to a caliph who often had very little real authority. Moreover, the Muslim clergy, the
ulema and the various Sufi orders, exercised more religious influence than the Caliph. In the Turkish Ottoman Empire
though, the emperor himself was the Caliph.

After the Rashidun period until 1924, caliphates, sometimes two at a

single time, real and illusory, were ruled by dynasties. The first
dynasty was the Umayyad. This was followed by the Abbasid, the
Fatimid, and finally the Ottoman Dynasty.

Dynasties As Follows:
Rashidun Period, 632–661
Main articles: Rashidun and Rashidun Caliphate
See also: Muslim conquests
Abu Bakr, the first successor of Muhammad, according to Sunni beliefs, nominated Umar as his successor
on his deathbed, and there was consensus in the Muslim community to his choice. Umar Ibn Khattab, the
second caliph, was killed by a servant. His successor, Uthman Ibn Affan, was elected by a council of
electors (Majlis), but was soon perceived by some to be ruling as a "king" rather than an elected leader.
Uthman was killed by members of a disaffected group. Ali then took control but was not universally
accepted as caliph by the governors of Egypt, and later by some of his own guard. He faced two major
rebellions and was assassinated after a tumultuous rule of only five years. This period is known as the
Fitna, or the first Islamic civil war. Under the Rashidun each region (Sultanate, Wilayah, or Emirate) of the
Caliphate had its own governor (Sultan, Wāli or Emir).[6]
Muawiyah, a relative of Uthman and governor (Wali) of Syria, became one of Ali's challengers and after
Ali's death managed to overcome the other claimants to the Caliphate. Muawiyah transformed the
caliphate into a hereditary office, thus founding the Umayyad dynasty.
In areas which were previously under Sassanid Persian or Byzantine rule, the Caliphs lowered taxes,
provided greater local autonomy (to their delegated governers), greater religious freedom for Jews, and
some indigenous Christians, and brought peace to peoples demoralized and disaffected by the casualties
and heavy taxation that resulted from the decades of Byzantine-Persian warfare.[7]
Middle East and Europe - The Caliphate in 750 (293K) "The Califate in 750." From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd,
1926. taken from
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/history_middle_east.html Courtesy of
The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin (NOTE: KHAZARS)

1) Umayyads, 7th–8th centuries

Main article: Umayyad Caliphate
Under the Umayyads, the Caliphate grew rapidly in territory. Islamic rule expanded westward across
North Africa and into Hispania and eastward through Persia and ultimately to the ancient lands of Indus
Valley, in modern day Pakistan. This made it one of the largest unitary states in history and one of the few
states to ever extend direct rule over three continents (Africa, Europe, and Asia). Although not ruling all of
the Sahara, homage was paid to the Caliph by Saharan Africa, usually via various nomad Berber tribes.
However, it should be noted that, although these vast areas may have recognised the supremacy of the
Caliph, de facto power was in the hands of locals sultans and emirs.
For a variety of reasons, including that they were not elected via Shura and suggestions of impious
behaviour, the Umayyad dynasty was not universally supported within the Muslim community. Some
supported prominent early Muslims like Al-Zubayr; others felt that only members of Muhammad's clan,
the Banu Hashim, or his own lineage, the descendants of Ali, should rule.
There were numerous rebellions against the Umayyads, as well as splits within the Umayyad ranks
(notably, the rivalry between Yaman and Qays). Eventually, supporters of the Banu Hashim and the
supporters of the lineage of Ali united to bring down the Umayyads in 750. However, the Shiʻat ʻAlī, "the
Party of Ali", were again disappointed when the Abbasid dynasty took power, as the Abbasids were
descended from Muhammad's uncle, `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib and not from Ali. Following this
disappointment, the Shiʻat ʻAlī finally split from the majority Sunni Muslims and formed what are today
the several Shiʻa denominations.
Caliphate of Cordoba Almohad dynasty

The Caliphate in Hispania

Main articles: Caliphate of Córdoba and Almohad dynasty
During the Ummayad dynasty, Hispania was an integral province of the Ummayad Caliphate
ruled from Damascus, Syria. When the Caliphate was seized by the Abbasids, Al-Andalus (the
Arab name for Hispania) split from the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad to form their own
caliphate. The Caliphate of Córdoba (‫ )خليفة قرطبة‬ruled most of the Iberian Peninsula from the
city of Córdoba from 929 to 1031. This period was characterized by remarkable flourishing in
technology, trade and culture; many of the masterpieces of Spain were constructed in this
period, including the famous Great Mosque of Córdoba. The title Caliph (‫ )خليفة‬was claimed by
Abd-ar-Rahman III on 16 January 929; he was previously known as the Emir of Córdoba (‫أمير‬

All Caliphs of Córdoba were members of the Umayyad dynasty; the same dynasty had held the title
Emir of Córdoba and ruled over roughly the same territory since 756. The rule of the Caliphate is
considered as the heyday of Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula, before it fragmented into
various taifas in the 11th century.
2) Abbasids, 8th–13th centuries
Main articles: Abbasid Caliphate and Fatimid Caliphate
See also: Islamic Golden Age and Muslim Agricultural Revolution
The Umayyad dynasty was overthrown by another family of Meccan origin, the Abbasids, in 750. The
Abbasids had an unbroken line of Caliphs for over three centuries, consolidating Islamic rule and
cultivating great intellectual and cultural developments in the Middle East. By 940, however, the power of
the Caliphate under the Abbasids was waning as non-Arabs, particularly the Berbers of the Maghrib, the
Turks, and later, in the latter half of the 13th century, the Mamluks in Egypt, gained influence, and the
various subordinate sultans and emirs became increasingly independent.
However, the Caliphate endured as a symbolic position. During the period of the Abbasid dynasty,
Abbasid claims to the caliphate did not go unchallenged. The Shiʻa Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah of the
Fatimid dynasty, which claimed descent from Muhammad through his daughter, claimed the title of
Caliph in 909, creating a separate line of caliphs in North Africa.
Initially controlling Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, the Fatimid caliphs extended their rule for the
next 150 years, taking Egypt and Palestine, before the Abbasid dynasty was able to turn the tide, limiting
Fatimid rule to Egypt. The Fatimid dynasty finally ended in 1171. The Umayyad dynasty, which had
survived and come to rule over the Muslim provinces of Spain, reclaimed the title of Caliph in 929, lasting
until it was overthrown in 1031.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its greatest extent.

3) Fatimids, 10th–12th centuries

Main article: Fatimid
The Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic ‫ )الفاطميون‬was a Shi'a dynasty that ruled over varying
areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, Sicily, Malta and the Levant from 5 January 909 to 1171. The caliphate was
ruled by the Fatimids, who established the Egyptian city of Cairo as their capital. The term Fatimite is
sometimes used to refer to the citizens of this caliphate[citation needed]. The ruling elite of the state
belonged to the Ismaili branch of Shi'ism. The leaders of the dynasty were also Shia Ismaili Imams, hence,
they had a religious significance to Ismaili Muslims.
Shadow Caliphate, 13th–16th centuries
1258 saw the conquest of Baghdad and the execution of Abbasid caliph al-Musta'sim by Mongol forces
under Hulagu Khan. A surviving member of the Abbasid house was installed as caliph at Cairo under the
patronage of the newly formed Mamluk Sultanate three years later; however, this line of caliphs had
generally little authority although some Abbasid rulers had the actual rule over the Mamluk Sultans. Later
Muslim historians referred to it as a "shadow" caliphate. Thus, the title continued into the early 16th
Hulagu Khan
This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate. For the head of the Chagatai khanate, please see Qara
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü, Hulegu or Halaku (Mongolian: Хүлэгү, derived from
the word for "surplus"[1]), Khülegü; Chagatai/Urdu:‫ ہلکو‬- Hulaku; Persian/Arabic:
‫;هولكو‬Chinese: 旭烈兀; c. 1217 – 8 February 1265), was a Mongol ruler who conquered much
of Southwest Asia. Son of Tolui and the Kerait princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a
grandson of Genghis Khan, and the brother of Arik Boke, Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan.
Hulagu's army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire, founding
the Ilkhanate of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid dynasty, and then the modern
state of Iran. Under Hulagu's leadership, the Mongols destroyed the greatest center of
Islamic power, Baghdad, and also weakened Damascus, causing a shift of Islamic influence
to the Mamluks in Cairo. It was also in Hulagu's reign that historians switched from writing
in Arabic to writing in Persian.
Hulagu Khan laid the foundations of the Ilkhanate State, and by doing so paved the way for
the later Safavid dynastic state, and ultimately the modern country of Iran. Hulagu's
conquests also opened Iran to both European influence from the west and Chinese influence
from the east. This, combined with patronage from his successors, would develop Iran's
distinctive excellence in architecture. Under Hulagu's dynasty, Iranian historians also moved
from writing in Arabic, to writing in Persian.[28]

Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)

The Mamluk Sultanate was a regime composed of mamluks who ruled Egypt from the mid-13th
century to the early 16th century. By the time of the fall of the Ayyubids, most Mamluks were
Kipchak Turks.[2] While Mamluks were purchased, their status was above ordinary slaves, who
were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. Mamluks were considered to be “true
lords,” with social status above freeborn Egyptian muslims.

Ottomans and the end of the Mamluk Sultanate

Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II was engaged in Europe when a new ground of hostility with Egypt
appeared in 1501.[weasel words] It arose out of the relations with the Safavid dynasty in Persia. Shah
Ismail I sent an embassy to the Venetians via Syria inviting them to join his arms and recover the
territory taken from them by the "Porte" (Ottomans). Mameluk Egyptian sultan Al-Ghawri was
charged by Selim at giving the envoys of the Safavid Ismail passage through Syria on their way to
Venice and harboring refugees. To appease him, Al-Ghawri placed in confinement the Venetian
merchants then in Syria and Egypt, but after a year released them.
After the Battle of Chaldiran on 1514, Selim I attacked the Bey of Dulkadir, an Egypt's vassal had stood aloof,
and sent his head to Mamluk Sultan Al-Ghawri. Secure now against Shah Ismail I, on 1516 CE he drew
together a great army aiming at conquering Egypt, but to deceive it he represented his object to be the further
pursuit of Shah Ismail I. In 1515 began the war which led to the later incorporation of Egypt and its
dependencies in the Ottoman Empire, with Mamluk cavalry proving no match for the Ottoman artillery and
the janissaries. On August 24, 1515, at the Battle of Merj Dabik Sultan Al-Ghawri was killed. Syria passed
into Turkish possession, who were welcomed in many places as deliverance from the Mamluks.
The Mamluk Sultanate survived until 1517, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman sultan
Selim I captured of Cairo on January 20, the center of power transferred then to Istanbul. Although not in the
same form as under the Sultanate, the Ottoman Empire retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class and
the Mamluks and the Burji family succeeded in regaining much of their influence, but remained vassals of the
End of Mamluk power in Egypt
Muhammed Ali knew that eventually he would have to deal with the Mamluks if he ever wanted to control
Egypt. They were still the feudal owners of Egypt and their land was still the source of wealth and power. The
constant strain on sustaining the military manpower necessary to defend the Mamluks's system from the
Europeans and the Mongols would eventually weaken them to the point of collapse.[6]
On March 1, 1811, Muhammad Ali invited all of the leading Mamluks to his palace to celebrate the
declaration of war against the Wahhabis in Arabia. Between 600 and 700 Mamluks paraded in Cairo. Near the
Al-Azab gates, in a narrow road down from Mukatam Hill, Muhammad Ali's forces ambushed and killed
almost all in what came to be known as the Massacre of the Citadel. According to period reports, only one
Mamluk, whose name is given variously as Amim (also Amyn), or Heshjukur (a Besleney), survived when he
forced his horse to leap from the walls of the citadel, killing it in the fall.[7]
During the following week, hundreds of Mamluks were killed throughout Egypt; in the citadel of Cairo alone
more than 1,000 were killed. Throughout Egypt an estimated 3,000 Mamluks and their relatives were killed.
Despite these attempts by Muhammad Ali to defeat the Mamluks in Egypt, a party of them escaped and fled
south into what is now Sudan. In 1811, these Mamluks established a state at Dunqulah in the Sennar as a base
for their slave trading. In 1820, the sultan of Sennar informed Muhammad Ali that he was unable to comply
with a demand to expel the Mamluks. In response, the pasha sent 4,000 troops to invade Sudan, clear it of
Mamluks, and reclaim it for Egypt. The pasha's forces received the submission of the kashif, dispersed the
Dunqulah Mamluks, conquered Kordofan, and accepted Sennar's surrender from the last Funj sultan, Badi
4) Ottomans, 16th–20th century
Main article: Ottoman Caliphate
Ottoman rulers (generally known as Sultans in the West) were known primarily by the title of Padishah
and used the title of Caliph only sporadically. Mehmed II and his grandson Selim I used it to justify their
conquest of Islamic countries. As the Ottoman Empire grew in size and strength, Ottoman rulers
beginning with Selim I began to claim Caliphal authority.
Ottoman rulers used the title "Caliph" symbolically on many occasions but it was strengthened when the
Ottoman Empire defeated the Mamluk Sultanate in 1517 and took control of most Arab lands. The last
Abbasid Caliph at Cairo, al-Mutawakkil III, was taken into custody and was transported to
Constantinople, where he reportedly surrendered the Caliphate to Selim I. According to Barthold, the first
time the title of "Caliph" was used as a political instead of symbolic religious title by the Ottomans was the
peace treaty with Russia in 1774.
The outcome of this war was disastrous for the Ottomans. Large territories, including those with large
Muslim populations, such as Crimea, were lost to the Russian Empire. However, the Ottomans under
Abdul Hamid I claimed a diplomatic victory by assigning themselves as protectors of Muslims in Russia
as part of the peace treaty. This was the first time the Ottoman caliph was acknowledged as having
political significance outside of Ottoman borders by a European power. As a consequence of this
diplomatic victory, as the Ottoman borders were shrinking, the powers of the Ottoman caliph increased.
Around 1880 Sultan Abdul Hamid II reasserted the title as a way of countering Russian expansion into
Muslim lands. His claim was most fervently accepted by the Muslims of British India. By the eve of the
First World War, the Ottoman state, despite its weakness relative to Europe, represented the largest and
most powerful independent Islamic political entity. The sultan also enjoyed some authority beyond the
borders of his shrinking empire as caliph of Muslims in Egypt, India and Central Asia.

Sokoto, 19th century

Main article: Sokoto Caliphate
The Sokoto Caliphate was an Islamic spiritual community in Nigeria, led by the Sultan of Sokoto,
Sa’adu Abubakar. Founded during the Fulani Jihad in the early 19th century, it was one of the most
powerful empires in sub-Saharan Africa prior to European conquest and colonization. The caliphate
remained extant through the colonial period and afterwards, though with reduced power.

Ahmadiyya Caliphate, 1908-Present

Main article: Khalifatul Masih
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian,
India, who claimed to be the Promised Messiah and Mahdi, the one awaited by followers of all major
religions. After his demise in 1908, his first successor, Maulvi Hakeem Noor-ud-Din became head of
the community and assumed the title of Khalifatul Masih (Caliph). The line of successors continues to
this day to Khalifatul Masih V Mirza Masroor Ahmad, residing in London, England. From the outset
the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has been viewed as heretical by other Muslim groups due to the
founder's claim to prophethood. Muslims hold the view that Muhammad was the final prophet and
no apostle can come after him. This has been reiterated in the Qur'an that he is the seal of the
prophets. Ahmadis however call themselves Muslims and claim to practice Islam in its pristine form.

Although the Ahmadiyya Khalifat is not recognized by mainstream Islam, the community continues to
operate under this structure, with the Khalifa having overall authority for all religious and organizational
matters. According to Ahmadis, it is not essential for a Khalifa to be the head of a state, rather the spiritual
and religious significance of the Khalifatul Masih is emphasized. Ahmadis believe that the Ahmadiyya
Khalifat is the re-establishment of the Rashidun Caliphate (The Rightly Guided Calphs).[8].

Khalifatul Masih
Khalifatul Masih ("Successor of the Messiah") sometimes simply referred to as Khalifah (the word
is generally Latinised as Caliph from whence the word Caliphate is derived) is the elected spiritual
leader of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and is the successor of Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad of Qadian. The Khalifatul Masih is believed by the Ahmadiyya Community to be divinely
guided, continuing the same divine communion which the founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is said
to have enjoyed. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement however does not subscribe to this belief.[1]
The Khalifatul Masih is also referred to by members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community as
Amir al-Muminin (leader of the faithful). The current Khalifatul Masih is Mirza Masroor Ahmad.
After the death of Ghulam Ahmad, his successors directed the Ahmadiyya Community from
Qadian which remained the headquarters of the community until 1947 with the creation of
Pakistan. From this time on the headquarters remained in Rabwah, a land bought in Pakistan by the
community. In 1984, Ordinance XX was promulgated by the government of Pakistan which
rendered the Khalifa unable to perform his duties and put the very institution of the Ahmadiyya
Caliphate in jeopardy. Due to these circumstances, Khalifatul Masih IV left Pakistan and migrated
to London, England, provisionally changing the headquarters to the Fazl Mosque.[2]

The members of the community believe that the Ahmadiyya Caliphate (Arabic: Khilāfah) is the
continuation of the Islamic Caliphate, first being the Rashidun (rightly guided) Caliphate (of
Righteous Caliphs). This is believed to have been suspended with Ali, the son-in-law of
Muhammad and re-established with the appearance of Ghulam Ahmad whom Ahmadis believe
was the Promised Messiah and Mahdi.
Ahmadi Muslims believe that God has assured them that this Caliphate will endure to the end of
time, depending on their righteousness and faith in God. The Khalifa provides unity, security and
progress for the Jama’at-i-Ahmadiyya. It is required that the Khalifa carry out his duties through
consultation and taking into consideration the views of the members of the Shura (consultative
body). However, it is not incumbent upon him to always accept the views and recommendations of
the members. The Khalifatul Masih has overall authority for all religious and organisational matters
and is bound to decide and act in accordance with the Qur'an and Hadith. According to Ahmadiyya
thought, it is not essential for a Khalifa to be the head of a state, rather the spiritual and religious
significance of the Khilāfah is emphasised.

Quranic reference
There are two kinds of Khalifa (pl. Khulafā) mentioned in the Quran, one which is directly appointed by God
i.e. a prophet and vicegerent of God, (like Adam and David who have been called God’s vicegerent in the
Quran.[Qur'an 2:30] and [Qur'an 38:26] ). The other is one who succeeds a prophet and is a vicegerent of a prophet,
referred to in the verse:

Allah has promised to those among you who believe and do good works that He will, surely, make
them successors in the earth, as He made Successors from among those who were before them; and
that He will, surely, establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them; and that He will,
surely, give them in exchange security and peace after their fear; They will worship Me and they will
not associate anything with Me. Then whoso disbelieves after that, they will be the rebellious.
– [Qur'an 24:55
Reestablishment of the Rashidun Caliphate
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believes that their Caliphate is the second era and re-
establishment of the first Caliphate, that of the Rashidun. As is stated in the Hadith:

Huzaifa narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: Prophethood will remain among
you as long as Allah wills. Then khilafat on the lines of Prophethood shall commence,
and remain as long as Allah wills. Then corrupt/erosive monarchy would take place,
and it will remain as long as Allah wills. After that, despotic kingship would emerge,
and it will remain as long as Allah wills. Then, the khilafat shall come once again
based on the precept of Prophethood.”

– Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Mishkat, chapter Al-Anzar wal Tahzir

The first era of Caliphate mentioned in the above saying of Muhammad is commonly accepted by
Muslims as that of the Rashidun. The second era mentioned is thought by Ahmadis to be that of the
Ahmadiyya Caliphate.

Qudrat-e-Sānia (The second Manifestation of God’s power)

The Khilafat is believed by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community to be the second manifestation of
God’s power that was promised by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad to be witnessed by his patient and true
followers after his demise. Ghulam Ahmad wrote in his last testamant Al-Wassiyyat (The Will)

So, dear friends! Since it is the way of Allah, from time immemorial, that God Almighty
shows two Manifestations so that the two false joys of the opponents be put to an end, it is
not possible now that God should relinquish his practice of old. So do not grieve over what I
have said to you; nor should your hearts be distressed. For it is essential for you to witness
the second Manifestation. Also, and its coming is better for you because it is everlasting, the
continuity of which will not end till the day of Judgement. And that second Manifestation
cannot come unless I depart but when I depart, God will send that second Manifestation for
you… Our God is He who keeps His promise and is Faithful and is the Truthful God. He
shall show you all that He has promised. Though these days are the last days of this world
and there are many a disaster waiting to happen, yet it is necessary that this world
continues to exist until all those things about which God has prophesied come to pass. I
came from God as a Manifestation of Divine providence, and I am a personification of his
power. And after I am gone there will be some other persons who will be the manifestation
of the second power (of God).
System of election
The Ahmadiyya Muslim community holds that the Khilafat is a holy trust entrusted to a person on
account of his piety, righteousness and ability through election and that the Khilafat is not
hereditary, even though all the Khulafā of the Ahmadiyya community from the Khalifatul Masih II
have been related. The Khalifa is elected to the office by voting of the members of the Electoral
College, which was established for this purpose by Mirza Mahmood Ahmad. During the life of a
Khalifa, the Electoral College works under his supervision. However, after the demise of a Khalifa,
the Electoral College becomes completely independent and elects the next Khalifatul Masih. During
the election, names are proposed and seconded by the members of the Electoral College, and then
they vote for the proposed names by raising their hands. Though the Khalifa is elected, it is God
however, who is believed to guide the members towards election of a righteous and able person as
the Khalifatul Masih. Thus it is believed that it is God who chooses the Khalifa.

List of Ahmadiyya Caliphs (To see the complete list click link)
Name Picture Lifespan Caliphate
Khalifatul Masih V. 1950–present 2003–present
Mirza Masroor Ahmad

Presently guiding the community through a period of global

Notes skepticism towards Islam, regularly holds peace conferences.
Launced sister channels MTA 2 and MTA3 Al Arabiyya.


Khilafat Movement, 1920

(Reading the main article in full is important in understanding who would like to re-establish a Caliphate
this is a work that has not ended)
Main article: Khilafat Movement
See also: Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
In the 1920s, the Khilafat Movement, a movement to defend the Ottoman Caliphate, spread throughout
the British colonial territories in what is now Pakistan. It was particularly strong in British India, where it
formed a rallying point for some Indian Muslims as one of many anti-British Indian political movements.
Its leaders included Maulana Mohammad Ali, his brother Shawkat Ali, and Abul Kalam Azad, Mukhtar
Ahmed Ansari, and Barrister Muhammad Jan Abbasi. For a time it worked in alliance with Hindu
communities and was supported by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who was a member of the Central
Khilafat Committee.[9][10] However, the movement lost its momentum after the arrest or flight of its
leaders, and a series of offshoots splintered off from the main organization.

Khilafat Movement
The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic, political campaign launched by Muslims in
British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the
aftermath of World War I. The position of Caliph after the Armistice of Mudros of October 1918
with the military occupation of Istanbul and Treaty of Versailles (1919) fell into a disambiguation
along with the Ottoman Empire's existence. The movement gained force after the Treaty of Sèvres
(August 1920) which solidified the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.[1]
In India, although mainly a Muslim religious movement, the movement became a part of the wider
Indian independence movement. The movement was a topic in Conference of London (February

Ottoman Caliphate
Ottoman emperor Abdul Hamid II (1876–1909) had launched his Pan-Islamic program in a bid to
protect the Ottoman empire from Western attack and dismemberment, and to crush the
Westernizing democratic opposition in Turkey. He sent an emissary, Jamaluddin Afghani, to India
in the late 19th century. The cause of the Ottoman monarch evoked religious passion and sympathy
amongst Indian Muslims. Being a Caliph, the Ottoman emperor was the supreme religious and
political leader of all Sunni Muslims across the world (although this authority was titular in
A large number of Muslim religious leaders began working to spread awareness and develop
Muslim participation on behalf of the Caliphate. Muslim religious leader Maulana Mehmud Hasan
attempted to organise a national war of independence against the British with support from the
Ottoman Empire. He was overthrown by a secretive nationalist group called the 'Young Turks.'
Abdulhamid was succeeded by his brother Mehmed VI (1844–1918) but real power lay with the

Further information: Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
See also: Occupation of Istanbul and Turkish War of Independence

The Ottoman empire, having sided with the Central Powers during World War I, suffered a major
military defeat. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) reduced its territorial extent and diminished its
political influence but the victorious European powers promised to protect the Ottoman emperor's
status as the Caliph. However, under the Treaty of Sèvres (1920), territories such as Palestine, Syria,
Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt severed from the empire.
Within Turkey, a pro-Western nationalist movement arose, Turkish national movement. During the
Turkish War of Independence (1919–1924) led by one of the Turkish revolutionaries, Mustafa Kemal
Atatürk, abolished the Treaty of Sèvres with the Treaty of Lausanne (1923). Pursuant to Atatürk's
Reforms, the Republic of Turkey abolished the position of Caliphate in 1924 and transferred its
powers within Turkey to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

Khilafat in South Asia

Although political activities and popular outcry on behalf of the caliphate emerged across the
Muslim world, the most prominent activities took place in India. A prominent Muslim cleric and
journalist, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar had spent four years in prison for preaching resistance
to the British and support for the caliphate. At the onset of the Turkish war of independence,
Muslim religious leaders feared for the caliphate, which the European powers were reluctant to
Ali and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali joined with other Muslim leaders such as Sheikh Shaukat
Ali Siddiqui, Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, Raees-Ul-Muhajireen Barrister Jan Muhammad Junejo,
Hasrat Mohani, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Dr. Hakim Ajmal Khan to form the All India
Khilafat Committee. The organization was based in Lucknow, India at Hathe Shaukat Ali, the
compound of Landlord Shaukat Ali Siddiqui. They aimed to build political unity amongst Muslims
and use their influence to protect the caliphate. In 1920, they published the Khilafat Manifesto,
which called upon the British to protect the caliphate and for Indian Muslims to unite and hold the
British accountable for this purpose.
In 1920 an alliance was made between Khilafat leaders and the Indian National Congress, the
largest political party in India and of the nationalist movement. Congress leader Mohandas Gandhi
and the Khilafat leaders promised to work and fight together for the causes of Khilafat and Swaraj.
Seeking to increase pressure on the British, the Khilafatists became a major part of the Non-
cooperation movement — a nationwide campaign of mass, peaceful civil disobedience. The support
of the Khilafatists helped Gandhi and the Congress ensure Hindu-Muslim unity during the
struggle. Khilafat leaders such as Dr. Ansari, Maulana Azad and Hakim Ajmal Khan also grew
personally close to Gandhi. These leaders founded the Jamia Millia Islamia in 1920 to promote
independent education and social rejuvenation for Muslims.
The non-cooperation campaign was at first successful. Massive protests, strikes and acts of civil
disobedience spread across India. Hindus and Muslims collectively offered resistance, which was
largely peaceful. Gandhi, the Ali brothers and others were imprisoned by the British. However, the
Congress-Khilafat alliance began withering soon. The Khilafat campaign had been opposed by
other political parties such as the Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha. Many Hindu religious
and political leaders identified the Khilafat cause as Islamic fundamentalism based on a pan-Islamic

In wake of these disturbances, the Ali brothers began distancing themselves from Gandhi and the
Congress. The Ali brothers criticised Gandhi's commitment to non-violence and severed their ties
with them after he suspended all non-cooperation movement after the killing of 23 policemen at
Chauri Chaura in 1922. Although holding talks with the British and continuing their activities, the
Khilafat struggle weakened as Muslims were divided between working for the Congress, the
Khilafat cause and the Muslim League.
The final blow came with the victory of Mustafa Kemal's forces, who overthrew the Ottoman rule to
establish a pro-Western, secular republic in independent Turkey. The Khilafat leadership
fragmented on different political lines. Leaders such as Dr. Ansari, Maulana Azad and Hakim
Ajmal Khan remained strong supporters of Gandhi and the Congress. The Ali brothers joined the
Muslim League. They would play a major role in the growth of the League's popular appeal and the
subsequent Pakistan movement. There was, however, a Caliphate Conference in Jerusalem in 1931
following Turkey's abolition of the Khilafat, to determine what should be done about the caliphate.

The Khilafat struggle evokes controversy and strong opinions. It is regarded as a political agitation
based on a pan-Islamic, fundamentalist platform and being largely indifferent to the cause of Indian
independence. Critics of the Khilafat see its alliance with the Congress as a marriage of convenience.
Proponents of the Khilafat see it as a major milestone in improving Hindu-Muslim relations, while
advocates of Pakistan and Muslim separatism see it as a major step towards establishing the
separate Muslim state. The Ali brothers are regarded as founding-fathers of Pakistan, while Azad,
Dr. Ansari and Hakim Ajmal Khan are widely celebrated as national heroes in India.
The cause of establishing an Islamic State by reviving the caliphate system has been adopted by
organisations such as the Muslim Brotherhood, Jamaat-e-Islami umbrella groups in South Asia,
founded in 1941 by Maulana Maududi, Hizb ut Tahrir, as well as the Taliban in Afghanistan, Al-
Shabaab in Somalia and Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.

End of the Caliphate, 1924

Further information: Atatürk's Reforms
On March 3, 1924, the first President of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as part of his
reforms, constitutionally abolished the institution of the Caliphate. Its powers within Turkey were
transferred to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, the parliament of the newly formed Turkish
Republic. The title was then claimed by King Hussein bin Ali of Hejaz, leader of the Arab Revolt, but his
kingdom was defeated and annexed by Ibn Saud in 1925. The title has since been inactive.
A summit was convened at Cairo in 1926 to discuss the revival of the Caliphate, but most Muslim
countries did not participate and no action was taken to implement the summit's resolutions.
Though the title Ameer al-Mumineen was adopted by the King of Morocco and by Mullah Mohammed
Omar, former head of the now-defunct Taliban regime of Afghanistan, neither claimed any legal standing
or authority over Muslims outside the borders of their respective countries. The closest thing to a
Caliphate in existence today is the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), an international organization
with limited influence founded in 1969 consisting of the governments of most Muslim-majority countries.

Re-establishment of the Caliphate

Once the subject of intense conflict and rivalry amongst Muslim rulers, the caliphate has lain dormant and
largely unclaimed since the 1920s. For the vast majority of Muslims the caliph as leader of the ummah, "is
cherished both as memory and ideal"[35] as a time when Muslims "enjoyed scientific and military
superiority globally,"[36] though "not an urgent concern" compared to issues such as the Israeli-Palestinian
However, though many Muslims would like to re-establish the Caliphate, according to Hadith the
Caliphate will be followed by the arrival of the Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi :
Prophethood will remain with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain, then Allah will raise it
up wherever he wills to raise it up. Afterwards, there will be a Caliphate that follows the
guidance of Prophethood remaining with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then, He
will raise it up whenever He wills to raise it up. Afterwards, there will be a reign of violently
oppressive rule and it will remain with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then, there
will be a reign of tyrannical rule and it will remain for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then,
Allah will raise it up whenever He wills to raise it up. Then, there will be a Caliphate that
follows the guidance of Prophethood.

– As-Silsilah As-Sahihah, vol. 1, no. 5

Caliphate... then, Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi

Speculation as follows:
1) The Muslims establish a Caliphate through the OIC
*In the past Caliphates were introduced at a time when wars occurred, uniting Muslims.
Something commonly agreed on by most Muslim countries is the conflict between Palestine
and Israel.
2) A Promised Messiah could come in the form of a human being. Bringing the Muslims together to meet
their god.

An example to their belief:

Mīrzā Ghulām Aḥmad[4] (Arabic: ‫;الميرزا غلم أحمد‬Urdu: ‫ ;مرزا غلم احمد‬February 13, 1835 – May 26, 1908
CE, or Shawal 15, 1250 – Rabi' al-thani 24, 1326 AH) was a religious figure from India, and the founder of
the Ahmadiyya movement. He claimed to be the Mujaddid (divine reformer) of the 14th Islamic century,
the promised Messiah (“Second Coming of Christ”), and the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims in the end
days.[5][6] He declared that Jesus (Isa) had in fact survived the crucifixion and later died a natural death,
after having migrated towards Kashmir and that he had appeared in the spirit and power of Jesus.[7]
He traveled extensively across the subcontinent of India preaching his religious ideas and ideals and won
a sizable following within his lifetime. He is known to have engaged in numerous debates and dialogues
with the Muslim, Christian and Hindu priesthood and leadership. Ghulam Ahmad founded the
Ahmadiyya movement on March 23, 1889. The mission of the movement, according to him, was the
propagation of Islam in its pristine form.[8]

He claimed to be the Mujaddid (divine reformer) of the 14th Islamic century,

A Mujaddid (Arabic: ‫)مجدد‬, according to the popular Muslim tradition, refers to a person who appears at
turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, remove from it any extraneous elements and
restore it to its pristine purity. A mujaddid might be a caliph, a saint (wali), a prominent teacher, a scholar
or some other kind of influential person.

the promised Messiah (“Second Coming of Christ”),

Islamic tradition holds the view that Jesus (Isa), son of Mary, was indeed the promised prophet or
Messiah (Masih) sent to the Semitic Jewish tribes living in Israel. He will again return to Earth in the end
times after the arrival of Imam Mahdi, then he will descend from heaven to defeat the "great deceiver" i.e.
Dajjal (false messiah).[5]

and the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims in the end days.

In Shia and Sunni eschatology, the Mahdi (Arabic: ‫ مهدي‬/ ISO 233: mahdī / English: Guided One), also
Mehdi (Arabic: ‫ مہدی‬English: One of the Moon) is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will stay on
Earth for seven, nine or nineteen years (according to various interpretations)[1] before the Day of
Judgment (yawm al-qiyamah / literally, the Day of Resurrection)[2] and, alongside Jesus, will rid the world
of wrongdoing, injustice and tyranny. [3]
In Shia Islam, the belief in the Mahdi is a "powerful and central religious idea" and closely related to the
Twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, whose return from occultation is deemed analogous with the
coming of the Mahdi.[4]

Ahmadiyya View
The first era of Caliphate mentioned in the above saying of Muhammad is commonly accepted by
Muslims as that of the Rashidun. The second era mentioned is thought by Ahmadis to be that of the
Ahmadiyya Caliphate.

Islamist call
A number of Islamist political parties and Jihadist guerrilla groups have called for the restoration of the
caliphate by uniting Muslim nations, either through political action (e.g., Hizb ut-Tahrir), or through force
(e.g., al-Qaeda).[38] Various Islamist movements have gained momentum in recent years with the ultimate
aim of establishing a Caliphate; however, they differ in their methodology and approach. Some[who?] are
locally oriented, mainstream political parties that have no apparent transnational objectives.[citation
Abul Ala Maududi believed the caliph was not just an individual ruler who had to be restored, but was
man's representation of God's authority on earth:
Khilafa means representative. Man, according to Islam is the representative of "people", His
(God's) viceregent; that is to say, by virtue of the powers delegated to him, and within the limits
prescribed by the Qu'ran and the teaching of the prophet, the caliph is required to exercise
Divine authority.[39]

The Muslim Brotherhood advocates pan-Islamic unity and implementing Islamic law. Founder Hassan al-
Banna wrote about the restoration of the Caliphate.[40]
One transnational group whose ideology is based specifically on restoring the caliphate as a pan-Islamic
state is Hizb ut-Tahrir (literally: "party of liberation"). It is particularly strong in Central Asia and Europe
is and growing in strength in the Arab world. It is based on the claim that Muslims can prove that God
exists[41] and that the Qur'an is the word of God.[42][43] Hizb-Ut-Tahrir's stated strategy is a non-violent
political and intellectual struggle.
In South-East Asia, groups such as Jemaah Islamiyah aim to establish a Caliphate stretching from Sumatra
to New Guinea, and from the Philippines to Java.

Main article: al-qaeda
One of the clearly stated goals of the terrorist group al-Qaeda is the re-establishment of a caliphate.[44] Bin
Laden has called for Muslims to "establish the righteous caliphate of our umma."[45] Al-Qaeda chiefs
released a statement in 2005, under which, in what they call "Phase five" there will be "an Islamic state, or
caliphate." [46] Al Qaeda recently named its Internet newscast from Iraq "The Voice of the Caliphate."[47]
According to author Lawrence Wright, Ayman al-Zawahiri (Bin Laden's mentor and Al-Qaida No.2 in
command), once "sought to restore the caliphate...which had formally ended in 1924 following the
dissolution of the Ottoman Empire but which had not exercised real power since the thirteenth century.
Once caliphate was established, Zawahiri believed, Egypt would become a rallying point for the rest of the
Islamic world, leading the jihad against the West. "Then history would make a new turn, God willing,"
Zawahiri later wrote, "in the opposite direction against the empire of the United States and the world’s
Jewish government."[48]

Scholar Olivier Roy writes that "early on, Islamists replace the concept of the caliphate... with that of the
amir." There were a number of reasons including "that according to the classical authors, a caliph must be
a member of the tribe of the Prophet (the Quraysh) ... moreover, caliphs ruled societies that the Islamists
do not consider to have been Islamic (the Ottoman Empire)." [49] This is not the view of the majority of
Islamist groups, as both the Muslim Brotherhood (the largest) and Hizb ut-Tahrir view the Ottoman state
as a caliphate.[50][51]
A prominent private British think-tank named the Quilliam Foundation was set up to oppose Islamism
and the call to re-establish a Caliphate.
Those who are pushing for a Caliphate:
The closest thing to a Caliphate in existence today is the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), an
international organization with limited influence founded in 1969 consisting of the governments of most
Muslim-majority countries.

The cause of establishing an Islamic State by reviving the caliphate system has been adopted by
organisations such as the Muslim Brotherhood, Jamaat-e-Islami umbrella groups in South Asia, founded
in 1941 by Maulana Maududi, Hizb ut Tahrir (literally: "party of liberation"), as well as the Taliban in
Afghanistan, Al-Shabaab in Somalia and Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.

Two In The Same

An Islamic state
is a state that has adopted Islam as its state religion, and more specifically Islamic law as the
foundations for political institutions, or laws, exclusively.
The concept is related to the notion of dar al-islam (Arabic ‫ )دار السلم‬the "domain of Islam", defined (by
the prevailing opinion) as the domain in which:
1. All the laws governing the area have their roots in islamic jurisprudence.
2. The security al-amaanah (Arabic ‫ )المانة‬is in the hands of Muslims.
Islamic republic is the official name given to several contemporary states in the Muslim world, including
the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Mauritania. Pakistan adopted the title under the
constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Islamic
Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. Afghanistan adopted it after the 2001 overthrow of the
Taliban. Despite the similar name the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws.

is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state — often a
Caliphate.[1] As a form of religious nationalism, Pan-Islamism differentiates itself from other pan-
nationalistic ideologies, for example Pan-Arabism, by excluding culture and ethnicity as primary factors
towards unification.
People Need To Wake Up.