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:)2#>$!"/*$.1;#2#($*,24:,42#$:1+$-#$:)<712#($,)$,"1,$)9$1$-)/.#($#88>$!"#$:24*,A$,"#$
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,"#$:24*,$/*$<1(#$47$<)*,.;$)9$(#+*#$2):5*$*4:"$1*$81--2)$1+($-1*1.,$1+($/*$)+.;$1-)4,$
U$5<$,"/:5>$!"#$,"/:5+#**$)9$,"#$:24*,$-#+#1,"$:)+,/+#+,*$/*$<)*,.;$<1(#$47$)9$.#**$
(#+*#$821+/,#$1+($10#218#*$TK$5<$/+$,"/:5+#**>$!"#$c12,"p*$:24*,$/*$-2/,,.#$1+($:1+$
-2#15>$$
$

$
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5<$,"/:5>$!"#$<1+,.#$/*$"),,#2$1+($(#+*#2$-#:14*#$,#<7#21,42#$1+($72#**42#$/+*/(#$,"#$
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1*$(#+*#$1*$,"#$<1+,.#$-#:14*#$/,*$:)<7)*/,/)+$/*$<#,1../:$`/2)+Q+/:5#.$1..);a$21,"#2$,"1+$
*,)+;>$!"#$c12,"p*$:)2#$/*$<1(#$47$)9$,B)$712,*C$1$GAGKK$5<Q,"/:5$./34/($)4,#2$:)2#$1+($1$
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./,")*7"#2#$/*$,")48",$,)$q9.)1,q$)2$<)0#$1-)4,$)+$,"#$*.)B.;$9.)B/+8$1*,"#+)*7"#2#>$!"#$

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GKIIC$

North America plate


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7.1,#$/+:.4(#*$-),"$:)+,/+#+,1.$1+($):#1+/:$:24*,>$!"#$/+,#2/)2$)9$,"#$<1/+$
:)+,/+#+,1.$.1+(<1**$/+:.4(#*$1+$#],#+*/0#$821+/,/:$:)2#$:1..#($1$:21,)+>$R.)+8$
<)*,$)9$,"#$#(8#*$)9$,"/*$:21,)+$12#$9218<#+,*$)9$:24*,1.$<1,#2/1.$:1..#($,#221+#*A$
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Pacific plate
$
!"#$N1:/9/:$./#*$-#+#1,"$,"#$N1:/9/:$[:#1+$1+($/*$<1(#$47$1.<)*,$#+,/2#.;$)9$
):#1+/:$:24*,>$!"#$+)2,"Q#1*,#2+$*/(#$/*$1$(/0#28#+,$-)4+(12;$B/,"$,"#$c]7.)2#2A$
641+$(#$g4:1$1+($')2(1$7.1,#*>>$^+$,"#$</((.#$)9$,"#$#1*,#2+$*/(#$/*$1$,21+*9)2<$
-)4+(12;$B/,"$,"#$\)2,"$R<#2/:1+$N.1,#$1.)+8$,"#$&1+$R+(2#1*$g14.,A$1+($1$
-)4+(12;$B/,"$,"#$D):)*$N.1,#>$!"#$*)4,"Q#1*,#2+$*/(#$/*$1$(/0#28#+,$-)4+(12;$
B/,"$,"#$\1Z:1$N.1,#$9)2</+8$,"#$c1*,$N1:/9/:$X/*#>$!"#$*)4,"#2+$*/(#$/*$1$
(/0#28#+,$-)4+(12;$B/,"$,"#$R+,12:,/:$N.1,#$9)2</+8$,"#$N1:/9/:QR+,12:,/:$X/(8#>$
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m1<:"1,51$!2#+:"$1+($,"#$6171+$!2#+:"A$9)2</+8$1$:)+0#28#+,$-)4+(12;$/+$
B"/:"$/,$/*$*4-(4:,#($4+(#2$,"#$N"/./77/+#$&#1$N.1,#$:2#1,/+8$,"#$O12/1+1$
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:)+0#28#+,$-)4+(12;$B/,"$,"#$^+()QR4*,21./1+$N.1,#A$*4-(4:,/+8$4+(#2$/,$+)2,"$)9$
\#B$l#1.1+($9)2</+8$,"#$!)+81$!2#+:"$1+($,"#$m#2<1(#:$!2#+:">$!"#$R.7/+#$
g14.,$<125*$1$,21+*9)2<$-)4+(12;$-#,B##+$,"#$,B)$7.1,#*A$1+($942,"#2$*)4,"$,"#$
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Types of faults
!"/*$*#:,/)+$/*$1(17,#($92)<$,"#$%&'&$Glossary of Earthquake ,#2<*h$*##$
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g14.,*$:1+$-#$(/0/(#($/+,)$,B)$-2)1($:1,#8)2/#*A$(#7#+(/+8$)+$,"#$*#+*#$)9$<)0#<#+,$
)+$,"#$(/77/+8$914.,$7.1+,$
$
x$ Dip-slip faults$12#$/+:./+#($921:,42#*$B"#2#$,"#$-.):5*$"10#$<)*,.;$*"/9,#($<)*,.;$
0#2,/:1..;>$^9$,"#$2):5$<1**$1-)0#$1+$/+:./+#($914.,$<)0#*$()B+A$,"#$914.,$/*$
,#2<#($normalA$B"#2#1*$/9$,"#$2):5$1-)0#$,"#$914.,$<)0#*$47A$,"#$914.,$/*$,#2<#($
reverse>$R$thrust$914.,$/*$1$2#0#2*#$914.,$B/,"$1$(/7$)9$VU$(#82##*$)2$.#**>$
[-./34#Q*./7$914.,*$"10#$*/8+/9/:1+,$:)<7)+#+,*$)9$(/99#2#+,$*./7$*,;.#*>$R$
megathrust$#12,"3415#$2#9#2*$,)$1$.128#$#12,"3415#$)+$1$*4-(4:,/)+$Z)+#$B/,"$1$
,"24*,$,;7#$)9$<#:"1+/*<>$
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<)*,.;$<)0#($")2/Z)+,1..;>$^9$,"#$-.):5$)77)*/,#$1+$)-*#20#2$.))5/+8$1:2)**$,"#$
914.,$<)0#*$,)$,"#$2/8",A$,"#$*./7$*,;.#$/*$,#2<#($2/8",$.1,#21.h$/9$,"#$-.):5$<)0#*$,)$
,"#$.#9,A$,"#$<),/)+$/*$,#2<#($.#9,$.1,#21.>$$
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(/0#28#+,$7.1,#$-)4+(12/#*$1,$):#1+$2/(8#*>$?"#2#$+)$.)+8#2$1:,/0#A$,"#;$12#$
2#9#22#($,)$1*$healed transform faults>$

Measuring and locating earthquakes


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Earthquake locations
c12,"3415#*$:14*#$*./7$)9$1+$12#1$)9$,"#$914.,$7.1+#$1,$(#7,">$!"#$*/Z#$)9$,"/*$
rupture area$/*$72)7)2,/)+1.$,)$,"#$magnitude$)9$,"#$#12,"3415#h$,"#$.128#2$,"#$
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247,42#$12#1$,"#$.128#2$,"#$#12,"3415#$<18+/,4(#>$!"#$#12,"3415#_*$hypocenter$
/*$/,*$7)*/,/)+$/+$,"2##$(/<#+*/)+*$-#+#1,"$,"#$#12,">$!"#$#12,"3415#_*$epicenter$
/*$,"#$,B)$(/<#+*/)+1.$72)=#:,/)+$)9$,"#$";7):#+,#2$)+$,"#$*4291:#$)9$,"#$c12,">$
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Earthquake magnitude
!"#$<18+/,4(#$)9$1+$#12,"3415#$/*$1$+4<-#2$,"1,$:"121:,#2/Z#*$,"#$2#.1,/0#$*/Z#$
)9$1+$#12,"3415#>$O18+/,4(#$/*$-1*#($)+$<#1*42#<#+,$)9$,"#$<1]/<4<$<),/)+$
2#:)2(#($-;$1$*#/*<)8217">$&#0#21.$*:1.#*$"10#$-##+$(#9/+#(A$-4,$,"#$<)*,$
:)<<)+.;$4*#($*:1.#$9)2$.128#$#12,"3415#*$/*$,"#$<)<#+,$<18+/,4(#$`OBa$
*:1.#>$f/5#$,"#$),"#2$*:1.#*A$,"#$<)<#+,$<18+/,4(#$*:1.#$/*$.)812/,"</:>$!"1,$/*A$
#1:"$+4<#2/:$/+:2#1*#$/+$,"#$*:1.#$`92)<$*1;$,)$1$OB$P>K$,)$OB$M>Ka$2#72#*#+,*$
1$,#+Q9).($/+:2#1*#$/+$82)4+($*"15/+8>$!"#$#+#28;$2#.#1*#($/+:2#1*#*$-;$1$91:,)2$
)9$1-)4,$TT$,/<#*>$
$
Ground shaking intensity
W4/.(/+8*$12#$+),$(#*/8+#($,)$B/,"*,1+($1+$#12,"3415#$)9$1$712,/:4.12$<18+/,4(#A$
-4,$1$712,/:4.12$.#0#.$)9$82)4+($*"15/+8>$?"#2#1*$#12,"3415#$<18+/,4(#$/*$1+$
/+,2/+*/:$72)7#2,;$)9$,"#$#12,"3415#A$,"#$.#0#.$)9$82)4+($*"15/+8A$)2$/+,#+*/,;A$,"1,$
/*$9#.,$1,$1+;$712,/:4.12$.):1,/)+$/*$1$94+:,/)+$)9$1$+4<-#2$)9$91:,)2*>$!"#*#$/+:.4(#$
,"#$(/*,1+:#$)9$,"#$.):1,/)+$92)<$,"#$#12,"3415#*$#7/:#+,#2A$,"#$(#7,"$)9$,"#$
#12,"3415#A$1+($:"121:,#2/*,/:*$)9$,"#$.):1,/)+$`*4:"$1*$B"#,"#2$/,$/*$4+(#2.1/+$-;$
(#+*#$-#(2):5A$*)9,$*#(/<#+,*A$)2$12,/9/:/1.$9/..a>$!"#$/+,#+*/,;$9#.,$4*41..;$/*$
<#1*42#($)+$,"#$Modified Mercalli Intensity$*:1.#A$1+($/*$8/0#+$1*$1$+4<-#2$
`B2/,,#+$1*$1$X)<1+$+4<#21.a$(#*:2/-/+8$,"#$*#0#2/,;$)9$1+$#12,"3415#$/+$,#2<*$
)9$/,*$#99#:,*$)+$,"#$#12,"p*$*4291:#$1+($)+$"4<1+*$1+($,"#/2$*,24:,42#*>$&#0#21.$
),"#2$*:1.#*$#]/*,>$!"#2#$12#$<1+;$/+,#+*/,/#*$9)2$1+$#12,"3415#A$(#7#+(/+8$)+$
B"#2#$;)4$12#A$4+./5#$,"#$<18+/,4(#A$B"/:"$/*$)+#$+4<-#2$9)2$#1:"$#12,"3415#>$
$
Ground accelaration
R$<)2#$341+,/,1,/0#$B1;$,)$(#*:2/-#$82)4+($*"15/+8$/+,#+*/,;$/*$,)$
<#1*42#$/,$-;$1$*,2)+8$<),/)+$1::#.#2)<#,#2A$1$*7#:/1.$,;7#$)9$
*#/*<)8217">$'2)4+($<),/)+$/*$#]72#**#($1*$1$:)<712/*)+$,)$,"#$9)2:#$)9$
8210/,;$s$,"1,$/*A$,"#$1::#.#21,/)+$`,"#$21,#$)9$:"1+8#$/+$*7##(a$)9$,"#$
82)4+($2#.1,/0#$,)$,"#$1::#.#21,/)+$:14*#($-;$8210/,;>$g)2$/+*,1+:#A$82)4+($
*"15/+8$)9$I>K$8$/*$#341.$,)$,"#$1::#.#21,/)+$:14*#($-;$8210/,;A$*"15/+8$)9$
K>U$8$/*$#341.$,)$"1.9$,"#$1::#.#21,/)+$)9$8210/,;A$#,:>$!"/*$/*$1.*)$5+)B+$1*$
peak ground accelerationh$,"#$<1]/<4<$1<)4+,$)9$82)4+($1::#.#21,/)+$
2#812(.#**$)9$,"#$:"121:,#2/*,/:*$)9$,"#$*#/*</:$B10#*$/+0).0#(>$
$
Spectral accelaration
^+$2#1./,;A$82)4+($*"15/+8$/*$:14*#($-;$*#/*</:$B10#*$#<1+1,/+8$92)<$,"#$
#12,"3415#_*$";7):#+,#2A$1+($<)(/9/#($(42/+8$,"#$,210#.$,)$1+;$712,/:4.12$
*/,#>$!"#*#$B10#*$"10#$1$012/#,;$)9$B10#.#+8,"*A$7#2/)(*A$1+($0#.):/,/#*>$
W4/.(/+8*$1+($),"#2$*,24:,42#*$/+,#21:,$B/,"$,"#*#$012/)4*$B10#*$/+$
(/99#2#+,$B1;*>$g)2$#]1<7.#A$B10#*$B/,"$1$92#34#+:;$)9$T$,)$P>U$"#2,Z$
`:;:.#*$7#2$*#:)+(a$12#$)9$712,/:4.12$/+,#2#*,$,)$+4:.#12$7)B#2$7.1+,*$*/+:#$

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1*$/,*$*7#:,21.$1::#.#21,/)+>$R$:420#$(#*:2/-/+8$,"#$1::#.#21,/)+$1,$1..$
92#34#+:/#*$/*$4*#($,)$(#*:2/-#$,"#$,),1.$82)4+($*"15/+8$#+0/2)+<#+,$1,$1$
*/,#>$$

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