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HAPPY2000

Final Project Report

FEASIBILITY STUDY IN
STEAM CYCLE WITH HARD COAL

Part of the higher course in


Heat and Power Technology
Project Based Education

By
Marcus Göpel
Anders Ljung
Armando Pirone
Andrea Vecchi
HAPPY2000 2000-02-22
Feasibility Study in Three Heat and Power Technologies Intermediate Report
STOCKHOLM Department of Energy Technology
8-Mar-2000 Chair of Heat and Power Technology
Royal Institute of Technology
100 44 STOCKHOLM
Sweden
HAPPY2000 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in actual cycle Final Report

ABSTRACT
The need of a deeper analysis for a unit fired by hard coal, comes as a request from
the buyer, in case the natural gas supply would be too restricted or too costly, thus
making this alternative interesting.

The developed subcritical hard coal fired steam cycle requires these main
components:

1 CFBC boiler
1 High pressure steam turbine
1 Low pressure steam turbine
2 District heating condensers
1 Deareator
1 Feed-water pre-heater
1 Air-cooled condenser

The proposed full load time for the production of district heating is around 4320 hours
with a heat output of 200 MWh. In order to accomplish the heat request during the
year and maximise the production of electricity, the electrical output can vary from 94
to 122 MWe depending on the district heating load. The input power is set to 321 MW
LHV heat load. The total efficiency η tot of the cycle is 92.4% when full loaded (that is
during the coldest months). During the summer, when the district heating section is
shut down, the electrical efficiency η el is 38%. Anyway for economical matters the
plant will be shut down during the warmest months, as not profitable at all. The full
load time for the electricity production is suggested to be 5760 after which the plant
becomes unprofitable.

The coal is transported by railway from the harbour (30 km from the site) and there
are no restrictions concerning the amount of delivered fuel.

The main pollutants from coal combustion are SOx, NOx, CO2 and dust. To reduce
SOx emissions, there are principally four different methods, namely changing to low-
sulphur coal, coal preparation, sorbent injection, and installing a flue gas
desulphurization plant. Techniques for NOx reduction include selective catalytic and
selective non-catalytic reduction. To control dust emissions, dynamic separators,
electrostatic filters, scrubbers, and fabric filters are used. For the developed plant we
have decided to use sorbent injection, SCR, and electrostatic filters. Thanks to them
the specifications given by the buyer are fulfilled.

The economical analysis shows that the payback time is above ten years, value
requested by the buyer (see appendix A7). This is due to the low price of the
electricity, especially during the summer. Two different alternatives have been
analysed. While in the first case the plant would run 4320 hours full load and finally
shut down for the remaining six months (when the electricity price is low), in the
second, the plant would run for 4320 hours full load and for 1440 hours partial load
(150 MWh 104.5 MWe for 720 hours and 100 MWh 108.5 MWe for 720 hours). The
results are better for the second case (15.6 years payback time), but still not
profitable in a ten years sight.
HAPPY2000 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in actual cycle Final Report

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................1
OBJECTIVES................................................................................................................1
......................................................................................................................................1
TECHNICAL SECTION.................................................................................................2
Implementation..........................................................................................................2
General Description of the Plant................................................................................3
Main components.......................................................................................................7
Plant layout..............................................................................................................11
Discussion................................................................................................................12
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS....................................................................13
Description of the used fuel.....................................................................................13
Emissions of sulphur oxides....................................................................................13
Emissions of nitrogen oxides...................................................................................15
Emissions of dust ....................................................................................................16
Emissions of carbon dioxide....................................................................................18
Ash...........................................................................................................................18
Fuel manufacturing and transportation....................................................................19
Noise........................................................................................................................19
Determining equipment to reduce emissions..........................................................20
Discussion................................................................................................................20
ECONOMY..................................................................................................................21
Investment costs......................................................................................................21
Total.........................................................................................................................21
Cash flows...............................................................................................................22
Results.....................................................................................................................22
Discussion................................................................................................................23
FUTURE WORK..........................................................................................................24
REFERENCES............................................................................................................25

APPENDIX A1
Economical Summary
APPENDIX A2
Cash Flow Trend
APPENDIX A3
Data report from GateCycle
APPENDIX A4
T-s diagram
Deleted to save disk space
APPENDIX A5
Duration curve and outside temperature dependance
APPENDIX A6
Circulating fluidised bed boiler
APPENDIX A7
General information
Additional specifications
HAPPY2000 –1– 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

INTRODUCTION
After the first phase of the Heat and Power Project, the literature study, the buyer
decided to continue with three cycles.

A. Gas turbine combined cycle


B. Steam turbine cycle with hard coal
C. Gas turbine combined cycle and steam turbine cycle with biofuel

The three cycles fit to different possible future developments based on the
assumption that:

A. Gas delivery is not restricted.


B. Gas is not available or too costly.
C. Gas delivery is restricted to 190 MW, CO2 taxes may be raised and/or bio fuel
units subsidised. The consumption of bio fuel however, is limited.

These specifications are also found in appendix A7.

This report represents the feasibility study of a hard coal fired steam power plant for
production of both district heating and electricity. The technical, economical and
environmental parts have been analysed.

OBJECTIVES
The task of this part of the project is to evaluate, in a deeper way, the possibility of
building a steam power plant with hard coal for district heating and electricity
production. In the technical part the following points have been taken into
consideration: general description of the plant, preliminary process diagram with
main data, preliminary type and dimensions of main components, rough layout of the
plant and estimation of the ground size needed.

For the environmental part preliminary environmental consequences have been


discussed, touching the following topics: description of the fuel, estimation of
emission, determining equipment to reduce emissions, estimation of noise levels,
consequences from fuel manufacturing and transportation.

In the economical part an estimation of the economy has been carried out, dealing
with investment costs, cash flows, payback times. In particular two cases have been
analysed.
HAPPY2000 –2– 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

TECHNICAL SECTION

Implementation
The needed information to start and accomplish this phase have been taken from the
previous literature study [Vecchi et al, 1999] supplemented by the discussion at
DRTM 1 (1999/12/8), DRTM 2 (2000/02/15), and from some additional specifications
given by Per Almqvist (Appendix A7).
Concerning the technical part the most relevant ones are:

- About the district heating, the energy requested by the town is 1400 GWh per
year. Nowadays, two hot water boilers with oil of 200 MW each and an old heat
and power plant supply the required hot water. Because of a local environmental
demand, in five years from now, only 600 GWh of heat will be produced in a
typical year with old boilers and heavy oil, so that our new unit will have to
produce at least 800 GWh a year.
- The problem found in the literature study about the small area for locating the new
unit has been solved as the site could be enlarged up to 40,000 m2 (at a price of
40 Euro/ m2).

In order to study better the process and calculate heat, mass and energy balances,
GateCycle program [Enter Software, 1998] has been used. Furthermore,
experienced technical experts have been consulted (see References).
HAPPY2000 –3– 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

General Description of the Plant


At this moment, we have decided to improve the subcritical steam plant presented at
DRTM 2 (2000/02/15). A very rough economical analysis for a supercritical plant has
also been made (see the economical part). But from a technical point of view we
have found some problems when using the GateCycle Software. With such extreme
admission values for the boiler (230 bar 550 °C) the program does not seem to work
properly, while when using 180 bar and 560 °C as admission data, we have not found
very relevant improving in the efficiency.

Considering the restrictions and the specifications given by the buyer, the unit will
have an output of about 200 MWh district heating running 4320 hours per year full
load and 1440 hours partial loaded. In this way the designed plant will supply more
than the 800 GWh/year requested by the local environmental restrictions. According
to the duration diagram (see figure 1) the left amount of GWh not supplied by the
new unit, will be eventually supplied by one of the two 200 MW h oil boiler and the
converted 300 MWh old plant already existing.

When dealing with a cogenerating steam cycle, it is of great importance to maximise


the electricity production when the district heating load decreases. The α value (α =
Pel / Pheat) can give an idea of how the electrical and heat outputs vary. It has been
analysed how this value could change during the year with different heat loads
corresponding to different electrical outputs.

The α value is equal to 0.46 in full load conditions, it means during the coldest
months.

The LHV heat load is set to 321 MW hard coal with a total efficiency of 92.4% when
full load conditions are fulfilled.

From a technical point of view, during the summer the electrical output would be 122
MWe with an electrical efficiency of 38 %, but it should be underlined that during this
period the plant will not be operating because economically unprofitable.

When full load conditions are set, the cycle presents around 2000 kW generator
losses and the electrical own consumption of the plant is computed by the GateCycle
Program to be 1800 kW, even if in reality it should be probably larger.

To reach 120 °C outlet maximum temperature for the district heating, we have used
two district heating condensers, loaded by two extractions from the low-pressure
turbine (see figure 2). These extractions are lead by valves that can be closed when
the heat load from the district network decreases, typically during the warm months,
thus giving an enhanced electrical production. The valves are independent from each
other, so that it is possible to set the best extraction flow from each of them at any
time, corresponding to the heat load required, giving an optimised use of the district
heating section.
HAPPY2000 –4– 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Dimensioning

We have decided to implement the plant following the general layout [Alvarez, 1990],
[Hunyadi; 1999]. Thus, the unit will be characterised by the following components
(see also Figure 2):

1 CFBC boiler
1 High pressure steam turbine
1 Low pressure steam turbine
2 District heating condensers
1 Deareator
1 Feed-water pre-heater
1 Air-cooled condenser

The dimensioning of the cycle has been accomplished by using the GateCycle
program [Enter Software, 1998].

To start the process, we have chosen 560 °C and 160 bar of pressure as admission
data for the high-pressure turbine. After a reheat stage in the boiler the steam
reaches the low-pressure turbine at 560 °C and 20 bar (18.7 bar due to pressure
losses).

The inlet data of the boiler are 210 °C, 163 bar with a water mass flow of 84.5 kg/s. A
superheat and reheat process (see appendix A3 for data) characterise this
component.

To improve the efficiency of the cycle we have used a feed-water pre-heater fed by
steam coming from the only one extraction of the high-pressure turbine.

An air-cooled condenser cools down the water closing the cycle when operating in a
condensing mode. We have excluded the choice of a water-cooled condenser, as
seawater is located too far (30 km) from the site.

The main results obtained from the GateCycle Program can be seen in appendix A3.
HAPPY2000 –5– 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Process Diagram
The output data can be found in figure 1. We can underline that, if it would be
possible to increase the price for electricity during the summer time, we would
produce only electricity (122 MWe), while during the winter the electrical production
drops to 94 MWe.

600
Duration Curve
500
Heat
400 Electricity
MW 300

200

100

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Running Hours

Figure 1: Duration Diagram

Decreasing the heat load, the electricity production increases, reaching the maximum
value of 122 MWe.

Five cases have been computed with the help of GateCycle (70/120, 60/100, 55/90,
45/75, 40/75 inlet/outlet district water temperature in degree Celsius), depending on
the outside temperature (see appendix A5).

The cycle can also be seen in a T-s diagram in appendix A4.

The process diagram developed with the help of GateCycle can be seen in figure 2.
HAPPY2000 –6– 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

1 3
4
5
2
9

Figure 2: Process diagram

1. CFBC Boiler

2. Super Heater and Economiser

3. High-pressure Turbine

4. Low-pressure Turbine (quality-condensing tail system)

5. Air-cooled Condenser

6. District Heating Condensers

7. District Heating Water Outlet

8. Deareator

9. Feed-water Pre-heater
HAPPY2000 –7– 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Main components

Circulating fluidised bed combustion boiler

In a fluidised bed combustion system, crushed particles, ash, and recirculated


particles are mixed together in a bed levitated by incoming combustion air. The
combustion air enters at the bottom of furnace. The boiler tubes are immersed in the
fluidised bed. This results in direct contact between the burning particles of fuel and
the boiler tubes. Very high rates of heat transfer are obtained, thereby reducing the
boiler area and size. In the FBC procedure, a mixture of crushed coal and limestone
particles is spread on a perforated distribution grid in the furnace. The bed is about a
meter deep. When high-velocity air is forced through the bed, the surface of the fuel
rises as much as one meter and resembles a boiling fluid as particles hop up and
down. Oil is sprayed into the suspended mass to start the fire. During operation,
fresh coal and limestone are fed continuously into the top of the bed, while ash and
slag are drawn off from below. The rich air supply and constant motion in the bed
make burning efficient and prevent build-up of large slag clinkers. Steam generator
pipes are submerged directly into the fluidised bed. Heat exchange is more efficient
than in the waterfalls of a conventional boiler.

In figure 3 an overview of the flow diagram is sketched, while in appendix A6 the


constraction principle for the boiler is presented.

F L U E G A SF L U E G S AT AS C K G A S
T R E A T M E N T

C O A L R E C E P T I O N ,
C O A L S T O R A G E A N D
P R E P A R A T I O N

F E E D C O M B U S T I O N
S T E A M T U R B I N E
H A N D L I N G S Y S T E M
P L A N T
S Y S T E M ( C F B C S )T E A M

S O R B E N T
R E C E P T I O N ,
L I M E S T O N E
S T O R A G E A N D
P R E P A R A T I O N

A I R A S H D I S P O S A L
A S H P L A N T

Figure 3: Flow diagram for circulating fluidised bed boiler system

The principal volume of the heat transfer is obtained within the bed itself, but the hot
gases leaving the bed (app. 850 oC) are cooled first by radiation to the tubes lining,
then in the boiler’s furnace and finally by convection to the convection tube banks.
HAPPY2000 –8– 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

A major importance of the fluidised bed combustion process is the potential for a
direct reduction in the emission of pollutants. The bed operating temperatures (about
850 oC) reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides, while the use of limestone reduces
the formation of SO2.

We have assumed an efficiency for the boiler around 98%. For more data about the
boiler see appendix A3.

Deareator and Pre-heaters

In the deareator, heat from the incoming steam flow is used to preheat the boiler feed
water. The deaerator accomplishes this by bringing the feed water up to saturation
conditions at the current operating condition.
In the feed water pre-heater the condensing steam is used to heat up the feed water.

Steam Turbines

The high-pressure turbine power output is around 42 MW. The overall efficiency is
equal to 0.88. Only one extraction is present and leads a small amount of steam to
the feed-water pre-heater.

The low-pressure turbine has a maximum power output of 85 MW when full loaded
(condensing mode). In order to accomplish the district heating during the winter and
increase the electricity production during the warmer months, we have decided to
implement a so-called “quality condensing tail” system (see figure 4).

STEAM INLET

1 2
TO AIR-
TO DISTRICT
COOLED
HEATING CONDENSER
CONDENSERS
Figure 4: Quality-condensing tail (low-pressure turbine)

With this system, when the heat load decreases, it is possible to enhance the
electricity produced by the turbine just reducing the steam flows through the valves 1
and 2 so that the flow through the valve 3 increases and more steam is expanded in
the turbine (see figure 4). It is important to stress that when the heat load is at its
maximum, the flow through the valve 3 will be as low as possible, although still
HAPPY2000 –9– 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

present, to avoid that the temperature of the blades of the turbine would become too
high with consequent risks of damage.

The thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure turbine is less than the high-
pressure one, in this case we have assumed an overall efficiency equal to 0.86. For
more data about the turbines see also appendix A3.

District heating condensers

The district heating section is constituted by two district heating condensers fed by
steam coming from the low-pressure turbine. Two valves regulate the extraction
flows depending on the heat load request. The power output for the condensers vary
during the year with a full load heat output of 200 MW. The pressure of the district
heating water is assumed to be 5 bar while the inlet and outlet temperature depends
on the outside temperature (see appendix A5). No particular types of condensers
have been chosen in this part of the project.

Air-cooled condenser

An air-cooled condenser is used to cool steam or a steam/water mixture down to


saturated liquid conditions. It is assumed that the outlet of the condenser is saturated
liquid at the same pressure as the inlet flow (0.06 bar). No particular types of
condenser have been chosen in this part of the project.

The need of this component comes mostly during the warm months when the low-
pressure turbine works in a condensing mode.

Storage

It is important to build a handling system that makes the maintenance easy and safe.
The fuel handling inside the gates consists of receiving hopper, storage, conveyors
and boiler fuel bunkers. The coal and limestone is transported to the plant twice a
week by railroad and left at the receiving hopper. The receiving hopper is placed next
to the storehouse and it needs to be as large as one carriage, about 15 m and with
air suction so that the dust from the coal is kept inside.

The coal is then stored in a large storehouse with the dimension 100x40x15 meter.
This gives a total of 60,000 m3. The maximum load for the boiler per day is about
1370 m3 coal (the coal flow is around 12.65 kg/s with a density of 800 kg/m3). This
makes possible to store more than one month needs.

Also the storage of limestone has to be taken into consideration, which is about 10%
of the coal storage. The storehouse can either be built on the ground or partly be built
down into the ground. The house gives protection against rain, wind and lower the
possibility of disturbance for the neighbours.

The whole fuel handling system contains several different conveyors. Depending of
use and the incline different conveyors will be needed. Scraper conveyor, buckets
elevators, stoker conveyor and screw conveyor.
HAPPY2000 – 10 – 2000-03-14
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The coal is stored a second time in the boiler fuel bunkers. It contains fuel for about
four hour’s operation. The bunkers is placed close to the furnace and serve as a
reserve if there is problem with the conveyors. It also serves as a safety, in case of a
fire it will minimise the spread.
HAPPY2000 – 11 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Plant layout
When doing a layout the first thing to be considered is the placement of the boiler.
The placing should be efficient both in technical and economical matter. For instance
the turbine house should be placed close to one side of the boiler so that the cost of
expensive high-pressure tubes is reduced. The ash-silo is another component that
should be close to the boiler. At the same time it needs to be easy to get to for the
trucks which collect the ashes.
We have estimated the plant ground size to be about 120 m times 180 m, so that we
do not need to buy more ground for the station.
External conection to rest of the
plant. (electricity, heat etc)
Railway
for Coal

Stack

Turbine
Condenser
Boiler *
Storage
Coal & limestone
120 m

Receiving
Office
hopper

Electrostaticfilter

Ash-silo
Parking Cooling tower

180 m

Main entrance
Employee
Goods Secondary
Ash-handling entrance
(emergency)

*Boiler including for feedwatertank, feedwaterpumps, fans, milling, ash- and


fuelhandling.
HAPPY2000 – 12 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Discussion
The technical results of the subcritical cycle implemented with the software
GateCycle seem to be reasonable according to the literature consulted and the
lectures (see References). Instead, when trying to develop a supercritical cycle we
have found some problems in running the program. The efficiency we got from the
software was not reasonable and moreover we got different errors as the data for
some components were out of the range of the software. This was one of the
reasons that made us focuses only on the subcritical plant.

Anyway to make our data completely reliable, we should also implement the same
cycle with other software and compare the final results.

An optimisation of the cycle should be carried out in the eventual next phase of the
project (design study), thus making the data more accurate.
HAPPY2000 – 13 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

Description of the used fuel


Coal is fossilized plant material preserved by burial in sediments and altered during
some hundreds of millions of years. Geological forces have compacted and
condensed it into a carbon-rich fuel.

World coal deposits are vast. They are approx. ten times greater than conventional
oil and gas resources combined. The known resource is estimated to be more than
10¹² metric tons. If coal consumption continued at present levels, this would amount
to more than 350 years’ supply.

Coal is not a uniform substance. It can be divided in different ways. The percentage
of carbon in brown coal by weight is 65-75%. Hard coal contains approx. 85%
carbon, while anthracite might contain up to 95%. The rest consists mainly of
nitrogen, hydrogen, sulphur, ash, and trace elements. The sulphur content of hard
coal varies between 0.5 and 5%. The ash content is often 5-15%, while the moisture
content normally is 1-10%.

Emissions of sulphur oxides


Oxides of sulphur, which are commonly denoted by SOx, are some of the most
important air pollutants. Despite significant anthropogenic sources, natural sources of
oxides of sulphur are at least three times larger on a global scale. The vast majority
of the anthropogenic emissions of SOx are due to the combustion of sulphur-
containing fossil fuels. The majority of the sulphur emitted in a combustion process is
as sulphur dioxide (SO2). However, SO2 can be further oxidised to SO3¯ and SO4¯
(sulphite and sulphate ions) in the atmosphere. Absorption of these compounds into
water droplets results in the formation of sulphurous acid. Acid rainfall can result in
acidification of lakes and rivers, adversely affect fish and plant life populations, and
alter the pH balance of other ecosystems. SO x also results in directly toxic effects at
high concentrations.

Sulphur emissions from coal-fired plants can be reduced by

- switching to low-sulphur coals


- coal preparation before combustion
- sorbent injection during combustion
- installing a flue gas desulphurization plant used after combustion

Fuel switching

Undoubtedly, the best way to prevent sulphur oxide pollution is to avoid creating it.
Switching from coal with a high sulphur content to low-sulphur coal can greatly
reduce sulphur emissions. Some coals have extremely low sulphur content, down to
about 0.3%.
HAPPY2000 – 14 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Coal preparation

Pyritic sulphur and organic sulphur are the main sulphur forms in hard coal. Pyrite
can be partly removed by crushing the coal to such a small size that the pyrites are
mostly present as free pyrite particles. Gravity methods are then used to separate the
low-density coal from the high-density pyrites. Preparation of coal also removes to
some extent mineral matter, chlorine, and trace elements. Among the trace elements
found in hard coal, eleven of them are considered to be hazardous air pollutants.
They include cobalt, nickel, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead.

Sorbent injection

Fluidised bed combustion (FBC) enables desulphurization already during


combustion, if calcium is present, according to the chemical reactions

CaCO3 + heat → CaO + CO2


CaO + SO2 + ½ O2 → CaSO4

The efficient combustion in fluidised beds allows the use of a wide range of low-
grade fuels, such as lignite, unwashed high-sulphur and high-ash coals, rather than
high-priced hard coal.

More than 90% of SO2 is captured by the limestone particles. NOx formation is
reduced by keeping temperatures around 850 °C instead of twice that figure in other
boilers. Unfortunately, a higher proportion of nitrous oxide (N2O) is formed.

The limestone acts as a sorbent, capturing the SO x produced during combustion


before it leaves the boiler and forming calcium sulphate. This allows FBC to attain
low SOx emissions without the need for a separate flue gas desulphurization (FGD)
plant.

Flue gas desulphurization

SO2 and other gaseous emissions are more difficult to control due to their similarity to
the air stream in which they are transported. However, SO2 may be cleaned from a
flue gas by chemical processes. There are several FGD processes currently
available commercially. They can be divided in wet systems, dry systems, and wet-
dry systems. The first two kinds will not be treated here. The most widely used wet-
dry systems are spray dryers. A reagent slurry containing solids is dispersed as
droplets into a hot gas stream. The hot gas is well above the boiling point of water, so
that the water in the droplets evaporates rapidly. The particles formed from the
evaporating drops are dried and can be separated.

Instead of making a throwaway product that becomes a waste disposal problem,


sulphur can be removed from flue gases by processes that result in a usable product,
e.g. elemental sulphur, sulphuric acid, and ammonium sulphate. Catalytic converters
are used in these recovery processes to oxidise or reduce sulphur. The by-products
can be collected and sold.
HAPPY2000 – 15 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Emissions of nitrogen oxides


Oxides of nitrogen, which are commonly denoted by NOx, include nitric oxide (NO)
and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). N2O is one of the greenhouse gases. NO and NO2 are
formed at high temperatures of combustion when oxygen and nitrogen molecules can
break down to allow recombination with each other. Essentially all of the oxides of
nitrogen emitted from anthropogenic sources are from combustion sources, either
mobile ones, such as the automobile, or stationary ones, such as power plants.

The two main methods to reduce NOx emissions during combustion are

- low air excess


- low combustion temperatures

The combustion problem is that decreased air excess decreases the formation of
NOx but increases the formation of CO and hydrocarbons.

There are several techniques to reduce the NOx content in flue gas streams. Two of
them, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction
(SNCR) are treated in the following section.

SCR gives rise to the chemical reduction of NOx back to nitrogen and water. This is
achieved by injecting a chemical reducing agent, ammonia or urea, into the flue gas
stream. The flue gas and the reducing agent pass through a catalyst unit where the
reduction reactions take place. The main reactions are

4NO + O2 + 4NH3 → 4N2 + 6H2O

2NO2 + O2 + 4NH3 → 3N2 + 6H2O

Catalysts are supported on large surface area structures such as plates. The
catalysts include titanium and vanadium oxides. Very high reduction efficiencies can
be achieved (> 90%), though the investment and operating costs of an SCR system
are high. The catalyst units are expensive to install and the catalyst is consumable
due to fouling and erosion. Without careful control, ammonia or urea slippage can
occur, giving rise to emissions as undesirable as NOx. Reagent handling and storage
can present safety problems.

SNCR involves the same reduction chemistry and the same chemical reagents as
SCR. However, there is no need for catalyst units, because the reagents are injected
into hotter parts of the boiler system. These higher temperatures promote the
necessary reduction reactions. A typical SNCR system involves multiple injection
points at several levels of the boiler. Gas temperatures of 900-1100 °C give very fast
reaction rates for the reduction of NOx to nitrogen. The solid or liquid reagents are
injected with steam or air into zones where mixing conditions are optimal. SNCR is
considerably cheaper to install than SCR, as no catalyst unit is needed. Operation
costs can be lower, as no catalyst replacement is required but increased reagent of
consumption (typically 2 to 3 times) can offset this advantage. The collection
efficiency is lower than the one for SCR.

The SNCR process is sensitive to temperature changes. Wrong operation can lead to
HAPPY2000 – 16 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

significant ammonia slippage.

Emissions of dust
There are four principally different devices for dust separation. They are dynamic
separators, electrostatic filters, scrubbers, and fabric filters.

The ash collected by the four dust separation techniques mentioned is a solid waste.
It’s often hazardous due to the heavy metals and other trace components of coal. It is
often buried in landfills or other solid waste disposal sites.

Dynamic separators

Cyclones are a common type of dynamic dust separators. The mechanism of


collection in a cyclone is a centrifugal force. When a gas stream containing particles
is forced to follow a curved path at high velocity, the centrifugal forces result in a
movement of the particles away from the axis of the gas’ rotation.

A typical cyclone is composed of a cylindrical chamber on top of a conical chamber.


Flow enters on the side of the cylinder and is forced in a curved path around the
outside wall. Particles collide with the wall and fall to the bottom of the device. The
separation efficiency is influenced by the number of revolutions made by the gas
during passage through the cyclone. The sloping sides of the cyclone allow for
continuous collection of particles at the bottom. The cleaned gas stream eventually
flows up and out through the centre of the cyclone. Key parameters that influence the
effectiveness of a cyclone are particle diameter and fluid viscosity.

The separation efficiency is proportional to the square root of the tangential velocity
and in inverse proportion to the radius of curvature. Consequently, a small cyclone
has a better separation efficiency than a large one. However, large cyclones are
often needed due to pressure losses. The tangential velocity and the radius of
curvature can be controlled to maximise the movement of particles toward the wall.
Several cyclones can be mounted to a multi-cyclone device. The main advantages
are the simple and robust design, and the low investment and operation costs. The
main disadvantage is the low separation efficiency for particles smaller than 3-5 µ m.

Electrostatic filters

The cyclones cannot be used to effectively remove small particles (<1-10 µ m) from
a gas stream. Unfortunately, it is precisely these particles that are most injurious to
the health. Electrostatic filters are the most common particulate controls in power
plants. If the fly ash particles are electrically charged as they pass between large
electrodes, an electric field will result in deflection of their motion in the effluent
stream.

A commonly used electrostatic filter consists of a number of plates and wires. A very
high voltage, e.g. 50,000 V, is applied between the electrodes. The gap between the
electrodes might be a few centimetres, creating electric field intensities of the order of
10,000 V/cm. Under these high electric fields, electrons are discharged from the
HAPPY2000 – 17 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

negatively charged wire electrode and migrate towards the positive electrode (the
plate). Molecules in the gas stream are ionised by collisions with the electrons. The
negatively charged ions migrate toward the collecting electrode. The subsequent
collision of particles with these negative ions results in charging and migration of the
particles, accumulating on the collecting plate.

These electrostatic filters consume a large amount of electricity, but maintenance is


relatively simple and collection efficiency can be as high as 99.9%.

Unlike the cyclone, the velocity of the particles toward the collecting plate depends
only linearly on the particle diameter. Performance depends on particle size and
chemistry, strength of the electric field, and the flue gas velocity. The efficiency of
electrostatic filters for collection of fine particles does not decrease as rapidly as with
the other settling equipment.

Scrubbers

Liquid droplets can be used to enhance the collection of particles in scrubbers (wet
collectors). Fine particles adhere to a droplet if they contact it. The liquid drops with
the fine particles stuck on them can easily be collected in a cheap and simple
cyclone. Instead of dynamic separators, electrostatic filters can be used as well. The
formed sludge (i.e. the mixture of particles and liquid) flows to the bottom of the
scrubber. Thus, the need for mechanical removal of dust layers is eliminated. For
particles of primary interest (i.e. particles between 0.1 and 10 μm), the dominant
mechanism of collection is inertial impaction. This means that the particles, due to
their inertia, are unable to follow the flow path around the liquid droplets. They
continue on and contact the droplets. Water is usually used as liquid. Scrubbers can
trap gaseous pollutants as well.

There are a few disadvantages with scrubbers. They are expensive to construct and
operate. In addition, they use considerable amounts of energy and water. The
contaminated water requires further treatment.

Fabric filters

Fabric filters (baghouse filters) were one of the earliest means of controlling
particulate emissions, but they have become more common in recent years due to
improvements in fabric material, their relative simplicity, and their ability to remove
very fine particles in the 0.1 to 1 μm range. These filters remove particles physically
by trapping them in a porous mesh of cotton cloth, glass fibres, or asbestos-cellulose.
The mesh allows air to pass through but holds back solids. Filters are generally
shaped into huge bags 10 to 15 metres long and 2 to 3 metres wide. Effluent gas is
blown into the bottom of the bag and escapes through the sides. Unlike other
collection systems, the efficiency of a fabric filter system tends to increase with use.
The reason for this is that the total collecting surface increases as a dust layer
collects in the filter. This occurs to the expense of a pressure drop through the
collection system. Increased dust loading reduces the void space available for flow
and decreases the permeability of the filter. Ultimately, of course, the pressure drop
through a fabric filter exceeds acceptable limits for economic operation of the gas
HAPPY2000 – 18 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

cleaning. Then the bags are replaced or opened to remove the dust cake. Often a
high-pressure backflow of short duration is introduced to the filters to remove the
particles. Because this backflow is of low volume with a high particulate
concentration, collection and disposal of the particles is generally easy.

Collection efficiency is relatively insensitive to fuel type, fly ash composition, particle
size, and electrical properties. These filters are usually cheaper to install and operate
than electrostatic filters. However, there are some disadvantages as well. Low flue
gas temperatures might cause problems, because the filter cake is difficult to remove
when there is condensed water in it. In addition, most fabric filter materials do not
resist well acid components.

Fabric filters have found increasing application, particularly in electric power plants.
Particle emission regulations have become steadily more stringent, making it
necessary to collect particles in the size range from 0.1 to 0.5 µ m. Such minute
particles are difficult for electrostatic filters to collect.

Investment costs of fabric filter systems vary with collection efficiency required, type
of dust, air-to-cloth ratio, system type, and system size. In 1988 in USA, fabric filter
capital costs were USD20/kW for large utility systems. Fabric filter operating costs at
large utilities were about 0.8 mills/kWh. The main energy cost in a fabric filter system
is the gas-pumping cost. On a monetary basis, the electrical costs for a fabric filter
system typically ranged from 5-13% of the total operation costs in 1988.

Emissions of carbon dioxide


The oxides of carbon exhibit not only directly toxic effects when present at high
concentrations close to the source (especially carbon monoxide, CO) but also
potentially important adverse effects when present over large areas at low
concentrations (especially carbon dioxide, CO2). Both CO and CO2 are emitted during
the combustion of fossil fuels. CO2 is the natural end product of hydrocarbon
combustion while CO is an intermediate combustion product. Thus, the
environmental problems associated with oxides of carbon have grown as the usage
of fossil fuels has increased in the 20th century. More oxides of carbon are emitted to
the atmosphere than any other pollutant. Although carbon dioxide is not a strong
greenhouse gas, its presence in such relatively high concentrations means that it
accounts for more than half of the total greenhouse effect.

Ash
The by-products or wastes from coal combustion include bed ash and slag from the
combustion bed and fly ash from the flue gas cleaning equipment. The amount of ash
depends on the fuel ash content, the combustion method, and the flue gas cleaning
equipment. The ash formed varies between 3 and 30% of the fuel amount.

The use of sorbent in the CFBC boiler means that the coal ash is mixed together with
calcium sulphate and unreacted sorbent. The unreacted sorbent decomposes to
calcium oxide. Thus, the solid material withdrawn from the furnace is composed of
ash, quicklime and calcium sulphate. When the mixed ash from an FBC plant is
HAPPY2000 – 19 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

mixed with water, significant amounts of heat are evolved. This can be quite
hazardous because of the possibility of fires in the ash handling plant and the injuries
that would arise if this material came into contact with skin or eyes. The wet ash has
to be dealt with quickly.

Some FBC ash can be disposed of to landfills, but there is the potential to use it as
ballast roads, embankments etc.

Fuel manufacturing and transportation


Surface mining is cheaper than underground mining but often makes the land unfit
for any other use. Coal mining contributes to water pollution. Sulphur and other water
soluble minerals make mine drainage and runoff from coal piles acidic and highly
toxic.

Underground mines are subject to cave-ins, fires, accidents, explosions, and


accumulation of poisonous gases (e.g. carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane,
and hydrogen sulphide).

The miners are also exposed to high temperatures and humidity, noise, and
strenuous working postures. Black lung is a respiratory disease caused by
accumulation of coal dust in the lungs or airways.

The energy consumption during coal mining is large in comparison to other fossil
fuels. It runs up to approx. 4% of the energy content of the coal.

Coal-fired plants require large quantities of fuel. Due to the large volumes needed,
ship and rail are often the only possible modes of transport between the mine and the
storage site. The energy consumption for transport usually corresponds to 1-2% of
the energy content in coal.

Coal transports by ship contribute considerably to emissions of pollutants. This


negative environmental impact has to be taken into consideration when comparing
different fuel alternatives.

Noise
The Buyer has a requirement of maximum 45 dB(A) at 50 m from the plant.

It is possible to fulfil the requirement above using a normal boiler housing and a
noise-absorbing material around the steam turbines [Dahl, 2000].

There are several ways to control the noise levels. Measures to take into
consideration include [Forsgren, 2000]

- minimum noise levels from all rotating machines


- boiler and flue gas fans located in separate rooms
- transformers enclosed in noise-absorbing compartments
HAPPY2000 – 20 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

- if possible, no noise-producing components facing residential areas


- the construction material of the exterior walls of the turbine hall made of concrete
- noise-absorbing materials covering inside walls of the turbine hall

Determining equipment to reduce emissions


Limestone injection will reduce the SOx emissions sufficiently. The actual emissions
might be only 50% of the requirement of 140 mg/mn3 [Dahl, 2000].

To control the NOx emissions SCR is chosen, because the temperatures are too low
for a SNCR system. SNCR works at temperatures of 900-1100 °C.

The SCR investment costs normally amount to 100-120 Euro/kWel [Wester, 1991].

Electrostatic filters will be sufficient to control the dust emissions in this case.

To give an idea of the dimensions needed, they might be approx. 10× 10× 15 m3. The
investment costs amount to some 2 MEuro, including installation and dust handling
equipment. Operation and maintenance costs are likely to be 1-2% of the investment
costs [Eriksson, 2000].

For electrostatic filters, separation efficiencies of 99.5% and dust emissions of 35


µ g/mn3 are common nowadays [Alvarez, 1990], so the 20 mg/mn3 requirement will be
met.

Discussion
As sulphur can be captured in the CFB combustor by limestone injection, the
investment cost of SOx reduction equipment is limited largely to the cost for the
limestone and ash handling system. The SCR system should be located before the
air pre-heater.

Because of the relatively low combustion temperatures, NOx formation is limited.

The dust emissions from coal-fired plants are generally larger than those from other
fossil-fired plants. For this reason, somewhat expensive dust pollutant control
devices will probably be needed, as cyclones will not meet the requirements.

Important parameters for the electrostatic filter dimensions are the flue gas amount
and temperatures.

The noise from boilers, turbines, feed-water pumps, fans and other plant components
is difficult to predict. It is very much based on manufacturers’ expected levels [Evans,
2000]. This is a complicated matter that has to be treated thoroughly in the next
phase of the project.
HAPPY2000 – 21 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

ECONOMY
The economical analysis is a fundamental step during the design of the plant. It is
important that the economy group and the technical group work side by side in order
to be able to see the feasibility of the different layouts.

The different cost and cash flow has been evaluated after comparing values obtained
from several sources: manufactures, literature, consulted experts. Not always it has
been possible to have satisfactory information, or even an answer. That’s why in the
next step all the values that will be use in this analysis should be checked again.

The main tool used it has been Power Invest, an Excel based program developed by
last year groups and modified to fit better to our needs. The program input are the
investment costs, the cash flow, the interest rate, and the costs for planning and
permits. As output we have the payback time and the present value, and a year per
year report of the economical situation of the plant.

Investment costs
Investments are all the costs related to the erection of the plant and installation of all
components that will allow the plant to produce. Especially in this stage it is very
important that the technical and economical group do the choice of all the
components of the plant together. In fact a solution that could increase the efficiency
of the plant can result in an economical failure and consequently should not be
considered. Power Invest calculates year per year the present value and allows to
decide how to divide the investment costs during the erection period and to see
immediately the consequences on the present value. Besides also investments that
occur after the plant is running can be introduced.

The boiler (CFB) includes cyclones, flue gas system, feed and ash handling, stack
and steam system, while the steam turbines (ABB HP16 and ATP-C720) include also
generator, control system and all the necessary auxiliary equipment.

Investment EUR
Boiler 60,000,000.00
Steam turbines 11,500,000.00
District heating 5,000,000.00
Buildings 5,000,000.00
Fuel handling system 10,000,000.00
Others 23,000,000.00
Total 114,500,000.00
HAPPY2000 – 22 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Cash flows
Cash flows are all the costs and incomes due to the operation of the plant. In details
Power Invest considers incomes from sold electricity and from the so-called “avoided
costs”. Avoided costs are represented by the reduced consumption of oil in the
existing water boilers. This choice comes from the consideration that the heat we
produce will substitute the production in the old and polluting hot water boiler present
in the location. Again Power Invest calculates the cash flow year per year, and it
allows seeing how variation in the flow is reflected on the pay-back time and in the
present value. Important factors to be decided are when the plant will be able to
produce electricity and heat. That will influence when cash flows will occur. In our
case we have suppose an erection time of 4 years.

Due to the low price of the electricity during the summer, we have decide not to
produce at all in these months. The winter heat production is enough to cover the
minimum heat production requested by the buyer in order to substitute the old boiler.

Other alternatives has been considered: decreasing the heat production and
increasing the electricity output during the summer it is possible to run the plant
longer with a further gain. The two different alternatives are illustrated in the
diagrams in appendix A2. In one case the plant would run for 4320 hours full load
and finally shut down it for the remaining six months (when the electricity price is
low). In the second case, the plant would run for 4320 hours full load and for 1440
hours partial load (150 MWh 104.5 MWe for 720 hours and 100 MWh 108.5 MWe for
720 hours). More detailed data can be found in appendix A1 and A2.

About the salary, as we don’t know where the plant is located it is not possible to give
an exact figure of it, so the value given should be evaluated better in the next step.

Cash flow Case 1 EUR/year


Fuel -13,824,000.00
Maintenance -500,000.00
Salary -800,000.00
Electricity sold 14,817,600.00
Avoided costs 12,342,857.00
Total 12,036,457.14
Cash flow Case 2 EUR/year
Fuel -19,061,443.30
Maintenance -500,000.00
Salary -1,00,000.00
Electricity sold 17,841,600.00
Avoided costs 15,037,714.29
Total 12,317,870.99

Results
The results of the calculation are summarised in the following table showing the
present value after 10 years and the payback time. Further diagrams are very easy to
HAPPY2000 – 23 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

perform as the program work on Excel. As it can be seen the payback time is above
ten years.

Alternative 1
Pay-back time [year] 17.80
Present value after 10 years [EUR] -22,925,458
Alternative 2
Pay-back time [year] 15.68
Present value after 10 years [EUR] -14,518,586

Discussion

Supercritical plant

The latest technology developments have allowed to design so-called supercritical


and ultra supercritical plant. As the temperatures and the pressures are well higher
than for a conventional plant more expensive materials are needed in such a unit.
However the number of supercritical plant running is increasing and the costs are
lowering. At this moment it is realistic to predict 3-5% higher capital costs, and
considering the increased efficiency (about 45% electricity efficiency), that solution
can result economically feasible. Besides the reduced operating costs associated
with the smaller coal consumption may be significant, and the emission of CO 2 will be
reduced, allowing to save money on environmental taxes (where existing).

Availability and flexibility of supercritical systems can be expected to be much the


same as that for conventional subcritical ones, but nowadays conventional subcritical
units have had better reliability during the first ten years of operation.

The European market

Planned programs for building new coal-fired power plant dating from the early 90s
have been cut back, particularly in Germany. This seems to be due mainly to the
deregulation of the electrical market, and partly to reduce forecast demands.

The additional capacity coming during 2000 will be gas-fired. This is because such
units can be built more quickly than coal-fired ones, they can meet environmental
requirements with less emissions control equipment, and can be operated flexibly.
On the other hand coal is a cheap and available fuel; its cost can be influenced by
the local availability of nature gas. However low cost gas may only be available at a
competitive cost on a “interruptible” contract basis, so that there may not be a secure
supply at times of peak load. Besides with deregulation, industrial generators who
produce power as a “by-product” can sell it into the new electricity market, increasing
competition and lowering the prices.
HAPPY2000 – 24 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

FUTURE WORK
From a technical point of view, in the next task of the project, the design study, a
more exact design of the plant should be done. Also an optimization of the cycle
should be carried out. Furthermore, the control system, the connection to the
electrical grid and the connection to the district heating net should be taken into
account in the next step of the project.

To improve the economical analysis in the next step, all the investment costs should
be checked again, and also collecting values from different manufactures could be a
good idea. For example the price we got for the boiler includes cyclones, flue gas
system, feed and ash handling, stack and steam system, but it should be better to
have the price of each components. Moreover maintenance costs and salary has
been only roughly quantified, but with a deeper analysis of the layout of the plant can
be determined better.

The results of the economical analysis indicate that the plant will pay back the
investments after 15 years. The calculations have been done supposing at year zero
an investment equal to the total investment plus the interest over half lead time, thus
2 year. The cash flow also occurs at year zero.

The influence of the maintenance costs and salary on the payback time is relevant,
and as these data have been only roughly estimated, the pay-back time could be
quite different from the value we have calculated.

About the supercritical plant, from what we have found on the literature and from oral
discussion with experts, it could be a good business. But for several reasons (time,
difficulty on using GateCycle) we have decided to ocus on a subcritical plant.
Probably now it is too late to start a study on this kind of plant, but anyway some
indications are given above in the dedicated section.
HAPPY2000 – 25 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

REFERENCES
Alvarez, H; 1990
“Energiteknik”
Studentlitteratur, Sweden

Hunyadi, L; 1999
“Overview of different power cycles, part 1,2 and 3”
Chair of Heat and Power Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden

Cavani, A; 1999
Consultation Adrin Cavani, Vattenfall utveckling AB

Enter Software, Inc.; 1998


“GateCycle 5.2”
Software manual, Enter Software Inc. 1490 Drew Avenue, Suite 180, Davis,
California 95616 U.S.A.

Hunyadi, L; 1999
Consultation Laszlo Hunyadi, Vattenfall utveckling AB

Vecchi et al; 1999


“Happy2000, literature study”
Chair of Heat and Power Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden

Wesström et al; 1998


“Happy, feasibility study”
Chair of Heat and Power Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden

Wester, L.; 1991


“Förbränningsteknik”

Persson, P-O;
“Miljöskyddsteknik-kompendium i miljöskydd, del 2”
Institutionen för miljöskydd och arbetsvetenskap, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden

Institution of Chemical Engineers; 1997


“Controlling Industrial Emissions – Practical Experience”
Symposium Series No.143, ISBN 0-85295-397-6

Forsgren, E.; 2000


E-mail communication

De Evers, N.; 1995


“Air Pollution Control Engineering”
ISBN 0-07-061397-4
HAPPY2000 – 26 – 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Evans, P.; 2000


E-mail communication

Vattenfall Utveckling AB; 1994


“Analys av miljökonsekvenser för ett kraftvärmeverk eldat med Salix -
Jämförelse med miljökonsekvenserna för kol och skogsbränsle”

Strömberg, L.; 1999


Private communication

Peirce, J. J.; Weiner, R. F.; Vesilind, P. A.; 1997


“Environmental Pollution and Control”
ISBN 0-7506-9899-3

Hesketh, H. E.; 1996


“Air Pollution Control: Traditional and Hazardous Pollutants”
ISBN 1-56676-413-0

Eriksson, T.; 2000


Telephone communication
ABB Fläkt Industrier AB

Dahl, A. G.; 2000


E-mail communication
HAPPY2000 Appendix A1 – 1 (3) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

APPENDIX A1
Economical Summary

CASE 1

Interest 6%
Currency 8.43 SEK
Equals 1 EUR
Cost for planning, permits 10 %/Total
etc. investments

Pay-back 17.8 Year


Present value -22,925,458.00 EUR

Investment

Boiler and feed water -60,000,000.00 EUR


systems
Steam turbine -11,500,000.00 EUR
District heating -5,000,000.00 EUR
Fuel handling system -10,000,000.00 EUR
Buildings -5,000,000.00 EUR
Connectors to the grid -8,000,000.00 EUR
Others -15,000,000.00 EUR

Sum Investments -114,500,000.00 EUR


Cost for planning etc. -11,450,000.00 EUR
Investment interest -15,566,853.93 EUR

Cash Flow

Fuel -13,824,000 EUR/year


Maintenance -500,000 EUR/year
Salary -800,000 EUR/year
Electricity 14,817,600 EUR/year
Heat 0 EUR/year
Avoided cost 123,42,857.14 EUR/year

Sum Cash Flow 120,36,457.14 EUR/year

Fuel

Boiler efficiency 0.98 %


Hard coal price 10.00 EUR/MWh
Load hours 4320 MW
Load 321 h
Cost 13,824,000 EUR/year
HAPPY2000 Appendix A1 – 2 (3) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Electricity

Winter price 35 EUR/MWh


Produced MW 94 MW
Load hours 4320 h
Summer price 20 EUR/MWh
Produced MW 0 MW
Load hours 0h
Income 14,817,600 EUR/year

Avoided costs

Boilers efficiency 0.98 %


Light oil price 14 EUR/MWh
Produced MW 202 MW
Load hours 4320 h
Produced MW 0 MW
Load hours 0h
Heat production avoided 1052.64 GW/year
Income 12,342,857.14 EUR/year

CASE 2

Interest 6%
Currency 8.43 SEK
Equals 1 EUR
Cost for planning, permits 10 %/Total investments
etc.

Pay-back 15.68 Year


Present value -14,518,586.00 EUR

Investment

Boiler and feed water -60,000,000.00 EUR


systems
Steam turbine -11,500,000.00 EUR
District heating -5,000,000.00 EUR
Fuel handling system -10,000,000.00 EUR
Buildings -5,000,000.00 EUR
Connectors to the grid -8,000,000.00 EUR
Others -15,000,000.00 EUR

Sum Investments -114,500,000.00 EUR


Cost for planning etc. -11,450,000.00 EUR
Invenstments interest -15,566,853.93 EUR
HAPPY2000 Appendix A1 – 3 (3) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Cash Flow

Fuel -19,061,443.30 EUR/year


Maintenance -500,000.00 EUR/year
Salary -1,000,000.00 EUR/year
Electricity 17,841,600.00 EUR/year
Heat 0.00 EUR/year
Avoided cost 15,037,714.29 EUR/year

Sum Cash Flow 12,317,870.99 EUR/year

Fuel

Boiler efficiency 0.98 %


Hard coal price 10.00 EUR/MWh
Load hours 5760.00 MW
Load 321.00 h
Cost 19,061,443.29 EUR/year

Electricity

Winter price 35 EUR/MWh


Produced MW 94 MW
Load hours 4320 h
Summer price 20 EUR/MWh
Produced MW 104,5 MW
Load hours 720 h
Produced MW 108,5 MW
Load hours 720 h
Income 17,841,600 EUR/year

Avoided costs

Boilers efficiency 0.98 %


Light oil price 14 EUR/MWh
Produced MW 202 MW
Load hours 4320 h
Produced MW 150 MW
Load hours 720 h
Produced MW 100 MW
Load hours 720 h
Heat production avoided 1052.64 GW/year
Income 15,037,714 EUR/year
HAPPY2000 Appendix A2 – 1 (1) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

APPENDIX A2
Cash Flow Trend

cash flow case 1

16000000

14000000

12000000

10000000
el
avoided
EUR

8000000
fuel
netto result
6000000

4000000

2000000

0
00

40

80

20

60

00

40

80

20

60

00

40

80

20

60

00

40

80

20

60

00
0

0
0

0
0

72
24

48

96
12

28

31

55
14

16

19

21

24

26

33

36

38

40

43

45

48

50

52

57

60
hours

cash flow case 2

20000000

18000000

16000000 200 MWh


14000000

12000000
el
avoided
EUR

10000000
150 MWh fuel
netto result
8000000

6000000
100 MWh
4000000

2000000

0
00

40

80

20

60

00

40

80

20

60

00

40

80

20

60

00

40

80

20

60

00
0

0
0

0
0

48

72
24

96

19

24

26

28

43

45

48

50
12

14

16

21

31

33

36

38

40

52

55

57

60

hours
HAPPY2000 Appendix A3 – 1 (3) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

APPENDIX A3
Data report from GateCycle

Project: HAPPY 2000


Feasibility study of steam cycle with hard coal
Plant output: 202 MWh, 94MWe
Boiler side input 321 MW

GateCycle Report - Boiler Report


Model: SP Case: SP

Boiler Description: CFBC Boiler

Thermal Effect 321 MW


Thermal Efficiency 0.98
Flue gas temperature after Eco 135 C

Flow Temperature Pressure Enthalpy Quality


Ports: kg/sec C bar kJ/kg x
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Primary Air Inlet 116.4 15.56 1.0 -0.006 /
Evaporator Inlet 84.3 209.28 163 899.42 0.0
Evaporator Outlet 84.3 347.89 160 2577.4 1.0
Reheater Inlet 83.2 265.88 19.3 2944.4 1.0
Reheater Outlet 83.2 560.00 19.3 3600.8 1.0
Super heat. Inlet 84.3 347.89 160.8 2577.4 1.0
Super heat. Outlet 84.3 560.00 160.8 3464.0 1.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Solid Fuel Flow 12.65 kg/sec


LHV Heat Load 321 MW

GateCycle Report – High-pressure turbine Report


Model: SP Case: SP

Flow Temperature Pressure Enthalpy Quality


Ports: kg/sec C bar kJ/kg x
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Steam Inlet 84.3 560.00 160.88 3464.0 1.0
Main Outlet 83.2 265.88 19.30 2944.4 1.0
First Extraction 1.1 296.74 25.00 3000.4 1.0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Net ST Section Power 42913 kW


Shaft/Gearbox Losses 875.77 kW
Current Gross Section Pwr 43789 kW
Current Overall Efficiency 0.8835
Rotational Speed 3000
Default Stage Press. Ratio 0.8000
Shaft/Gearbox Loss Frac. 0.02

GateCycle Report – Low-pressure turbine Report


Model: SP Case:SP
HAPPY2000 Appendix A3 – 2 (3) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Main part of the turbine

Flow Temperature Pressure Enthalpy Quality


Ports: kg/sec C bar kJ/kg x
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Steam Inlet 83.2 559.76 18.7 3600.8 1.0
Main Outlet 1.2 178.47 0.7 2834.0 1.0
First Extraction 36.0 274.11 1.8 3019.6 1.0
Second Extraction 46.0 203.25 0.9 2881.7 1.0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Net ST Section Power 53865 kW


Shaft/Gearbox Losses 1099.3 kW
Current Gross Section Pwr 54965 kW
Current Overall Efficiency 0.8664
User-Input Efficiency 0.8700
Rotational Speed 3000
Default Stage Press. Ratio 0.8000
Shaft/Gearbox Loss Frac. 0.02

Condensing tail

Flow Temperature Pressure Enthalpy Quality


Ports: kg/sec C bar kJ/kg x
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Steam Inlet 1.2574 178.47 0.7 2834.0 1.0
Main Outlet 1.2574 36.54 0.06 2493.3 0.96
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Net ST Section Power 419.80 kW


Shaft/Gearbox Losses 8.56727 kW
Current Gross Section Pwr 428.36 kW
Current Overall Efficiency 0.8637
Rotational Speed 3000
Default Stage Press. Ratio 0.8000
Shaft/Gearbox Loss Frac. 0.02

GateCycle Report – District heating condenser No 1 Report


Model: SP Case: SP

Flow Temperature Pressure Enthalpy Quality


Ports: kg/sec C bar kJ/kg x
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hot Inlet 36.0 274.11 1.8 3019.6 1.0
Hot Outlet 36.0 116.95 1.8 538.1 0.02
Cold Inlet 980.0 97.79 5 409.5 0.0
Cold Outlet 980.0 119.36 5 500.6 0.0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Surface Area 378927 m²


Calculated Effectiveness 0.9842
Calculated Duty 89334 kJ/sec

GateCycle Report – District heating condenser No 2 Report


Model: SP Case: SP
HAPPY2000 Appendix A3 – 3 (3) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Flow Temperature Pressure Enthalpy Quality


Ports: kg/sec C bar kJ/kg x
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hot Inlet 46.0 203.25 0.9 2881.7 1.0
Hot Outlet 46.0 94.67 0.9 396.09 0.0
Cold Inlet 980.0 70.00 5 292.85 0.0
Cold Outlet 980.0 97.79 5 409.52 0.0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Surface Area 291609 m²


Calculated Effectiveness 0.9600
Calculated Duty 114338 kJ/sec

GateCycle Report – Air-cooled condenser Report


Model: SP Case: SP

Flow Temperature Pressure Enthalpy Quality


Ports: kg/sec C bar kJ/kg x
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Water Inlet 1.25 36.54 0.06 2493.3 0.96
Water Outlet 1.25 36.17 0.06 150.96 0.0
Air Inlet 304.55 15.56 1.01 -0.006 0.6
Air Outlet 304.55 25.14 1.01 9.6846 0.6
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Desired Saturation Pressure 0.06 bar


Duty 2945.3 kJ/sec
Total Fan Power 6.32927 kW
HAPPY2000 Appendix A4 – 1 (1) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

APPENDIX A4
T-s diagram

Deleted to save disk space


HAPPY2000 Appendix A5 – 1 (1) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

APPENDIX A5
Duration curve and outside temperature dependance

600

500 Heatload

160 400
Heatload (MW)

120 300 DH-out


T (°C)

80 200 DH-in

40 100

0
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
Tout (°C)
HAPPY2000 Appendix A6 – 1 (1) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

APPENDIX A6
Circulating fluidised bed boiler

1 2

1 0

8 8

 1 . F u e l  6 . C y c l o n e
 2 . L im e s t o n e  7 . A s h o u t l e t
 3 . F i r e p l a c e  8 . A ir
 4 . B a r r i e r f i l t e r  9 . S e c o n d a r y a i r
 5 . f l u e g a s  1 0 . B u b b l e z o n e
HAPPY2000 Appendix A7 – 1 (3) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

APPENDIX A7
General information

The Company has decided to investigate the possibility to build a new Unit for
production of electricity and district heating on a sit near the Town. The Company will
later on order planning and design of the Unit if the conditions are feasible.

The Company has appointed Per Almqvist to represent them in the contacts with the
Project Team.

The progress of the work will have to be reported according to a given time schedule.
The Project will be divided into three separate phases: literature overview, a
feasibility study and the main design phase. After each phase the Project Team has
to present a report of the work and put forward the recommendations of the Team.

The Town has about 160000 inhabitants. It has a district heating system supplied by
hot water boilers only. The new Unit will be designed for combined production of
district heating and electricity.

Conditions

Production of electricity
Average price of electricity 30 Euro/MWh

Production of district heating


Average price 20 Euro/MWh
District heating network: Max. load 550 MW, energy supplied 1400 GWh per year
Temperatures: outlet 120-75 C, return 70-40 C

Fuels
Prices of fuels at the fence of the unit (Euro/MWh)
Natural Gas 12
Light oil 25
Heavy oil 14
Hard coal 10
Wood chips 11
Pellets 16

The supply of natural gas is normally restricted to 190 MW

Site
The Unit is to be situated 3 km from the city centre in an industrial region.
The ground is flat and the area at disposal is 120 x 180 m. There are roads, railway,
electrical grid (110 kV) and district heating supply tubes close to the site.

Climate
The outdoor temperatures are: Winter min. -25 ºC, average
-2 ºC
Summer max.
30 ºC, average 15 ºC
HAPPY2000 Appendix A7 – 2 (3) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Normally the rainfall is 500 mm per year and the dust content 0,05 mg / m3

Environment
The maximum noise level at 50 m from the fence is 45 dBA

The limits for outlet to the atmosphere are:


NOX mg/m3n SOX mg/ m3n Dust mg/ m3n
Gas turbines 60 5 Sootnr 2
Boilers, old 180 230 20
Boilers 70 140 20

The cost for planning, permits, ground etc. is estimated to 10 % of the cost of the
Unit.
Financing is calculated with interest rate of 6 %.
The company expects the investment to be returned 10 years after start of operation.
All prices are total prices to the Company, including taxis etc.
HAPPY2000 Appendix A7 – 3 (3) 2000-03-14
Feasibility Study in Steam Cycle with Hard Coal Final Report

Additional specifications

In the district heating system there are two plants with hot water boilers only and an
old heat and power unit that is planned to be converted to a hot water plant when the
new heat and power unit is put into operation. All plants can be fired with oil and gas
but have no special equipment for cleaning the smoke gases.
The two hot water plants have each a capacity of 200 MW and the converted heat
and power plant will produce 300 MW. It is planned to take one of the hot water
plants out of operation when the new heat and power plant is finished. All units and
the district heating network are owned by a municipal company. There are 40 people
in the present heat and power plant and three in each hot water plant.

There is a local environmental demand that five years from now only 600 GWh of
heat can be produced in a typical year with old boilers and heavy oil.

At the site of the new unit there are industrial buildings at 100 m distance, a
recreation area close to the site and dwellings at 500 m. It is possible to enlarge the
site up to 40 000 m2 at a price of 40 Euro/m2. The distance to harbour is 30 km.

Oil is transported by trucks and coal by railway from the harbour. Wood chips is
available corresponding to a heating value of 800 GWh per year and can be
transported by trucks at a mean distance of 50 km. Pellets is transported by boat and
with trucks from the harbour.

The price of electricity is judged to be 35 Euro/MWh October to March and 20


Euro/MWh April to September. The amount of gas is presently restricted to 190 MW
max. demand. The price is divided into fixed price of 4 MEuro/year and a running
price of 9 Euro/MWh. In the winter (1/10 – 31/3) gas is available on the spot market
80 % of the time at a mean price of 10 Euro/MWh. New contracts can perhaps be
possible at a fixed price of 30 kEuro/MW and year, and 10 Euro/MWh.

There have been political discussions on rising the CO2 taxes, but some people with
influence like to see it as a part of a total harmonising of taxes in Europe. The most
probable additional CO2 tax is 0,01 Euro/kg CO2 and there is also discussions to
subsidise biofuel units with up to 20 % of the erection cost.