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1st EJTHR International

Conference
Destination Branding,
Heritage and Authenticity

University of Santiago de Compostela


21 & 22 June, 2012
Conservação de construções históricas e a visão da sociedade: Objeto de
estudo a Igreja de Santana

Mauro Augusto Demarzo

UNICAMP, Brasil

demarzo@fec.unicamp.br

Aline Lopes Gonçalves Porto,


Umarizal, Brasil

alineporto@hotmail.com.

Andrea Apoluceno

UNAMA. BRASIL

andrea.apoluceno@gmail.com

Camila Contente Verbicaro

UFPA BRASIL

camilaverbicaro@hotmail.com

Resumo: Preservação inclui todas as ações que beneficiam a manutenção do


patrimônio cultural, incluindo a criação de leis, realização de projetos de
conservação, restauração e intervenção no entorno, entre outras. Seu principal
objetivo é manter a autenticidade histórica do patrimônio cultural, bem como a
sua integridade, de modo que as gerações futuras possam ser capazes de
apreciá-lo. A igreja de Santana, localizada no estado do Pará, Brasil, foi
construída em 1761, pelo arquiteto italiano Antônio Landi. Em 2005 a
restauração começou, no entanto, não foi finalizada. Este artigo pretende
abordar os procedimentos durante a intervenção, inclusive, apresentando o
ponto de vista da sociedade.

Palavra-chave: patrimônio histórico, restauração, conservação.

Abstract: Preservation includes all actions that benefit the maintenance of a


cultural heritage, including the creation of laws, realization of conservation’s
projects, restoration and interventions in the surrounding areas, among others.
Its main purpose is to sustain the historical authenticity of the cultural heritage,
as well as its integrity, so that the future generations might be able to appreciate
it. The Santana’s Church, located in the state of Para, Brazil, was built in 1761,
by Italian architect Antonio Landi. In 2005 the restoration began, however, has
not been finalized. This paper intends to address the procedures during the
intervention, including, presenting the view of the society

Keyword: historical heritage, restoration, conservation.

1. Introdução

O patrimônio cultural é o registro material da forma de pensar de uma


população em determinada época e lugar; e para que este registro se perpetue
é necessário a sua preservação. A preservação engloba todas as ações que
beneficiam a manutenção de um bem cultural, incluindo a criação de leis,
realização de projetos de conservação, restauração, intervenções no entorno
do patrimônio, etc. Ainda nos dias atuais, a elaboração do projeto de
conservação gera muita discussão em torno da concepção original e as
modificações realizadas ao longo dos anos.

Este artigo tem como objeto de estudo a conservação realizada na Igreja de


Santana, localizada na cidade de Belém. O idealizador deste projeto foi o
arquiteto italiano Antônio José Landi (Antonio Guiseppe Landi), tendo início das
obras em 1761 e sua inauguração em 02 de fevereiro de 1782. É a segunda
igreja mais antiga da Amazônia.

Atualmente, a Igreja de Santana é um bem tombado pela União, protegido pela


Legislação Federal: Decreto Lei nº 25 de 30/11/97, Portaria MinC nº 10 de
10/09/86, Portaria IPHAN nº 235 de 14/07/93 e Constituição Federal de 1988 –
art. 216. Está inserida em área delimitada e tombada pelo município,
denominada Centro Histórico de Belém, protegida, portanto pela seguinte
Legislação Municipal: Lei nº 7401, de 29/01/88; Lei Orgânica do Município de
30,03/90; Lei nº 7603, de 13/01/93 e Lei nº 7709, de 18/05/94.

O trabalho de recuperação da igreja, que estava com problemas de rachaduras


e infiltrações, foi iniciado a quase uma década pelo Instituto de Patrimônio
Histórico e Artístico Nacional (IPHAN), vinculado com o Ministério da Cultura,
fazendo parte do programa do governo denominado PAC (Programa de
aceleração de crescimento).
2. Metodologia

Para o desenvolvimento deste artigo, foram realizadas pesquisas bibliográficas


referentes ao objeto estudado, a principal fonte foi o acervo encontrado na
Biblioteca Ernesto Cruz, com sede na 2ª Superintendência Regional do Instituto
do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional – IPHAN. Além desta, foram
utilizados periódicos que relatassem o processo de intervenção, e a opinião da
sociedade em relação a esta. Realizou-se entrevista com João Veloso,
restaurador do IPHAN. Para conceitos referentes a patrimônio e autenticidade,
utilizou-se as cartas patrimoniais, e alguns textos e artigos relativos à área.

3. Resultados

Patrimônio e autenticidade

Para Handler (2002) da mesma forma que uma pessoa pode ter sua identidade
definida pelos bens que possui, a nação define-se a partir da posse de seus
bens culturais. O patrimônio serve de elo entre o passado, presente e futuro;
neste contexto temos a cidade de Belém, que foi colonizada por portugueses, e
assim como na capital de Portugal, Lisboa, há uma forte presença religiosa,
que pode ser constatada ao se visitar o centro histórico de ambas, com um
grande número de igrejas; com a conservação destas, também preservou-se
as origens da cidade de Belém.

Patrimônio histórico trata-se de bens móveis, imóveis e naturais referentes à


identidade do lugar e cuja conservação seja de interesse público. A intenção de
proteger estes bens com valor histórico, artístico, cultural e arquitetônico, de
certa forma, tem que partir de um valor afetivo para a sociedade, permitindo dar
seguimento ao passado.

A origem da palavra patrimônio vem dos vocábulos greco-latinos, que tem por
significado a “herança-paterna” deixada pelos chefes ou antepassados de um
grupo, que vai passando de geração em geração. Não há aprendizagem e
informação sem a presença da memória. Atualmente, usa-se o termo
patrimônio cultural, uma vez que torna este conceito mais amplo e, também, a
produção cultural humana que está em constante transformação. (DINIZ, 204)

Segundo Caldeira (2005), os bens culturais podem ser definidos como os


produtos concretos do homem, resultantes de sua capacidade de convivência
com o meio ambiente e se dividem em dois grupos: o dos bens culturais
imateriais ou intangíveis, e dos bens culturais materiais ou tangíveis, que se
referem à identidade, à ação e à memória dos diferentes grupos da sociedade.
Os bens culturais imateriais são quaisquer manifestações, como, religião,
crenças, festas, culinárias, entre outros. Já os bens culturais materiais são os
componentes do patrimônio histórico e podem ser móveis e imóveis.
Sendo o patrimônio cultural parte da herança comum da nação, a sua
conservação é de interesse geral, tanto do poder público como dos
proprietários e de toda a comunidade. Entretanto, a legislação indica que o
proprietário de um bem tombado é o primeiro responsável por sua integridade.

Segundo a Carta de Nara, conservação do patrimônio cultural, sob todas as


suas formas e em todos os seus períodos históricos, está enraizada nos
valores atribuídos ao próprio patrimônio. A capacidade para compreender estes
valores depende, em parte, do grau a que podem ser reconhecidas as fontes
de informação sobre esses valores, como sendo credíveis ou verdadeiras. O
conhecimento e a compreensão destas fontes de informação, relativamente às
características originais e subsequentes do patrimônio cultural e do seu
significado, são requisitos básicos para a avaliação de todos os aspectos da
autenticidade.

Por essa razão, é da maior importância e urgência que, dentro de cada cultura,
seja estabelecido o reconhecimento da natureza específica dos seus valores
culturais, bem como da credibilidade e da veracidade relativas às fontes de
informação.

O tombamento de um bem é caracterizado por intervenção do Estado na


propriedade e regulamentado através de normas de Direito Público. Este
vocábulo, que é de origem portuguesa, é utilizado para registrar algo de
importância para a sociedade, salvaguardando-o através de leis específicas.

Quando um bem irá passar pelo processo de conservação, será determinante


refletir sobre a jurisdição que este edifício promove ao longe dos séculos, para
que a sua imagem não estagnem em relação ao futuro. Sendo assim, a
reabilitação deste bem deve ser encarada como um exercício, concentrando-se
nos elementos do presente.

O dever de salvaguardar a memória comum é postura da sociedade,


objetivando a busca pelo valor do patrimônio e dos instrumentos de
intervenção, através da autenticidade. Portanto, torna-se difícil a criação de
teorias e métodos de intervenção, uma vez que não é perceptível a existência
de paradigmas universalmente dominante, devido à diversidade cultural.

O Governo do Estado do Pará desenvolveu uma política voltada à preservação


das manifestações culturais, enfatiza no momento, soluções e medidas que
possibilitem uma proteção sistemática do acervo arquitetônico existente em
Belém e em outros municípios do Estado, objetivando desse modo, resguardar
a memória cultural da comunidade paraense.
A Igreja de Santana

A construção da igreja de Santana iniciou-se em 1761, projetada pelo arquiteto


italiano Antônio Landi. Possui características neoclássicas e abóboda em
ogiva, encimada por lanterna redonda coroada por cúpula e cruz, raridade em
igrejas brasileiras (Figura 01).

Figura 01: Planta baixa da Igreja de Santana


Fonte: Arquivo IPHAN

Segundo Padre Antônio Beltrão, pároco da igreja, Landi era devoto de


Sant’Ana e, antes de iniciar sua viagem pela Amazônia, fez a promessa de
construir uma igreja para a santa na primeira paróquia que encontrasse, caso
não houvesse nenhum imprevisto durante a viagem. Chegando a Belém, Landi
se deparou com um grande número de devotos à Santa, entretanto, sem sede
própria, diante deste cenário, não teve dúvida, cumpriu o prometido e projetou
a igreja de Santana

Durante os anos de 1840 e 1855 passou por uma reforma que alterou bastante
a sua fachada, foram demolidas as colunas laterais e erguidas duas torres na
frente para colocação de um sino; o chamado sino de Aragão, fabricado em
Bronze, em Portugal; na época, o sino além de conclamar a população para a
missa ou informar algum acontecimento importante, também tinha a função de
sinalizar o toque de recolhimento das pessoas no início da noite. Em 1940,
passa por outra reforma, onde, junto a sacristia foi construída uma gruta para
invocar Nossa Senhora de Lourdes.

Proposta de intervenção

Nenhum projeto é definitivo. Por melhor que seja, cada projeto executado será
sempre um tempo na forma do monumento e da cidade. Muitos outros tempos
se seguirão, reafirmando ou corrigindo as soluções apresentadas pelo tempo
presente. As certezas são sempre provisórias, e assim como as pessoas, as
ideias se transformam ao longo dos tempos e, com elas, a própria cidade.
Cada obra é um aprendizado, requerendo dos técnicos tanto humildade como a
coragem de querer aprender aquilo que ainda não lhes foi ensinado. Cada caso
é um caso particular, em função de sua inserção num contexto histórico que lhe
é próprio, e precisa ser encarado em sua singularidade. Assim sendo, não se
pode pretender aplicar de forma mecânica os chamados “critérios gerais de
preservação”, como se estivesse prescrevendo um receituário infalível. Isto
equivaleria a “amordaçar” o monumento e submetê-lo de forma apriorística
àqueles critérios. O processo deve ser justamente o inverso, cabendo, ao
objeto da intervenção entendido como caso particular, a tarefa de iluminar o
instrumental teórico-conceitual dos profissionais responsáveis pelo projeto e
justificar (ou não) a procedência e a adequação dos critérios gerais adotados,
em função da sua especificidade.

O caso da Igreja de Santana não foge à rega. Trata-se de um projeto de


restauração complexo e desafiador; e isso, não somente por sua reconhecida
importância histórica e artística, mas, sobretudo, pelo grau de dificuldade
envolvido no tratamento dos acréscimos e transformações sofridas pelo templo
ao longo de seus mais de duzentos anos de existência. Com relação à
volumetria externa da igreja pode-se identificar três momentos de sua história
em que novos elementos foram acrescentados, modificando-lhe as feições
arquitetônicas originais previstas pelo projeto de Landi:

O primeiro corresponde ao fechamento da área lateral contígua à capela-mor


(voltado para a Avenida Manuel Barata) com a construção de anexo em dois
pavimentos. A pesquisa histórica fornece indícios conclusivos sobre a data de
construção deste anexo. Contudo, suas características arquitetônicas permitem
considerá-lo como posterior à edificação da igreja, possivelmente edificado no
inicio do século XIX. No pavimento térreo funciona hoje a secretaria da igreja.
O pavimento superior, atualmente desocupado, abrigou anteriormente os
aposentos do pároco da igreja.

O segundo momento refere-se à introdução das torres sineiras (Figura 02),


construídas em 1840, que significou uma alteração radical da volumetria
original do templo, interferindo na composição arquitetônica da fachada.
Figura 02: Fachada da igreja de Santana com as duas torres inseridas
Fonte: Cruz e Riehl, 1970

Em tempos mais recentes, na segunda metade do século XX, verificou-se a


ocupação da estreita faixa de terreno existente entre a fachada lateral direita da
igreja e o imóvel lindeiro, como a construção de anexos destinados a abrigar
novos aposentos para o pároco então residente na igreja. As obras, custeadas
pela igreja e coordenadas pelo próprio pároco, resultaram na construção, em
etapas sucessivas, de uma unidade habitacional dotada de salas de estar,
biblioteca, cozinha, lavanderia, banheiros e dormitórios. Deve-se ressaltar que
se trata de construção irregular contígua à fachada lateral do bem tomado,
edificada sem acompanhamento de profissional habilitado e que, portanto, não
observou os procedimentos e critérios técnicos recomendados para
intervenções desta natureza.

Com relação ao interior da igreja, as alterações mais significativas


correspondem ao que se segue:

• Introdução, da reforma de 1855, de pintura artística marmorizada que


escureceu o interior do templo;

• Alteração do embasamento do altar-mor, com a construção de piso de


mármore elevado (1893) e mesa do altar, reconstruída em mármore com
a forma prismática atual (1902);

• Construção da Gruta de Lourdes (1905);

• Abertura de quatro nichos nas capelas laterais (1947);

• Na segunda metade da década de 1980 o órgão instalado no coro da


igreja é reformado e tem duas dimensões sensivelmente ampliadas. O
“novo” órgão é, então, instalado junto à parede lateral da Capela-Mor,
onde ainda hoje se encontra.

Sob um determinado ponto de vista, todas aquelas intervenções poderiam ser


consideradas já incorporadas à historia do monumento. Não se está mais
diante da igreja concebida por Landi na segunda metade de setecentos, mas
de um monumento religioso que acumulou historia, incorporando outros
valores, cujos vestígios permanecem visíveis em seus acréscimos. Persiste, no
entanto, em meio ao mosaico de eventos produzidos ao longo do tempo, o
entendimento de que tais intervenções contribuíram para descaracterizar a
forma original do bem tombado que se quer preservar como testemunho
histórico para as futuras gerações. Como demarcar então, com segurança, a
tênue fronteira entre os acréscimos espúrios e aqueles que devem,
eventualmente, permanecer incorporados ao monumento?

Diante de tais questões, duas estratégias de ação apresentam como


imprescindíveis para fazer avançar a concepção do projeto. A primeira
consistiu na decisão de se ampliar o debate, que passou a envolver não
apenas outros especialistas no campo da preservação como também
profissionais de outras áreas do conhecimento, alem de representantes da
Arquidiocese, diretamente interessados na discussão do projeto de
conservação da Igreja de Santana. Com a ampliação do debate foi possível
construir a segunda estratégia de ação, que consistiu na definição de um
escopo de trabalho, consensualmente acordado, incluindo, nesta etapa do
projeto, apenas aqueles itens considerados indispensáveis para assegurar a
integridade do monumento, quais sejam: a remodelação e o
redimensionamento da rede elétrica; projeto de iluminação; restauração da
Capela-Mor, incluindo o Retábulo-Mor; restauração do ambiente onde hoje se
encontra a Gruta de Lourdes e da Sacristia; restauração e adaptação do antigo
Consistório, hoje Secretaria; demolição dos anexos da fachada lateral direita da
igreja (construídos na segunda metade do século XX); reforço estrutural;
implantação de sistema de segurança e prevenção de incêndio; implantação de
sistema hidro-sanitário; implantação de para-raios; restauração do coro,
incluindo a escada de acesso e do paravento; conclusão da intervenção nas
fachadas, incluindo alvenarias e esquadrias, soleiras e peitoris, e calçadas do
edifício.

Durante a execução desta etapa da obra, foram realizadas prospecções


arquitetônicas, incluindo prospecções estruturais e pictóricas, e arqueológicas,
visando à elucidação dos pontos ainda em discussão, especialmente no que se
refere ao tratamento a ser destinado às torres sineiras da fachada, à gruta de
Lourdes e à pintura artística marmorizada do interior da igreja, com o objetivo
de fornecer subsídios à elaboração do projeto de restauração da igreja.
A primeira fase da obra foi uma reforma emergencial na parte externa e na
cobertura da igreja, onde, foram recuperados os rebocos das fachadas frontal e
lateral, além de recuperação do forro e troca do telhado (Figura 03).

Figura 03: Vista lateral e telhado antes da intervenção, respectivamente.


Fonte: Apoluceno, 2003
A segunda fase foi centrada na parte interna, os restauradores, através de
prospecção estrutural, conseguiram encontrar vestígios do piso original de
tijoleira, muito utilizado nas construções no século XVIII, com a restauração um
novo piso do mesmo material foi colocado. A terceira fase consistiu na
recuperação das pinturas internas da igreja (Figura 04), segundo o restaurador
João Veloso, as pinturas estavam passando por um processo chamado de
saponificação ou carbonatação, devido as infiltrações que atingiam o prédio há
anos.

Figura 04: Pintura na abóboda da igreja


Fonte: Cristiano Oliveira, 2011

Na quarta fase estão sendo reparadas a gruta e a sacristia do templo, além de


duas telas de Pedro Alexandrino, com a reprodução das imagens de São José
e São Miguel.

4. Discussão
As obras de restauração da igreja já se prolongam por quase uma década, e a
cada ano que passa a população espera ansiosamente pela sua
reinauguração; tendo em vista que aquela igreja era uma referência, e fazia
parte do cotidiano de muitos fiéis, que tiveram que se deslocar para outra igreja
nas imediações. Esta expectativa é reportada em um jornal local, durante os
preparativos da festividade à Santa em julho de 2008, quando depois de cinco
anos fechada à população, a igreja seria aberta a visitação. Lucia Secco, uma
das organizadoras da festa relata: “Para nós fiéis, há uma ansiedade de ver
como a igreja está ficando” (O Liberal, 2008). Em 2011, devido a grande
pressão da sociedade para que as obras fossem logo concluídas, a igreja
passou a abrir todas as quartas-feiras para a celebração da missa (O Diário do
Pará, 2011).

Uma das maiores discussões geradas em torno da restauração da igreja, é a


retirada das duas torres, estas não fazem parte do projeto original, e opiniões
se dividem em relação a esta modificação. Para o professor da Universidade
Federal do Pará Flávio Nassar, as torres deveriam ser retiradas, voltando ao
projeto original de Landi (Morhy, 1003).

Conclusão

A reforma na igreja de Santana gerou inúmeras polemicas em relação a


retirada, ou não da torre da igreja, além da longa duração da reforma, onde a
igreja passou a maior parte do tempo fechada ao público.

Em relação a remoção das torres há o questionamento do que é


verdadeiramente autentico, para Meneses (2004), a preservação que procura
restaurar uma “origem” é uma ilusão, pois, história não quer dizer
necessariamente origem e sim, muitas vezes, o processo de transformação
que um objeto passa. O autor, cita Alois Riegl, onde este enfatiza a importância
de conservar todas as marcas da idade.

As torres foram construídas com uma função, na época era o meio de


comunicação com a cidade, alertava a hora das missas, e até mesmo o horário
de recolher; e mesmo algumas dessas funções estarem defasadas, é parte da
história de uma população.

Arquitetos, historiadores, governo e população se dividiram sobre a decisão da


retirada das torres, muitas discussões foram criadas, e por fim, decidiu-se pela
permanência das torres. Agora a população espera ansiosamente pela
reabertura total da igreja.
Referências Bibliográficas

ANTUNES, Catarina. Património edificado - a autenticidade da memória.


Lisboa, 2003. Disponível em:
<http://5cidade.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/patrimonio-edificado-_-a-
autenticidade-da-memoria.pdf>

CALDEIRA, Cleide Cristina. Conservação Preventiva: histórico. In: Revista


CPC, São Paulo, v.1, n.1, p.91-102, nov.2005/abr.2006.

CARNEIRO, Neri. Memória e patrimônio: etimologia. Cacoal: UNESC, 2009.


Disponível em: <http://www.webartigos.com/artigos/memoria-e-patrimonio-
etimologia/21288/>

CRUZ, Ernerto e RIEHL, Rudolf. Ruas de Belém : Significado histórico de suas


denominações. Belém: Conselho estadual de cultura, 1970.

DINIZ, Tânia Marcondes. Considerações sobre o patrimônio cultural e os


instrumentos legais para sua preservação. Guarupava. Paraná, 2004.
Disponível em:
<http://www.unicentro.br/editora/revistas/analecta/v5n1/considera%E7%F5es.p
df>

DOCUMENTO de Nara sobre a autenticidade, 1994. Disponível em:


<http://5cidade.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/documento-de-nara-sobre-a-
autenticidade.pdf>

O patrimônio: legado do passado ao futuro. UNESCO, 2011. Disponível em:


<http://www.unesco.org/new/pt/brasilia/culture/world-heritage/heritage-legacy-
from-past-to-the-future/>

__________, Comércio vive expectativa pela reabertura da Igreja de Sant’Ana.


Jornal O Liberal, Belém, Pará. 22 de jul. de 2008.

__________, Sant’Ana é reaberta com missa aos fiéis. Jornal O Diário do Pará,
Belém, Pará. 05 de maio de 2011.
HANDLER, Richard. On having a culture: nationalism and the preservation of
the Quebec’s patrimoine. Em: STOKING JR, George W. Objects and Others.
University of Wisconsin Press, Madison; 2002

MENESES, Ulpiano T. Bezerra de. Preservação de acervos contemporâneos:


problemas conceituais. In: Ajzenberg, Elza. (Org.). Arteconhecimento. 1a. ed.
São Paulo: MMAC/USP/PPG Interunidades em Estética e História da Arte,
2004, p. 99-109.

MORHY, Erika. Um olhar sobre a Belém de 387 anos. Beira do Rio, Jornal da
Universidade Federal do Pará. Edição 5. Belém, Pará, 2003.
The Role of Archaeological Museums in the Distribution of Tourists in Cultural
Destinations: The Iran National Archaeological Museum: A Case Study
AhmadReza Sheikhi, PhD Student in Tourism at University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Heredina Fernández, Professor in University of Las Palmas, Spain
Agustín Santana Talavera, Professor in University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Email:ahmad.sheikhi@gmail.com

 
Abstract:
Museums are one of the most important tourism attractions due to their popularity among
visitors, both foreign and internal. In archaeological museums, tourists are able to familiarize
themselves with a country’s history and culture, instilling a sense of patriotism in native visitors,
while introducing a nation’s character and cultural heritage to foreigners. In this research we
study the effect archaeological museums have on tourism distribution in cultural destinations.
For this purpose, two questionnaire forms were developed in a conceptual research model, each
for internal and international tourists. After testing the questionnaires on ten people to ensure the
effectiveness of the data collected, the forms were handed out to 120 international tourists and
300 internal tourists visiting the Iran National Archaeological Museum. The results of this
research show that this museum plays an essential role in spreading an understanding of Iran’s
history and culture, and in the process, improving national pride for internal tourists and
introducing many cultural and historical sites throughout the country for foreign tourists,
generating business for the country’s major cultural tourism destinations.

Keywords:
Iran’s National Archaeological Museum, Cultural Tourists, Tourism Destinations, Tourists
Internal and Tourists International.

Introduction:
Archaeological museums convey messages and talk about thoughts and ideologies; they open the
gates of a nation’s past to cultural tourists (Tein2009:1), providing forums for study and the
interaction of different cultures. They are one of the most important pillars for attracting cultural
tourists all over the world (Jolliffe2001:172). Being the most significant art centers in most
societies, Archaeological museums enrich tourist programs and give credit and recognition to the
hosting country (Shoein2000:3). They are explicit portraits of a society’s culture and civilization,
and have a pivotal role in improving cultural and national identification, and creating national
unity and public participation.

Culture is a determining factor among tourists when they come to choose their destinations,
leading to the expansion in cultural tourism (sheikhi2009:11). On the international level, the
factors which make tourists prefer one destination to another are ‘cultural variety’ and ‘richness
of cultural heritage’; this richness is displayed in archeological museums. Therefore,
archeological museums have a great responsibility to introduce culture to internal and
international tourists.


 
A purposeful introduction of the cultural identity of a country can cause an expansion in
cultural tourism (Sheikholeslamzade1999:13) and make local tourists familiar with their own
cultural heritage, improving national pride. Archeological museums can be utilized as effective
tools for these ends. It is an undeniable fact that, in every country, archeological museums are
part of the basic infrastructure that is needed to develop a stable cultural tourism industry
(Nafisi2001:8). As a result, it is necessary to make every attempt to develop and standardize
these museums in order to expand cultural tourism and therefore increase revenues on the
international, national and local scale.

Cultural expansion joins modern societies with their heritage, and this link brings about self-
confidence, power, love and respect for a society’s cultural elements, leading to a better and
more rigorous movement towards the future. A point worthy of consideration is that cultural
expansion cannot be achieved just through giving orders, recommendations or paying lip-service.
On the contrary, it requires a very strong institution which can present the symbols of the past
prudently and delicately to the present generation (Zandi2007:21). That is why archeological
museums have a special and important role in the cultural expansion of a country. Archeological
museums create the conditions for the distribution of cultural tourists in different destinations
and, as important cultural attractions, are enjoyed immensely by all kinds of visitors
(Malekitabar1999:27). They are often built in strategic locations so that visitors can easily access
them, and are considered as important resources and national assets in all societies. If used
properly, they do a great deal to help achieve economic, cultural and social goals (Maft2008: 5).

The best place for showcasing the culture and archeological artifacts of a country is in a
museum, and it is very convenient for local and international tourists to get familiar with the
culture and historical background of a country. If we can make a good impression on tourists
through archeological museums, while generating revenues and boosting up the tourism industry,
the visitors will act as cultural ambassadors, sending a cultural advertisement throughout the
world with no costs to that country. Estimates show that there are 2,500 museums in England and
more than 1,100,000 tourists visit these places annually. Since these sites reflect the culture of
this country and act as the treasury for the government, the local and national authorities spare no
effort in providing for the museums’ expenses.

Improving the conditions and creating a movement for cultural tourism are two pivotal
principles for museums (Mclean1997: 193). For this reason, it is necessary to define an
integrated management between tourism and museums. In the present century, museums are one
of the significant factors which can change and expand economical activities through attracting
tourists in developed and developing countries (Lord2002: 38). Furthermore, museums enjoy a
very high social status in every country due to their importance in protecting a society’s cultural
heritage.

Tourism is one of the top three money-making industries in the world, acting as a medium
between economical and cultural activities; it is little wonder why government authorities all


 
over the world have no reluctance in doing their best for the development of tourism. By
presenting great archeological artifacts which have been found by systematic and scientific
excavations from ancient sites, archeological museums indirectly but purposefully introduce
tourist destinations and prepare the conditions for tourist distribution.

The Iran National Archeological Museum and Its Role in Tourist Distribution:

The Iran National Archeological Museum (INAM) is located at the cultural center in Tehran and
has an easy access to urban infrastructure (the subway, buses, etc.). By possessing movable
archeological artifacts from all the key archeological sites in Iran, it has the potential for
attracting internal and international tourists (Kargar2006: 1). The INAM is believed to be the
most important museum in Iran because all the key archeological findings are moved there and it
has an essential function in attracting cultural tourists.

The INAM is located at district 12 in Tehran which covers more than three-quarters of Tehrane
Naseri (the historical center of Tehran). 27% of the area dates back to more than 400 years, and
73% of it is more than 200 years old. More than 34% of the area is of outstanding and valuable
historical importance (Zahedi 2008: 15). The historical value of the place is increased by being
located near important sites like Bazaare Tehran (Tehran market), the historical Imam Khomeini
Four Squares, Ark (the citadel), Sabze Meidan and Baharestan. Other important buildings like
the historical Shams-ol-Emare, the national library, the Post museum and Abgine (mirror)
museum complete the historical magnitude of the area together with the INAM. This large area is
the most visited in Tehran and attracts intercity trips from all directions.

After the subway system was launched in Tehran, the importance of the area increased
dramatically. Consequently, district 12 gets the lion’s share of the trips made by visitors in
Tehran. The area surrounding INAM, Tehran Bazaar and the trading centers around it are the
most important centers for attracting tourists. Nearly 400,000 people enter and exit Tehran
Bazaar each day. The most crowded stations of Line 1 and 2 of the subway system are located at
district 12, with Imam Khomeini Station being the nearest to the INAM (sheikhi2009: 128).
Designing safe and interesting sidewalks for the pedestrians is one of the necessities for a
historical center like the INAM. It is an outstanding cultural attraction in the heart of Tehran and
if an integrated management can be created between museum and tourism managers, it can
prepare the conditions for introducing the culture and history of Iran to every kind of tourist.
Unfortunately, there is not a close cooperation between different organizations or an effective
approach for utilizing the latent potentials of the INAM for the distribution of tourists in cultural
destinations.

Approach and Methodology of the Study:

This paper studies the role and effect of the INAM in tourist distribution in cultural destinations,
and illustrates the INAM’s importance as the forum for Iran’s entire stock of movable
archaeological artifacts. Data was collected by research in libraries and through active field


 
studies. For the part of the field studies, the opinions of local and foreign tourists visiting the
INAM were collected by using two types of questionnaire, and the data was analyzed in a limited
period of time from Shahrivar 1388 until the end of Azar 1388. Statistical data gathered,
including sex, age, education, nationality, type of vehicle used, favorite type of museum and the
motivation for visiting the museum, is presented in the following tables:

Table 1: Distribution of the INAM’s international visitors by sex and age


Sex Male Female Total
age
19-25 8 7 15
5.8% 6.7% 12.5%
26-35 33 10 43
27.5% 8.3% 8.35%
36-50 24 16 40
20.0% 13.3% 33.3%
51-65 11 10 21
9.2% 8.3% 17.5%
+60 0 1 1
0.0% 0.8% 0.8%
Total 76 44 120
63.3% 36.7% 100.0%
 

Table 2: Distribution of the INAM’s international visitors by education


Education # %

High School 17 14.2


BA 27 22.5
MA 52 43.3
PhD. 24 20.0
Total 120 100.0


 
Table 3: Distribution of the INAM’s international visitors by nationality
Country # % Country # %

Lithuania 11 9.2 Taiwan 3 2.5


Denmark 10 8.3 Netherlands 3 2.5
Venezuela 10 8.3 Hungry 3 2.5
China 9 7.5 Slovenia 2 1.7
German 7 5.8 Ukraine 2 1.7
England 7 5.8 Sweden 2 1.7
Austria 5 4.2 USA 1 0.8
Australia 5 4.2 Slovakia 1 0.8
Italy 5 4.2 Indonesia 1 0.8
S. Korea 5 4.2 Ireland 1 0.8
Russia 4 3.3 India 1 0.8
Swiss 4 3.3 Turkey 1 0.8
France 4 3.3 Croatia 1 0.8
Canada 4 3.3 Mexico 1 0.8
New Zealand 4 3.3 Total 120 100.0
Spain 3 2.5

Study of the nationality of international tourists visiting the Iranian National Archaeological
Museum (INAM), as reflected in Table 3, shows that the majority come from European countries
while those from America or Asia account for only a few percent of the total visitors. It appears
that trying to introduce the Iranian culture and civilization through distributing cultural-touristic
packages in European countries, and defining the target markets of the country based on taste
and interest of foreign tourists, will lead to a developed tourism industry in the near future.
Therefore, besides building friendships with the tourists entering the country, Iran as a whole can
move towards an increased share in the world tourism market.

Table 4: Distribution of favorite types of museum favorite for the INAM’s international visitors
Type of Museum # %

Archaeological 110 91.7


Scientific 60 50.0
Art 77 64.2
 

Table 5: Distribution of motivation of the INAM’s international visitors


Motivation # %
Research 2 1.7
Passing leisure time 6 5.0
Knowing Iranian culture 110 91.7
Entertaining 10 8.3
Miscellaneous 2 1.7


 
     

Table 6: Distribution of encouraging friends and relatives to visit the INAM on the part of international visitors 
Encouraging # Valid % Significance of Result
binomial test
Yes 118 98.3
Hypothesis
No 2 1.7 0.0
rejected
Total 120 100.0
 
The findings of the current research in Table 6 demonstrate that over 98% of the foreign tourists
stated that they will encourage their friends and relatives to visit the INAM, which attests to the
vital importance of archaeological museums in facilitating the growth of cultural tourism.

Table 7: Distribution of the extent of additional interest or knowledge derived from visiting the INAM by
international tourists with an increased acquaintance in Iranian culture
Extent increase # Valid % Accumulated %

Very high 42 35.0 35.0


High 54 45.0 8.0
Low 23 19.2 99.2
None 1 0.8
Total 120 100.0 100.0
 
Studying the effect of visiting INAM on foreign tourists with an increased acquaintance with
Iranian history and civilization, as seen in Table 7, reveals that 80% of tourists stated that the
Museum significantly contributed to their increased knowledge of the country, while 19.2%
deemed its effect rather low.

Table 8: Distribution of interest of the INAM‘s international visitors in visiting archaeological sites where the
artifacts came from
Response  #  %  Significance of  Result 
test 

Yes 108 90.0


No 12 10.0 0.00
Total 120 100.00
 

Analysis of the interest shown by foreign tourists to visit regions where artifacts in the
Museum’s collections were excavated, as reflected in Table 8, shows that 90% shared an interest.


 
Based on the present study, it is clear that INAM can play a valuable role in marketing sites of
cultural tourism and spreading interest in Iranian culture.

Table 9: Distribution of favorite type of museum for INAM international visitors


Type of museum # %

Archaeological 110 91.7


Scientific 60 50.00
Art 77 64.2

This survey of international visitors’ favorite types of museums, as seen in Table 9, demonstrates
that over 91% of those who visited INAM were interested in visiting archaeological and
historical museums, while art museums accounted for over 64% and scientific museums for over
50%.

 
Table 10: Distribution of the INAM internal visitors by age
Age # %
1-25 146 48.7
26-30 65 21.7
31-35 29 9.7
36-40 22 7.3
41-45 15 5.0
+45 23 7.7
Total 300 100.00

Table 11: Distribution of INAM internal visitors by sex and education


Sex Male Female Total
Education
Lower than Diploma 13 9 22
4.3% 3.00% 7.3%
Diploma 23 31 54
7.7% 10.3% 18.0%
Higher Diploma (Associate Degree) 22 23 45
7.3% 7.7% 15.00%
BA 76 60 136
25.3% 20.0% 45.3%
Graduate 28 15 43
9.3% 5.00% 14.3%
Total 162 138 300
54.0% 46.0% 100.0%
 

 
 


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Table 12: Distribution of the INAM internal visitors by geographical location
Location # %

City of Tehran 220 73.3


Other cities of Tehran Province 36 12.0
Other provinces 44 14.7
Total 300 100.0
 
 
 
 
Table 13: Distribution of motivation of the INAM internal visitors 
Motivation & # % Result of Freedom Significance Result
objective K2 test Degree of test

Research 37 12.3
Knowing Iranian
209 69.7
culture
Rejection of
Passing leisure
32 10.7 472.067 4 0.00 equivalence
time
hypothesis
Entertaining 9 3.0
Miscellaneous 13 4.3
Total 300 100.0
 

The results summarized in Table 13 show that, of the 300 internal tourists asked why they chose
to visit INAM, 69.7% said it was to familiarize themselves with Iranian culture and civilization,
12.3% to carry out research and study, 10.7% to spend their leisure time, 4.3% for miscellaneous
reasons, and 3% to amuse and entertain themselves.

On the other hand, the data obtained from K2 on the correspondence of frequencies of each of
the above-mentioned reasons shows that the correspondence theory is rejected with 95%
reliance; and, since becoming familiar with Iranian culture and civilization scored the highest
frequency, we can conclude that the archaeological museums play a vital role in acquainting
internal tourists with Iranian civilization.


 
 

 
 

Table 14: Result of binomial test on encouraging friends and relatives to visit the INAM
Intension to # % Common Significance Result of test
encourage difference level of test
others
Yes 285 95.0 Equivalence
No 15 5.00 hypothesis of
0.50 0.00
Total 300 100.00 responses
rejected
 
The results from the binomial test, as reflected in Table 14, reveal that there is significant
difference between the frequencies of the options; since YES has the highest frequency we can
therefore conclude that INAM has successfully contributed to an increased population of internal
tourists and has therefore helped develop the tourism industry in Iran. The results make clear that
the visitors have an essential role in encouraging others to visit the Museum, increasing the
amount of total visits to INAM.

Table 15: Results of binomial test concerning the influence that a visit to INAM can have on internal tourists
in choosing further destinations
Influence of INAM # % Common difference Significance Result of test
on choosing level of test
destination
Yes 251 83.7 Equivalence
No 49 16.3 hypothesis of
0.5 0
options
Total 300 100.00
rejected

Encouraging foreign tourists to travel by suggesting destinations to them is one of the central
functions of archaeological museums. As shown in Table 15, of the total visitors to the INAM,
83.7% stated the role of the Museum in deciding a destination for their travel as determinant,
while 16.3% considered it of little influence. The results of the current, applied field research
shows that INAM has a leading role in tourist distribution in all of the country’s cultural
destinations.

 
 
 
 
 


 
 
 
 
 
 
Table 16: Results of binomial test regarding the intention of the INAM internal visitors to visit the
archaeological sites which objects stored at the museum come from
Intention to visit # % Common Significance level Result of test
archaeological sites difference of test

Yes 280 93.3 Equivalence


No 20 6.7 0.5 0.0 hypothesis of
Total 300 100.0 responses
rejected
 
The results from the study summarized in Table 16 reveal that of the total internal visitors 93.3%
were interested in visiting the archaeological sites where the artifacts originated, while simply
6.7% expressed no interest in these places. Thus, archaeological museums appear to set the stage
for visitors' travel plans, and motivate them to visit the ‘find spots’ of archaeological artifacts
displayed in museums. On the other hand, the binomial test results attest to the significant
difference between the options.

Table 17: The effect of knowing Iranian culture and civilization on the INAM’s
internal visitors’ thought and conception
Level # % Valid %
Very low 10 3.3 3.3
Low 16 5.3 5.4
Medium 75 25.0 25.1
Very 120 40.0 40.1
Very much 78 26.0 26.1
Total 299 99.7 100.0
No response 1 0.3
Total of sample 300 100.0
 
As seen in Table 17, almost 66% of internal visitors of the INAM considered their visits to the
Museum as having ‘very much’ influence on their acquaintance with the ancient civilization of
Iran. 25% considered it ‘very’ influential, while almost 9% were against the idea.

One sample student's t-test was used in analytical study and to determine the extent of
influence exercised by the INAM on foreign tourists’ thought and conception. The results
demonstrated ‘very much’ influence on the part of the Museum.

10 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Table 18: Results of one sample student's t-test on the effect of the INAM
on internal visitors’ thought and conception
Standard Statistic of Degree of
Sample # deviation student's t-test freedom
Mean Result of test

299 3.80 0.999 5.257 298 Positive effect


on visitors

  

This study agrees with the main hypothesis, namely the INAM is the main factor responsible for
the distribution pattern of internal visitors throughout the country.

The present study collected the responses of international and internal visitors from INAM
during a certain time range and at different times of the day and parts of the year by using two
different questionnaires; the data from the questionnaires was analyzed as statistical tables using
SPSS software.

In testing the main hypothesis, analysis of the responses showed that the INAM, besides
introducing the movable cultural heritage from all the archaeological sites of the country to urban
visitors, can play a vital role in the distribution of tourists throughout the country based on the
artifacts displayed in its collections.

Conclusion:

Given the findings of the research in relation to developing cultural tourism through
archaeological museums and the data collected from international and internal tourists visiting
the INAM, on the whole the results suggest that there is a growing trend in tourists wanting to
learn more about the roots of Iranian civilization. The introduction to Iranian civilization
afforded by museums such as the INAM encourages visitors to delve deeper into Iran’s history
and visit the regions around the country where artifacts seen in the INAM originated.

The field findings of the research demonstrate the unique potential of archaeological museums
for determining tourist distribution in the country’s cultural destinations. Based on its importance
whether locally, regionally, nationally or internationally, the given archaeological museum can
affect the cultural tourism distribution patterns.

If the well-known movable ancient relics are offered systematically and calculatedly in terms
of the geographical location of the sites they came from, the INAM, apart from contributing to

11 
 
the distribution of the tourists, will also lead to balanced domestic economy through expanded
tourism business, thereby providing services and creating jobs.

 
Suggestions and Solutions:

Since the research has produced new findings and even models to present in major international
scientific circles, it appears that the officials and policymakers of the country must take the issue
into consideration when dealing with the development of cultural tourism. They must take
advantage of the potential offered by archaeological museums while planning cultural
advertising and marketing. The following suggestions are offered:

• Creating integrated management between policymakers of the tourism industry and


museum officials in order to practice marketing and cultural advertising through
archaeological museums;

• Coordination and development of the nation’s archaeological museums;

• Creating tourist amenities near the INAM in order to increase the duration of tourists’
stay in its vicinity;

• Displaying historical artifacts in different halls separated in terms of their respective


historical period, with the architecture of the halls reflecting the related period to attract
visitors while providing them with the most possible information;

• Designing hall spaces for displaying the artifacts to follow the sequence of the nine
archaeological zones defined for Iran to pave the way for regular tourist distribution
throughout the country.
 
 
Acknowledgments:
The author would like to extend his dip gratitude and highest appreciation to H. E. Prof. Jafar
Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout and Ms. Dr. Eda Gvrl University of Bilkent Turkey,
without whose kind help and support writing this paper was not possible and practical.

12 
 
 

References: 
 
• Joliffe, Lee and Smith Ronnie, ‘Heritage, Tourism and Museums: the case of the North
Atlantic Islands of Skye, Scotland and Prince Edward Island, Canada,’ International
Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol.7, No.2, 2001, pp.149-172.
• Kargar, M.R., 2006: ‘The Position of Museums,’ Etemad Magazine.
• Lord, B. 2002: ‘Cultural Tourism and Museums,’ LORD Cultural Resources Planning &
Management Inc.
• Malekitabar, M., 1999: ‘The Role of Museums in Cultural, Social and Economical
Development,’ Muzeha vol. 22.
• Maft, Janatan 2008: ‘Museum in the Realm of Archaeology and the Role of Information
Technology,’ trns. K. Abdi, Muzeha vol. 24.
• Mclean, Fiona, Marketing the Museum, London and New York, 1997.
• Nafisi, N., 2001: Curation, SAMT publication.
• Shoein, France, 2000: ‘The Position of Museums in Tourism Culture,’ trns. M.
Rezazadegan, Muzeha vols. 23-24.
• Sheikholeslamzade, M.R., 1999: ‘The Role of Museum in Cultural Development,’
Muzeha vol. 22.
• Sheikhi, A.R., 2009: ‘The Role of Museums in Developing Urban Tourism: Iran’s
National Museum Case Study,’ MA thesis presented to Azad University-Science and
Research Branch.
• Tien, Chieh-Ching, 2009: ‘The Role of Museum Clusters in the Cultural Tourism
Industry,’ National Taiwan University of Arts, Taiwan, p.1.
• Zandi, M., 2007: ‘Meydan-e Mashq the Heart of Iranian Museums,’ Jomhuri-ye Islami
Magazine.
• Zahedi, M. et. al., 2008: Museum, Curation and Museums, Chaharbagh publishing house.
 

13 
 
Advances in Tourism Destination Image Attribute based Measurement

(Avances en la medición de la imagen del destino turístico basada en atributos)

 
Alejandro Alvarado 

University of Quintana Roo 
 
alex.alvarado@gmail.com;  aah@uqroo.mx; 

Iraís Cabrera‐Huitrón  
irais.cabrera@gmail.com; irais@uqroo.mx;

Abstract (198 words)


Since Hunt’s (1971) seminal study of Tourism Destination Image (TDI) there has been significant
growth in both the number of studies and the range of different research approaches to the concept
(Gallarza, Gil & Calderón, 2002). This increase indicates that TDI is a key factor in destination
marketing (Bigné, Sánchez y Sánchez, 2001). Papers dealing with the methods, conceptualization and
operationalization of TDI include those by Chon (1990), Echtner & Ritchie (1991), Jenkins, (1999),
Piké (2002) and, more recently, Tasci (2007). Gallarza et al. (2002) provides a comprehensive
literature review based on the analysis of 65 studies of attribute-based image measurement (25
empirical) published in scholarly journals between 1971 and 1999. The present study builds on that of
Gallarza et al. (2002) to extend the literature review by analysing 50 more recent papers published
between 2000 and 2012 in scholarly journals, to document advances in the TDI area as well as to
review the topics, methodologies and attributes used in empirical papers on TDI measurement and
conceptualization. These papers show significant changes of direction from earlier work in terms of
the topics, attributes and research methods. Theoretical and practical implications of these are
discussed in the present paper.

Resumen (262 palabras)

A partir de la publicación del trabajo de Hunt (1971), el estudio de la Imagen del Destino Turístico
(TDI) ha sido abordado desde distintos enfoques y ha registrado un crecimiento importante
(Gallarza, Gil y Calderón, 2002) en virtud del preponderante papel que desempeña en el marketing
de destinos (Bigné, Sánchez y Sánchez, 2001). Consecuentemente, valiosos trabajos académicos
relativos a la conceptualización y operacionalización empleados por los académicos para
investigarla han sido producidos. Entre esos destacan los realizados por: Chon (1990), Echtner y
Ritchie (1991), Jenkins, (1999), Piké (2002) y, más recientemente, Tasci (2007). Una de las
contribuciones más influyentes sobre el particular, la cual resulta además, a juicio de estos autores,
bastante adecuada en su metodología, es la derivada de la revisión y el análisis minuciosos de 65
artículos publicados entre 1971 y 1999 realizada por Gallarza et al. (2002) (25 de los cuales fueron
empíricos). Luego, con el fin de conocer de los avances científicos sobre el tema y del uso de los
diversas metodologías y técnicas empleadas en trabajos empíricos para la conceptualización y
medición de la TDI basada en atributos, se hizo una investigación documental basada en la
metodología propuesta por Gallarza et ál. (2002) y bajo su luz se revisaron y analizaron 50 artículos
publicados en revistas científicas entre 2000 y 2012. Los resultados obtenidos muestran cambios e
inclusiones relevantes tanto en lo relativo a los temas y atributos estudiados como en lo referente a las
técnicas y herramientas metodológicas empleadas y se presentan, a manera de estado-del-arte, junto
con sus implicaciones teóricas y prácticas en este documento.

Keywords / Palabras clave

Tourism destination image; Attribute-based image measurement; Literature review and analysis /
Imagen de destino turístico, Medición de la imagen basada en atributos, revisión de literatura

INTRODUCCIÓN

En las últimas décadas, la industria del turismo ha experimentado un crecimiento notable


(Ritchie y Crouch, 2000; Deng, King y Bauer, 2002; Sancho, 2006; Claver-Cortés, Molina-
Azorín y Pereira-Moliner, 2007; Guzmán, Garduño y Zizumbo, 2009), el cual ha sido incluso
más acelerado que el Producto Interno Bruto de algunas de las economías más poderosas
(Rubio, 2003); actualmente se considera que el turismo es la segunda actividad económica
mundial más importante, sólo después de la industria petrolera (Sancho, 2006) y se ha notado
un incremento sustancial en el número de destinos turísticos, lo que representa un elemento
clave en el progreso económico (OMT, 2011).

No resulta extraño entonces que el marketing de destinos turísticos sea cada vez más
competitivo a nivel mundial (Buhalis, 2000), que la relevancia de la imagen del destino
turístico (TDI por sus siglas en inglés) como uno de sus factores clave sea reconocida por los
expertos (Bigné, Sánchez y Sánchez, 2001; Echtner y Ritchie, 2003; Kim & Richardson,
2003) y que el conocimiento sobre los métodos de investigación empleados para su estudio,
su conceptualización y operacionalización sea motivo de interés para la comunidad científica,
tal como lo demuestran publicaciones previas como las de Chon (1990), Echtner y Ritchie
(1991), Jenkins, (1999), Piké (2002), Gallarza et al. (2002) y Tasci (2007).

En efecto, la TDI continua siendo objeto de importantes consideraciones en la literatura de


investigación turística en general y de marketing turístico en particular, algunos ejemplos de
ello son: el trabajo de Hosany, Ekinci y Uysal, (2006) que confirma la influencia significativa
y positiva de la personalidad del destino sobre la TDI y las intenciones de los sujetos de
recomendar el destino a terceras personas; los publicados por Beerli y Martín, a través de los
cuales ayudaron a explicar, a partir de las características sociodemográficas de los turistas, sus
motivaciones y sus experiencias turísticas acumuladas, los factores que intervienen en la
formación de la TDI tras la visita un destino (2004a y 2004b), la investigación de Baloglu y
 
 
Bringberg (1997) en la cual se examinó el componente afectivo de las percepciones de los
turistas y su potencial para el posicionamiento de la TDI, entre otras centradas en las
influencias que ésta ejerce en el comportamiento de los individuos (Bigné, et ál., 2001;
Gallarza, et ál., 2002; Lin, Morais, Kerstetter y Hou, 2007) y más especialmente en el proceso
de toma de decisiones de viaje (Baloglu y McCleary, 1999; Beerli y Martín, 2004a; Yang, He
y Gu, 2012).

No obstante, tal como se apuntó en líneas anteriores, hay investigaciones recientes, centradas
específicamente en la conceptualización y operacionalización del concepto TDI, tales como la
de Tasci, Gartner y Cavusgil (2007) y la de Qu, Kim. e Im (2011), esta última en torno a la
integración de los conceptos de branding y TDI, las cuales dan cuenta de la vigencia de la
atención académica por responder a la necesidad de desarrollar metodologías que permitan
medir el concepto TDI con mayor exactitud y generar un marco conceptual y metodológico
más complejo (Echtner, et ál., 2003), generando, en consecuencia, nuevos conocimientos
sobre esos particulares. Sin embargo, hasta donde llega nuestro conocimiento, los análisis más
recientes al respecto abarcan artículos publicados hasta el año 2000 (Govers, 2005) y unos
pocos hasta 2004.

Luego, pretendiendo continuar el legado de las investigaciones acerca de los avances


científicos en el área de la TDI, y con el objetivo de contribuir a la literatura de marketing
turístico a través de la actualización de la documentación sobre la revisión de temas,
metodologías y atributos usados en investigaciones empíricas sobre la medición y
conceptualización de la TDI, se llevó a cabo una investigación documental basada
directamente en el trabajo desarrollado por Gallarza, et ál., (2002) y se revisaron y analizaron
50 artículos publicados por revistas académicas entre 2000 y 2012. La decisión de utilizar el
trabajo referido como fundamento de este estudio se debió a que, en opinión de los autores de
el presente trabajo, el artículo de Gallarza, et ál., (2002), sustentado en una revisión y análisis
minuciosos de 65 estudios sobre la medición de la TDI basada en atributos publicados entre
1971 y 1999 (25 de los cuales fueron empíricos), provee un marco apropiado para alcanzar el
objetivo planteado.

MARCO CONCEPTUAL

Debido al incesante crecimiento de la industria turística siguen surgiendo nuevos asuntos de


interés para su desarrollo, desde esta perspectiva los destinos turísticos se han hecho cada vez
más ‘sustituibles’ (Ekinci y Hosany, 2006) y hay más competencia entre los productos
turísticos, lo que supone para los consumidores un incremento en las opciones al elegir un
destino (Echtner y Ritchie, 2003) y, en consecuencia, las necesidades de investigación al
respecto siguen aumentando también (Pearce y Butler, 2004).

Siguiendo a Barrado (2004), un destino turístico se define como un espacio geográfico, social
y económicamente favorecido con ciertas características atractivas para los turistas, que
además ofrece calidad de vida a sus residentes. Es evidente entonces que en los destinos hay
mezclas de productos turísticos que brindan una amplia experiencia a los visitantes, y por
 
 
consiguiente pueden ser interpretados subjetivamente, es decir, como un concepto percibido
por el consumidor (Bigné, Font y Andreu, 2000), dando paso a la construcción de una imagen
del destino, la cual se refiere a la “interpretación subjetiva de la realidad hecha por el turista”
(Bigné, et ál, 2001, p.607); o bien, “un concepto de actitud que consiste en la suma de
creencias, ideas e impresiones que un turista tiene de un destino” (Crompton, 1979 en
Hosany, et ál., 2006, p.638); para otros autores, la imagen del destino turístico es la
“representación mental de conocimientos, sentimientos e impresiones sobre un destino
turístico” (Baloglu, et ál., 1999, p.870).

Dadas las implicaciones con el comportamiento humano, el estudio de la imagen del destino
puede abordarse desde distintas disciplinas, como la antropología, sociología, geografía,
semiótica y marketing, ésta última en estrecha relación con el comportamiento del
consumidor turístico (Gallarza, et ál, 2002) y que tiene como uno de sus principales objetivos
comprender qué es lo que impulsa al consumidor en su proceso de toma de decisiones
(Guzmán, et ál., 2009) ya que existe una interacción compleja con varios elementos que la
afectan, pues la inversión que hacen los visitantes al ir a un destino no representará un retorno
tangible para ellos (Moutinho, 1987).

Para medir la imagen del destino es preciso utilizar una combinación de metodologías
estructuradas y no estructuradas dado que hay una relación entre el sistema que se utiliza para
medir y la posibilidad de conseguir algunos componentes de la imagen de destino (Echtner y
Ritchie, 1993). Algunos investigadores han postulado que la imagen del destino supone la
existencia de componentes cognitivos y afectivos (Baloglu, et ál., 1999; Sönmez y Sirakaya,
2002; San Martin y Rodríguez del Bosque, 2008); el primero se refiere a las creencias y
conocimientos que el consumidor tiene sobre las características de un destino turístico (Pike y
Ryan, 2004) en tanto que el segundo está representado por los sentimientos y emociones
evocadas por el destino (Kim y Richardson, 2003). Esto contribuye a explicar, al menos en
parte, la insistencia académica en revisar y actualizar continuamente la conceptualización y
operacionalización de la imagen del destino turístico (TDI).

En efecto, tal como apuntan Gallarza, et ál. (2002), la línea de investigación sobre la TDI ha
sido abordada desde distintos enfoques desde la publicación del trabajo de Hunt en 1971.
Desde entonces, se han producido, al menos, seis valiosas investigaciones que hacen una
revisión de la literatura de la TDI respecto a su conceptualización y operacionalización. La
primera de ellas fue la revisión de 23 estudios relacionados con el rol de la TDI realizada por
Chon (1990) hace tres décadas, la cual abarcó desde el trabajo de Hunt en 1975 hasta el de
Gartner y Hunt en 1987; el artículo propone que cada nivel del proceso de decisión de compra
del turista, puede ser conceptualizado a través de la imagen del destino.

La segunda investigación documental en cuestión fue publicada por Echtner, et ál., (1991),
quienes realizaron un análisis de 15 artículos sobre los métodos utilizados para definir y medir
la imagen del destino, desde el trabajo seminal de Hunt en 1975 hasta el de Reily en 1990. Su
investigación concluyó que los estudios no habían abordado exitosamente la
operacionalización de la imagen y que, además, se advertía una fuerte influencia de las
metodologías de corte cuantitativo.
 
 
El tercer estudio en cuestión (Jenkins, 1999), muestra los resultados del análisis de 28
artículos, comprendiendo desde el trabajo de Hunt en 1975 hasta el de Murphy en 1996; su
estudio revisa las técnicas de medición y principales atributos utilizados para tal fin y
manifiesta el predominio de estudios estructurados. El cuarto trabajo identificado es el de Piké
(2002), en el cual se hace una revisión de 142 artículos publicados entre 1973 y 2000, y se
presenta una síntesis de sus características clave, tales como las técnicas de análisis
empleadas, la región geográfica del estudio, cantidad de encuestados y tipo de muestra. La
investigación revela que pocos estudios midieron la imagen del destino en un contexto
específico y que no contaban con marco de referencia, así como una marcada preferencia por
el uso de técnicas estructuradas.

La quinta investigación, que a la postre fuera la base para el desarrollo de la presente, es la


descrita en el artículo publicado por Gallarza, et ál., (2002), en el cual se presenta una
revisión y discusión del concepto y medición de la imagen del destino desde la perspectiva del
marketing; este estudio abarca 65 artículos desde el trabajo de Hunt de 1971 hasta el de Ruiz,
Olarte e Iglesias de 1999, 25 de los cuales fueron empíricos y base de los análisis posteriores.
La revisión concluye que los anfitriones, el paisaje y los alrededores son los atributos más
estudiados por los investigadores, así como los países más que otros destinos;. Asimismo,
expone que se apreció una cantidad mayor de técnicas cuantitativas, sin embargo, las
cualitativas abarcaron una cantidad considerable respecto a los métodos para medir la imagen
del destino turístico.

Finalmente, Tasci (2007) hace una exploración de 46 estudios de 1991 a 2004 basándose en la
revisión de Echtner y Ritchie (1991) desde las perspectivas teórica y operacional de la imagen
del destino; su estudio indica que se han atendido gran parte de las recomendaciones
sugeridas por estos expertos, sin embargo, otras no.

METODOLOGÍA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN

Con el fin de actualizar y dar continuidad al trabajo realizado por Gallarza, et ál., (2002), la
presente investigación utilizó el mismo método de revisión y análisis de la literatura de la
imagen del destino turístico (TDI), centrándose específicamente en los trabajos empíricos
sobre el tema. Dado que el trabajo de Gallarza, et ál. (2002) revisó estudios comprendidos
entre 1971 y 1999, el presente trabajo revisó 50 artículos publicados de 2000 a 2012 en
revistas científicas que forman parte de la literatura de TDI, los cuales fueron identificados a
través de búsquedas específicas en bases de datos especializadas, es decir, que la selección de
los artículos revisados obedeció principalmente a que cumplieron con las características de ser
estudios empíricos sobre la TDI publicados en el periodo antedicho.

Así, en primer lugar se revisó detalladamente cada uno de los 50 artículos seleccionados de la
literatura para clasificarlos y agruparlos en alguna -o algunas- de las seis categorías no
excluyentes propuestas por Gallarza, et ál. (2002) para tal efecto en función de los temas
tratados, a saber:

 
 
1) Conceptualización y dimensiones, que se refiere a las investigaciones centradas en las
definiciones de la TDI, su significado y dimensiones.

2) Proceso de formación de imagen del destino, que toma en cuenta trabajos de dos tipos,
los relativos al enfoque estático, o bien, la relación entre la imagen y el
comportamiento del turista y, por otra parte, los referentes al enfoque dinámico o la
estructura y la formación de la imagen del destino en sí misma.

3) Evaluación y medición de la imagen del destino. Esta categoría da cabida a los


estudios que se refieren a los distintos enfoques y técnicas de recolección de datos,
desde estudios empíricos [de carácter exploratorio] que aplican instrumentos
estadísticos aún sin desarrollar teoría hasta estudios empíricos que miden la imagen tal
como si explicaran una metodología para su medición.

4) Distancia y cambio de la imagen del destino a través del tiempo, son aquellos artículos
que toman en cuenta la influencia del tiempo y del espacio, a saber, duración de la
estancia, estudios anteriores sobre el mismo destino y visitas anteriores.

5) El rol de los residentes en la imagen del destino. En esta categoría se encuentran las
investigaciones referentes a las imágenes que los residentes pueden tener de su propio
lugar de residencia con independencia del carácter activo o pasivo de su rol.

6) Políticas de gestión de la imagen del destino, se refiere a las dimensiones estratégicas,


publicidad y promoción, origen del producto, etc.

En segundo lugar, de acuerdo con las reglas establecidas en el documento base (Gallarza et
al., 2002) se identificaron los atributos más comunes utilizados en los trabajos de TDI como
sigue: 1) en aquellos estudios que utilizan métodos de reducción de información, los atributos
revisados fueron seleccionados antes del tratamiento estadístico, es decir, como ítems y no
como factores; 2) se consideraron los atributos más generales en estudios de TDI, debido a la
diversidad de atributos y tipos de destino, sin tomar en cuenta aquellos que correspondían
particularmente a un destino en específico y 3) si el artículo presentaba varios atributos
similares, éstos se agruparon en una sola categoría. Es importante señalar que, tal como lo
establece la metodología que fundamenta este trabajo, en la clasificación de atributos no se
consideraron aquellos estudios que utilizan técnicas cualitativas (debido a la dificultad de
homogeneizar los nombres de los mismos) y tampoco se tomó en cuenta la ‘estructuración de
Mazanec’ respecto al sujeto y objeto (dado que el tipo de lugar en el que se realizó la
investigación no representa el objetivo de este estudio) (Gallarza, et ál., 2002).

Finalmente, se clasificaron los métodos no cuantitativos y cuantitativos empleados para la


medición de la imagen del destino turístico en los artículos revisados exponiendo, por una
parte, la clasificación de las técnicas cualitativas y ‘otras técnicas’, el procedimiento
metodológico y el autor o los autores de la investigación y por otra parte, los procedimientos
estadísticos, las técnicas de análisis de datos, los formatos de respuesta y los autores.

 
 
ANÁLISIS Y DISCUSIÓN DE LOS RESULTADOS

Un primer aspecto resultante de la revisión de la literatura realizada es el descubrimiento del


incremento sustancial en el número de investigaciones empíricas que incluyeron la medición
de la TDI basada en atributos publicadas entre 2000 y 2012 en comparación con sus pares
publicadas entre 1971 y 1999, ya que fue posible identificar 50 de ellas para un periodo
ligeramente superior a doce años en tanto que para los 29 años previos solamente se
detectaron 25. Esta situación puede deberse tanto al creciente interés académico y profesional
en la TDI como a la aparición de más revistas especializadas en turismo y marketing turístico,
lo que evidencia la también creciente importancia del tema.

En la Tabla 1, a continuación, se exponen los resultados de la primera fase metodológica de la


investigación, correspondiente a la clasificación y agrupación de los temas tratados en cada
uno de los trabajos revisados.

 
 
Tabla 1. Principales temas tratados en la investigación de Imagen de Destinos Turísticos.

Temas Tratados Autores*


a. Conceptualización y dimensiones 3,4,20,22,24

b. Proceso de formación de la imagen del destino 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,
32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50

c. Evaluación y medición de la imagen del destino 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,
28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50

d. Distancia y cambio de la imagen del destino a través 4,9


del tiempo
e. El rol de los residentes en la imagen del destino -----

f. Políticas de gestión de la imagen del destino 4, 5, 6, 7, 15, 16, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 30, 31, 33, 34, 37, 38, 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49

*1.Chen y Hsu (2000); 2. MacKay y Fesenmaier (2000); 3.Tapachai y Waryszak (2000); 4. Andreu, Bigné y Cooper (2000);
5. Baloglu (2000); 6. Sirakaya, Sönmez y Choi (2001); 7. Baloglu (2001); 8. Bigné, Sánchez y Sánchez (2001); 9. Lee,
O'Leary y Hong (2002); 10. Sönmez y Sirakaya (2002); 11. Kim y Richardson (2003); 12. Beerli y Martín (2004a); 13. Pike y
Ryan (2004); 14. Awaritefe (2004); 15. Beerli y Martín (2004b); 16. Hsu, Wolfe y Kang (2004); 17. Lee, Lee y Lee (2005);
18. Bonn, Joseph y Dai (2005); 19. O'Leary y Deegan (2005); 20. Ryan y Cave (2005); 21. Hanlan y Kelly (2005); 22.
Hosany, Ekinci y Uysal (2006); 23. Ekinci y Hosany (2006); 24.Tasci y Kozak (2006); 25. Custódio y Gouveia (2007); 26.
Govers, Go y Kumar (2007); 27. Lin, Morais, Kerstetter y Hou (2007); 28. Lee y Back (2007); 29. Chen y Tsai (2007); 30.
Choi, Lehto y Morrison (2007); 31. Lee, Scott y Kim (2008); 32. McCartney, Butler y Bennett (2008); 33. Chi y Qu (2008);
34. San Martín y Rodríguez del Bosque (2008); 35. Sanz (2008); 36. Yilmaz, Yilmaz, Icigen, Ekin y Utku (2009); 37. Litvin y
Mouri (2009); 38. Tasci (2009); 39. Alaeddinoglu y Can (2010); 40. Kneesel, Baloglu y Millar (2010); 41. Sancho y Álvarez
(2010); 42. Mohan (2010); 43. Aksoy y Kiyci (2011); 44. Frías, Rodríguez, Castañeda, Sabiote y Buhalis (2011); 45. Elliot,
Papadopoulos y Kim (2011); 46. Gartner y Ruzzier (2011); 47. García, Gómez y Molina (2011); 48. Qu, Kim y Im (2011);
49. Camprubi (2011); 50. Yang, He y Gu (2012)

Como cabría esperar, dada la naturaleza empírica de las investigaciones revisadas en esta
investigación, la totalidad de ellas abordó aspectos relativos a la evaluación y medición de la
imagen del destino. Destaca también que 45 de 50 artículos seleccionados (90.0%) abordaron
el estudio del proceso de la formación de la TDI, dando cuenta así de la creciente relevancia
del tema para los investigadores de marketing turístico, especialmente cuando se compara el
dato obtenido doce años atrás (80%). El tercer tema más atendido en el periodo estudiado es
el correspondiente a las políticas de gestión de la imagen del destino, 50% de los trabajos lo
trataron, resultado marginalmente inferior al reportado por Gallarza et al. (2002), el cual fue
55.4%.

La conceptualización y dimensiones de la TDI fue el tema que ocupó el cuarto lugar en


cuanto al número de investigaciones que lo atendieron se refiere, siendo las siguientes cinco:
1) el artículo de Tapachai y Waryszak (2000), en el cual se propone el uso de la imagen
favorable como marco para el análisis de la imagen del destino basado en cinco dimensiones
(funcional, social, emocional, epistémica y condicional); 2) el trabajo de Andreu, Bigné y
Cooper (2000), en él se establece una diferenciación entre las imágenes percibida y
proyectada de los destinos turísticos y se emplearon cinco atributos para la medición de la
primera: el valor por el dinero, los recursos naturales, la cultura, la vida nocturna y
 
 
entretenimiento y la seguridad y accesibilidad; 3) la investigación de Ryan y Cave (2005) que
expone, a partir del análisis cualitativo de datos provenientes de conversaciones sobre la
imagen del destino sostenidas con distintos sujetos, que la TDI posee dos dimensiones
subyacentes que son los continuos: amistoso-amenazador y excitación-relajación; 4) el
artículo de Hosany, Ekinci y Uysal (2006), cuyos resultados establecen que la evaluación de
los turistas sobre la TDI posee tres dimensiones –cognitiva, afectiva y de personalidad; y 5) la
investigación de Tasci y Kozak (2006), la cual propugna que hay confusión entre TDI y
marca del destino turístico, siendo la primera parte de la segunda según sus hallazagos, y
también señala que, además de los componentes proyectado y percibido de la TDI, existe el
“fit” (ajuste) entre ambos y que su tamaño será lo que determine el éxito de las actividades de
marketing del destino.

De lo anterior se desprende que, aún cuando comparativamente con el periodo estudiado


previamente por Gallarza y colaboradoras (2002), en el cual fueron producidos 31 artículos
(47.7%) en torno a la conceptualización y dimensiones de la TDI, la atención investigadora
sobre el particular ha descendido en términos cuantitativos, lo cual podría ser reflejo de cierta
consolidación del constructo desde el punto de vista epistemológico, es probable que una de
las principales limitaciones para la comparación entre diferentes destinos señaladas por
Andreu et al. (2000) respecto a los atributos (y/o dimensiones) usados para medir la TDI
persista, y es la que se refiere a la heterogeneidad de los mismos en los distintos estudios, por
lo cabe esperar que los esfuerzos de investigación al respecto continúen en los próximos años.

Como puede apreciarse, los estudios sobre temas relacionados con la distancia y cambio de la
imagen del destino a través del tiempo han experimentado también una reducción sustancial
en comparación con lo publicado entre 1971 y 1999, toda vez que en esta ocasión únicamente
fue posible identificar dos investigaciones que los tomaran en cuenta (8% del total) , a saber:
Andreu, Bigné y Cooper (2000) y Lee, O'Leary y Hong (2002), y ambos trabajos fueron
publicados hace una década, en tanto que 23% de los que lo fueron en el periodo estudiado
por Gallarza et al. (2002) los consideraron.

Finalmente, el rol de los residentes en la imagen del destino ha sido el tema más abandonado
en la última década ya que, a diferencia de lo producido al respecto entre 1971 y 1999, en
donde 18.5% de las 65 investigaciones consideradas por Gallarza et al. (2002) lo
consideraban, ninguno de los 50 artículos contemplados en el presente trabajo lo abordó. Esta
situación llama la atención, especialmente considerando la orientación relacional del
marketing actual y su enfoque en los stakeholders, por lo que parece ofrecer una oportunidad
clara para la realización de nuevos trabajos académicos.

Ahora bien, de conformidad con la metodología seguida, corresponde analizar y discutir, los
resultados referentes a los atributos más comúnmente utilizados en los trabajos de TDI
revisados, lo cual se hace con base en los datos presentados en la Tabla 2 a continuación.

 
 
Tabla 2. Atributos más comunes utilizados para la medición de la TDI
 

Vida nocturna y entretenimiento

Recepción de los anfitriones


Relajación vs massificación
Instalaciones deportivas
Información disponible
Atracciones culturales
Actividades diversas

Centros comerciales

Calidad del servicio


Precio, valor, costo

Interacción Social
Paisaje, entorno

Accesibilidad
Gastronomía

Originalidad
Alojamiento
Transporte
Naturaleza

Seguridad
Clima

Otros
Autores

Funcional Psicológico

1 . Chen y Hsu (2000) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x


2 . MacKay y Fesenmaier (2000) x x x
3 . Tapachai y Waryszak (2000) x
4 . Andreu, Bigné y Cooper (2000) x x x x x x
5 . Baloglu (2000) x x
6 . Sirakaya, Sönmez y Choi (2001) x
7 . Baloglu (2001) x x x x x x x x x x x x x
8 . Bigné, Sánchez y Sánchez (2001) x
9 . Lee, O'Leary y Hong (2002) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
10 . Sönmez y Sirakaya (2002) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
11 . Kim y Richardson (2003) x x x x x x x x x x x
12 . Beerli y Martín (2004a) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
13 . Pike y Ryan (2004) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
14 . Awaritefe (2004) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
15 . Beerli y Martín (2004b) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
16 . Hsu, Wolfe y Kang (2004) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
17 . Lee, Lee y Lee (2005) x x x x x x x x x x x x x
18 . Bonn, Joseph y Dai (2005) x x x x x x x x x
19 . O'Leary y Deegan (2005) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
20 . Ryan y Cave (2005) x
21 . Hanlan y Kelly (2005) x
22 . Hosany, Ekinci y Uysal (2006) x x
23 . Ekinci y Hosany (2006) x
24 . Tasci y Kozak (2006) x
25 . Custódio y Gouveia (2007) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
26 . Govers, Go y Kumar (2007) x
27 . Lin, Morais, Kerstetter y Hou (2007) x x x x x x x x x x x x x
28 . Lee y Back (2007) x x x x x x x
29 . Chen y Tsai (2007) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
30 . Choi, Lehto y Morrison (2007) x x x x x x x x x
31 . Lee, Scott y Kim (2008) x x x x
32 . McCartney, Butler y Bennett (2008) x x x x x x
33 . Chi y Qu (2008) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
34 . San Martín y Rodríguez del Bosque (2008) x x x x x x x x x x x x
35 Sanz (2008) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
36 . Yilmaz, Yilmaz, Icigen, Ekin y Utku (2009) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
37 . Litvin y Mouri (2009) x
38 . Tasci (2009) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
39 . Alaeddinoglu y Can (2010) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
40 . Kneesel, Baloglu y Millar (2010) x x x x x x x x x x x
41 . Sancho y Álvarez (2010) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
42 . Mohan (2010) x x x x x x x x x x x
43 . Aksoy y Kiyci (2011) x x x x x x x x
44 . Frías, Rodríguez, Castañeda, Sabiote y Buhalis (2011) x x x x x x x x x x x x x
45 . Elliot, Papadopoulos y Kim (2011) x x x x x x x
46 . Gartner y Ruzzier (2011) x
x x x x x x x x x x x
47 . García, Gómez y Molina (2011) x
x x x x x x xx x x x x
48 . Qu, Kim y Im (2011) x
x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x
49 . Camprubi (2011) x
x x x x x x x x x x x
50 . Yang, He y Gu (2012) ND
Total 28 31 29 32 28 25 13 14 23 31 25 27 22 16 15 24 11 26 12 24 37
 

 
 
Como se observa, sin considerar la columna “Otros” -a la cual nos referiremos
posteriormente, diez atributos fueron los más comúnmente empleados para medir la TDI
durante el periodo 2000-2012 y aparecieron en al menos 50% de las investigaciones aquí
estudiadas, a saber, en orden descendiente: Atracciones culturales, empleado en 32 de las 50
investigaciones estudiadas; (64% del total); Paisajes y entorno y Alojamiento, ambos usados
en 31 trabajos cada uno (62%); Naturaleza, aprovechado en 29 (58%); Vida nocturna y
entretenimiento y Actividades diversas, utilizados en 28 estudios cada uno (56%);
Precio/valor/costo, en 27 ocasiones (54%); Recepción de los anfitriones, en 26 casos (52%) y
Gastronomía y Centros comerciales, ambos adoptados en 25 investigaciones (50%).

En contraparte, los diez atributos que fueron relativamente menos aprovechados por los
investigadores para medir la TDI fueron, también en orden descendiente: Seguridad y Calidad
en el servicio, con una frecuencia de 24 cada uno (48%); Transporte en 23 trabajos (46%);
Clima, en 22 ocasiones (44%); Relajación vs. masificación, 16 veces (32%); Accesibilidad, en
15 estudios (30%); Disponibilidad de información, en 13 investigaciones (26%) y
Originalidad del destino e Interacción social, aprovechadas en 12 (24%) y 11 (22%) ocasiones
respectivamente.

Ahora bien, debido a la aparición reiterada de otros atributos, tales como: Limpieza del lugar
y contaminación ambiental, Lujo, Señalización y Familia, se optó por agregarlos en una
columna denominada “Otros”. Entre ellos, destaca Limpieza del lugar y contaminación
ambiental, usado en 18 ocasiones (36%).

De la comparación de estos resultados con los obtenidos para el periodo 1971-1999 por
Gallarza et al. (2002) surgen cuestiones interesantes. En primer lugar llaman la atención los
notables incrementos en el uso de los atributos: Calidad en el Servicio, cuya aplicación subió
de 16% a 48% (∆=32%); Actividades diversas, que aumentó de 32% a 56% su tasa de uso
(∆=24%) y Naturaleza, el cual ascendió de 48% a 58% (∆=10%). En segundo lugar destaca el
decremento en el uso de los siguientes: Instalaciones deportivas, el cual descendió de 64% a
28% ( =36%); Accesibilidad, bajando de 48% a 30% ( =18%) y Relajación vs.
Masificación, que cayó de 48% a 30% en su utilización ( =16%). Finalmente, en tercer
lugar, es notable el surgimiento de Otros atributos, los cuales aparecieron en 74% de los
artículos revisados en esta investigación.

Estos resultados parecen indicar que la heterogeneidad en los atributos requeridos para medir
la TDI en distintos destinos continúa en aumento lo que refuerza, aún más, la idea de Andreu
et al. (2000) en el sentido de que la comparación entre resultados de los estudios realizados
para distintos destinos sigue siendo una de las principales limitaciones derivadas de este
enfoque.

Los resultados de la revisión de los procedimientos empleados para la medición de la TDI se


presentan a continuación en la Tabla 3.

 
 
Tabla 3. Procedimientos empleados para la medición de la TDI basada en atributos.
Procedimiento estadístico Recolección de datos Autores
DS Baloglu (2000)
DS LK 5 Baloglu (2001); Kim y Richardson (2003); Qu, Kim y Im (2011)
Análisis de DS LK 6 Sönmez y Sirakaya (2002); Chen y Tsai (2007)
componentes LK 7 Pike y Ryan (2004); Tasci (2009)
Procedimientos de Reducción de Información

principales LK 9 Bonn, Joseph y Dai (2005)


Técnicas de Análisis Factorial

LK 7 / 5 Hosany, Ekinci y Uysal (2006)


LK 5 Custódio y Gouveia (2007); Yilmaz, Yilmaz, Icigen, Ekin y Utku (2009)
LK 6 Sirakaya, Sönmez y Choi (2001)
DS Lee, O'Leary y Hong (2002)
c c
LK 7 Beerli y Martín (2004a); Beerli y Martín (2004b) ; Lee y Back (2007)
Chi y Qu (2008); Sancho y Álvarez (2010)
Análisis c
LK 5 Awaritefe (2004); Sanz (2008) ; Aksoy y Kiyci (2011);
Factorial c
Gartner y Ruzzier (2011)
DS LK 5 Ekinci y Hosany (2006); Qu, Kim y Im (2011)
LK 5/7 Lin, Mora is, Kerstetter y Hou (2007)c
DS LK 7 San Martín y Rodríguez del Bosque (2008)
Análisis de DS LK 5 Andreu, Bigné y Cooper (2000)
correspondencias RK Choi, Lehto y Morrison (2007)
Escala miento LK 5 Chen y Hsu (2000)
Multidimensional LK 7 MacKay y Fesenmaier (2000)
LK 5 Bigné, Sánchez y Sánchez (2001)
Modelo de Análisis de
Métodos Multivariados

LK 5/7 Lin, Mora is, Kerstetter y Hou (2007)


Covarianzas
Varianzas y

Modelo de Ecuaciones LK 7 Lee y Back (2007); Chi y Qu (2008)


Estructurales DS LK 6 Chen y Tsai (2007)
DS LK 5 Lee, Scott y Kim (2008); Qu, Kim y Im (2011)
DS Elliot, Papadopoulos y Kim (2011)
Partial Least Squares (PLS) LK 6 García, Gómez y Molina (2011)
DS LK 5 Andreu, Bigné y Cooper (2000)
Ag rupamiento

Análisis LK 5 Awaritefe (2004)


Cluster DS LK 7 San Martín y Rodríguez del Bosque (2008)
Camprubi (2011)

LK 7 MacKay y Fesenmaier (2000)


Regresión DS Baloglu (2000)
Múltiple LK 5 Hsu, Wolfe y Kang (2004); Custódio y Gouveia (2007)
Sanz (2008)
Regresión LK 6 Sirakaya, Sönmez y Choi (2001)
Análisis de Dependencia

Logística DS Lee, O'Leary y Hong (2002)

Log-linear RK Mohan (2010)


Aná lisis Conjunto
LK 5 Chen y Hsu (2000); Bigné, Sánchez y Sánchez (2001); Yang, He y Gu (2012)
DS LK 5 Andreu, Bigné y Cooper (2000); Baloglu (2001); Kim y Richardson (2003)
LK 7 Beerli y Martín (2004a); Beerli y Martín (2004b); Tasci (2009)
LK 9 Bonn, Joseph y Dai (2005)
Análisis de Varianza
LK 7 / 5 Hosany, Ekinci y Uysal (2006)
(ANOVA, MANOVA,…)
DIC Govers, Go y Kumar (2007)
DS LK 7 San Martín y Rodríguez del Bosque (2008)
DS Frías, Rodríguez, Castañeda, Sabiote y B uhalis (2011)
Camprubi (2011)
DS Baloglu (2000)
Aná lisis de Correlaciones
Métodos Bivariados

LK 5 Bigné, Sánchez y Sánchez (2001)


DS LK 5 Kneesel, Baloglu y Millar (2010)
LK 6 Sirakaya, Sönmez y Choi (2001)
LK 5 O'Leary y Deegan (2005); Yang, He y Gu (2012);
T-Test y otros Yilmaz, Yilmaz , Icigen, Ekin y Utku (2009)
LK 7 Litvin y Mouri (2009)
DS LK 5 Alaeddinoglu y Can (2010); Kneesel, Baloglu y Millar (2010)
DS Elliot, Papadopoulos y Kim (2011)
Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) DS Baloglu (2000)
Otros Métodos

LK 7 Pike y Ryan (2004)


Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA)
LK 5 O'Leary y Deegan (2005)
Communication Efectiveness Grid (CEG) LK 5 McCartney, Butler y Bennett (2008)
Implicit Association Test (IAT) LK 5 Yang, He y Gu (2012)
c
DS =Diferencial Semántico; LK= Escala de Likert; RK= Escala de Rango s; DIC= Escala Dicotómica; = Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio

 
 
De la lectura de la Tabla precedente se desprende que, durante el periodo comprendido entre
2000 y 2012, la mayor parte de las investigaciones cuantitativas emplearon técnicas de
análisis multivariante basadas en datos obtenidos mediante escalas de formato tipo Likert y de
Diferencial semántico para medir la TDI basada en atributos y, en menor medida, técnicas
bivariadas y otros métodos de análisis.

Ahora bien, cuando se comparan estos resultados con los correspondientes al periodo 1971-
1999 se observan dos diferencias importantes, la primera se refiere al surgimiento de la
utilización de modelos de ecuaciones estructurales como herramienta de análisis y la segunda,
una reducción notable, de 44% a 16% en el uso de T-test.

Para concluir los análisis se construyó la Tabla 4, correspondiente a los métodos no


cuantitativos empleados para la medición de la TDI basada en atributos, la cual se presenta a
continuación.

Tabla 4. Métodos no cuantitativos empleados para la medición de TDI


Procedimiento metodológico Autores
Tapachai y Waryszak (2000)
Hsu, Wolfe y Kang (2004)
Hanlan y Kelly (2005)
Elicitación libre/
Custódio y Gouveia (2007)
Preguntas abiertas
Lee y Back (2007)
Chi y Qu (2008)
Kneesel, Baloglu y Millar (2010)
Técnicas Cualitativas

Chi y Qu (2008)
Grupos de enfoque San Martín y Rodríguez del Bosque (2008)
Qu, Kim y Im (2011)
Pike y Ryan (2004)
Ryan y Cave (2005)
Entrevistas San Martín y Rodríguez del Bosque (2008)
a profundidad Mohan (2010)
Gartner y Ruzzier (2011)
García, Gómez y Molina (2011)
Discusiones con Tasci y Kozak (2006)
expertos Qu, Kim y Im (2011)
Choi, Lehto y Morrison (2007)
Otras técnicas

Sobre material promocional Chi y Qu (2008)


Análisis de Camprubi (2011)
contenido Pike y Ryan (2004)
Sobre previos resultados Govers, Go y Kumar (2007)
Gartner y Ruzzier (2011)

Como se aprecia, las técnicas cualitativas más usadas por los investigadores fueron la
Elicitación libre/Preguntas abiertas y la Entrevista a profundidad y, en menor medida, la
Dinámica de grupos/Grupos de enfoque y la Discusión con expertos/Panel de expertos. En
tanto que, el Análisis de contenido fue aprovechado usando como objetos de estudio tanto el
material promocional de los destinos como los resultados de investigaciones previas.

 
 
Resultados que, en términos generales, difieren en poco de los obtenidos por Gallarza, et ál.,
(2002). Esto puede suponer una ventana de oportunidad para abordar el estudio de la
medición de la TDI empleando otras técnicas no cualitativas.

CONCLUSIONES, LIMITACIONES Y LÍNEAS DE INVESTIGACIÓN FUTURA

Con el propósito de conocer sobre los avances en la medición de la imagen del destino
turístico basada en atributos, específicamente sobre los temas, metodologías y atributos
usados en investigaciones empíricas, se realizó una investigación documental basada en la
metodología desarrollada por Gallarza, et ál., (2002) para tal efecto y se revisaron y
analizaron 50 artículos publicados por revistas académicas entre 2000 y 2012, dando
continuidad al trabajo referido, el cual estudio los artículos publicados sobre la materia entre
1971 y 1999, y comparando los resultados de ambos trabajos.

Los resultados obtenidos en relación a los principales temas tratados en la literatura


permitieron descubrir que ha habido un incremento notable tanto en la cantidad de estudios
empíricos realizados sobre la medición de la TDI como en el porcentaje de ellos que abordó el
estudio del proceso de la formación de la TDI, estos últimos pasando de 80% a 90% de los
casos. Así mismo, fue posible identificar que, aún cuando se redujo, tanto en términos
absolutos como relativos, el número de publicaciones sobre la medición y dimensionalidad de
la TDI, aún existe la necesidad continuar con los esfuerzos de investigación al respecto.

Se encontró además que los temas relativos con la distancia y cambio de la imagen del destino
a través del tiempo han experimentado una reducción sustancial en comparación con lo
publicado entre 1971 y 1999, pero más importante aún, se descubrió que el rol de los
residentes en la imagen del destino ha sido un tema abandonado en los últimos doce años,
cayendo de 18.5% entre 1971 y 1999 a 0% entre 2000 y 2012, lo que abre las puertas a la
realización de nuevas investigaciones al respecto, dada la relevancia que el marketing
relacional y los stakeholders tienen en el marketing actual.

Por otro lado, los hallazgos relativos a los atributos más comúnmente usados para medir la
TDI muestran que hay cambios importantes en la literatura especializada. Estos cambios son
patentes tanto en el incremento como en la reducción en la utilización de algunos de esos
atributos así como en la aparición de otros no reportados hasta ahora. Estos resultados invitan
a pensar en la necesidad de realizar nuevas investigaciones en torno a la medición de la TDI
que procuren identificar paradigmas distintos a la medición basada en atributos para hacerlo.

Finalmente, la investigación ha permitido conocer que, con excepción de la aparente


introducción de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales y la reducción en la tasa de uso de la
prueba T-test, los métodos y técnicas de investigación han sufrido pocos cambios en el
tiempo, lo que supone una oportunidad para la exploración de la utilización de técnicas
distintas.

Por supuesto que la presente investigación no está libre de limitaciones, la primera de ellas es
que a pesar de buscar detenida y cuidadosamente en distintas bases de datos académicas,
durante la ejecución del trabajo se detectaron algunos artículos que no fueron identificados
 
 
inicialmente por el equipo de colaboradores por lo que fue necesario ampliar los términos de
búsqueda procurando tener el mayor alcance posible en este trabajo. En consecuencia, se
reconoce que no necesariamente fue hallada la totalidad de los artículos publicados entre 2000
y 2012 sobre la medición de la TDI basada en atributos, situación que limita, naturalmente, la
generalización de los resultados. No obstante, se considera que los trabajos detectados y
analizados constituyen una base sólida y válida para el presente estudio y se plantea la
necesidad de realizar investigaciones futuras que ayuden a definir y a establecer criterios y
procedimientos de búsqueda específicos que permitan dar continuidad a la línea de trabajo
trazada por Gallarza et al (2002) y a este trabajo, de manera tal que mejore la exhaustividad
documental de los académicos interesados en el tema tratado.

La segunda limitación de este trabajo surge de que, en la fase uno solo fueron considerados
los 50 trabajos empíricos, en tanto que Gallarza et al. (2002) analizaron los 65 artículos
iniciales de su selección, es decir, sin centrarse exclusivamente en los empíricos. Con todo, si
bien esto limita parcialmente la comparabilidad de los resultados entre ambos proyectos, se
considera que, al haber tomado conciencia de la situación durante la etapa de análisis, éstos
fueron realizados cuidando este aspecto y, en consecuencia, se estima que no existe un sesgo
relevante.

En conclusión, se piensa que la investigación realizada constituye una contribución valiosa a


las literaturas de turismo en general y de marketing turístico en particular, la cual es de
utilidad para la comunidad científica interesada en conocer el estado-del-arte de la medición
de la TDI basada en atributos y que constituye un nuevo punto de partida para investigaciones
subsecuentes.

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AUTENTICIDAD EN EL TURISMO: UN ENFOQUE ANTROPOLÓGICO.

Alfredo Francesch
Departamento de Antropología Social y Cultural Universidad Nacional de Educación a
Distancia
Madrid
afrancesh@fsof.uned.es

RESUMEN
Desde los primeros textos de antropología del turismo, la autenticidad ha sido
considerada uno de los elementos básicos para el análisis y la comprensión del fenómeno
turístico. En los últimos tiempos, las publicaciones especializadas han venido prestando una
atención creciente a las cuestiones relacionadas con ella. Sin embargo, buena parte de los
distintos enfoques en torno a la autenticidad, han omitido la distinción básica en la teoría
antropológica, entre los conceptos y categorías de los participantes (emic), y los conceptos y
categorías del observador (etic). Es por ello que una cantidad notable de estos trabajos se han
inclinado hacia el debate en torno al significado de la autenticidad, en la misma forma en que
lo hacen los agentes implicados en el fenómeno turístico.
Por ello, la esencial distinción emic/etic deviene imprescindible para emprender el
análisis de la autenticidad. Una vez establecida esta premisa, propongo el estudio de la
autenticidad dentro del marco de una línea teórica que ponga de manifiesto su naturaleza de
práctica social y producción cultural, en un campo en el cual los agentes intentan hacer valer
sus propios capitales simbólicos.

PALABRAS CLAVE
Turismo, autenticidad, capital simbólico.

1. Ontologías.

La tecnociencia actual ha establecido y se establece sobre una determinada construcción


ontológica. Este tipo de formulación de lo que pueda ser la realidad ha posibilitado saberes
sorprendentes, como el conocimiento de que determinadas enfermedades están provocadas
por minúsculos seres, invisibles a nuestra mirada, a los que llamamos “virus”, o que la
materia se atrae en virtud de lo que llamamos “gravedad”. Los resultados técnicos de esta
ontología hacen posible que un proyectil vaya de una punta a otra del mundo en escaso
tiempo y allí provoque inconcebibles destrucciones con armas termonucleares, o que se
pueda evitar semejante calamidad, creando sofisticados sistemas de seguridad
computerizados; que se pueda erradicar la viruela o conservar alimentos frescos durante
largos periodos de tiempo. Proezas tecnocientíficas sin parangón en la historia de la
humanidad, que han requerido de una determinada ontología.
Las formas canónicas de esta ontología postulan la existencia del mundo en sí (o por sí
mismo), con independencia de que sea o no percibido, mundo regido por leyes y pasible de
conocer, aunque solo sea parcialmente, entre otros rasgos. Pero esta ontología, triunfante en
los saberes tecnocientíficos, acaso no resulte del todo adecuada para otras disciplinas. La
antropología, acaso, sea una de las disciplinas en que esta formulación ontológica no sea
suficiente. Sólo con ella no es posible encararse con una multiplicidad de fenómenos sociales
y culturales que la desbordan, en la medida en que se intente dar razón de ellos de forma
cabal. Un inmenso número de conductas, creencias, categorías cognitivas, racionalidades (o

1
racionalizaciones, para quien proponga la absoluta racionalidad única1), no son,
sencillamente, abordables mediante la ontología naturalista y realista, positivista, propia de
las tecnociencias.
Pongamos un ejemplo. Una montaña es una montaña, pero puede ser, además, sagrada.
Imaginemos que así nos lo explican los pobladores de la zona. Si nada denota que sea
sagrada (no cuenta, digamos, con templos, escalinatas, señales, etc.), ni siquiera será posible
localizar elementos materiales que la marquen semánticamente. Si tampoco es objeto de
peregrinaciones ni se realizan ceremonias, o cualesquiera otros actos ritualizados, ni siquiera
las conductas humanas le darán elementos empíricos que la cataloguen como algo más que
una mera montaña. La ontología tecnocientífica la clasificará como “montaña”, pero la
antropología como “montaña sagrada”. No sólo la antropología, por supuesto, muchas otras
disciplinas calificarán a esta montaña como “sagrada” y también lo hará la sensatez más
básica, si todos los pobladores explican que lo es. Pero el caso es que a esta montaña se le
han agregado elementos al margen de la ontología tecnocientífica, pese a todo evidentes y tan
reales como la montaña en sí. El ejemplo no es descabellado: pienso en Ayers Rock
(Australia) o en Oldonyo Lengai (Tanzania) como lugares muy semejantes a los que he
descrito.
Las carencias de estas ontologías y metodologías positivistas, incapaces de ver la sacralidad
de las montañas, cuando tal sacralidad es obvia para cualquier ser humano juicioso, se han
tratado de reparar de muchos modos. Las ciencias sociales han tratado de complementar esta
ontología, ciega para muchos fenómenos, con mayor o menor fortuna, con mayor o menor
acierto. Desde la práctica antropológica, la atención puesta en el sentido de las cosas debe
entenderse en una acepción doble: por un lado, en su razón de ser; por otro, en su
significación. La montaña tiene un sentido que la individualiza en la medida en que es
sagrada (tiene una razón de ser); la montaña tiene un significado que no tienen otras (porque
es sagrada y denota cosas). Consecuentemente, deben abordarse este tipo de hechos con
herramientas propias, pero también las provenientes de la lingüística, la semiología, y las
disciplinas orientadas a lo simbólico. Como en su día escribió Lévi-Strauss (1997 [1974]:
26), en torno a la antropología social,

(...) nadie ha estado más cerca de definirla que Ferdinand de


Saussure cuando, presentando la lingüística como parte de una
ciencia todavía por nacer, reserva a esta última el nombre de
“semiología” y le atribuye por objeto de estudio la vida de los signos
en el seno de la vida social.

En este orden de cosas, la antropología ha reciclado una distinción de fenómenos nacida en la


lingüística, que intenta poner orden en las posibles confusiones que plantean los datos. Los
datos, si se me permite la paradoja, no están dados. Cuando se opera no sólo con elementos
de una ontología tecnocientífica (una montaña es un hecho dado), sino también con
elementos siginificativos y significantes (esta montaña es sagrada), deben ponerse en uso
cautelas metodológicas. Porque lo que pueda ser significativo y/o significante depende, en
grado variable, de quien afirme que lo es. Y el peligro de caer en una especie de solipsismo
múltiple, o de relativismo epistémico inmanejable, acecha tras cualquier recodo de la
montaña... Abismos relativistas en montañas semióticas. Una caída mortal.
Una de estas cautelas, uno de los constructos teóricos, con los cuales la antropología hace
frente a estas contingencias, es la diferencia entre lo emic y lo etic, inspirada en la lingüística.

1
Hace ya tiempo escribió Marshall Sahlins (1997: 77) que “la racionalidad es nuestra
racionalización”.
2
El planteamiento sistemático vino en su día de la mano de Marvin Harris (1982 [1979]). En
sus propias palabras,

Lo que caracteriza a las operaciones de tipo emic es la elevación del


informante nativo al status de juez último en la adecuación de las
descripciones análisis del observador. (...) Al realizar una
investigación desde esta perspectiva, lo que el observador trata de
establecer son las categorías y reglas cuyo conocimiento es necesario
para pensar y actuar como un nativo.

Complementariamente,

El rasgo distintivo de las operaciones de tipo etic es la elevación de


los observadores al status de jueces últimos de las categorías y
conceptos empleados en las descripciones y análisis. La prueba de la
adecuación de las descripciones etic es única y exclusivamente su
capacidad para generar teorías fructíferas desde un punto de vista
científico sobre las causas de las semejanzas y diferencias
socioculturales.

Esta distinción es clave en los estudios socioculturales. Doble rostro jánico, omnipresente en
la tarea del investigador, lo emic y lo etic son categorías transitadas una y otra vez, en
camino de ida y vuelta, para la comprensión y el análisis de fenómenos y estados de cosas.
Ahora bien, a mi juicio, la diferencia en los propósitos del análisis emic y del análisis etic,
conforme los presenta Harris en las citas recogidas, son relevantes. Evidentemente, la
comprensión de cualquier conducta exige un análisis emic, pero es el enfoque etic el apto
para “generar teorías fructíferas”. Y, a mi juicio, el propósito último (o primero) de cualquier
disciplina social no es lograr el conocimiento necesario “para pensar y actuar como un
nativo”. Aunque, sin duda, este conocimiento sea un requisito imprescindible para cualquier
análisis adicional.
Imaginemos un antropólogo que investigara, por ejemplo, el bautismo católico. Desde el
punto de vista del analista, es innegable que se tratarán categorías, conceptos, recursos
teóricos como “rito de paso”, “filiación”, etc. Ahora bien, la ceremonia resultaría
incomprensible desde cualquier punto de vista sin operar con categorías nativas tales como
“pecado original”, “agua bendita” o “sacramento”. Es en este sentido que afirmaba líneas
atrás que el camino de lo emic a lo etic es de tránsito continuo.
No obstante, imaginemos que ese mismo antropólogo entrara en las sutilezas teológicas que
supone diferenciar materia y forma en un sacramento, o el hecho de que se reciban los
efectos del bautismo sin recepción del sacramento. Y no sólo que entrara en el debate, sino
que tomara partido, hiciera uso de la patrística, de textos canónicos y de otro tipo, de toda
suerte de recursos, para dilucidar la corrección o lo inapropiado de estos detalles. A mi modo
de ver, semejante comportamiento sería completamente inadecuado. Materia para teólogos,
el antropólogo no debería entrar en tales cuestiones, bastante al margen de la investigación
sociocultural.
Investigar un fenómeno, el bautismo católico en este caso, desde una óptica cultural, exige el
distanciamiento, el extrañamiento que caracteriza a la antropología y no la inmersión en las
categorías nativas, que, por serlo, deben conocerse, pero no pueden emplearse con propósitos
analíticos. El uso de categorías nativas, emic, sitúa al antropólogo más como un especialista
local, como un participante dotado de saberes expertos, que en la posición que le
corresponde. Hace ya décadas, Franz Boas (2008 [1932]) planteó que la cultura sólo puede

3
explicarse desde la cultura2, pero eso no significa que las categorías, los conceptos o los
elementos simbólicos del mundo de la vida de los católicos deban explicarse desde ópticas
católicas...
Este excurso epistemológico es de estricta necesidad. El empleo de las categorías nativas
como categorías analíticas no da cuenta de los fenómenos culturales, sino que sitúa al sujeto
en el nivel de un buen conocedor del fenómeno local. Expresión de relativismo inoperante,
aunque con mejor prensa que el etnocentrismo, la asunción propia de las categorías ajenas
cambia la relación del analista con los fenómenos por la relación de los observados con los
fenómenos, convirtiendo, en cierta medida, al investigador en objeto de su investigación, que
adquiere así tintes tautológicos (Bourdieu et al. 2005 [1973]: 71). La elusión de estas
precauciones diluye categorías analíticas y categorías locales, sujeto observante y objeto
observado, fenómeno y percepción, en un magma que puede ser atractivo para ciertas
orientaciones teóricas, pero donde, a mi entender, es preferible la precisión a la mixtura. Este
tipo de omisiones y dilusiones se presta a intensas divagaciones sobre, digamos, el principio
de incertidumbre de Heisenberg, el teorema de incompletud de Gödel o la probabilidad
cuántica3, pero, sinceramente, ignoro si es sensato entrar en esas materias para el propósito
del investigador social.

2. Los acercamientos emic a la autenticidad.

En términos de Velasco y Díaz de Rada (1999: 120), “cualquier ámbito cultural presenta esta
característica fascinante: sospechamos que hay un orden [...], pero no podemos conocerlo a
menos que entremos en él”. Pues bien, para dar cuenta de ese orden, tan necesario como
entrar en él es salir, ya que, en caso contrario, nos habremos transformado en parte del
universo ordenado. Entrar en un termitero nos permite entender su orden; quedarnos en él
nos convierte en termitas. Y me temo que ese no era el objetivo.
Sin embargo, esta es la clase de estímulo que me despierta una buena proporción de los
trabajos en torno a la autenticidad en el fenómeno turístico. Desde el trabajo pionero de
MacCannell (1999 [1976]) en la antropología del turismo, la cuestión de la autenticidad ha
sido vista —justificadamente, en mi opinión— como elemento de relevancia, y, hasta la
fecha, los trabajos en torno a este asunto se han multiplicado. Incluso creo probable que en
estos últimos años se haya convertido en materia cada vez más presente en la literatura sobre
el turismo, desde el punto de vistas no sólo antropológico, sino también de especialistas en
comunicación, geógrafos, filósofos, o sociólogos y, como es lógico, los especialistas en
turismo (investigadores, gestores, estrategas, etc.).
La autenticidad es, indudablemente, un factor al que los turistas conceden gran importancia.
Sin embargo, no es fácil lidiar con él. Aunque, en principio, debemos considerarla valiosa en
sí, nadie ignora que enclaves turísticos como los parques temáticos que remedan lugares
exóticos o lejanos en el tiempo en ningún modo pueden ser considerados auténticos, sin que
ello menoscabe su interés. Las auténticas falsificaciones no son tan despreciadas como los
simulacros, como las falsas autenticidades. Los sugerentes contenidos del texto de Bruner,
Culture on Tour (2005), por ejemplo, nos ponen ante la pluralidad de situaciones y las
variadas escenografías del mundo turístico, en las cuales el turista debe evaluar la
autenticidad, en un grado que va de lo nulo a lo absoluto, suministrando además contexto,
para poder tasar el valor de actividades y enclaves. Y, por añadidura, teniendo en cuenta que

2
Kroeber, en “Eighteen professions” (1915), realiza similar afirmación, hecha la salvedad
de que utiliza el término “civilización” por “cultura”.
3
Cf. Sokal y Bricmont ( [1997].)
4
lo turístico parece con frecuencia oponerse a lo auténtico, por lo cual, ¿qué acceso a la
autenticidad puede tener un turista?4
Pero, además, en la autenticidad confluyen las valoraciones generales del viaje en sí y en
conjunto, porque es condición necesaria para su cualificación, desde luego, pero también
porque la autenticidad no es sólo un atributo deseable de las actividades turísticas, sino un
atributo deseable, bueno, de la vida. La propiedad de ser o no auténtico, en viajes y en
turismo, pero también en personas, acciones, condiciones, entidades, objetos, cosas,
situaciones, del tipo que fueren, se instala en campos de mayor relevancia y mayor
profundidad que lo turístico. Se vincula a lo más profundo y más arraigado de lo cultural.
Los investigadores, así pues, han tratado de desentrañar qué pueda ser la autenticidad, dónde
se encuentra, cómo se representa o cómo se percibe. Otro encomiable grupo de autores ha
reunido y clasificado estas aportaciones, tratando de proponer en establecimiento de líneas de
investigación más o menos implantadas en la literatura al uso (no debe olvidarse, en
cualquier caso, que ambos conjuntos de autores se intersectan). Imagen especular de la
pluralidad mencionada de situaciones y representaciones, los conceptos y aproximaciones a
lo que pueda ser la autenticidad no son menos plurales y varios.
No veo necesario una revisión por extenso de las distintas aproximaciones a la autenticidad,
pero citaré, a modo de cata, algunas de las líneas de trabajo de estos últimos años, sin otro
propósito que mostrar parte del puzzle, y además de forma desordenada. Wang (1999) habla
de autenticidad objetiva, construccionista (o simbólica) y existencial; Reisinger y Steiner
(2006) proponen una clasificación de autores que distingue entre
modernistas/realistas/objetivistas, por un lado, constructivistas y posmodernos, por el otro;
Hughes (1995) propone un nuevo enfoque teórico basado en el yo; Reisinger y Steiner
(2006) escriben: “para explorar conceptualmente la autenticidad existencial se necesita
disponer de un sentido de lo que significa ser humano”; Berger (1973), citado por Wang,
propone que: “en términos de sentido común, la autenticidad existencial denota un estado
especial del Ser en el cual uno se es verdadero a sí mismo, y que actúa como contrapartida a
la pérdida del verdadero sí en la esfera y los roles públicos”; Xie (2003) sostiene que, como
la belleza, la autenticidad es relativa y para los gustos están los colores (is in the eye of the
beholder), lo que rememora sin remedio al tajo de Alejandro al nudo gordiano; Daniel
(1996) aboga por incluir a los ejecutantes de los espectáculos en las consideraciones sobre
autenticidad, junto a turistas y analistas...
Nadie, desde luego, se aventura a afirmar que cuente con la panacea que alivie esta Babel.
Los trabajos que he citado —y muchos otros— intentan crear un corpus sólido que cimente
la investigación, despejar maleza o separar el grano de la paja; aportan contribuciones que
van desde el pensamiento de Walter Benjamín (Rickly-Boyd 2012) hasta el de Martín
Heidegger, desde Boorstin hasta Eco —referencias estas tres últimas de numerosos
autores—; se fundamentan en trabajos de campo situados en el inverosímil castillo del
conde Drácula (Light 2007), el Texas Renaissance Festival (Kim y Jamal 2007), o shows
culturales maoríes (Condevaux 2009).
Esta abigarrada participación no ha unificado, ni siquiera eliminado, líneas de trabajo. Su
rigor no está reñido con su proliferación. A mi entender, esta enredada maraña de propuestas
teóricas tiene su origen en que, en buen número, las investigaciones se han hecho dentro del
termitero —por seguir con el símil— pero no se ha encontrado el camino de salida.

4
Omito voluntariamente que las dificultades se incrementan, si consideramos la mareante
variedad de modalidades de turismo, así como las dificultades de proponer una definición
para él. Si nos atenemos, por ejemplo, a las propuestas de la OMT, la cosa se complica
mucho más (ver, por ejemplo, Francesch 2004).
5
Buscando el orden que acaso exista, se penetra en el sistema sociocultural. Ahora, hay que
salir de él.

3. La autenticidad en un campo de acción social.

A mi modo de ver, la distinción categorial emic/etic puede suministrar herramientas


operativas que permitan buscar la salida a este termitero (termitero emic, claro está). La
“autenticidad” es un concepto nativo5, y el debate sobre su significado, su intensión, incluso
sobre su referencia (en el sentido lingüístico; también podríamos decir su extensión), es un
debate netamente folk, pero no un debate analítico. Como he escrito anteriormente, la misión
del antropólogo no es penetrar en los arduos significados del término, descartar los espurios y
quedarse con los nítidos, irreprochables, auténticos sentidos de la “autenticidad”. El ejemplo,
líneas atrás, del bautismo católico es completamente análogo al caso de la “autenticidad”: el
problema tiene el mismo origen aunque se manifieste de formas distintas.
La inmersión emic en los significados y el concepto de la “autenticidad” nos ofrece un
variado catálogo de posibilidades. No puede ser de otro modo. El trabajar con igualdades del
tipo “auténtico=bueno”, “falso=malo”, hace de la “autenticidad” un término de filosofía
moral folk, sometido, por consiguiente a un arduo debate como el que rodea generalmente a
cualquier término de la ética (“bueno”, “malo”, “deber”, “virtud”, etc.). Es tan sencillo
enmarañarse en una discusión ética como en una teológica, por seguir con el ejemplo del
bautismo.
Con todo, diversos autores apuntan salidas posibles del termitero. Handler (2007), por
ejemplo, propone literalmente: “I take 'authenticity' to be a cultural construct of the modern
Western world”, y vincula la “autenticidad” —que también entrecomilla— al pensamiento
individualista. Los lazos que unen al individualismo de la tradición occidental con la
“autenticidad” son, según sus propias palabras, de sentido común, esto es, en el sistema
sociocultural occidental son evidentes por sí mismos. Las sociedades nacionales, átomos
discretos del mundo social, o cualquier otra modalidad de colectividad social, entendida en
forma reificada, son tales en la medida en que cuentan con una cultura auténtica que las
individualiza. Para nuestros propósitos, esta deriva hacia la antropología política carece de
interés. Lo que sí nos interesa es que Handler ha aislado la “autenticidad”, en el sentido
químico de la expresión; por así decirlo la ha transformado en cosa, dando cumplimiento a la
vieja aspiración de Durkheim (1982 [1895]: 49 ) de tratar los hechos sociales como cosas: la
primera regla de su método sociológico.
Este primer paso aporta elementos etic que permiten comenzar a arrojar luz en esta materia.
La “autenticidad” ya no es una propiedad de cosas, personas, etc., como se desprende del
discurso nativo. La autenticidad en un constructo cultural. La masa, la densidad o la
reactividad, por ejemplo, sí son propiedades de algo tan “auténtico” como el David de
Miguel Ángel, la “autenticidad”, paradójicamente, no: es un atributo. Y, consecuentemente,
debe existir algún agente o agentes que atribuyan “autenticidad” a las cosas —actividades,
conductas, lo que fuere...—. Agentes socioculturales socioculturalmente legitimados para
catalogar con el atributo de “auténtico” a los enclaves, las actividades, las visitas turísticas.
El modelo de análisis que aquí propongo está recogido en aportaciones anteriores
(Francesch 2011), basadas en uno previo de Díaz de Rada (2007), y opera cimentándose en
la noción de campo de acción social (cf. Bourdieu 1988 [1979]). Mi enfoque se articula
distribuyendo a los agentes en el campo, conforme a su legitimidad para atribuir
“autenticidad”, en correlación con los enclaves o actividades turísticas, en función de la

5
Motivo por el cual entrecomillaremos el término, de la misma manera que se destacan los
términos olporror o kula en la tradición de la escritura etnográfica.
6
dimensión semiótica de esos mismos agentes (“formas de habla, vestuario, formas
corporales, emblemas étnicos, políticos, religiosos, etcétera” [Díaz de Rada, op. cit.]) y de su
capital en saberes expertos6.
El cardinal del conjunto de agentes en liza es, con certeza, indeterminado. UNESCO, o los
variados organismos estatales a cargo del patrimonio, son ejemplo de instituciones que
certifican el rico patrimonio de determinados enclaves. Pero también lo son los responsables
de museos, y los demás agentes productores de patrimonio, en la medida en que sus
certificaciones están consensuadas y son indiscutibles7, y producen, pues, patrimonio a
partir de las actividades o de los objetos materiales ya existentes. Estos agentes se
correlacionan, en consecuencia, con enclaves como las cuevas de Altamira, las pirámides
mayas de Tikal, el cráter del Ngorongoro o las ruinas cingalesas de Polonaruva. Enclaves
naturales o de origen antrópico, cuya “autenticidad” está fuera de toda duda y de valor
incalculable. Enclaves sagrados, en cuanto que deben ser protegidos, y cuya destrucción no
permite soluciones, pues son insustituibles por su naturaleza “auténtica”, cuya destrucción
causa el horror propio de la vulneración de lo sagrado8. Recuérdese, por ejemplo, el
escándalo provocado cuando los taliban afganos volaron en pedazos los Budas de Bamiyan.
Junto a estos agentes y enclaves, se puede encontrar otro numeroso subconjunto de
especialistas que certifican la “autenticidad” de entidades de menor rango. Las procesiones
de la Semana Santa sevillana, los movimientos giratorios de los derviches turcos, las
cualidades organolépticas de un gulas húngaro, el trabajo de tal o cual artesana maya, una
población kuna en Panamá, una pieza de arte de vanguardia, un paraje de bosque
especialmente intacto, son juzgados por antropólogos, gastrónomos, críticos de arte,
biólogos etc. Este subconjunto de agentes es, desde luego, de fronteras porosas, del mismo
modo que los enclaves y actividades que juzgan son enormemente variados. Sus capitales en
saberes son también heterogéneos, en concordancia con la heterogeneidad de saberes que se
deben poner en juego para certificar tan multiforme conjunto de actividades y enclaves
turísticos. Incluso un turista con un grado sobresaliente de saberes podría formar parte de
este grupo, como en el caso de autores de guías de viajes.
Un último subconjunto de enclaves y agentes está formado por los propios turistas, por los
responsables de determinados enclaves y actividades, por personas, en definitiva, carentes
de saberes expertos legitimados y legitimantes. Los objetos de su atribución son atracciones
y vistas de rango menor, cuando no auténticos simulacros, o autenticidades falsas. Elefantes
que juegan al fútbol en campos de trabajo tailandeses, la medina del Morocco Mall, las
cultural villages masái configuran el tipo de enclaves y actividades a las que atribuyen
“autenticidad” o carencia de ella. Son los elementos residuales, que han quedado fuera de
los actos de atribución de los agentes de alto rango y los plurales agentes de rango medio. El
siguiente cuadro resume lo expuesto.

6
Encuentro preferible no emplear la expresión de Bourdieu (op. cit.) “capital cultural”,
puesto que la palabra “cultura” tiene un sentido más amplio en la disciplina antropológica.
7
Estos agentes de alto rango disponen de confianza social, basada en su conocimiento
experto, en su capital en saberes. Acaso, siguiendo a Giddens (2004 [1984]: 39 y ss.), fuera
más adecuado hablar de “fiabilidad” (trust), matizando así que esa fiabilidad se deposita en
los sistemas expertos y en las señales simbólicas, no en las personas. En lo relativo a los
sistemas expertos, ver Velasco et al. (2006).
8
Lo sagrado, para Durkheim, se caracteriza por estar protegido, amparado por mecanismos
de defensa, de muy diversa índole. Lo sagrado "por su naturaleza se halla siempre en peligro
de perder sus rasgos distintivos y necesarios. Lo sagrado debe de estar [sic] continuamente
circundado de prohibiciones" (1993 [1912]: 38).
7
AUTENTICIDAD AGENTES CAPITAL EN
SABERES EXPERTOS

Máxima Sist. expertos de alto Institucional


rango

Variable Agentes especializados No necesariamente


institucional

Mínima/Nula Turistas y otros Ninguno

El modelo que propongo debe entenderse de forma estrictamente literal: como una
representación abstracta. Cronotopos, situaciones, contextos concretos, pueden ser la fuente
de datos con la que operar a la hora de cubrir cada uno de los elementos de la matriz, que en
determinados casos pueden desbordar las propuestas del modelo.
No puedo pasar por alto que este campo de acción social, por su propia naturaleza, es
bastante rígido. La “autenticidad” es una entidad simbólica sobre la que se produce acción
social. Dado que en el campo se dan relaciones de poder trabadas mediante operaciones
simbólicas, los agentes tratan de ocupar posiciones prestigiosas o de deslegitimar las ya
prestigiadas y ocupadas. Es decir, los agentes hacen valer su capital y su dimensión
semiótica para situarse en posiciones de poder variable —dotadas de la suficiente capacidad
semiótica como para hacer inteligible su capacidad agencial o su carencia de ella— dentro
de un campo jerarquizado y notablemente rígido. Las diversas magnitudes de capital en
saberes son los elementos simbólicos que suministran a esos agentes la legitimidad para
repartir atribuciones de “autenticidad”, conforme a reglas.
El conjunto de acciones posibles del que hacen uso los agentes para modificar sus
posiciones en el campo no implica que esas posiciones en sí experimenten modificaciones,
sino todo lo contrario. Las pugnas simbólicamente configuradas por ocupar posiciones de
poder, o por dotar de poder a las posiciones ya ocupadas, más bien revelan el hecho de que
esas posiciones y la jerarquía que las vertebra son especialmente estables y refractarias a las
transformaciones.

4. Conclusión.

A mi juicio, el tratamiento de la cuestión de la “autenticidad” atendiendo a sus reglas de uso,


a la forma en que se pone en práctica, al campo social en el que se expresa, a los agentes
implicados, posibilita salir del laberinto de las interpretaciones. En tanto que entidad
simbólica, y eludiendo las fatigosas búsquedas de su significado, encuentro factible fijar la
mirada no en la “autenticidad” en sí, sino en su naturaleza de atributo, para observar las
formas concretas, en cada situación y en cada contexto, en las que los agentes hacen uso de
tal, y atribuyen autenticidad a los distintos enclaves o actividades turísticas.
La característica abstracta del modelo no debe suponer un problema, sino, por el contrario,
lo dota de flexibilidad y capacidad para adaptarse a análisis individualizados sobre
fenómenos concretos. El acercamiento emic puede ser, de este modo, completado y
complementado con un modelo analítico que puede dar cuenta de las conductas de los
sujetos, en términos empíricos y simbólicos.

8
El fenómeno turístico adquiere creciente importancia en las ciencias sociales y en las
disciplinas aplicadas, que se orientan al desarrollo y la implementación del turismo. La
investigación en torno a cuestiones como la autenticidad debe evitar la caída en
enmarañadas y tortuosas lucubraciones, si lo que nos preocupa, como investigadores, es
intentar clarificar este tipo de valores, que se ponen en juego a la hora de producir, de
adquirir, de consumir productos turísticos. Mi propósito es que este texto contribuya a ello,
aunque sea en grado mínimo.

9
BIBLIOGRAFÍA CITADA

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1973 “Sincerity and Authenticity in Modern Society”, Public Interest, 31.

BOAS, Franz
(2008 [1932])
“Los objetivos de la investigación antropológica”, en Franz Boaz: textos de antropología,
Ed. Universitaria Ramón Areces, Madrid.

BOURDIEU, Pierre
1988 [1979]
La distinción, Taurus, Madrid

BOURDIEU, Pierre; CHAMBOREDON, Jean-Claude; PASSERON, Jean-Claude


2005 [1973]
El oficio de sociólogo, Siglo XXI, Madrid.

BRUNER, Edward M.
2005
Culture on Tour, University of Chicago Press, Chicago y Londres.

DANIEL, Yvonne Payne


1996
“Tourism Dance Performances. Authenticity and Creativity”, Annals of Tourism Research,
23 (4).

DÍAZ DE RADA, Ángel


2007
“Valer y valor. Una exhumación de la teoría del valor para reflexionar sobre la desigualdad
y la diferencia en relación con la escuela”, Revista de Antropología Social, 16.

DURKHEIM, Émile
1982 [1895]
Las reglas del método sociológico, Orbis, Barcelona.
1993 [1912]
Las formas elementales de la vida religiosa, Alianza, Madrid.

FRANCESCH, Alfredo
2004
“Los conceptos del turismo. Una revisión y una respuesta”, Gazeta de Antropología, 20,
<http:// www.ugr.es/~pwlac/G20_29Alfredo_Francesch.html>.
2011
“Una tarde con los auténticos maasai mara. Turismo, autenticidad y de cómo eludir un pozo
sin fondo”, Pasos, 9 (2) pp. 237-248, <http://www.pasosonline.org/wp/?p=519>.

GIDENNS, Anthony
2004 [1984]
La constitución de la sociedad. Bases para la teoría de la estructuración, Buenos Aires,
Amorrortu

10
HANDLER, Richard
2007
“Authenticity”, Anthropology Today, 2 (1).

HARRIS, Marvin`
1982 [1979]
El materialismo cultural, Alianza, Madrid.

HUGHES, George
1995
“Authenticity in Tourism”, Annals of Tourism Research, 22 (4).

KIM, Hyounggon y JAMAL, Tazim


2007
“Touristic Quest for Existential Authenticity”, Annals of Tourism Research, 34 (1).

KROEBER, A. L.:
1915
"Eighteen Professions", American Anthropologist, 17 (2).

LÉVI-STRAUSS, Claude
1997 [1974]
Antropología Estructural, Altaya, Barcelona.

LIGHT, Duncan
2007
“Dracula Tourism in Romania. Cultural Identity and the State”, Annals of Tourism
Research, 34 (3).

MacCANNELL, Dean
2003
El turista, una nueva teoría de la clase ociosa, Melusina, Barcelona.

REISINGER, Yvette y STEINER, Carol J.


2006
“Reconceptualizing Object Authenticity”, Annals of Tourism Research, 33 (1).

RICKLY-BOYD, Jillian M.
2012
“Authenticity & Aura. A Benjaminian Approach to Tourism”, Annals of Tourism Research,
39 (1).

SAHLINS, Marshall
1997 [1976]
Cultura y razón práctica, Gedisa, Barcelona.

SOKAL, Alan; BRICMONT, Jean


1999 [1997]
Imposturas intelectuales, Paidós, Barcelona.

11
VELASCO, Honorio; DÍAZ DE RADA, Ángel
1999
La lógica de la investigación etnográfica. Un modelo de trabajo para etnógrafos de la
escuela, Trotta, Madrid.

VELASCO, Honorio; DÍAZ DE RADA, Ángel; CRUCES, Francisco; FERNÁNDEZ,


Roberto; JIMÉNEZ DE MADARIAGA, Celeste; SÁNCHEZ MOLINA, Raúl
2006
La sonrisa de la institución. Confianza y riesgo en sistemas expertos, Madrid: Ed.
Universitaria Ramón Areces.

WANG, Ning.
1999
“Rethinking Authenticity in Tourism Experience”, Annals of Tourism Research 26 (2).

XIE, Philip F.
2003
“The bamboo-beating Dance in Hainan, China, Authenticity and Commodification”, Journal
of Sustainable Tourism, 11 (1).

12
Ana Margarida Tavares dos Santos Ferreira da Silva, Departamento
de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro
a.silva@ua.pt

Helena Cláudia da Cruz Albuquerque, Departamento de Ambiente e


Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro
Helena.albuquerque@ua.pt

Filomena Maria Cardoso Pedrosa Ferreira Martins, Departamento de


Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro
Filomena@ua.pt

Saltpans: a natural and cultural heritage to know!

Keywords: saltpans, artisanal salt, sustainable tourism

Saltpans are the result of anthropocentric intervention in natural areas, which provide a unique
landscape and special conditions for the existence of different fauna and flora species,
particularly in different wetlands along Atlantic coast. They are the proof of an established
equilibrium created between the anthropocentric use of this habitat and the maintenance of
their natural functions. As a result of these unique conditions, in some of these areas the
number of visitors is increasing for tourist purposes, namely in countries like France and
Spain. However, it is important to combine tourism activities with artisanal salt production,
since this is the activity that provides the maintenance of these areas.
The Ria de Aveiro “Salgado” (saltpans) belongs to one of the most important Portuguese
wetland area (Aveiro lagoon), providing special conditions for nature conservation, but also
for the development of tourism based on this natural and cultural heritage.
Nevertheless, the biggest part of the saltpans are abandoned, which is taking to different
problems: an extinction of a traditional activity (the artisanal salt production), and a loss of
natural, cultural, historic and human values. The development of tourism activities based on
the artisanal salt production could be a solution for this area.
In this paper, we will present orientations for a sustainable program for the development of
tourism activities that could be applied in the Ria de Aveiro saltpans. The main objective is to
present some strategies that could improve tourism attractiveness to these areas promoting the
preservation of this specific natural and cultural heritage.

1. INTRODUCTION

Saltpans are located in wetlands that are part of ecosystems of high biological diversity and
area the result of human intervention in natural areas. In spite of that, these areas have special
conditions for nesting, feeding and rest of different bird species, being an important habitat
replacement. Traditional salt activity, practiced for centuries in an artisanal way, has
contributed to the maintenance of these areas. However, since the end of the 70ies, it was
verified a progressive abandonment of saltpans along Atlantic European coast. This
progressive abandonment is related with diverse factors such as competition with salt
produced by mechanical means with lower production costs, high costs with the maintenance
of the saltpans, lack of skilled labour and low profitability in product selling.
1
With the abandonment of salt activity and consequent degradation of the area, there is a risk
of natural, cultural and historical patrimony loss that is associated to saltpans and salt
production.
Aveiro Saltpans area (Portugal), located in the Aveiro coastal lagoon known by “Ria de
Aveiro”, was once an important salt production area and is actually an example of the
abandonment that these areas are suffering, having only nowadays 7 saltpans producing salt.
The development of touristic sustainable activities in saltpans can contribute to reverse this
decline and to promote their conservation, valorization and stimulation. This was verified in
some saltpans of Atlantic French coast, which suffered this abandonment problem until the
80ies. However, with the implementation of a strategic development program these areas in
the French coast start to reverse the situation and are nowadays considered as a successful
case study for similar areas.
With this paper it is pretended to analyze the potentialities and multi-functionalities of Aveiro
Saltpans and present some orientation for the development of a sustainable tourism program.

This paper is divided in four parts. After the introduction, it will be presented a theoretical
approach to the importance of salt in history, sustainable tourism concept and the
development of sustainable tourist activities in saltpans. Afterwards, it will be presented the
successful case study of Guerande, in the French coast, in a way to demonstrate that is
possible to revert the abandonment suffered by saltpans and finally, it will be presented
Aveiro Saltpan area and presented the guidelines for a sustainable tourism program to be
applied in that area.

2. THEORETICAL APPROACH

2.1. Salt and cultural heritage

Over the centuries salt has played an important role in history, with repercussions in the
global economy and culture of people, promoting trade between different countries. The
Phoenicians used the salt to conserve fish (salt fish), the Egyptians to mummify bodies and
the Romans paid their soldiers with salt, giving rise to the word salary. In classical antiquity,
salt was described both in its uses in everyday life an in the religious aspect. The Bible has
more than 30 references to salt, such as being part of purification or associated to baptism rite.
Dias (2005) present some of this references, namely “with salt prophet Elijah purified the
bitter and brackish waters of Jericho fountain (2 Re.2,19-22 in Dias, 2005), making them
healthy and drinkable”. Another reference is the one that says “In turn, prophet Ezekiel
transmits the information of Jewish practice of rubbing the newborns with salt, and it was
seen not as a hygienic precaution, but as a religious ritual to assure them health
incorruptibility and keep them immune from evil.” (Ez. 16,14 in Dias, 2005).There are several
references to salt in the history, symbolism, etymology, toponymy and associated with the
organization of events and tourist activities.

Salt was the development device for many European cities like Venice in Italy, Merkers in
Germany, Tuzla in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Salzburg in Austria and Wieliczka in Poland. In a
more controlled way, activities related to the extraction of salt also played an important role in
various regions of Iberian Peninsula, coastal areas of France, Adriatic Sea and Balkans, not

2
only as a vehicle for economic growth but also as an engine of the process of development
(Silva, 2010).

In the case of Portugal salt played also an important role in its economy. The oldest document
known with reference to Portuguese salt, dates of 959 and mentions a donation of land and
saltpans in Aveiro, made by the Countess Mumadona, to the Monastery of San Salvador, in
Guimarães. At that time, saltpans were mostly owned by nobles, monasteries and certain
corporations (Amorim, 2001).

Due to its importance in history and men’s life and due to the cultural heritage associated to
salt and traditional salt activity, there are a set of events organized in different places, directly
or indirectly linked with this activity namely festivals (opening of extraction season) and fairs
(markets of salt and associated products, as flavoured salt, delicatessens, etc.), seminars and
conferences,
Despite the historic and cultural relevance of salt, as it was already mentioned, artisanal salt
production went into decline from the late 70’s. With this decline, natural, cultural and
historical heritage associates with salt and salt extraction were also menaced of extinction.
Therefore it is important to act in a way to revert the decline and abandonment of saltpans to
maintain the identity of the production places. One way to do that is by the promotion of
tourism activities related to these values in a sustainable way.

2.2. The importance of Sustainable Tourism in the Saltpans

Tourism is an economic activity that relies heavily on the environment and its quality. In fact,
environmental quality is one of the major factors that determine the level of attraction and
interest of an area. For this reason, the existence of high quality natural areas that allow the
development of touristic activities is a determinant factor for choosing a destination at the
expense of others.
Thus, tourism sector should not be seen only from an economic perspective but also from
environmental and cultural perspectives. The environmental conservation, biodiversity and
socio-cultural development and conservation are critical issues to the implementation and
definition of any tourism development strategy, if it is intended that a destination become
attractive and if it is intended that tourism sector shows capacity to innovate and create new
products and attract new markets. It is environmental and historical-cultural heritage that
attracts tourists to regions, so, these resources must be preserved so that tourism itself can
have a future and that tourists continue to enjoy the quality they seek.

In this way, it is important to apply sustainability concept to tourism, namely in niche tourism
segments as saltpans. As it was referred by the World Tourism Organization (2004),
“sustainable tourism should:
1) Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism
development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural
heritage and biodiversity;
2) Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and
living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural
understanding and tolerance;
3) Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all
stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning
opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty
alleviation”
3
These objectives refer the necessity of an appropriated balance between the three dimension
of sustainability in a way to guarantee a long term survival of tourist destinations, having in
account environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism.
To be sustainable, tourism should be managed accordingly to acceptable change limits of
ecosystems and its load capacity, considering that touristic activities should contribute to
biodiversity conservation (Silva, 2002). For this reason, the philosophy should be conserve
and protect, using resources for leisure and recreational activities in such a way that
environmental and cultural qualities are safeguarded. In a natural and cultural perspective, it is
urgent to meet the new tendencies of sustainable tourism, in a way that a correct planning and
fruition of natural and cultural areas are guaranteed.
It is increasingly seen a tendency to the conception of alternative touristic dynamics, in a way
to promote real effects of tourism in a sustainable structuring of local and regional
development. It is also verified a constant replacement of massive tourism practices by niche
tourism practices (Costa, 2001), through the promotion and use of new touristic products,
allowing a bet on the diversification of activities which enhance the promotion of singularities
and specificities of the various tourist destinations.

The same applies to the areas of traditional salt production, which by its natural and cultural
heritage can provide the development of various tourism activities that promote the
revitalization and territorial enhancement of these areas.

Saltpans are located in areas with great and beautiful scenery and that can provide high
quality moments of leisure and well-being from the tranquility that can transmit to visitors.
These aspects are increasing the demand for tourist activity in these areas.

However, saltpans are located in important wetlands for nature conservation biodiversity
conservation and maintenance, which is confirmed through the attribution of different
protection status, such as Natura 2000 (ICN, 2006) and Ramsar sites (Ramsar, 2006). This
importance emphasizes the necessity of saltpans protection, and therefore, the necessity to
apply sustainable tourism strategies in a way that the sensitiveness of its environment is taken
into account.

Touristic demand has been suffered an evolution that is reflected in a raising of cultural,
social and “green” tourism tendencies. In this way, it is necessary to have in account the
potential tourist impacts in natural and cultural areas, in a way that minimizing measures are
implemented to preserve those natural and cultural areas (Penette et al., 2010)

Saltpans and traditional salt extraction gather a natural, cultural and historic heritage that
allows the development of a set of activities linked to these values, namely touristic and
leisure and recreational activities, scientific and pedagogic activities, historic and
ethnographic activities, and health and well-being activities. Some of them are supported by
museums and some others are realized by local or associated producers, private companies or
research centers, this is the case of Guerande Saltpans, where a strategic development
program was implemented with some successful applications.

2.3 Guerande Saltpan – a successful case study

4
Guerande Saltpans are located in the Atlantic French coast and is part of Agglomeration
Community of Guerandaise Peninsula (Comunité d’Aglomeration de Presqu’ile Guerandaise
– CAP). CAP is formed by 15 municipalities, 9 of which have saltpans located in Guerande
and Més basins, spanning Pays de la Loire and south Bretagne (fig.1).

?
N
?

Fig.1– Geographical Guérande Saltpans context


Source: www.maps.google

Guerande saltpans are located in two significant wetlands areas, Guérande and Més bassins,
with a surface of 2000 ha. Among this 2000 ha, approximately 800 ha are producing salt in
the traditional way (Buron, 2010).

Traditional salt production has been in decline since late 19th century until the 70’s of 20th
century. To handle this decline situation was created in the end of the 70’s decade an
organizational structure and a professional school for salt-workers. However, it was in the late
80’s of 20th century, with the development of a strategic marketing study that began a
reversal in the declining situation. This study was focused on three key strategic areas for the
revitalization of traditional salt production activity: increase in product value; dignifying the
profession and classification of the site as protected area (www.seldeguerande.com).

As a consequence of the strategy implementation, it was developed a set of measures that


induced the valorization of the product. By this way, Perraud (2002) affirmed that Guerande
Salt managed to acquire a status of artisanal salt of high quality not only for its food qualities,
but also because in the minds of people it is associated with a whole symbolism of the past, of
an essential life product present in all societies, religions, cultures and civilizations.

For tourists, the current salt also represents the heritage, architecture, landscape and
environment of the region, where it is produced. In this sense, salt produced in regions
5
geographically near, may present similar characteristics and similar chemical and
microbiological composition, however, it becomes different for the consumer and tourists,
when associated to the singularity of natural, cultural and scenic heritage of each production
region.

The tourist demand in the region is associated to the brand Presqu'île Guerandaise. The brand
benefits from its proximity to Bretagne region and to its prestige, as well as to the diversified
offer in Guérande with a significant natural, cultural and medieval heritage. It also benefits
from the significant maritime and river heritage of St. Nazaire, located 20 km from Guerande
and from the renowned resort of La Baule.

The touristic activities in Guérande Saltpans have a relevant impact, from April to September,
supported in three visitation structures: Musée des Marais Salants; Maison des Paludiers and
Terre du Sel. These structures receive approximately 100,000 visitors (Buron, 2010). Their
touristic offer includes a set of activities that can be developed over the year to minimize the
seasonal effects of the activity.

3. SALTPANS IN RIA DE AVEIRO

Ria de Aveiro area has a set of ecosystems such as marshes, rush beds, mud areas, small
islands, river channels, saltpans and aquiculture areas. It is considered the most important
wetland of the north of Portugal and it has 45 km of length and a maximum width of 11 km
(Oliveira, 1998) (Fig.2).

Figure 2. Ria de Aveiro location

Due to its importance for nature conservation, it was assign to Ria de Aveiro diverse
protection status, such as: Special Protection Area (SPA), under Natura 2000 (PTZPE0004,
Birds Directive); Corine Biotope (C12100019); National Ecological Reserve (REN, Decreto-
Lei n.º 321/83, de 5 de Julho and Decreto-Lei n.º 93/90, de 19 de Março). However, this
importance has not been enough to stop the threats to this area, namely pollution, dredging,
6
conversion of saltpans to aquiculture and construction of transport infrastructures, with visible
risks to ecological equilibrium (Silva, 2010).

If in the past, Ria de Aveiro was dependent of traditional activities such as traditional salt
extraction, seaweed harvest (used as a natural fertilizer for agriculture) and traditional fishing,
actually traditional salt extraction is reduced to 8 saltpans (2011) and seaweed harvest were
abandoned. Nevertheless it is emerging a new activity, with a significant growth that is the
traditional boat trips (moliceiros), developed by touristic operators.

Saltpans from Ria de Aveiro, known as “Salgado de Aveiro” are an essential component of
the history, culture and landscape of Ria de Aveiro ecosystem. These saltpans occupy,
actually, an area of 1152 ha and are organized in five groups (Silva, 2010): “Monte Farinha”
(8 saltpans), “Norte” with (61 saltpans), “São Roque” (63 saltpans), “Mar” (52 saltpans) and
“Sul” (68 saltpans) (Fig 3).

Figure 3. Aveiro Saltpans Groups

Besides being an essential landscape component and with a great richness in biodiversity and
historical and cultural values, this area has been suffering enormous pressures. These
pressures are felt in the number of saltpans that are nowadays dedicated to salt-production
Only 8 saltpans were producing salt in 2011, instead of the 270 saltpans that were producing
in 1956. Some of them were converted in semi-intensive aquiculture and in extensive
aquiculture, but the majority are nowadays abandoned (Fig. 4).

7
The salt extraction in Ria de Aveiro is developed exclusively by artisanal way, which results
in high costs of production and lower competitiveness considering salt produced by
mechanical means as well as a higher difficulty to commercialize the salt produced in Aveiro
Saltpans (Silva, 2010). In this way, it is important to find new activities that can contribute to
the preservation of this natural area, and also to the preservation of the traditional salt
extraction activity.

Some potentialities associated to these areas can contribute to the revitalization of Aveiro
saltpans, namely sustainable tourism activities linked to the natural area or to the traditional
salt extraction activity.

Figure 4. Evolution of the main activities in each Saltpan.

4. ORIENTATIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE TOURISM PROGRAM IN AVEIRO


SALTPANS

The image of Aveiro has always been associated with salt. Aveiro Salt was considered the
most important salt of Portugal between 13th and 18th centuries and the salt recognized as a
quality product worldwide (Amorim, 2001).

Currently, with a sharp decline, Aveiro saltpans have not yet defined a strategy of action by
producers, either on the product and its marketing, or for the development of tourist activities
in the saltpans.

8
Tourism activities are developed by the municipality through Troncalhada Ecomuseum, that
integrates the Aveiro Museum, by Aveiro University, in Santiago da Fonte Saltpan, under the
project ECOSAL ATLANTIS and more recently by “Canal do Peixe, actividades piscícolas,
Lda.” enterprise in Ilha dos Puchadoiros. Some activities are also being developed by tourist
operators, integrated in the traditional boat trips realized in the Ria de Aveiro channels, that
includes a visit to the Troncalhada Ecomuseum and Ilha dos Puchadoiros saltpans. However,
a tourism strategy based on salt production and salt products is not yet defined.

In this way, it is important to define guidelines for a sustainable tourism program based on the
knowledge of the salt as a cultural, historical and natural element, strongly associated with a
territory which, for centuries, was linked to the salt production, even suffering a decline in
almost its total physical aspect. These guidelines should also be based in the fact that Aveiro
Saltpans are integrated in a site with special protection status where some activities have
restricted rules or are forbidden.
These guidelines are based in three key areas, which can allow the development of touristic
activities: a) salt product, b) salt extraction activity and c) area of production.

a) Aveiro Salt, produced exclusively with traditional techniques, is a product subject to


certification procedures and indications of origin. These quality labels sustain the
identification and development of opportunities associated with gastronomy, namely with
regional cuisine and tasting menus in Aveiro restaurants. These opportunities can be
incorporated into visitor’s activities on the boat trips or in the visits to the saltpans. Also new
saltpans products can be exploited, such as halophyte plants used in diet, macro and micro
algae’s used for example in cosmetic products.

b) Associated to salt extraction, workshop activities can be done to learn about salt production
and its ethnographic heritage. With those experimental activities the tourist has the
opportunity to participate in the extraction of salt, reproduce the traditional tools and other salt
community livelihood activities.

c) The production area is a place that allows multi-functionality, allowing compatible


development of tourist activities complementary to the extraction of salt, namely bird
watching, recreational fishing, and activities such as painting, photography, and wellness
activities or just enjoying the scenery. Saltpans are also pleasant areas for the development of
events.

With the development of such sustainable tourism program it is pretended to enhance salt
product, salt production activity and saltpans area by the recognition of its importance through
touristic activities that could raise the knowledge about this traditional activity and about the
importance to conserve and maintain this natural area. The development of touristic activities
in Aveiro Saltpans should take in account the multi-functional features of this areas, namely
for natural conservation, development of recreational, pedagogic, environmental education
and health and wellness activities. Due to the specialized public demand, such us biologists
and ornithologists, the existent activities restriction for these areas can be an opportunity for
sustainable territorial and socioeconomic development.

It is expected that the development of this sustainable tourism program creates more profits to
the agents involved and that those profits could be reinvested in the rehabilitation of saltpans
and in the rehabilitation of this important natural area.
9
For the development of this program it is essential to create an operational structure (Fig. 5),
that ensures the planning and systematic operation of the program and that could be capable to
define a marketing strategy in a way to capture the interest of tourists that visit Aveiro region.

Tourist Operators

Program Manager
Institutional Producers Association Salt Producers
Entities

Saltpan Owners

Figure 5. Operational Structure for a sustainable tourism program to Aveiro saltpans (adapted from
Albuquerque, 2004)

The program management role should be played by the salt producers association when in
activity.
Besides the program manager, this structure should also involve a set of agents, bringing them
together in a way that the program could satisfy the interest of each one. Among this set of
agents we identify:
- The salt producers, namely because they have the know-how and empirical knowledge
from who is dependent the maintenance of the landscape where the touristic activities
will be developed.
- Saltpan owners in articulation with salt producers to make saltpans rehabilitation and
landscape maintenance happen.
- Tourist operators because they are the ones that better know what tourists want to
visit and also they can include in their tourist offers saltpans visitation and traditional
salt promotion.
- Institutional entities, e.g. tourism board, land planning commission, should be
involved, because they play a key role either in the promotion of the area either in the
regulation and control of activities in such a way that sustainability is ensured.

CONCLUSION

The disappearance of a secular activity as artisanal salt extraction and consequently of the
anthropogenic salt landscape, endangers not only its associated natural, cultural and historical
heritage, as well as the emerging opportunities that could arise by a sustainable tourism
activity.
In other European and National saltpans the leader agents were either associative structures
either business structures. In these saltpans places the producer as a proactive attitude rather
concerning the biodiversity value of the space rather concerning the promotion of sustainable
complementary activities.

10
In Aveiro Saltpans the majority of the producers are linked to the old idea of a large scale
production (done in the past) of a regular product. A product commercialized in large packs to
the wholesalers, without a marketing strategy. For these producers the saltpans are the
production place, they don’t promote any others activities. However a new entrepreneurship
mentality is beginning to emerge among the local producers, profiting from multiple unique
characteristics that the product, the local of production and the way to produce have
This paper is focused on a new area of research, the sustainable tourism in saltpans
(wetlands), where an increasing demand is felt.
The main conclusions that can be draw with this paper are that the guidelines for a sustainable
tourism program can be the beginning of a common strategy for the identified agents, with
develop of complementary activities to the artisanal salt extraction.
More scientific and technical studies must be carried out in this field in order to respond to
several questions, namely the conditions to implement the sustainable tourism program, the
conditions needed for news producer’s attraction, the promotion of a new “salt” mentality
through health and food education and the study of tourism activities demand in natural places
such us saltpans in order to adjust offer.

REFERENCES

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de Alava, Vitória

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um produto a conhecer? Relatório Final, Universidade de Aveiro, ECOSAL ATLANTIS,
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11
 Martins, F., Albuquerque, H., Silva, A. (2012) - Estratégias de Revitalização das Marinhas
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Sites

www.seldeguerande.com

12
CULTURAL HERITAGE, TRAVEL AND TOURISM,
AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES:
AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS

Calin Veghes
Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest

Ioana Cecilia Popescu


Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest

Diana Dugulan
Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest

Keywords: cultural heritage, travel and tourism, sustainable development, European Union

Together with the economic, demographic, social, institutional, and natural resources,
the cultural heritage represents an important asset that can be engaged and capitalized in order
to support the sustainable development of the local communities. Turning to the best account
of the cultural heritage represents also an important driver for the sustainable development of
the travel and tourism industry.
The paper explores the connections between the cultural heritage, travel and tourism
industry and the sustainable development based on the related indicators expressing the extent
of the cultural heritage, the development of the travel and tourism industry, and the level of
sustainable development in the European Union’s countries aiming to provide answers to the
following questions: (1) How significant is the relationship between the cultural heritage and
the development of the travel and tourism industry? (2) What is the contribution of the travel
and tourism industry to the sustainable development of the selected European countries? And
(3) is there a noteworthy connection between the capitalization of the cultural heritage and the
sustainable development of these countries?

Introduction
The cultural heritage, is defined by UNESCO as an assembly of monuments
(including architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or
structures of an architectural nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combination of
features), groups of buildings (groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of
their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding
universal value from the point of view of history, art or science), and sites (works of man or
the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites) which are of
outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological
point of view (UNESCO, 1972).
Together with other forms of capital – physical, natural, economic, human, social, and
organizational, the cultural heritage represents one of the major resources that can be
employed in order to support the sustainable development (Svendsen and Sørensen, 2007).
The capitalization of the cultural heritage represents an important driver for development,
including here the tourism activities in a specific area: when properly managed, it can enhance
the livability of their surrounding areas and sustain productivity in a changing global
environment (Pereira Roders & van Oers, 2011). Culture, cultural heritage and development
have been making an incalculable contribution toward improving human livelihoods and well-
being in lasting and sustainable ways (Bandarin et al., 2011).
According to the Leask and Rihova (2010), the heritage contribution in tourism
development, based on the capitalization of the available cultural resources, can be enhanced
through (1) implementing strategies of sustainable growth and effective diversification of the
local economy, (2) developing heritage tourism policies and products that meet the needs of
community, policy-makers and tourists, (3) improving the stakeholder communication and
participation in the creation of the authentic and individual visitor experiences, and (4)
connecting the sustainable tourism development with the heritage conservation, community
integration, and stakeholders.
The most frequently quoted definition given to the sustainable development is
that provided by the United Nation’s World Commission on Environment and
Development in the Brundtland Report (1987), stating that it refers to the development
meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs. The European Union (2010) views the sustainable development
standing for meeting the needs of present generations without jeopardizing the ability
of futures generations to meet their own needs, providing a better quality of life for
everyone, now and for generations to come.
At the intersection of the travel and tourism industry and the sustainable development
stands the sustainable tourism, which, according to UNESCO should: (1) make optimal use of
environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining
essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity; (2)
respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living
cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and
tolerance; and (3) ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic
benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and
income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to
poverty alleviation (UNWTO sustainable tourism development conceptual definition in
Pomering et al., 2011).

Methodological notes
In this context, the assessment of the relationships between the cultural heritage, travel
and tourism industry, and the level of sustainable development in the EU countries aims to
provide answers to the following research questions: (1) How significant is the relationship
between the cultural heritage and the development, in fact the competitiveness, of the travel
and tourism industry in the EU countries? (2) Is there a noteworthy connection between the
capitalization of the cultural heritage and the sustainable development of these countries? And
(3) what is the contribution of the travel and tourism industry to the sustainable development
of these countries?
The research hypotheses associated to these objectives state that: (1) there must be a
significant relationship between the cultural heritage and the development of the travel and
tourism industry in the EU countries; (2) the connection between the capitalization of the
cultural heritage and the sustainable development of these countries is rather poor; and (3) the
contribution of the travel and tourism industry to the sustainable development of these
countries is rather moderate.
The research has been conducted at the level of all EU Member States. At the level of
the year 2010, these countries attracted 353.3 millions of international tourists (representing
74.1 % of the total international tourist arrivals in Europe, respectively 37.6 % of the total
international tourist arrivals in the World) and accounted for 338.1 US$ billions (255 billions
of Euro) in international tourism receipts (representing 83.2 % of the total international
receipts in Europe, respectively 36.8 % of the total international receipts in the World).
The assessment of the relationships between the cultural heritage, the competitiveness
of the travel and tourism industry, and the level of sustainable development of the EU
countries has been conducted using 22 research variables:
(1) cultural heritage research variables:
a. WHS – the number of the cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) sites
inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List at the level of the year 2010;
b. EHL – the number of the heritage sites bearing the European Heritage Label
(celebrating and symbolizing the European integration, ideals and history) at
the level of the year 2010;
c. ECC – the number of the cities that have been designated European Capitals of
Culture up to the end of the year 2010;
d. T5M – the total number of admissions in the five most visited museums at the
level of the year 2010 (data not available for Bulgaria, Cyprus, Germany,
Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain).
(2) travel and tourism competitiveness research variables:
a. ITA – the international tourist arrivals (in thousands of tourists), at the level of
the year 2009;
b. ITR – the international tourism receipts (in US$ millions), at the level of the
year 2009;
c. TTI_GDP – the contribution of the travel and tourism industry to the formation
of the Gross Domestic Product (in US$ millions), at the level of the year 2010;
d. TTI_Emp – the contribution of the travel and tourism industry to the
generation of employment (in thousands of jobs), at the level of the year 2010;
e. TTE_GDP – the contribution of the travel and tourism economy to the
formation of the Gross Domestic Product (in US$ millions), at the level of the
year 2010;
f. TTE_Emp – the contribution of the travel and tourism economy to the
generation of employment (in thousands of jobs), at the level of the year 2010;
(3) sustainable development research variables (corresponding to its major themes):
a. GDPcap – Gross Domestic Product per capita, as a ratio of the real GDP to the
average population (in Euros per inhabitant), at the level of the year 2010. This
is the headline indicator for the socio-economic development theme;
b. ResPro – Resource productivity, as GDP divided by domestic material
consumption – the total amount of materials directly used by an economy (in
Euros per kilogram), at the level of the year 2009. This is the headline
indicator for the sustainable consumption and production theme;
c. PovSE – People at risk of poverty (or severely materially deprived, living in
households with very low work intensity) or social exclusion (as percentage in
1000 persons), at the level of the year 2010. This is the headline indicator for
the social inclusion theme;
d. EROW – Employment rate of older workers calculated by dividing the number
of persons in employment and aged 55 to 64 by the total population of the
same age group (as percentage), at the level of the year 2009. This is the
headline indicator for the demographic changes theme;
e. HLEF – Life expectancy at birth of the female population, as the mean number
of years still to be lived by a person at birth, at the level of the year 2009. This
is the headline indicator for the public health theme;
f. GGE90 – Greenhouse gas emissions expressing the annual total emissions in
relation to “Kyoto base year” (1990 for the non-fluorinated gases and 1995 for
the fluorinated gases), at the level of the year 2009. This is first headline
indicator for the climate change and energy theme;
g. Renew – Share of the renewable energy in gross final energy consumption (as
percentage), at the level of the year 2009. This is the second headline indicator
for the climate change and energy theme;
h. ECTra – Energy consumption of transport (road, rail, inland navigation and
aviation) relative to GDP (index 2000 = 100), at the level of the year 2009.
This is the headline indicator for the sustainable transport theme;
i. HabSi – Sufficiency of sites designated under the EU Habitats directive (as
percentage), at the level of the year 2010. This is one of the operational
indicators for the natural resources theme;
j. ODA – Official development assistance as a share of gross national income (as
percentage), at the level of the year 2010. This is the headline indicator for the
global partnership theme;
k. CEUI – Level of citizens’ confidence, as a share of positive opinions about the
European Commission (as percentage), at the level of the year 2009. This is
one of the explanatory indicators for the good governance theme.

Table 1. The cultural heritage and the travel and tourism industry in the EU countries
Country WHS EHL ECC Top5M ITA ITR TTIGDP TTIEmp TTEGDP TTEEmp

Austria 8 0 2 3144485 21355.4 19404.5 17.159 187 52.074 559


Belgium 10 4 3 1828883 6813.7 9833.3 12.434 115 42.163 393
Bulgaria 7 4 0 5738.9 3727.8 1.567 86 5.951 324
Cyprus 3 4 0 2141.2 2162.4 1.701 36 4.093 77
Czech Rep. 12 4 1 2160181 6032.4 6478.4 3.682 92 21.427 473
Denmark 3 0 1 1875691 4503.0 5672.8 9.821 84 25.960 227
Estonia 2 0 0 537691 1970.0 1091.3 0.649 17 2.886 73
Finland 6 0 1 934762 3423.0 2820.2 6.631 60 17.763 166
France 32 4 3 22099915 74200.0 49398.2 107.602 1095 284.584 2847
Germany 32 2 3 24223.5 34709.4 79.091 940 273.350 3191
Greece 17 4 3 2571713 14914.5 14506.2 22.775 418 50.183 785
Hungary 7 4 1 9058.0 5630.6 4.027 183 9.770 263
Ireland 2 0 2 1296129 7189.0 4890.2 4.076 33 14.829 114
Italy 42 4 3 10190715 43238.9 40249.0 89.770 1018 217.140 2478
Latvia 2 3 0 816758 1323.0 723.0 0.407 12 1.623 49
Lithuania 4 4 1 1341.0 1092.3 0.425 12 2.094 57
Luxembourg 1 0 2 214046 848.5 4173.9 1.466 8 4.457 25
Malta 3 1 0 1183.0 839.8 0.858 22 1.702 38
Netherlands 8 0 2 4390000 9920.8 12367.7 23.163 211 62.099 549
Poland 12 4 1 11890.0 9011.0 7.990 254 35.707 1054
Portugal 12 4 2 2347854 12320.8 9649.6 14.408 377 35.799 943
Romania 6 4 1 1703000 1272.1 1227.4 3.405 267 9.006 519
Slovakia 5 4 0 1298.1 2335.6 1.525 35 9.890 206
Slovenia 0 3 0 1803.5 2511.1 1.389 30 6.487 117
Spain 38 4 3 52231.1 53176.7 91.828 1280 237.898 3205
Sweden 13 0 1 3855766 4855.3 10261.5 13.229 117 38.864 335
United Kingdom 24 0 2 23808162 28199.0 30148.7 88.961 1391 231.146 3144

Secondary data regarding the cultural heritage, the travel and tourism competitiveness
and the level of sustainable development of the EU countries, provided by the EuroStat Office
of the European Commission and the World Economic Forum in Geneva (Switzerland) have
been employed. An analysis of the internal consistency of the indicators related to the
variables in each of three research areas has been performed. Data have been processed using
the Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient.
Table 2. The level of sustainable development in the EU countries
Country GDPc ResPro PovSE EROW HLEF GGE90 Renew ECTra HabSi ODA CEUI

Austria 31400 1.38 16.6 42.4 83.2 102 29.7 105.9 89 0.32 46
Belgium 29600 1.75 20.8 37.3 82.8 87 4.6 102.7 100 0.64 58
Bulgaria 3500 0.22 41.6 43.5 77.4 53 11.6 98.8 94 0.09 59
Cyprus 19000 0.60 23.6 56.8 83.6 178 4.6 92.0 40 0.20 56
Czech Rep. 11400 0.66 14.4 46.5 80.5 68 8.5 110.5 60 0.12 59
Denmark 37200 1.69 18.3 58.4 81.1 90 19.9 103.2 100 0.90 55
Estonia 8300 0.35 21.7 53.8 80.2 41 22.8 93.2 98 0.10 62
Finland 30800 0.86 16.9 56.2 83.5 94 30.3 93.6 99 0.55 57
France 27300 2.20 19.3 39.7 85.0 92 12.3 90.2 99 0.50 39
Germany 29000 1.84 19.7 57.7 82.8 74 9.8 88.5 99 0.38 43
Greece 17300 1.23 27.7 42.3 82.7 117 8.2 99.9 100 0.17 58
Hungary 8800 0.80 29.9 34.4 78.4 69 7.7 121.9 86 0.1 54
Ireland 36400 0.73 29.9 50.2 82.5 114 5.0 91.8 94 0.53 51
Italy 23500 2.01 24.5 36.6 84.6 95 8.9 97.2 99 0.15 51
Latvia 5600 0.39 38.1 48.2 78.0 40 34.3 95.1 95 0.06 38
Lithuania 6700 0.61 33.4 48.6 78.7 44 17.0 94.3 66 0.10 49
Luxembourg 65600 3.41 17.1 39.6 83.3 91 2.7 101.2 100 1.09 59
Malta 12900 3.33 20.6 30.2 82.7 139 0.2 109.3 98 0.11 55
Netherlands 33200 3.47 15.1 53.7 82.9 94 4.1 94.0 100 0.81 61
Poland 8100 0.47 27.8 34.0 80.1 83 8.9 120.0 78 0.08 48
Portugal 14800 0.76 25.3 49.2 82.6 126 24.5 106.4 89 0.29 61
Romania 4200 0.21 41.4 41.1 77.4 52 22.4 103.2 82 0.07 58
Slovakia 8900 0.63 20.6 40.5 79.1 59 10.3 106.5 74 0.09 64
Slovenia 15300 0.89 18.3 35.0 82.7 105 16.9 110.6 74 0.13 46
Spain 20600 1.47 25.5 43.6 84.9 130 13.3 93.6 99 0.43 50
Sweden 34300 1.66 15.0 70.5 83.5 83 47.3 91.0 100 0.97 49
United Kingdom 30200 2.90 23.1 57.1 82.5 73 2.9 88.1 100 0.56 21

The analysis of the internal consistency of the cultural heritage related indicators has
revealed that 3 out of 4 indicators – WHS, ECC, and T5M – are significantly associated and,
thus, could be considered as describing appropriately the content of the cultural heritage. The
poor association of the fourth indicator – EHL – could be explained mainly by its very recent
development and employment: the European Heritage Label was launched only in 2006,
aiming to improve the knowledge of European history and the EU’s role and values, being
granted to only 65 sites from 18 countries.
Table 3. Consistency of the cultural heritage indicators
Correlations

WHS EHL ECC T5M


Spearman's rho WHS Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .341 .691** .880**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .081 .000 .000
N 27 27 27 17
EHL Correlation Coefficient .341 1.000 .061 .191
Sig. (2-tailed) .081 . .762 .463
N 27 27 27 17
ECC Correlation Coefficient .691** .061 1.000 .536*
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .762 . .027
N 27 27 27 17
T5M Correlation Coefficient .880** .191 .536* 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .463 .027 .
N 17 17 17 17
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Identification of the cultural heritage research variables has represented one of the
most difficult tasks of this research approach as, on the one hand, there are few reliable and
comparable statistics regarding the development of the cultural sector in the EU and, on the
other hand, the few available indicators do not provide accurate and recent information for all
the EU Member States. Improvement of the framework and availability of the cultural
statistics of each of the EU countries and of the Union as a whole represents, in this context,
not only a key issue, but also a challenge for the European Commission.
The analysis of the internal consistency of the travel and tourism industry’s related
indicators has revealed that all the considered variables are highly correlated (the lowest value
of the Spearman’ Rho being of 0.844), and form a highly consistent set able to provide a
reliable measurement of the EU countries’ travel and tourism competitiveness.

Table 4. Consistency of the travel and tourism indicators


Correlations

ITA ITR TTI_GDP TTI_E TTE_GDP TTE_E


Spearman's rho ITA Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .907** .898** .852** .879** .872**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 27 27 27 27 27 27
ITR Correlation Coefficient .907** 1.000 .955** .844** .964** .871**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 . .000 .000 .000 .000
N 27 27 27 27 27 27
TTI_GDP Correlation Coefficient .898** .955** 1.000 .902** .973** .888**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 . .000 .000 .000
N 27 27 27 27 27 27
TTI_E Correlation Coefficient .852** .844** .902** 1.000 .873** .969**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 . .000 .000
N 27 27 27 27 27 27
TTE_GDP Correlation Coefficient .879** .964** .973** .873** 1.000 .904**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 . .000
N 27 27 27 27 27 27
TTE_E Correlation Coefficient .872** .871** .888** .969** .904** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .
N 27 27 27 27 27 27
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

An increasing volume of the international tourist arrivals seems to determine better


performances not only in terms of the tourism receipts, but also from a macroeconomic
perspective: an increased contribution to the GDP formation, respectively more workplaces,
in both cases at the level of the industry and of the entire economy. Also, an increasing
volume of the international tourism receipts creates a significant impact over the contribution
of the travel and tourism industry to the GDP formation and, as well, the overall GDP growth
at the level of the entire economy.
The analysis of the internal consistency of the sustainable development indicators has
revealed that less than a half of their bivariate associations are significant. The different nature
of the variables considered to assess the sustainable development – covering an extremely
diverse range of topics, from socio-economic to good governance, and their distinctive levels
of measurement – headline indicators, operational or explanatory indicators – explain this
apparent lack of consistency.
The official development assistance as a share of gross national income –
corresponding to the sustainable development theme of global partnership (8), resource
productivity – corresponding to the theme of sustainable consumption and production (7), and
life expectancy at birth of the female population – corresponding to the theme of public health
(7) represents the variables with the highest, while levels of citizens’ confidence in the
European Commission (0) and, somewhat surprisingly, the share of the renewable energy in
gross final energy consumption (1) are the variables with the lowest number of significant
associations with other sustainable development variables.
Although all these indicators are considered robust and capable of providing a reliable
measure of the sustainable development, their aggregation suggests that there is still enough
room for a further improvement in terms of the consistency of the measurement.
Table 5. Consistency of the sustainable development indicators
Correlations

GDPcap ResPro PovSE EROW HLEF GGE90 Renew ECTra HabSi ODA CEUI
Spearman's rho GDPcap Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .734** -.636** .358 .682** .482* -.189 -.379 .643** .945** -.124
Sig. (2-tailed) . .000 .000 .067 .000 .011 .346 .051 .000 .000 .538
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
ResPro Correlation Coefficient .734** 1.000 -.572** -.032 .660** .447* -.436* -.208 .706** .742** -.197
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 . .002 .875 .000 .019 .023 .297 .000 .000 .324
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
PovSE Correlation Coefficient -.636** -.572** 1.000 -.214 -.548** -.227 .006 .036 -.297 -.609** -.072
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .002 . .284 .003 .256 .977 .859 .133 .001 .722
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
EROW Correlation Coefficient .358 -.032 -.214 1.000 .095 -.102 .316 -.670** .243 .418* -.027
Sig. (2-tailed) .067 .875 .284 . .636 .614 .109 .000 .223 .030 .893
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
HLEF Correlation Coefficient .682** .660** -.548** .095 1.000 .693** -.112 -.413* .433* .684** -.180
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .003 .636 . .000 .578 .032 .024 .000 .368
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
GGE90 Correlation Coefficient .482* .447* -.227 -.102 .693** 1.000 -.277 -.002 .145 .437* -.027
Sig. (2-tailed) .011 .019 .256 .614 .000 . .161 .991 .470 .023 .894
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
Renew Correlation Coefficient -.189 -.436* .006 .316 -.112 -.277 1.000 -.055 -.147 -.188 -.153
Sig. (2-tailed) .346 .023 .977 .109 .578 .161 . .787 .465 .348 .446
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
ECTra Correlation Coefficient -.379 -.208 .036 -.670** -.413* -.002 -.055 1.000 -.437* -.441* .291
Sig. (2-tailed) .051 .297 .859 .000 .032 .991 .787 . .023 .021 .141
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
HabSi Correlation Coefficient .643** .706** -.297 .243 .433* .145 -.147 -.437* 1.000 .710** -.046
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .133 .223 .024 .470 .465 .023 . .000 .819
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
ODA Correlation Coefficient .945** .742** -.609** .418* .684** .437* -.188 -.441* .710** 1.000 -.053
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .001 .030 .000 .023 .348 .021 .000 . .794
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
CEUI Correlation Coefficient -.124 -.197 -.072 -.027 -.180 -.027 -.153 .291 -.046 -.053 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .538 .324 .722 .893 .368 .894 .446 .141 .819 .794 .
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Main findings
The relationships between the cultural heritage and the travel and tourism industry are
characterized through a relatively high degree of significance: the cultural heritage variables
that are significantly correlated between them (WHM, ECC, and T5M), are also significantly
correlated with the travel and tourism industry’s variables (ITA, ITR, TTI_GDP, TTI_Emp,
TTE_GDP, and TTE_Emp). Only the associations between the EHL and the variables
describing the travel and tourism industry’s performances have proved to be not significant.
Based on these results, the hypothesis according to which there must be a significant
relationship between the cultural heritage and the development of the travel and tourism
industry in the EU countries is confirmed.

Table 6. Cultural heritage and travel and tourism industry in the EU countries
Spearman’s rho ITA ITR TTI_GDP TTI_Emp TTE_GDP TTE_Emp
WHS Correlation
.832** .853** .853** .905** .852** .912**
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 27 27 27 27 27 27
EHL Correlation
.155 .050 .027 .278 .016 .277
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .440 .804 .893 .161 .935 .162
N 27 27 27 27 27 27
ECC Correlation
.747** .849** .828** .685** .823** .691**
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 27 27 27 27 27 27
T5M Correlation
.855** .922** .924** .882** .939** .890**
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 17 17 17 17 17 17
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
The cultural heritage represents an important driver of the development of the travel
and tourism industry in the EU countries. The existence of the cultural sites of outstanding
value (such as the sites inscribed on the World Heritage List), the museums displaying
valuable cultural and artistic objects, and, overall, of the cultural resources to be promoted and
capitalized provide a strong support for the travel and tourism industry’s development,
performances and competitiveness.
These results also illustrate one of the essential features of the tourists’ behavior,
which, despite of their main reason for going on holidays – recreation, rest, wellness or health
treatment, spending time with their families, visiting friends or relatives, nature or sports
related – choose their destination taking into consideration the existence of a cultural site
(included or not on the World Heritage List), a cultural institution (museum, memorial house,
fortress, church, archaeological site etc.) or of one or more cultural attractions that deserve to
be visited and experienced.
The overall assessment of the relationships between the cultural heritage and the level
of sustainable development of the EU countries indicates, on the one hand, rather poor
correlations of the related variables confirming the hypothesis stating that the connection
between the cultural heritage and the sustainable development of these countries is rather
poor. On the other hand, the results must be considered with caution due to the particular and
different nature of the research variables.

Table 7. Cultural heritage and the level of sustainable development in the EU countries
Spearman's rho GDPcap ResPro PovSE EROW HLEF GGE90 Renew ECTra HabSi ODA CEUI
WHS Correlation
.106 .331 -.056 .036 .377 .124 -.027 -.238 .307 .186 -.227
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .598 .092 .783 .859 .053 .539 .894 .232 .119 .353 .254
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
EHL Correlation
-.636** -.381* .509** -.477* -.184 -.053 -.071 .340 -.474* -.544** .124
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .050 .007 .012 .357 .793 .724 .083 .013 .003 .538
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
ECC Correlation
.517** .582** -.104 .000 .535** .332 -.208 -.310 .547** .547** -.193
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .006 .001 .605 .999 .004 .091 .298 .116 .003 .003 .335
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
T5M Correlation
.076 .532* -.203 .017 .438 .294 -.140 -.223 .222 .150 -.389
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .772 .028 .434 .948 .079 .252 .593 .389 .392 .567 .123
N 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

The association between the WHS and the set of variables describing the sustainable
development of the EU countries appears to be rather poor or even very poor. The highest
absolute values of the Spearman’s rho indicate poor correlations between the number of the
cultural sites inscribed on the World Heritage List and the life expectancy of the female
population, resource productivity, and the sufficiency of sites designated under the EU
Habitats directive.
Somewhat surprisingly, the associations between the EHL and the set of variables
describing the sustainable development of the EU countries proved to be significant in 6 out
of 11 cases. The European Heritage Label appears to correlate significantly with the GDP per
capita, official development assistance as a share of gross national income, percentage of
people at risk of poverty or social exclusion, employment rate of older workers, sufficiency of
sites designated under the EU Habitats directive, and resources productivity. With the
exception of the percentage of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion, all these
correlations are negative suggesting that the European Heritage Label has been employed, as
a tool for the promotion of the cultural heritage, in the countries with a rather lower level of
sustainable development.
Instead, the associations between the ECC and the set of variables describing the
sustainable development of the EU countries illustrate significant and positive associations
with the resources productivity, official development assistance as a share of gross national
income, sufficiency of sites designated under the EU Habitats directive, life expectancy of the
female population and GDP per capita. The Cultural Capital of Europe appears to be an
effective instrument in the promotion and capitalization of the European cities’ cultural
heritage and, consequently, a strong contributor to the sustainable development.
Visiting the top (five or more) museums does not seem to contribute to the sustainable
development of the EU countries. Only one out of 11 associations between this variable and
the variables describing the sustainable development has proved to be significant: visiting
museums appears to be significantly correlated to the resources productivity.
The overall assessment of the relationships between the travel and tourism, and the
level of sustainable development of the EU countries indicates a rather moderate contribution
of the travel and tourism industry to the sustainable development of these countries, which
confirms the research hypothesis.
Table 8. Travel and tourism and the level of sustainable development in the EU countries
Spearman's rho GDPcap ResPro PovSE EROW HLEF GGE90 Renew ECTra HabSi ODA CEUI
ITA Correlation
.272 .347 -.018 .080 .416* .301 -.070 -.294 .292 .291 -.355
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .169 .076 .929 .692 .031 .127 .730 .137 .140 .141 .069
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
ITR Correlation
.499** .578** -.267 .072 .572** .332 -.122 -.275 .488** .526** -.290
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .008 .002 .178 .721 .002 .091 .545 .165 .010 .005 .143
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
TTI_ Correlation
.505** .553** -.221 .159 .586** .391* -.081 -.347 .511** .531** -.258
GDP Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .007 .003 .268 .429 .001 .044 .687 .076 .006 .004 .194
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
TTI_ Correlation
.134 .307 .031 .028 .317 .212 -.048 -.199 .293 .188 -.246
Emp Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .505 .120 .877 .891 .107 .289 .812 .319 .138 .349 .215
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
TTE_ Correlation
.491** .549** -.305 .141 .540** .286 -.055 -.311 .483* .510** -.268
GDP Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .009 .003 .121 .483 .004 .148 .787 .114 .011 .007 .176
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
TTE_ Correlation
.121 .269 -.024 .038 .291 .150 .012 -.170 .244 .166 -.255
Emp Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .548 .175 .906 .849 .141 .455 .952 .397 .220 .407 .199
N 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

The international tourist arrivals (ITA) correlate significantly with only one of the
variables expressing the level of the sustainable development of the EU countries – the life
expectancy of the female population. The rather poor or even very poor associations between
ITA and the rest of the sustainable development variables suggest that a more consistent flow
of international tourists, although capable of generating better revenues for the travel and
tourism industry, does not necessarily support the sustainable development of the country.
Yet, a more effective turning to best account of an increasing flow of international tourists
could generate benefits regarding the socio-economic and sustainable consumption and
production aspects.
The international tourism receipts (ITR) correlates significantly with 5 out of 11
variables expressing the level of the sustainable development of the EU countries – resources
productivity, life expectancy of the female population, official development assistance as a
share of gross national income, GDP per capita, and sufficiency of sites designated under the
EU Habitats directive. The volume of revenues generated by the travel and tourism industry
seems to contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the EU countries, mainly
through an increased productivity of resources and a higher level of GDP per capita.
The contribution of the travel and tourism industry to the formation of the GDP
correlates with 6 out of 11 variables expressing the sustainable development in the EU
countries – life expectancy of the female population, resources productivity, official
development assistance as a share of gross national income, sufficiency of sites designated
under the EU Habitats directive, GDP per capita, and the greenhouse gas emissions. The
industry’s part of the GDP may support the sustainable development of the EU countries’
economies by improving the productivity of resources, increasing the GDP per capita, seizing
the opportunities provided by a population experiencing an extended life expectancy,
supporting the preservation of the natural habitat sites, providing an extended share of the
gross national income to be allocated for the programs of official development assistance, and
decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions by employing more ecological means of
transportation and promoting the sustainable tourism.
The employment in the travel and tourism industry does not seem to contribute
significantly to the sustainable development of the EU economies, as none of the correlations
between the considered variables has proven to be significant. Apparently, the existing and
the newly created workplaces in the travel and tourism support only the competitiveness of
the industry, the contribution to the overall competitiveness and sustainable development of
the economies being poor or even very poor. Yet, the employment policies and practices of
the travel and tourism industry could support to the sustainable development of the EU
economies by bringing more significant contributions regarding the effective employment of
an active population with an extended life expectancy and the improvements in terms of the
productivity of resources.
The contributions of the travel and tourism economy to the formation of the GDP
correlates with 5 out of 11 variables expressing the sustainable development in the EU
countries – resources productivity, life expectancy of the female population, official
development assistance as a share of the gross national income, GDP per capita, and the
sufficiency of sites designated under the EU Habitats directive. As in the case of the travel
and tourism industry, the economy’s contribution to the GDP formation may support the
sustainable development of the EU countries’ economies by improving the productivity of
resources, seizing the opportunities provided by the extended life expectancy of the
population, allowing an extended allocation of the resources in the official programs for
development assistance, increasing the GDP per capita and supporting the sufficiency of the
sites designated under the EU Habitats directive.
Finally, the employment generated by the travel and tourism industry at the level of
the entire economy also does not seem to contribute significantly to the sustainable
development of the EU economies: again, none of the measured correlations, between the
considered variables, has proven to be significant.
Although the travel and tourism sector creates indirect jobs, this capability seems to
support only the proper functioning of the travel and tourism industry and the connected
business areas, and not the overall competitiveness and sustainable development of the EU
countries’ economies. The employment generated by the industry at the level of the economy
could also support the sustainable development of the EU economies through a more effective
employment of an active population with an extended life expectancy and the improvements
of the resources productivity.
Conclusions and limits of the research
The exploratory assessment of the relationships between the cultural heritage, travel
and tourism, and the sustainable development at the level of the EU countries, based on the
set of 22 research variables, allows drawing of the following conclusions:
there are significant relationships between the cultural heritage and the travel and
tourism industries of the EU countries. The existence of the cultural resources – in the
form of the cultural sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, cultural institutions or
attractions – and their capitalization impacts significantly the performances and
competitiveness of the travel and tourism industry and create a solid support for its
contribution to the sustainable development of the EU countries’ economies;
the relationships between the cultural heritage and the sustainable development are,
overall, poor or even very poor. Still, these associations suggest that a macroeconomic
approach of the cultural heritage capitalization, i.e. the promotion of the cultural
resources of a local community through the concept of the European Capital of
Culture, tends to support in a more effective manner the sustainable development than
the efforts targeted at the microeconomic level and aiming to promote a cultural site,
institution or attraction;
the relationships between the travel and tourism industry and the sustainable
development of the EU countries are rather moderate in terms of the industry’s
contribution to their sustainable development. These relationships are more visible in
connection with the particular themes of the sustainable development regarding the
socio-economic aspects and the sustainable consumption and production.
These results should be considered in the context created by the two obvious limits of
the research. The first refers to the variables considered in the assessment of the relationships
between the cultural heritage, travel and tourism and the sustainable development. Taking into
consideration the internal consistency, only the variables related to the travel and tourism can
be maintained and employed in the further, more in-depth research approaches. Instead, the
variables describing the cultural heritage and the sustainable development should be revised:
more data expressing the extent, nature and the quality of the heritage must be added, while
data regarding the sustainable development must be revised in terms of their relevancy.
The second limit refers to the design of the research approach: taking a snapshot of the
relationships between the cultural heritage, travel and tourism industry, and the sustainable
development may reveal the momentum. More consistent explanations will be provided by a
longitudinal research approach highlighting the improvements in all three investigated areas.

References
1. Bandarin, F.; Hosagrahar, J.; Sailer Albernaz, F. (2011) Why development needs culture.
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 1 (1), p. 15-25.
2. Blanke, J.; Chiesa, T. (2011) The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011. Beyond
The Downturm. World Economic Forum: Geneva, Switzerland. Available from
http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TravelTourismCompetitiveness_Report_2011.pdf.
3. European Commission (2010) Sustainable development. Available from
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/.
4. Leask, A.; Rihova, I. (2010) The role of heritage tourism in the Shetland Islands.
International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 4(2), p. 118-129.
5. Pereira Roders, A.; van Oers, R. (2011) World Heritage cities management. Facilities, 29
(7/8), p. 276-285.
6. Pomering, A.; Noble, G.; Johnson, L. W. (2011). Conceptualising a contemporary
marketing mix for sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 19 (8), p. 953-969.
7. Svendsen, G.L.H.; Sørensen, J.F.L. (2007) There’s more to the picture than meets the eye:
measuring tangible and intangible capital in two marginal communities in rural Denmark.
Journal of Rural Studies, 23, p. 453-471.
8. UNESCO (1972) Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural
heritage. Available from http://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext.
9. World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our Common Future,
Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development. Avaialable from http://www.un-
documents.net/ocf-02.htm.
10. * * * (2011) Cultural Statistics. Eurostat Pocketbook. Eurostat Statistical Books:
Luxembourg. Available from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-32-10-
374/EN/KS-32-10-374-EN.PDF.
11. * * * (2011) Sustainable Development in the European Union. 2011 Monitoring Report of
the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. Eurostat Statistical Books: Luxembourg. Available
from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-31-11-224/EN/KS-31-11-224-
EN.PDF.
História, turismo e património: o caso do Pórtico da Sé de Lamego/ History, tourism
and heritage: the case of Lamego Cathedral’s Pórtico

Isabel Vieira/ Teacher in Tourism Studies


Lamego Technology and Management School - Viseu Polytechnic Institute
(PORTUGAL)

ivieira@estgl.ipv.pt

Carlota M. Ribeiro/ Coordinator Professor, PhD

Lamego Technology and Management School - Viseu Polytechnic Institute


(PORTUGAL)

cribeiro@estgl.ipv.pt

Didiana Branco/ Teacher in Tourism Studies

Lamego Technology and Management School - Viseu Polytechnic Institute


(PORTUGAL)

dribeiro@estgl.ipv.pt

Abstract
This article aims to show the approximation between the training of History and Tourism.
Thus, a multidisciplinary team has researched the intersections between these two scientific
areas.
In the construction of the discourses of the patrimonial elements, having as an end the
presentation for the potential visitors, we discovered that both the historic and the touristic
discourses have similarities, differing, mostly, in the language type that is used. Teaching
history deposits in the narrative construction an opportunity to cultivate the history training of
the students, in order to achieve historic consciousness. The narratives carved by Tourism do
not deny the historic ones, but their intention passes by the aggregation of values and
interpretations that differentiate the Patrimony.
Being the Lamego Cathedral of great historic value, we strived to aggregate this condition to
tourism, through the singular experiences, stimulating the visitors’ curiosity and diverging
from the factual information.
The discourses previously constructed and posteriorly used by the students, mainly in what
respects to the Portico of the Cathedral, have become progressively less rigid and more
seductive, yet still maintaining the historic rigor.
This investigation proves that the interpretation of the historic resources allows the
construction of a tourist patrimony product, just as defined by the Ashword model (1994).
The discourses previously constructed and posteriorly used by the students, mainly in what
respects to the Portico of the Cathedral, have become progressively less rigid and more
seductive, yet still maintaining the historic rigor.
This investigation proves that the interpretation of the historic resources allows the
construction of a tourist patrimony product, just as defined by the Ashword model (1994).
Keywords: Education; Historic resources; Interpretation Techniques; Tourism.

Introdução
Convencidos da ineficácia da metodologia passiva em aula, que converte os alunos em
recetores dispostos a gravar tudo aquilo que lhes é dito para posteriormente o reproduzir (de
melhor ou pior forma), pensou-se na realização de uma experiência pedagógica que inverta
este sistema, e que venha ao encontro das diretrizes propostas pelo processo de Bolonha, isto
é, conseguir um ensino menos baseado na transmissão de conhecimentos, mas mais
concentrado no desenvolvimento de competências. Como resultado destas observações, e com
o objetivo da promoção do diálogo e da congregação de esforços com os promotores locais e
gestores do património, surgiu a ideia da criação de um projeto de dinamização e valorização
do património cultural, baseado na interdisciplinaridade das unidades curriculares de história,
interpretação e itinerários turísticos.
A partir dessa proposta inicial, inúmeras experiências e atividades têm sido realizadas, em
diferentes contextos e locais, que demonstraram resultados surpreendentes no crescimento
intelectual dos alunos e no desenvolvimento das suas competências, bem como tem permitido
a recuperação da memória coletiva, o resgate da auto-estima de comunidade e o encontro de
soluções inovadoras de apresentação e interpretação do património cultural. Trata-se portanto
de um processo sistemático centrado no rigor histórico e na flexibilidade do discurso que a
ciência da interpretação nos pode oferecer, que procura simultaneamente contribuir para o
fortalecimento das identidades culturais e para o desenvolvimento económico e social das
comunidades locais.
Património, história e interpretação
A História e a Cultura têm estado presentes nas motivações dos turistas desde longa data.
Basta lembrar que eram estes dois fatores que levavam os jovens aristocratas, no século
XVIII, a efetuar viagens, para os centros intelectuais e artísticos da Europa, viagens que
mereceram a designação de Grand Tour (Henriques 2003).
Mas é a partir dos anos 70/80, que o património ganha novos e alargados significados
(Asworth, 1994; Choay 1982), fazendo hoje parte das motivações profundas de um número
crescente de pessoas esta procura é, ainda, mais expressiva nos locais classificados como
Património da humanidade (Richards, 2009; Chen et al, 2008). Este crescimento da procura é
também uma realidade do nosso espaço de estudo - Douro Património da Humanidade
(CCDRn, 2011).
Os recursos em que se baseia o Património constituem um conglomerado de vestígios,
acontecimentos passados, personalidades, tradições populares, mitologias, associações
literárias, edifícios associados a lugares, cidades e paisagens, que se encontram intimamente
ligados entre si, pelo tempo ou pelo espaço. Estas “matérias” são selecionados, não apenas
porque foram os que sobreviveram, mas, sobretudo, como uma forma objetiva e deliberada de
captar a atenção do turista (Turnbridge e Ashworth 1996).
Assim, tendo presente que o relacionamento entre o Património e o Turismo se instalou de
forma definitiva, há que estabelecer regras de convivência entre ambos numa visão de
rentabilização económica e de desenvolvimento social, principalmente sabendo-se que os
recursos histórico-arquitetónicos e urbanísticos são fatores essências para diferenciação da
cidade. O desafio que se coloca ao Turismo é o de utilizar os recursos patrimoniais, numa
perspetiva de desenvolvimento durável, assente em critérios de qualidade, para que os seus

2
benefícios resultem numa efetiva melhoria de qualidade dos cidadãos, tanto daqueles que o
praticam como daqueles que o acolhem (McKercher et al, 2005; Richards, 2009).
O turismo cultural que se consubstancia na oferta de produtos culturais, compreende as
atividades relacionadas com um conjunto de elementos significativos do património histórico
e cultural e de eventos culturais valorizando e promovendo os bens materiais e imateriais da
cultura. Atualmente, o Turismo Cultural, apesar de se filiar nalgumas das motivações dos
viajantes dos séculos XVIII e XIX, tem pouco a ver com a aventura romântica e com o
interesse científico. Deixou de ser um fenómeno isolado e minoritário, para se converter numa
oferta do sistema turístico global (Agustí 2003; Richards, 2009).
Deste modo, hoje é fundamental, que os grupos interessados (Instituições, Empresas
Turísticas, entre outros) assumam uma estratégia adaptada aos mercados. Para que isso seja
possível, é necessário conhecer as necessidades, desejos e motivações dos visitantes, o que
permitirá uma gestão sustentável do monumento, que atenda não só à sua conservação e
comercialização, como à sua promoção (Cross, 2001; McKercher et al, 2005; Carlo e Dubini,
2010). Vários autores apresentam linhas estratégicas de gestão (Prentice, 1993; Harrison,
1996; Middleton, 2000; Cross, 2001; Patin, 2005).
No que diz respeito à gestão das atrações patrimoniais, a inovação do produto, que em muitos
casos passa pela arte de interpretar, possibilita visitas repetidas, quer por parte das pessoas em
geral, quer pela comunidade residente (Lanquar, 2001), tem vindo a consolidar-se e diversos
autores apontam novos caminhos (Miranda, 2001; Richard, 2009; Johns e Hoseason, 2000).
As abordagens, bem como os planos de interpretação, variam de acordo com o tipo de
visitantes e segmentos que se pretende atingir, possibilitando a diferentes faixas desfrutar do
mesmo recurso, da mesma atração, mas de forma diferente (Middleton, 2001).
M. Miranda (2001) afirma que a interpretação permite atuar com perfeito conhecimento de
causa numa determinada linha, conseguindo alcançar propósitos específicos de modo a
explicar os valores dos recursos.
Este autor chama a atenção para o facto da utilidade da interpretação não ser suficientemente
compreendida. Por isso é frequente que certos administradores de espaços com importância
patrimonial e alguns investigadores e conservadores não vejam com bons olhos a
interpretação. Para muitos, a interpretação é o “patinho feito da gestão” (Miranda 2001).
A Célula de Promotion y Animación del Desarrollo Rural nas conclusões das jornadas
técnicas, corrobora a opinião de M. Miranda e afirma que a interpretação desempenha um
papel muito importante: é a chave para proporcionar códigos de leitura de patrimónios e
paisagens que permitam ao visitante tanto ver, como, explorar, situar, observar, analisar,
compreender (CPADR 2005).
Esta é uma cidade detentora de um espólio arquitetónico de grande valor. O seu património
edificado centra-se nas diversas igrejas, principalmente na sua catedral, no Museu de Lamego,
no Bairro do Castelo e no Teatro Ribeiro Conceição.
Caso de estudo: O Pórtico da Catedral de Lamego
Na Idade Média cristã, os artistas, assim como os escritores, tinham como hábito recorrer ao
mundo animal, mineral e vegetal, para de alguma maneira, enaltecerem e fomentarem a vida
religiosa. Procedente do mundo greco - romano, bizantino e persa, o bestiário impõe-se no
mundo cristão medieval, embora com resistência e críticas de alguns pensadores da época. No
entanto é nas próprias Escrituras que vamos encontrar a sua origem e, por isso a sua leitura
terá de ser efectuada, não só no seu sentido literal e histórico, como também no moral e
alegórico, sendo estes dois aspectos de primordial importância na transmissão do bestiário

3
bíblico. Alguns temas bíblicos não dispensam seres fantásticos ou animais exóticos: a besta
do Apocalipse, Daniel na cova dos leões, o Leviatã, Jonas saindo da baleia, a tentação de
Adão e Eva; a hagiografia também, como no caso do combate de São Miguel e o dragão, as
tentações dos santos eremitas. Os monstros e outros seres dos capitéis seriam elementos
decorativos, marginália para a narração ou simbolização de partes da doutrina ou da história
sagrada,e indicam as relações da arte medieval com as manifestações estéticas orientais. Na
sequência deste legado bíblico, o bestiário medievo foi constituído pela presença dos animais
nos milagres, onde surgiam como instrumentos da divindade, ora para punir os inimigos da fé
dos israelitas ou os pecadores, ora para proteger os homens santos, ou ainda para restabelecer
a ordem divina e fazer prevalecer os desígnios de Deus. .

FIG. 1 - Igreja da Sé – Lamego (Autor Pedro Quintela)


O Bestiário era, pois, uma espécie de registo no qual estavam descritos, os animais da Criação
e todos os outros inventados pela fantasia e aceites pela credibilidade dos contadores de prosa
e dos poetas que haviam perpetrado o espírito popular da Idade Média. Neste sentido, os
letrados cristãos da Alta Idade Média procuraram, através de uma abordagem simbólico-
alegórica, descortinar nos seres naturais os sinais que o Criador neles tinha inscrito.
Apareciam em várias obras escritas, influenciadas, sobretudo, pelo consagrado Livro das
Maravilhas de Jean de Mandeville, pioneiro na revisão da fauna fabulosa, híbrida e exótica.
Desenvolveu-se, portanto, uma visão letrada da natureza, segundo a qual esta era entendida
como constituída por um conjunto de símbolos e sinais que deviam ser lidos e descodificados
de forma a entender os desígnios divinos da Criação. O Bestiário tomou conta do imaginário
ocidental trazendo fábulas, mitologias e as teogonias mais diversas. Do ponto de vista da
antropologia e da história das religiões, o bestiário é primordial, na medida em que nos inteira
do conhecimento do imaginário humano. Pode-se citar como exemplo Romeu e Julieta
(William Shakespeare) que tem suas origens na obra de Arthur Brooke (The Tragicall History
of Romeus and Juliet - 1562) que, por sua vez, também buscou inspiração em lendas como
Tristão e Isolda. Novamente, Tristão e Isolda foi tema do compositor romântico Richard
Wagner, na segunda metade do século XIX.
O animal faz parte da viagem do inconsciente colectivo da humanidade, como podemos
constatar nas diversas obras de cinema como o Senhor dos Anéis, onde os personagens que
compõem a trama (elfos, fadas e magos), assim como a ambientação (castelos e florestas) nos
remetem ao imaginário medieval. Tomemos também como exemplo a sequência de Harry

4
Potter que também faz uso de um lugar encantado (a Escola de Magia e Bruxaria de
Hogwarts), e todo um recurso a criaturas sobrenaturais e ferramentas mágicas. Ao
Observarmos estas esculturas são como entrar para o mundo que já fez parte do real -
imaginário do homem medieval e que, hoje, fascina qualquer um. Quem não se encanta com
as histórias dos mitos antigos? Quem nunca encarnou um herói que vai enfrentar uma besta
para salvar o povo ou uma crença? Essas lendas fazem parte do passado do homem que se
construiu em cima dessas culturas e crenças até ser o homem de hoje. A evolução do homem
acompanhou a do animal desde os tempos mais remotos
Realmente, o mundo moderno, é de facto, um mundo cheio de contradições, onde ao lado de
um materialismo puro, encontramos formas de espiritualismo e de idealismo. Arte, religião e
simbólica andam, não raro, de mãos dadas, e geralmente ligadas a experiências religiosas de
carácter ascético.
Mas, para além do legado bíblico, a arte medieval, sofreu também influência de algumas
obras dos autores da Antiguidade Clássica. Estas revelaram-se de extrema importância, pois a
sua concepção da natureza e dos seus seres, foram transmitidas aos letrados da Alta Idade
Média. Foi através destes autores, que o Homem Medieval, tomou conhecimento, não só de
diversos animais, muitos deles estranhos à fauna ocidental, mas, sobretudo do comportamento
dos mesmos e suas características, que, interpretados segundo o método alegórico-simbólico,
contribuíram para enriquecer os bestiários e as enciclopédias, entretanto elaboradas. Tal
influência estendeu-se por toda a Idade Média. Também as fábulas gozaram de particular
receptividade na Idade Média, influenciando a arte medieval.
Como se sabe, a fábula caracteriza-se por ser um conto curto de conteúdo moral e onde
predominam, como personagens, os animais. Estes surgem referenciados com características
antropomórficas, manifestando atitudes e comportamentos humanos. Deste modo, as suas
acções pretendem caracterizar as dos homens, com o fim de transmitir ensinamentos morais,
surgindo os animais nelas descritos de uma forma estereotipada. No entanto, as principais
características com que surgiam nas fábulas e que os individualizavam enquanto espécie,
foram amplamente assimiladas ao bestiário medieval.
Deste modo, o lobo surge como um animal maligno que não hesita em servir-se de todos os
meios ao seu alcance para atingir os seus fins, nomeadamente na tentativa de se alimentar dos
mais fracos e indefesos, enquanto a raposa é mencionada como um animal manhoso e
matreiro. O sucesso das fábulas na Alta Idade Média, está bem patente nas representações
iconográficas.
O que se constata é que a Idade Média preferiu as figuras híbridas e monstruosas, com cabeça
humana e cauda de animal fantástico a denotar a perversidade, como já referia o profeta Isaías
(9.13-15). Estava-se já perante uma forma eloquente e atractiva de educação e formação
humana e religiosa, que complementarizava e ilustrava o que os sacerdotes e teólogos
tentavam fazer de forma discursiva, às vezes confusa e complicada. Repare-se, aliás, que
etimologicamente o sema – MONSTRO, deriva sem dúvida demonstrando, indicando aquilo
que serve para mostrar alguma coisa.
Para a história das religiões, o bestiário é primordial, na medida em que nos inteira do
conhecimento do imaginário humano. O homem sempre olhou para o animal com um misto
de admiração, respeito e medo, procurando imitar as suas qualidades de poder, força, vigor e
coragem, a fim de progredir no quotidiano, moral e espiritual, tanto na virtude como na
maldade. Face à sua frágil condição, ele tenta absorver as suas qualidades que lhe permitam
escapar à sua natureza pecadora e conquistar a salvação. O animal é assim um prolongamento
do homem, através dele, este encontrará as respostas aos seus medos e interrogações. Deste
modo terá acesso à compreensão de si mesmo, do seu papel na Terra e dos desígnios de Deus.
5
Ele é assim investido de um papel conferido pelo Criador, cabendo ao homem descodificar os
símbolos emanados dos seus comportamentos. Como refere S. Agostinho, “Tudo na criação
tem uma finalidade, nada é deixado ao acaso, portanto toda a espécie tem uma função: o
monstro anuncia as calamidades, adverte o homem para as consequências do pecado. A fera
que se submete dócil ensina-o a deixar o pecado e a seguir a virtude, o animal dócil e
doméstico lembra-lhe os preceitos morais e espirituais a seguir”.
Vale a pena considerar também, como e de que maneira os homens da Idade Média tinham o
sentido e o respeito pela natureza e nela encontravam motivos dinamizadores do trabalho da
sua arte e da sua ascese santificativa. Aliás, tal gosto deriva da Sagrada Escritura, sobretudo
do “Livro dos Provérbios” onde se encontram tópicos ou estereótipos já moralmente
adaptados ao incentivo da virtude e ao afastamento dos vícios por meio ao recurso do
exemplo da formiga, do leão e de outros animais (Pr.6.6-8: 30, 24-31). Mas toda a Sagrada
Escritura é um livro aberto, onde os artistas, guiados pelos sacerdotes e monges iam buscar a
fonte de inspiração para a criação de obras de arte com que adornavam e ilustravam os
edifícios, mormente as igrejas e os claustros dos Mosteiros. Ali na rudeza da pedra dura,
através de figuras, punha -se ao serviço de toda a gente a ilustração do bem e do mal, da
virtude e do pecado. Nas Igrejas, tanto nos tímpanos das portas, suas arquivoltas e capitéis,
como nos claustros dos Mosteiros, nos estilóbatos dos basamentos, e nos capitéis das colunas,
nas mísulas ou modilhões que formavam as cachorradas, ou os suportes das cornijas,
esculpiam-se autenticas esculturas figurativas, eloquentes “ bíblias dos pobres”.Os analfabetos
dirigiam-se a esta pregação muda, mas que falava por imagens. Daí ter-se incrementado entre
os cristãos a arte como forma de transmitir uma mensagem religiosa, sobretudo decorando os
muros das igrejas com frescos, e, mais tarde os vitrais historiados das catedrais e igrejas
importantes.
Na verdade a contemplação daquelas imagens bíblicas levava os crentes à meditação nos
mistérios de Cristo, da religião e da moral cristãs, à visão do bem que era preciso praticar e do
mal que se tornava imperioso evitar.
De facto hoje sabemos que na arte medieval, as esculturas e não eram meras peças decorativas
de embelezamento para deleite estético, mas verdadeiros elementos doutrinais ao serviço dos
olhos, através dos quais a mente se ilustrava e a moral se fortificava, afuguentado as tentações
sobretudo carnais. Talvez por isso abundam as imagens de mulher que para S. Gregório
Magno era símbolo da vida carnal e as figuras de animais.
A sensualidade na arte medieval: a Sé de Lamego

6
FIG.2 - Pórtico principal (Autor Vítor Ribeiro, Abril 2006)

Podemos colocar a questão: Idade Média e erotismo: dois conceitos contraditórios? Nada
pode estar mais longe da verdade. Aquele período que, durante séculos, foi considerado
obscurantista revela-se afinal como extremamente criativo nos domínios do desejo e da
sexualidade. Em finais do século XI, os primeiros trovadores cantam a sensualidade, a
mulher, o adultério, numa nova concepção do amor em ruptura com a herança da
Antiguidade; os fabulários, onde o sexo se exibe com crueza, as canções dos goliardos, a
obscenidade de numerosas esculturas, os ritos carnavalescos evocam uma sexualidade
impulsiva, ligada a tradições populares muito pouco cristãs. Em suma, o erotismo medieval,
rico e contrastado, não cessa de nos surpreender e de nos questionar.

FIG.. 3 - Mulher nua

Além das figuras mascaradas ou disformes do ser humano, certamente a inculcar os pecados
capitais, e da reprodução realista dos órgãos sexuais masculinos e femininos, talvez a
promover a procriação1, aparecem também os “Bestiários” medievais que são, por isso, ao

1
DEL OlMO GARCIA, ANGEL- Iconografia sexual en el Românico, Salamanca, if ediciones, 1999. Este autor
defende a interpretação procriativa, segundo a qual a figuração dos órgãos sexuais humanos era uma forma de

7
nível simbólico, uma fonte de inspiração para as obras de adorno das igrejas e mosteiros e
uma mina para os tratados de moral ou de perfeição. Os animais, as aves, as plantas e os
minerais, fornecem o material que permitia o salto qualitativo, através do alegorismo, para
melhor incentivar à prática da virtude e evitar o pecado.

FIG. 4 –Pornografia

Os capitéis das colunas foram um elemento da decoração das igrejas do estilo românico
/Gótico que sempre despertou a curiosidade e atenção dos historiadores. Os sentidos das
figuras fantásticas dos capitéis são múltiplos; ornamentos, alegorias, figuras de uma narrativa:
cada iconografia remete um sentido a esses seres ancestrais, que passaram das palavras dos
antigos às imagens dos manuscritos, para enfim tornarem-se pedra.

FIG 5- Capitel

Impressionante é lembrar que esses capitéis decorados com monstros eram, muitas vezes,
originalmente policromáticos.
O Diabo também é um agente de Deus, aquele que aplica as penas do inferno.
Alguns temas bíblicos não dispensam seres fantásticos ou animais exóticos: a besta do
Apocalipse, Daniel na cova dos leões, o Leviatã, Jonas saindo da baleia, a tentação de Adão e
Eva; a hagiografia também, como no caso do combate de São Miguel e o dragão, as tentações

incentivar à multiplicação da espécie humana, dado o despovoamento medieval e a necessidade de


repovoamento e expansão da fé cristã para resistir às invasões muçulmanas.

8
dos santos eremitas. Os monstros e outros seres dos capitéis seriam elementos decorativos,
marginália para a narração ou simbolização de partes da doutrina ou da história sagrada,
indicam as relações da arte românica/Gótica com as manifestações estéticas orientais.

Fig 6 - O Diabo

Na arquitetura românica e em seguida com o florescimento da arquitectura gótica, o


imaginário medieval manifestou-se na ornamentação das catedrais através de representações
fantásticas, como gárgulas e quimeras, e criaturas reais, como aves e animais aquáticos.
A iconografia animal tem função simbólica, mas acresce-lhe a função ornamental, visto que o
iluminador ou escultor, ao expressar através do animal os ensinamentos morais e religiosos,
não se abstrai da criatividade que lhe é inerente.

FIG 7 - Leão

A Idade Média preferiu figuras híbridas e monstruosas com cabeça humana e cauda de animal
fantástico a denotar a perversidade, como já referia o profeta Isaías (8 9.13-15).
É certo que não faltou quem não compreendesse o significado e alcance das representações
simbólicas e houve mesmo quem se chocasse com elas e as combatesse como alienantes e

9
indecorosas, sobretudo em ambientes religiosos e sagrados. Era a diferença entre os místicos e
os realistas, quer a respeito da arte (escultura e pintura), quer a respeito da música. Neste
sentido se há-de expressar, entre outros, o místico S. Bernardo de Claraval (p. 401)
O bestiário é pois um tema multifacetado, cujo carácter simbólico e ornamental pode ampliar,
uma multiplicidade de valores. O homem é qual herói que vence o animal, como S. Jorge
vence o dragão. A imagem pagã propagou-se pela cristandade tanto pelas mãos de clérigos,
como de laicos e com ela conviveu. A igreja esbateu, mas não conseguiu suprimir, antes
apropriou-se habilmente destas imagens e símbolos. Muita da arte profana foi assim
assimilada.

FIG 8 - Nus
Como refere S. Agostinho, “Tudo na criação tem uma finalidade, nada é deixado ao acaso,
portanto toda a espécie tem uma função: o monstro anuncia as calamidades, adverte o homem
para as consequências do pecado. A fera que se submete dócil ensina-o a deixar o pecado e a
seguir a virtude, o animal dócil e doméstico lembra-lhe os preceitos morais e espirituais a
seguir”.

FIG 9 – Pomba

Podemos concluir que na Idade Média, a natureza impunha-se à sociedade, marcando os seus
ritmos, quotidianos e a própria sobrevivência das comunidades. Na verdade, a sociedade
medieval, sendo maioritariamente rural, receava a natureza e as consequências muitas vezes

10
negativas que ela podia trazer à estabilidade económica e social. Em grande parte temida, era
por isso respeitada e sacralizada no âmbito duma mentalidade fundamentalmente mágica,
mesmo quando os clérigos se referiam à força e aos poderes da natureza como manifestações
e revelações que remetiam para o Criador e para a sagrada capacidade de dispensar graças e
punições
Por outro lado, verificamos que a igreja do ocidente nunca teve dificuldade em aceitar a
mediação das realidades materiais, humanas, animais ou outras. As esculturas figurativas,
naturalistas, zoomórficas ou fitomórficas, não eram tanto motivo de distracção e divagação
mental, quanta ocasião de meditação e moralização. Na intenção dos artistas tratava-se de
verdadeiros símbolos com função didáctico – pragmática e, como tais, eram concebidos pelo
público.
Todas aquelas representações, quer no seu realismo, quer na sua disforme monstruosidade,
apresentavam algumas semelhanças com as realidades que queria figurar e, por isso, serviam
para ilustrar e educar, para atrair e repelir.
O românico sacraliza esta estética pagã convertendo os animais -tanto reais como imaginários
- em portadores de virtudes ou perversões, pelo que a sua aparição em capitéis, tímpanos, etc.,
é reinventada e usada com sentido de ensinamento e advertência.
É inegável que o bestiário é um dos motivos escultóricos que mais interesse nos suscita e o
que provocaria um efeito de maior intimidação ao homem medieval. O Bestiário remete para
o modo de significação característico da Idade Média: nele os animais deixam de ser apenas
animais para se assumirem como exempla, isto é, como símbolos de vícios ou virtudes e fonte
de ensinamentos religiosos e morais.
Quanto ao espírito simbólico, em todo pensamento medieval a sedução do horrível era a base
do estímulo do demoníaco, que era este “não ser” que se manifestava como pura agressão,
justamente por ser desfigurado. O demónio era representado como a inconsistência de uma
natureza humana, pois a besta não era senão um aspecto do ser humano, uma totalidade
corporal destituída de inteligência, mas absolutamente passional para a destruição. Era um
tipo de agressão que predominava entre as figuras dos Santos nas pinturas alemãs e
flamengas. Os demónios das gravuras alemãs do século XV tinham, todos eles, ou quase
todos, uma dupla face. No lugar onde, na natureza humana, estavam situados os órgãos
sexuais, aparecia uma face, um rosto. Um outro aparecia, por exemplo, nas costas; um
terceiro, na altura do estômago. Esta bifrontalidade ou trifrontalidade não era senão uma
maneira de representar o que não existia possibilidade de exprimir que tivesse consistência.
Eros significa amor. Para Platão o amor de Eros “ É todo o desejo intenso por bens e
felicidade”. Eros pressupõe paixão e entusiasmo. No entanto, a igreja, durante a Idade Média,
viu na restrição do sexo à procriação uma das formas de estar em conformidade com Deus. O
próprio casamento só tinha razão de ser pela sua função reprodutora.

11
FIG.10 – Bêbado
Mas, através da figura anterior e como podemos constatar pelos textos de Carmina Burana, na
Idade Média havia uma vida boémia de diversificados extractos da sociedade:
(…)
Bebe a amante, bebe o senhor,
bebe o soldado, bebe o clérigo,
Bebe ele, bebe ela,
bebe o servo com a serva,
bebe o esperto, bebe o preguiçoso,
bebe o branco, bebe o negro,
bebe o sedentário, bebe o nômade,
bebe o estúpido, bebe o douto,

Bebem o pobre e o doente,


bebem o estrangeiro e o desconhecido.
bebe a criança, bebe o velho,
bebem o prelado e o diácono,
bebe a irmã, bebe o irmão,
bebe a anciã, bebe a mãe,
bebe este, bebe aquele,
bebem cem, bebem mil.

Enfim, bebiam todos…


Considerações finais
Os bestiários constituem documentos preciosos para o estudo da mentalidade medieval. Com
sua visão poética do mundo, influenciaram o desenvolvimento da alegoria e do simbolismo na
literatura e nas artes.
O bestiário na Idade Média tinha sempre uma intenção moralizante. Com base na idéia de que
tudo na natureza é fonte de ensinamentos úteis à salvação do homem, depois de enumerar os
caracteres físicos dos animais, muitas vezes fabulosos, acrescentava uma interpretação de que
se tira conclusão moral.
Idade Média e erotismo: dois conceitos contraditórios? Nada podia estar mais longe da
verdade. Aquele período que, durante séculos, foi considerado obscurantista revela-se afinal
como extremamente criativo nos domínios do desejo e da sexualidade. Em finais do século
XI, os primeiros trovadores cantam a sensualidade, a mulher, o adultério, numa nova
concepção do amor em ruptura com a herança da Antiguidade; religiosas místicas celebram
escaldantes esponsais místicos com o divino; os fabulários, onde o sexo se exibe com crueza,
as canções dos goliardos, a obscenidade de numerosas esculturas, os ritos carnavalescos
evocam uma sexualidade impulsiva, ligada a tradições populares muito pouco cristãs. Em
suma, o erotismo medieval, rico e contrastado, não cessa de nos surpreender e de nos
questionar.
Este estudo vem comprovar que quando aprofundamos o conhecimento histórico na
descoberta de singularidades únicas, a valorização do produto turístico-patrimonial, em
muitos casos, é imediato.

12
Em conclusão podemos referir, por um lado, que a procura pelas atrações patrimoniais tem
vindo a sofrer uma transformação, abrangendo, cada vez mais, um número diversificado de
segmentos e, por outro lado, que a concorrência entre Cidades Históricas e “patrimónios” é
cada vez maior, já que estamos perante um mercado muito apetecível. Os monumentos que
constituem a oferta patrimonial de Lamego apresentam limitações em vários aspetos
(conservação, interpretação, promoção e divulgação) não permitindo desta forma, que o
produto patrimonial se afirme no mercado nacional.
Através da ligação mais estreita entre o discurso histórico, a interpretação e o turismo é
possível criar uma diferenciação do produto patrimonial transformando-o num produto único
e portanto mais atrativo para vários segmentos. Com esse objetivo é necessário abandonar
uma postura passiva no processo de transferência da informação, entre as várias áreas de
conhecimento, e essas mudanças posturais só são desencadeadas com uma metodologia pró-
ativa e interdisciplinar própria que faça com que os discursos histórico-patrimoniais
construam “novos” significados, permitindo a construção de um posicionamento único.

13
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BIBLIOGRAFIA ESPECÍFICA (ESTUDO DO PÓRTICO)


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Condicionantes culturais da Literatura de Viagens, Lisboa, Edições Cosmos, 1999, p. 217-233
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Revista Lusitana, v. 25 (1925), p. 128-147
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Ciências Históricas, v. 1 (1986), p. 161-174
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História de Arte: iconografia e crítica, Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional, 1990, p. 13-16
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(Alcobaça, 1978), p. 369-380

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Filológicos, 1951
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(1911), p. 227-237
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11
VILHENA, Maria da Conceição, Bestiário nemesiano, in Arquipélago (Línguas e Literaturas),
v. 10 (Ponta Delgada, 1988), p. 233-247

17
El PATRIMONIO NATURAL DE CAMELIAS ANTIGUAS EN LOS JARDINES DE
GALICIA: CATALOGACIÓN PARA LA PROMOCIÓN DEL TURISMO A TRAVÉS
DE LA CREACIÓN DE LA RUTA DE LA CAMELIA

CARMEN SALINERO1, PILAR VELA1, MARÍA GONZÁLEZ1, JOSE RAMÓN


CASTIÑEIRAS2, MARÍA JESÚS SAINZ3
1
Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Deputación de Pontevedra, Subida a la Robleda s/n,
36153 Pontevedra
2
Turgalicia, S.A., Estrada Santiago-Noia, km. 1, 15896 Santiago de Compostela
3
Departamento de Producción Vegetal, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus
Universitario s/n, 27002 Lugo

RESUMEN

La camelia es un producto único de Galicia, de gran valor, que recoge valores emocionales
y simbólicos del lenguaje oculto de los jardines gallegos que coinciden con la imagen de
evocación, misterio, leyenda, que tiene el turista que viene a visitar Galicia. Introducidas en el
siglo XIX en los jardines de la nobleza y burguesía gallega e inasequibles para el resto de los
estratos sociales, las camelias se popularizaron en todos los jardines y calles de Galicia a
partir de mediados del siglo XX. En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados de la prospección
de jardines de Galicia realizada hasta 2011 para catalogar las camelias y ejemplares de otras
especies de interés botánico, histórico y cultural, y la creación de una ruta turística de jardines
de invierno, la ruta de la camelia de Galicia, convirtiendo a la camelia en un símbolo de
identidad cultural dentro de la marca turística Galicia.
PALABRAS CLAVE: árboles monumentales, camelias antiguas, Camellia japonica,
Camellia reticulata, Camellia sasanqua, marca turística.

INTRODUCCIÓN

La puesta en valor del patrimonio natural puede ser un elemento clave en la promoción del
turismo en Galicia, como producto diferenciador en la creación de su imagen de marca. De
hecho, en los últimos 20 años, la administración autonómica, estatal y europea han potenciado
el Turismo de Naturaleza en Galicia, al reconocer como espacios naturales protegidos
numerosas áreas (el Parque Nacional de las Illas Atlánticas de Galicia, los Parques Naturales
da Baixa Limia-Serra do Xurés, O Invernadeiro, As Fragas do Eume y Serra de Enciña da
Lastra, los espacios de la Red Natura 2000, etc.), que han llevado a desarrollar nuevos
productos turísticos asociados, sobre todo las rutas de senderismo y las rutas turísticas y de
patrimonio (Ulla Lorenzo y Pazos Otón, 2010).

La potenciación del Turismo de Naturaleza, y de otros como el Turismo Rural, Turismo de


Nieve, Turismo de Costa, Turismo Termal y de Salud, Turismo Cultural, Turismo Ecológico,
etc., no se ha producido solo en Galicia. Actualmente existe una homogenización de los
destinos turísticos a nivel de España e incluso de Europa, por lo que las administraciones
turísticas públicas buscan elementos diferenciadores que permitan competir en el mercado,
ofreciendo productos exclusivos. En este sentido, Galicia posee un recurso de gran valor y
único: la camelia, alrededor de la cual se puede constituir una experiencia y considerarla
producto fundamental en la construcción de la marca turística de Galicia.
La camelia tiene además el valor añadido de que puede favorecer la desestacionalización
de la oferta turística, una de las acciones promovidas por la Xunta de Galicia para potenciar la
oferta turística gallega (Ley 7/2011, de 27 de octubre, del turismo de Galicia). Los jardines
con camelias son más vistosos en los meses de otoño, invierno y comienzos de primavera, en
los que se dan cifras más bajas de viajes a Galicia por residentes en España (Figura 1).

Figura 1. Número de viajes realizados a Galicia por residentes en España. Fuente:


FAMILITUR / Instituto de Estudios Turísticos de España (IET, 2012).

La camelia recoge valores emocionales y simbólicos del lenguaje oculto de los jardines
gallegos que coinciden con la imagen de evocación, misterio, leyenda, que tiene el turista que
viene a visitar Galicia, es decir que su imagen recoge la percepción que el visitante tiene y
espera del destino.

Las camelias son especies leñosas perennes originarias de Asia Oriental, la mayoría de
China. Las primeras plantas llegaron a Europa en el siglo XVIII, pero su mayor expansión
tuvo lugar entre 1820 y 1880, convirtiéndose en un símbolo de estatus para la nobleza y la alta
burguesía. Se cree que las primeras camelias que se cultivaron en Europa fueron plantadas en
1739 por Robert James en Essex (Inglaterra), y que después se extendieron a Portugal, España
(Galicia) y otros pocos países europeos. En Galicia, durante el siglo XIX y hasta principios
del XX, el cultivo de las camelias fue exclusivo de la nobleza y la burguesía e inasequible
para el resto de los estratos sociales, comenzando a generalizarse a mediados del siglo XX,
popularizándose en todos los jardines y calles de Galicia (Salinero y González, 2006).

El origen de las primeras plantas de camelia que se introdujeron en Galicia es aún hoy una
incógnita, principalmente por la falta de documentos escritos que avalen su procedencia y
momento de plantación. Aunque no hay referencias escritas que puedan confirmar el
momento de llegada de las camelias a Galicia, existen ejemplares de camelia de más de 200
años que fueron introducidos por la nobleza gallega, y que hoy pueden contemplarse en los
jardines de los pazos y casas señoriales de Galicia. Algunas de estas plantas de camelia
pudieron haber llegado desde viveros de diferentes países de Europa, como Francia, Bélgica e
Italia. Los ejemplares antiguos de camelia de Galicia tienen tamaños muy grandes, mucho
mayores que en sus zonas de origen, por lo que parecen verdaderos árboles. Algunos están
considerados árboles monumentales y/o árbores senlleiras, y por ello objeto de protección
(Rodríguez-Dacal e Izco, 2003; Decreto 67/2007, de 22 de marzo, de la Xunta de Galicia).
Se conocen más de 200 especies de camelia (Gao, 2005). A nivel mundial la especie más
cultivada es Camellia sinensis, por su interés económico ya que, a partir de sus hojas, se
preparan los diferentes tipos de té. Como planta ornamental, la especie más difundida y
cultivada es Camellia japonica, de la que hoy en día se cree que existen más de 30.000
cultivares (Macoboy, 2002). Esta especie se aprecia especialmente por su floración invernal, y
también por ser plantas de hoja perenne muy brillante que pueden cultivarse como árbol,
arbusto, e incluso formando setos. De características similares se cultivan también, aunque
con menor frecuencia, la especie japonesa Camellia sasanqua, de flores muy olorosas y
floración otoñal, y la especie china Camellia reticulata, de flores tardías de gran tamaño. Las
camelias de otras especies se cultivan sólo ocasionalmente, si bien existe un interés creciente
por ellas. Es un género que hibrida fácilmente, por lo que existen muchas camelias con
características intermedias.

Desde finales de la década de 1980, la Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro (Pontevedra)


lleva a cabo prospecciones de jardines públicos y privados de Galicia para conocer la
diversidad del género Camellia en Galicia. Desde 2006, como resultado de la colaboración
con Turgalicia y la Sociedad Española de la Camelia, surgió la iniciativa de considerar a la
camelia como el eje central para el diseño de una ruta por los jardines de Galicia. En este
trabajo, se presentan los resultados de la prospección de jardines de Galicia realizada hasta
2011 para catalogar las camelias y ejemplares de otras especies de interés botánico, histórico,
cultural, y la creación de una ruta turística de jardines de invierno, la ruta de la camelia de
Galicia, convirtiendo a la camelia en un símbolo de identidad cultural dentro de la marca
turística Galicia.

MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS

Se visitaron jardines públicos y privados de Galicia de los que se tenía referencia escrita
para seleccionar y valorar los ejemplares de camelias y otras especies de interés botánico,
cultural y/o histórico. Se hizo una identificación de la especie de cada ejemplar (mediante sus
características morfobotánicas), se reunió información de las plantas de interés a través de los
propietarios (oral y en algún caso de documentos privados) y, cuando fue posible, de
bibliografía o de documentos públicos (en museos, gobiernos provinciales, ayuntamientos,
etc.).

Se seleccionaron los especímenes de camelias más relevantes, por su edad, hábito de


crecimiento, localización e historia de la planta, recabando datos, cuando fue posible, sobre su
origen y fecha de plantación. Se hizo lo mismo con ejemplares de otras especies existentes en
cada jardín. Se recogieron además datos de historia, edificaciones, productos ofertados y
actividades relacionadas con la camelia. Se hizo un plano de cada jardín. Las camelias y
ejemplares de otras especies seleccionados se situaron espacialmente mediante GPS. Para
cada jardín, se elaboró además un itinerario de visita. Finalmente, se diseñó una ruta de los
jardines de Galicia con el eje común de la camelia.

RESULTADOS Y DISCUSIÓN

La investigación realizada hasta la fecha ha permitido diseñar una ruta de camelias en


Galicia basada en la visita a 12 jardines, situados en las provincias de A Coruña y Pontevedra
(Figura 2). Todos ellos tienen en común la presencia de ejemplares de camelia de interés,
algunos reconocidos como monumentales y/o senlleiros, unidos al agua (fuentes) y la piedra
(edificios de pazos, iglesias, etc.). En todos hay además plantas de interés, monumentales y/o
senlleiras, de otras especies botánicas.

Además la Ruta se complementa con otros productos turísticos, como aceite y jabón de
camelia, cuadros de camelia de artistas locales, productos de artesanía y vino, que ya se
ofertan en muchos de los jardines, y que se contempla ampliar con otros productos, como el té
elaborado con las camelias del propio jardín. La Ruta está reforzada durante toda la época de
floración de la camelia con más de 15 exposiciones de flores que se organizan en distintas
localidades del itinerario en los diferentes fines de semana.

Figura 2. Itinerario de jardines de la ruta de la camelia de Galicia.

La Ruta puede ser un elemento enriquecedor para la captación y el aumento del grado de
satisfacción del turismo en Galicia. Se adapta de forma óptima al perfil de los visitantes: en la
última encuesta de destino, la mayoría indicó que su primer motivo de visita a Galicia era
conocer el medio natural y el paisaje, viajaba en familia (40,5%) y utilizó el coche como
medio de transporte no solo para acceder (44,3%) sino también para desplazarse (84,3%)
dentro de Galicia (Xunta de Galicia, 2012). El tiempo medio de estancia fue de 13,21 días,
que la mayor parte de los turistas emplearon en recorrer Galicia por su cuenta (45,4%).
Se presentan a continuación las principales características de los 12 jardines.

1.- PAZO MUSEO QUIÑONES DE LEÓN (CASTRELOS)

El pazo museo Quiñones de León, también conocido como Pazo de Castrelos, es una
institución dependiente del ayuntamiento de Vigo (Pontevedra) y está emplazado en el
verdadero pulmón verde de esta ciudad. Su historia ya aparece documentada en el siglo XV
como antigua fortaleza, consecuencia de las incursiones de los piratas sobre la ría, y más
concretamente por causa de la guerra contra Portugal, si bien es reedificado en el siglo XVII.

El aspecto actual de la obra se completó con las torres y la fachada corrida, de clara
inspiración renacentista, herencia de la escuela castellano-leonesa de Valladolid. En 1883,
cuando la Marquesa de Valladares entronca con el marquesado de Alcedo, tras su matrimonio
con Fernando Quiñones de León e procede a ampliar la estructura palaciega, imprimiéndole
un claro gusto inglés, tanto en la vivienda como en los jardines. Con fecha de 12 de diciembre
de 1924, el último Marqués de Alcedo donó el pazo al pueblo de Vigo para su transformación
en museo de arte regional. En él se pueden contemplar importantes colecciones de Arte,
Arqueología e Historia.

El jardín del pazo se creó en tiempos del primer Marqués de Alcedo, existiendo constancia
de que las primeras camelias fueron traídas en 1860 del vivero de Marques Loureiro de
Portugal. En la década de 1970, bajo la administración y dirección del museo por Ángel Ilarri
Gimeno, se plantó la zona hortícola. Desde la década de 1990, se vienen sucediendo
diferentes actuaciones en el jardín.

El jardín tiene tres niveles. El superior, "la Rosaleda", arranca de un cenador cubierto con
una pérgola metálica, que fue antiguamente un invernadero. El intermedio constituye el jardín
francés, con un trazado de setos de boj casi laberíntico. En el nivel más bajo hallamos el
jardín inglés, también llamado "Pradera del Té", rodeado por dos sendas de paso.
En su centro hay un estanque para patos con un islote central en el que se contempla una
maqueta del pazo.

Entre los ejemplares de camelia plantados en la finca, destaca el ejemplar de Camellia


japonica conocido con el nombre de Matusalén de las Camelias y el impresionante seto
formado por los cultivares de 'Alba Plena', 'Bella Romana', 'Federichi', 'Hagaromo', 'Herzilia
II', 'Incarnata', 'Kellingtonia' y 'Pomponia Portuensis' de Camellia japonica.

Este jardín reúne además una gran variedad de especies exóticas, así como ejemplares de
eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus), haya (Fagus sylvatica), tulipanero de Virginia
(Liriodendron tulipifera) y la camelia Matusalén incluidos en el Catálogo de Árboles
Senlleiras de Galicia.

2.- PARQUE DEL CASTRO

El parque Municipal del Castro está situado en un alto en pleno centro de la ciudad de
Vigo y constituye uno de los más hermosos parques urbanos, desde el que se puede descubrir
la ciudad de Vigo y contemplar una bella panorámica del puerto y de la ría.

En él dejaron su huella los Celtas, que se asentaron en este monte desde finales del siglo I,
y los romanos en el siglo III. Muestra de ello son los restos del poblado castrense y romano
que todavía están presentes en el parque. Durante la Edad Media, entre los años 1656 y 1665,
se instaló el Castillo do Penço, perteneciente a la Mitra Compostelana, derribado
posteriormente para levantar el Castillo de Santa María do Castro, construido al mismo
tiempo que el Castillo de San Sebastián y el recinto amurallado que los unía. El Castro fue
testigo de invasiones piratas inglesas (1585-1589) y turcas (1617), y de la batalla de Rande
(1702), en la que los galeones de la flota de la Plata Española fueron destruidos y hundidos
por la flota anglo-holandesa. Fue refugio del ejército en su retirada del ataque inglés en 1719,
cuando éstos, tras su desembarco en Samil, saquearon la ciudad y destruyeron parte del
castillo de San Sebastián.

A finales del siglo XIX, la presión del crecimiento urbanístico hizo que se derribaran las
antiguas murallas defensivas de la ciudad, lo que afortunadamente no afectó a la fortaleza del
Castro, cuyos restos permanecen hoy en día como ejemplo típico de la arquitectura militar de
la época. Actualmente, además del importante valor histórico del Parque del Castro, destaca
su gran valor cultural y recreativo, ya que existen en él varios parques infantiles, deportivos y
paisajísticos.

El Parque del Castro constituye un verdadero jardín botánico enclavado en el centro de la


ciudad de Vigo. Posee muchas especies exóticas, de gran tamaño y de un importante valor
ornamental. Destaca su importante colección de camelias, distribuidas en varias zonas del
jardín,; la mayor parte son de cultivares de Camellia japonica de origen portugués, como
‘Jane Andresen’, ‘Angelina Vieira’ y ‘Pomponia Estriata Portuensis’, entre otras.
Actualmente continúa la ampliación de la colección con ejemplares donados por la
Diputación de Pontevedra, distribuidos a lo largo del itinerario de visita propuesto.

El Parque tiene además un ejemplar de pino insigne (Pinus radiata) incluido en el


Catálogo de Árboles Monumentales de Galicia (Rodríguez Dacal e Izco, 2003) ). Otros
ejemplares de interés son árboles de Catalpa bignonioides, Melaleuca armillaris,
Liquidambar styraciflua, Betula pendula, Liriodendron tulipifera y Phoenix canariensis.

3.- CASTILLO DE SOUTOMAIOR

En Soutomaior (Pontevedra), en el valle del río Verdugo, origen de la ría de Vigo, se


encuentra este castillo medieval en perfecto estado de conservación. La primitiva
construcción, vinculada a Paio Mendez Sorrede, es del siglo XII, cuando aún habitaban los
árabes en la Península. Durante las Guerras Irmandiñas, en el siglo XV, con Paio Gómez de
Soutomaior como propietario, se edificó la segunda torre y fue con su hijo, conocido por el
sobrenombre de Pedro Madruga, cuando el Castillo alcanzó su gran momento de esplendor.

Pasó por un periodo de deterioro, pero a partir de 1870 los Marqueses de la Vega de
Armijo lo transforman en un palacio neogótico, construyendo la galería de Damas y la capilla
y creando los jardines y el parque botánico que rodean al castillo. Posteriormente, con la
Marquesa de Ayerbe, se construye un sanatorio y otras dependencias. En 1982 pasa a ser
propiedad de la Diputación de Pontevedra, rehabilitándose el castillo medieval para dedicarlo
a fines culturales.

Al castillo se llega a través de un puente levadizo que da acceso a una plaza de armas, con
una segunda muralla apoyada en la gruesa torre del homenaje. Tras el patio nos da la
bienvenida la puerta en arco apuntado con su escudo, tantas veces repuesto a causa de los
sucesivos cambios de propiedad.

Los Marqueses de la Vega de Armijo fueron los que, desde 1870, pusieron empeño en
embellecer los alrededores del castillo abriendo caminos, limpiando bosques y trazando los
jardines, todo ello con gran respeto y acierto. En esta colina existe el clima adecuado para que
palmeras y naranjos convivan en armonía entre eucaliptos, castaños, robles, camelias y
magnolios gigantes. Actualmente cuenta con una extensión de 35 hectáreas, dedicadas a
viñedo, bosque autóctono, frutales y una parte importante al parque botánico, considerado de
los más importantes de Galicia, reuniendo más de cien variedades de camelias, castaños
milenarios y árboles de los cinco continentes.
Durante el Congreso Internacional de la Camelia, celebrado en China en febrero de 2012,
el Castillo de Soutomaior fue designado Jardín de Excelencia Internacional de Camelias por la
Sociedad Internacional de la Camelia.

Entre el parque botánico y las parcelas colindantes, existen 442 plantas de camelia de 25
especies distintas y muchos híbridos. En el conjunto destacan los 19 ejemplares de Camellia
japonica que ya crecían en el Castillo de Soutomaior cuando el castillo fue adquirido por la
Diputación de Pontevedra, algunos de los cuales datan del siglo XIX. Uno de estos
ejemplares, formado por 18 troncos que crecen desde la base del árbol, tiene la circunferencia
del tronco más grande de Galicia y un diámetro de copa de 17 metros.

En este parque botánico abundan las especies exóticas, algunas de ellas incluidas en el
Catálogo de Árboles Monumentales de Galicia (Rodríguez Dacal e Izco, 2003) y en el
Catálogo Galego de Árbores Senlleiras (Decreto 67/2007, DOGA 17 de abril). Son árbores
senlleiras, entre otros, ejemplares de araucaria araucana (Araucaria araucana), camecíparis
de Lawson (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), criptomeria (Cryptomeria japonica) y secuoya roja
(Sequoia sempervirens).

4.- PAZO DE LOURIZÁN

El Pazo de Lourizán se encuentra en la vertiente norte del macizo del Morrazo al fondo de
la ría, entre las poblaciones de Pontevedra y Marín. Los orígenes de la propiedad se remontan
al siglo XV, cuando todavía era una granja. En el siglo XIX, la finca fue adquirida por el
político Montero Ríos, que la convirtió en su residencia de verano y también en un importante
foro de reunión de las personalidades más influyentes del momento. En sus salones se
negoció el Tratado de Paris, por el cual se cedieron las islas de Cuba, Puerto Rico, Filipinas y
Guam.

La edificación es de estilo modernista. Fue diseñada por el famoso arquitecto Genaro de la


Fuente y construida a principios del siglo XIX. Destaca la escalera de piedra de corte imperial
y sus profusas columnas, grandes ventanales, estatuas de inspiración clásica y ornamentos. En
el jardín, de estilo romántico, se pueden encontrar tres fuentes históricas: la fuente de la
concha (siglo XVIII), la fuente de los tornos (siglo XVII) y la fuente o gruta de los espejos
(siglo XIX) adornada con vidrios de colores.

La Diputación de Pontevedra adquirió la propiedad a principios de los años 40 y la


convirtió en lo que hoy es el Centro de Investigación Forestal de Lourizán.

El Pazo cuenta con 54 hectáreas de jardín, finca y arboleda. Posee un importante jardín
botánico, con especies exóticas y autóctonas, creado en 1949 bajo la denominación de
Arboreto, que reúne aquellas especies plantadas desde el siglo XIX hasta la actualidad. Los
especímenes más antiguos de camelia datan del siglo XIX y se cree proceden que los viveros
de Establecimiento Hortícola de José Marques Loureiro en Oporto (Portugal) y de la Escuela
de Agricultura de la Caeira (Pontevedra). Entre la subida al Pazo y la zona del jardín existen
más de 600 ejemplares de Camellia japonica de distintos cultivares: ‘Alba Plena’, ‘Alba
Simplex’, ‘Angelina Vieira’, ‘Antonio Bernardo Ferreira’, ‘Bella Romana’, ‘Cidade de Vigo’,
‘Coralina’, ‘Covina’, ‘Dona Herzilia de Freitas Magallaes’, ‘Incarnata’, ‘Pedro V, Rei de
Portugal´ y ‘Pompone’. En particular, las plantas de ‘Alba Plena’ son impresionantes.
En el jardín hay árboles de otras especies que, por su importancia a nivel natural,
paisajístico y cultural, están incluidos en la ampliación del Catálogo de Árbores Senlleiras de
Galicia (DOG, orden de 3 de octubre de 2011), como los ejemplares de cedro del Líbano
(Cedrus libani) y metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) y la formación de castaños
japoneses y chinos (Castanea crenata y Castanea mollisima). Otros árboles monumentales
que se pueden ver son la araucaria excelsa (Araucaria heterophylla), el olmo holandés (Ulmus
x hollandica) y las palmeras reinas (Arecastrum romanzoffianum), siendo también de interés
la avenida de magnolias y los ejemplares de Abies pinsapo, Buxus sempervirens, Callitris
oblonga, Callitris rhomboidea, clones de varias especies de Castanea, Corylus avellana,
Dicksonia antarctica, Fagus sylvatica, Larix x eurolepis, Magnolia grandiflora, Phoenix
canariensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus halepensis, Quercus ilex subsp. ilex, Sequoia
sempervirens, Sophora japonica ‘Pendula’, Tetraclinis articulata y Ulmus minor.

En 1993, se creó el Parque de las Autonomías con una muestra de las especies arbóreas
más representativas de cada una de ellas.

5.- LA SALETA

La finca de La Saleta está situada entre los lugares de A Sobreira y Zancande


(ayuntamiento de Meis, Pontevedra). Toma su nombre de la capilla dedicada a la Virgen de
La Saleta que mandó levantar el coronel Severo Pérez Cardecid, natural de Cambados, entre
1863 y 1870. En su interior se conserva un retablo de 1870, realizado por el taller
compostelano de Manuel Magasiñas, una bóveda policromada con la representación de las
armas de los Pérez Cardecid, Rosales y Losada y una fachada blasonada de gran belleza.
Contiguas a esta capilla, se conservan algunas dependencias de la antigua casa de labranza
(hórreo y palomar), que pueden ser consideradas como una unidad arquitectónica.

En 1968 llegó a Galicia el británico Robert Gimson, quien adquirió La Saleta buscando un
lugar donde poder practicar la jardinería, su gran pasión. Con la ayuda de su esposa, Margaret,
fue transformando la finca hasta convertirla en un excepcional jardín botánico. Al matrimonio
se le atribuye la recuperación de la tradicional romería en honor a la Virgen de la Saleta que
se celebra cada año en la capilla.

El jardín de la finca de La Saleta ocupa 5 hectáreas. Es de tipo inglés y fue diseñado por la
arquitecta paisajística Brenda Colvin, incluyendo la parte dedicada al bosque, donde alternan
robles, eucaliptos y alcornoques que rodean al palomar, de planta octogonal. En el jardín se
encuentran también especies orientales, como rododendros y azaleas, protáceas y mirtáceas
australianas, y ericáceas sudamericanas, todas ellas debidamente clasificadas y etiquetadas,
muestra de la labor de un científico de primer orden.

El interés de los Gimson por la camelia ha permitido que hoy puedan admirarse en el
jardín no solo camelias de distintas especies como Camellia lutchuensis, Camellia vernalis,
Camellia nitidísima, sino también cultivares e híbridos importadas por él, de las variedades
´Debutante´, ´Dr. Tinsley´, ´Lavinia Maggi´ y ´Mathotiana Alba´ de Camellia japonica, ´Jean
May´ y ´Narumigata´ de Camellia sasanqua, ‘Mandalay Queen’, ‘Royalty’ y ‘Valentine Day’
de Camellia reticulata, ´Debbie´, ´George Blandford´, ´JC Williams´, ´Philippa Forward´ y
´St. Ewe´ de híbridos Camellia x williamsii, ‘Interval’ de Camellia hibrida, ´Kanjiro´ de
Camellia hiemalis, ´Fragrant Pink´ de Camellia rusticana x Camellia lutchuensis, y
ejemplares de Camellia vernalis y Camellia nitidissima.
Destacan además ejemplares de Acacia elata, Acer capillipes, Acer palmatum var. virilis,
Arbutus unedo, Cedrus libani, Cinnamomum camphora, Cotinus coggygria, Cupressocyparis
leilandii, Liquidambar styraciflua, Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia soulangeana, Magnolia
stellata, Magnolia tripetala, Pinus pinaster, Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus robur, Quercus
rubra y Quercus suber.

6.- PAZO DE QUINTEIRO DA CRUZ

El Pazo Quinteiro da Cruz está enclavado en pleno valle del Salnés, en la parroquia de
Lois, en el ayuntamiento de Ribadumia (Pontevedra). La casa solariega data del siglo XVIII y
constituye un ejemplo de arquitectura neoclásica señorial gallega. La propiedad cuenta con
elementos románticos: fuentes de piedra, cenadores, jardines, estatuas y relojes de sol.
También posee dos cruceros, destacando especialmente el cercano a la casa, y dos hórreos (un
gran hórreo de piedra del siglo XVIII de más de 15 metros de longitud y otro de piedra y
madera del siglo XIX ubicado sobre un estanque, al que se accede por doble escalinata de
piedra de la época), una capilla del siglo XVI, una pila bautismal de finales del siglo XII, un
palomar almenado y un lavadero, que evocan un aire romántico sin dejar por ello de tener un
carácter profundamente gallego.

Posee una bodega donde se elabora vino Albariño de la propia finca, que se comercializa
con la marca "Quinteiro da Cruz", D.O. Rías Baixas. Esta bodega tiene un alpendre porticado
de columnas de piedra, en cuyo interior se encuentra una antigua lareira, lagar y aperos de
labranza, todos catalogados en el patrimonio histórico vitivinícola europeo y patrimonio
histórico-artístico de Galicia. En la actualidad la propiedad cuenta con instalaciones para la
organización de todo tipo de eventos como bodas, reuniones, congresos, etc.

Los jardines poseen una zona diseñada a finales del siglo XIX por el jardinero y paisajista
de origen francés Dorgambide y una zona de más reciente creación (años 1975-1980), por
Victoriano Piñeiro Acosta, que se ocupó de restaurar la flora existente de acuerdo con la
tradición histórica, y a la que añadió la magnífica colección de camelias y otras plantas
importadas de diferentes lugares del mundo.

En los jardines, rodeados de viñedos de Albariño y bosque autóctono, crecen cientos de


especies (unas autóctonas y muchísimas tropicales y exóticas), aunque la reina del jardín es la
camelia. En Quinteiro da Cruz florecen unos 5.000 ejemplares de más de 1.500 variedades de
diferentes especies, como Camellia assimilis, Camellia caudata, Camellia cuspidata,
Camellia fluviatilis, Camellia nitidissima, Camellia granthamiana, Camellia sasanqua,
Camellia sinensis, destacando sobre todo los ejemplares de Camellia japonica, Camellia
reticulata y Camellia higo, con las que han conseguido el premio Camelia de Oro en el
Concurso Exposición Internacional de la Camelia en varias ocasiones.

Entre los cultivares destacan ‘Angelina Vieira’, `Augusto Leal de Gouveia Pinto´, ‘Grace
Albritton’, ‘Happy Higo’, ‘Mathotiana Alba’, ‘Nuccio’s Gem’ y ‘Tama-no-ura’ de Camellia
japonica, ‘Captain Rawes’ y ‘Miss Tulare’ de Camellia reticulata, ‘Interval’ de Camellia
reticulata híbrida, ‘Rendezvous’ de Camellia x williamsii y ‘Dr. Clifford Parks’ de Camellia
reticulata x Camellia japonica.

Pueden contemplarse además árboles de interés de las especies Aesculus hippocastanum,


Araucaria brasiliensis, Buxus sp., Cedrus atlantica, Cupressus sempervirens, Erythrina
crista-galli, Lagerstroemia indica, Liquidambar styraciflua, Magnolia grandiflora, Phoenix
dactilifera, Pinus pinea y Robinia pseudoacacia.

7.- PAZO DE RUBIÁNS

Enclavado en la ría de Arousa (Pontevedra) se encuentra uno de los tres señoríos que están
oficialmente reconocidos en España, la casa de Rubiáns.

El origen de la casa de Rubiáns hay que buscarla en la Edad Media, cuando, en el siglo
XII, la familia Caamaño, titulares de la Casa de Noya, se establece en la orilla opuesta de la
ría. En 1535 se escinden las casas de Noya y Rubiáns, siendo Felipe II quien concede a la
familia García Caamaño el título de Marqués de Rubiáns y les cede los territorios de Santa
Baya de Airalonga. En torno a esta familia se creó en un principio un burgo marinero que
posteriormente dio lugar a la Villa de García, los cimientos de la actual Vilagarcía de Arousa,
que adoptó como escudo el propio de la familia, donde se observa el pino con las diez lanzas.
La leyenda “Caamaño avante con la cruz delante” abre las puertas del insigne dieciochesco
pazo de recio porte, que deja ver su antigua condición de casa fuerte.

Junto al gran edificio palaciego, en perfecto estado de conservación, concurren en Rubiáns


un proyecto jardinístico, un singular cinturón arbolado y un viñedo de uva Albariño de 21
hectáreas. El mundo vegetal de Rubiáns goza de gran importancia en sus vertientes florística
(cerca de 100 especies diferentes), jardinística y paisajística. Un total de 40 hectáreas
repartidas en tres dominios: jardín, finca y arboleda. Se comenzó a construir en 1764, y aún se
conserva el estanque de ranas, con su pérgola y glorieta emparradas. En 1850 se hizo la
plantación de las primeras camelias, regalo de los duques de Caminha (Portugal), y de las
magnolias perennifolias.

En la segunda mitad del siglo XIX el jardinero francés Martín Dorgambide planificó la
vegetación del territorio que afecta al bosque, al campo y al jardín. En 1930 Dolores Urcola,
Marquesa viuda de Aranda, ayudada por sus hijas, diseña y construye el jardín geométrico de
traza laberíntica y dedica especial atención a las camelias, existiendo hoy en día bellos
ejemplares de los cultivares: ‘Alba Plena’, ‘Bella Romana’, ‘Elegans’, ‘Grace Albritton’,
‘Hagoromo’, ‘Lavinia Maggi’, ‘Pomponia Alba’, ‘Pomponia Luctea’ y ‘Variegata’ de
Camellia japonica, ‘Arch of Triumph’, ‘Dr. Clifford Parks’, ‘Francie L.’ y ‘Rosalia de
Castro’ de Camellia reticulata, ‘Showa Supreme’ de Camellia hiemalis, y ‘Tarôkaja’ de
Camellia wabisuke.

Es un jardín con árbores senlleiras y monumentales, como los alcanforeros


(Cinnamomum camphora) y las magnolias grandifloras (Magnolia grandiflora), formaciones
senlleiras de eucaliptos (Eucalyptus globulus ), árboles monumentales (Dacal e Izco, 2003)
como los ejemplares de araucaria excelsa (Araucaria heterophylla), calocedro de California
(Calocedrus decurrens), criptomeria (Cryptomeria japonica), eucalipto (Eucalyptus
globulus), eucalipto de la pimienta (Eucalyptus piperita), fresno de hoja estrecha (Fraxinus
angustifolia), pícea común (Picea abies) y roble americano (Quercus rubra).

Otros árboles de interés son: Bauhinia variegata, Buxus sempervirens, Fraxinus excelsior,
Phoenix dactylifera, Picea pungens ´Glauca´, Pinus strobus, Podocarpus totara, Quercus
suber y Taxodium distichum.
Varias de las hectáreas quemadas en el incendio del verano de 2009 se han recuperado
para la ampliación del jardín de camelias y rododendros, con material vegetal donado por la
Diputación de Pontevedra.

8.- CASA-MUSEO DE ROSALÍA DE CASTRO

La Casa-Museo de Rosalía de Castro, conocida en su momento como "Casa da Matanza"


se encuentra en Padrón (A Coruña) lugar donde la escritora residió hasta su muerte en 1885,
conserva prácticamente inalterada su estructura original, que consta de dos plantas. La baja,
denominada "El perfil de una sombra", destinada a mostrar la importancia literaria de Rosalía,
está formada por la recepción, una pequeña tienda y salas en las que se exponen libros y otros
elementos relacionados con la autora, y la primera, denominada "Lo suyo", es una recreación
ambiental de la residencia de Rosalía, con elementos de una casa rural de la época, entre
labriega e hidalga, con cocina, comedor, dos dormitorios y biblioteca.

En 1947 se creó el Patronato Rosalía de Castro para recuperar la "Casa da Matanza" y


convertirla, en 1971, en un museo dedicado a su memoria. Se pueden contemplar en el museo
fotos de la poetisa, de sus familiares y amigos, recuerdos personales, escritos y multitud de
objetos cotidianos de la Galicia del siglo XIX. El Centro de Estudios Rosalianos, el Aula
Pedagógica y el Auditorio se ubican en edificios contiguos.

La Casa está rodeada por un espacio verde que en tiempos de Rosalía era huerta. Se
conserva como recreación de un jardín de la época (finales del siglo XIX), que forma con la
casa un hermoso conjunto. Fue después de la muerte de la escritora cuando se plantaron las
camelias que rodean la propiedad. Entre los ejemplares interesantes cabe mencionar el
cultivar de Camellia reticulata ´Rosalía de Castro´ y otros cultivares de la especie de origen
portugués: ´María Irene´, ´Magnolia Rosea´ y ´Pomponia Portuensis´. Hay además camelias
de los cultivares ‘Alba Plena´, ‘Incarnata´, ‘Poeonia Superba´, ‘Sophia´ y ‘Thelma Dale´.

En el jardín puede admirarse también un ejemplar de higuera (Ficus carica) considerado


Árbore senlleira y varios árboles monumentales de Ficus carica, Eritrina crista-galli,
Phytolacca dioica y Laurus nobilis. Son también de interés un ejemplar de castaño (Castanea
sativa) y uno de roble (Quercus robur), descendiente del roble de Guernica.

9.- PAZO DE OCA

Al amparo del Pico Sacro (A Estrada, Pontevedra), en el margen pontevedrés del valle del
Ulla, se encuentra el pazo barroco más visitado de Galicia. Sobre los restos de una antigua
construcción militar, Álvaro de Oca inició, a mediados del siglo XV, la edificación de una
casa fuerte que fue perdida en favor de la Mitra Compostelana por un descendiente suyo,
Suero de Oca. En 1575 pasó a manos de Felipe II y más tarde, en 1586, María de Neyra
adquirió la propiedad y la vinculó a un mayorazgo que constituyó a favor de su hijo Juan. Por
haberse transmitido dicho mayorazgo sucesivas veces por vía femenina, el apellido Neyra
cambió por el de Gayoso, Gayoso de Cobos, Fernández de Henestrosa y Fernández de
Córdoba, hasta heredar el pazo la última propietaria, la actual Duquesa de Medinaceli, quien,
al construir en 1978 la Fundación Casa Ducal de Medinaceli, lo sumó a su dotación junto con
el resto de su patrimonio histórico.
En todo el jardín está presente la piedra, formando un conjunto de bolas, pináculos, bestias
heráldicas y cañones bañados por el agua, que no hace más que aumentar la magnificencia del
lugar, caracterizado ya por su espléndida capilla, su muralla y los jardines singulares con
impresionantes árboles exóticos.

Se distinguen en el pazo dos tipos de jardines: el hortícola y el geométrico. El hortícola,


con cuadros dedicados a distintos cultivos, está atravesado diagonalmente por el conjunto del
lavadero, ría y molino, y a su vez bordeado este último por una alineación de boj de
considerable edad y arbolados de cítricos.

El jardín geométrico se compone, por su parte, de siete macizos de flora excepcional: un


ejemplar de Camelia reticulata ‘Captain Rawes’, sin duda la más antigua y grande de Europa,
es el árbol más destacado, seguida por otros importantes ejemplares de criptomeria, tejo,
magnolias perennifolias, árboles de Júpiter, secuoya roja, arce blanco, laurocerasos y una
importante masa de antiguas camelias que orillan paseos. La Carreira do Conde, con su paseo
arbolado, linda con la otra parte del jardín, de corte inglés, donde conviven una pradera
arbolada y un bosque ornamental, en el que cabe destacar una fotinia y un tulípero de
Virginia, además de la avenida de tilos.

Entre las camelias, en el jardín del Pazo, destacan, además del ejemplar de Camelia
reticulata ‘Captain Rawes’, magnificos ejemplares de los cultivares ´Alfredo Allen´,
´Anemona Alba´, ´Luíz Van-Zeller´, ´Mont Blanc´, ´Pompone´, ´Pomponia Estriata
Portuensis´ y ´Pomponia Portuensis´ de Camellia japonica, y del cultivar ´Uraku´ de
Camellia wabisuke.

Otros árbores senlleiras y monumentales son: el conjunto de Tilia platyphyllos (Carrera


de los Tilos), Criptomeria japonica ‘Elegans’ y Buxus sempervirens. Son también árboles
monumentales los ejemplares de alcornoque (Quercus suber), boj (Buxus sempervirens) y
camelia (Camelia japonica ‘Bicolor’), y tienen interés la sequoya (Sequoia sempervirens) y el
tejo (Taxus baccata).

Recientemente la colección se ha ampliado con numerosos ejemplares de distintas


especies y variedades de camelia donados por la Diputación de Pontevedra, reemplazando a
las plantaciones de frutales de pepita y de kiwi. Se ha creado además un importante laberinto
de camelias.

10.- PAZO DE SANTA CRUZ DE RIBADULLA

Al amparo del Pico Sacro, en el margen coruñés del río Ulla (Vedra, A Coruña), se
encuentra emplazado este singular pazo. Su historia se remonta al siglo XVI, cuando el
canónigo de la Catedral de Santiago Juan Ibáñez de Mondragón adquirió las propiedades que
se convertirían en el Pazo de Santa Cruz, conocidas en la época como la Torre y el Casar de
Ortigueira.

El canónigo, y posteriormente su sobrino el cardenal Juan de Mondragón, dignidad de la


catedral de Santiago-, extendieron la propiedad. Se edificó la capilla, se arreglaron los
edificios y se trazó el esqueleto de lo que hoy es la posesión, con plantaciones de olivos y
vides. Las fuentes, los estanques, el reloj de sol, la cascada, la pérgola- parrada y el corralón
son algunos de los atractivos de esta residencia pacega. En la actualidad pertenece a Alfonso
Armada, marqués de Santa Cruz, y es cuidada con esmero por un matrimonio y ocho
empleados que se ocupan de los jardines y de la producción de camelias para la venta.

Este jardín es para muchos el espacio botánico ornamental más fascinante de Galicia, por
su contenido florístico y su valor jardinero-paisajístico. Fue enriquecido en el siglo XIX, por
Don Iván Armada, conocido como el Tío Iván, quien aumentó considerablemente la colección
de plantas, especialmente las camelias. Quizás lo más importante de la propiedad sea el
conjunto de árboles senlleiros y monumentales que reúne, entre los que podemos destacar: los
paseos de camelias (Camellia japónica), olivos (Olea europea), boj (Buxus sempervirens), y
gigantescas magnolias (Magnolia grandiflora), el helecho australiano (Dicksonia antarctica),
la criptomeria (Cryptomeria japonica), los tulipaneros de Virginia (Liriodendron tulipifera),
el ombú (Phytolacca dioica), el roble piramidal (Quercus robur var. stricta), las palmeras
washingtonias (Washingtonia robusta), así como un naranjo (Citrus aurantium) que recuerda
las antiguas plantaciones de cítricos de finca.

Entre los cultivares de camelia plantados en la finca destacan los ejemplares de Camellia
japonica ‘Adolpho F. Möller’, ‘Alba Delecta’, ‘Alba Plena’, ‘Anemoniflora’, ‘Fimbriata’,
‘Jeronymo da Costa’, ‘Lavinia Maggi’ ‘Mazzuchelli’, ‘Madame Louis van Houtte’ y ‘Vergine
di Collebeato’, Camellia sinensis y Camellia wabisuke ‘Tarôkaja’.

11.- PAZO DE MARIÑÁN

Está situado en un amplio territorio conocido como As Mariñas de Betanzos (A Coruña),


en plena ría brigantina. La propiedad ocupa 17 hectáreas situadas en uno de los lados del río
Mandeo, en el lugar conocido como Mariñán, en el municipio de Bergondo. Su origen se
remonta a mediados del siglo XV, cuando se construye una fortaleza y una torre defensiva en
los dominios de Gómez Pérez das Mariñas, noble caballero, de gran poder e influencia, de la
corte de del rey de Castilla Juan II. La construcción sufrió posteriores reformas hasta
experimentar la transformación en pazo, momento en el que se incorporan bellas escalinatas y
balaustradas, además de esculturas, fuentes y jardines a manos de Diego José de Oca y
Cardóniga, abandonando su carácter militar en el siglo XVIII.

En el primer cuarto del siglo XIX, Juan José Caamaño y Pardo potencia la faceta jardinera
del Pazo. El Pazo va siendo heredado de padres a hijos hasta que Gerardo Láncara, al no tener
descendencia, lo dona en 1933 a la Diputación de A Coruña, que lo convierte en un centro de
cultura y enseñanza. En 1972, el Pazo y sus jardines son declarados Conjunto Histórico-
Artístico y Monumental.

El jardín principal de Mariñán se divide en dos mitades que se extienden a ambas partes de
un parterre geométrico monumental de boj (Buxus sempervirens), formado por una red de
paseos internos perpendiculares. Este singular entramado de boj es una obra cumbre de la
jardinería, formado por dieciséis cuadros en cuatro carteles, con estrellas, flores, cruces,
anillos y escudos.. Completan el estilo francés de esta parte del jardín la avenida de la entrada,
el paseo de boj y plátanos, la casa de los guardias, el patio de armas de la capilla y el
embarcadero ajardinado con macizos florales.

En la primera mitad del jardín se encuentran ejemplares monumentales centenarios,


incluidos la mayoría en el Catálogo de Árbores Senlleiras de Galicia, de tejo (Taxus
baccata),madroño /Arbutus unedo) y mirto arborescente (Myrtus communis). Destacan
además el cañaveral y, como árboles monumentales y/o senlleiras, las camelias (Camellia
japonica) dispuestas en agrupaciones de 8+1., ejemplares de plátano (Platanus acerifolia),
que alcanzan los 50 m de altura, eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus), chopo (Populus nigra),
fresno florido (Fraxinus ornus), pacana de Illinois (Carya illinoensis) y palmera datilera
(Phoenix dactylifera). En la segunda mitad, hay hermosos conjuntos de azaleas, aucubas,
camelias, espíreas, hiedras, rosales, y también tejos centenarios.

Hay que destacar también la presencia de camelias de los cultivares ‘Alba Plena’, ‘Bella
Romana’, ‘Dom Pedro V, Rei de Portugal’, ‘Prince Eugene Napoleon’, ‘Rubra simplex’,
‘Sangre de Pichon’ y ‘Scipione l`Africano’ de Camellia japonica.

12.- LA ALAMEDA DE SANTIAGO

El parque de la Alameda constituye el jardín público más destacado, más antiguo, y el


principal pulmón verde de la ciudad de Santiago de Compostela. Está situado a medio camino
entre dos de sus elementos más emblemáticos: el campus universitario y el casco histórico
donde se encuentra la Catedral. Este espacio verde, con sus caminos y rincones, es uno de los
sitios preferidos por los ciudadanos de Santiago como lugar de encuentro y ocio. En él se
desarrollan numerosas actividades durante todo el año, con la organización de ferias y
exposiciones, como la Feria del Libro, o las fiestas patronales de la Ascensión, que tienen
lugar en el mes de mayo.

El origen de la propiedad se remonta al siglo XII, cuando el Arzobispo Gelmírez mandó


construir una iglesia para albergar las reliquias de Santa Susana. En 1546 el Conde de
Altamira dona a la ciudad de Santiago de Compostela una extensa área agrícola para uso y
disfrute de los ciudadanos, con la recomendación de "plantar árboles y arboledas". De aquella
época pueden ser algunos de los árboles más antiguos. En la actualidad la iglesia conserva
algunos elementos propios del románico, ya que fue remodelada en los siglos XVII y XVIII.
Entre los monumentos arquitectónicos destaca la iglesia del Pilar, de estilo barroco (siglo
XVIII), el palco o quiosco de la música (siglo XIX), los bancos de cerámica de Sargadelos,
los estanques, la estatua de Méndez Núñez, y un importante conjunto de esculturas, como la
de Valle-Inclán, Rosalía de Castro, Castelao, Pais Lapido y Manuel Ventura Figueroa.

El diseño del jardín es de principios del siglo XIX. Exactamente en 1835, el ayuntamiento
de Santiago de Compostela inició la creación del Campo da Estrela y el Paseo da Ferradura,
que une sus dos extremos rodeando la antigua carballeira.

Todo el proyecto jardinístico es lo que hoy se conoce como La Alameda, que tiene unos
85.000 m2. Comprende un magnífico patrimonio arquitectónico y botánico formado por tres
zonas bien diferenciadas: la Carballeira de Santa Susana, el Campo da Estrela y el Paseo da
Ferradura. Aunque su diseño no responde a ninguno de los tipos habituales de jardín, posee
elementos del jardín francés, como los parterres simétricos y los setos, y elementos del inglés,
como la Carballeira de Santa Susana. Éste último espacio, situado en el centro del parque, está
formado por un conjunto de más de 300 ejemplares de Quercus robur, algunos de ellos
centenarios y que rodean a la iglesia del mismo nombre.

El Paseo da Ferradura, que el escritor Otero Pedrayo describió como “el parque y paseo
más noble de España”, alberga la más importante colección de especies botánicas del jardín y
además constituye un importante mirador al casco antiguo de la ciudad y a su catedral.
La camelia se encuentra bien representada en todo el conjunto por un total de 66
ejemplares, todos pertenecientes a Camellia japonica. Algunos superan el siglo de vida y
pudieron ser plantados con ocasión de la Exposición Agrícola, Industrial y Artística celebrada
en la ciudad de Santiago de Compostela en 1858. Entre los cultivares identificados podemos
citar a ‘Angela Cocchi’, ‘Bella Romana’, ‘Covina’, ‘Dom Pedro II’, ‘Federici’, ‘Incarnata’
‘Magnolia Rubra’, ‘Montironi’, ‘Pomponia Alba Monstruosa’, ‘Pomponia Estriata Portuense’,
‘Pomponia Portuensis’, ‘Sangre de Pichón’ y ‘Vilar D’Allen’.

Entre las especies que crecen en el jardín, destacan las incluidas en el Catálogo de Árbores
Senlleiras de Galicia: los magníficos ejemplares de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus) y de
abeto del Cáucaso (Abies nordmanniana), plantado en conmemoración de la visita de Eva
Duarte de Perón en junio de 1947. También se incluyen en el Catálogo los tilos plateados
(Tilia tomentosa) del Campo da Estrela. Hay también otros árboles reconocidos como
monumentales por Dacal e Izco (2003) y en el Catálogo de Árbores Monumentales de Galicia
(DOG Decreto 67/2007, del 22 de marzo), como los robles (Quercus robur) -carballos de
Santa Susana- y ejemplares de árbol de coral (Erythrina crista-galli), camecíparis de Lawson
(Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), chopo negro (Populus nigra), eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus),
robinia (Robinia pseudoacacia) y sofora del Japón (Sophora japonica).

CONCLUSIONES

La camelia como marca turística de Galicia puede contribuir de forma importante al


fomento del turismo, por su singularidad (se encuentra casi exclusivamente en Galicia),
belleza, la gran diversidad de cultivares con sus diferentes tamaños y colores de flores y
periodo de floración, y la monumentalidad de los ejemplares más antiguos. Es además un
producto que favorece la desestacionalización de la oferta turística, dado que el mejor
momento para su contemplación es durante la floración, que, en jardines con especies y
cultivares diferentes, puede abarcar los meses de otoño, invierno y comienzos de primavera.

Existe un valioso patrimonio de jardines con camelias en Galicia, que además poseen
ejemplares monumentales de otras especies botánicas que aumentan su atractivo. Los 12
jardines seleccionados hasta la fecha (Pazo Quiñones de León, Parque del Castro de Vigo,
Castelo de Soutomaior, Pazo de Lourizán, La Saleta, Pazo de Quinteiro da Cruz, Pazo de
Rubiáns, Casa_Museo de Rosalía de Castro, Pazo de Oca, Pazo de Santa Cruz de Ribadulla,
Pazo de Mariñán y La Alameda de Santiago) han permitido diseñar la ruta de la Camelia, que
constituye un circuito único, de gran interés turístico, cultural, histórico y artístico. Todos son
jardines románticos que tienen en común la camelia, la piedra y el agua, y que hay que visitar
para vivirlos. Cada jardín tiene, sin embargo, una identidad propia que lo hace singular.

La singularidad de la camelia como producto turístico se complementa con otros


productos que ya se ofrecen en la mayoría de los jardines de la Ruta: aceite y jabón de
camelia, cuadros de camelia de artistas locales, productos de artesanía y vino, entre otros.

AGRADECIMIENTOS

Este trabajo fue financiado por la Diputación de Pontevedra y la Xunta de Galicia


(proyectos PGIDIT03RAG60301PR y PGIDIT06RAG26103PR). Agradecemos a Ana Neves
su colaboración técnica.
REFERENCIAS

Gao J., Parks C.R., Du Y. 2005. Collected species of the genus Camellia, an illustrated
outline. Zhejiang Science and Technology Press, Zhejiang, China.
IET. 2012. Turismo (IET España). Instituto de Estudos Turísticos de Galicia (IET). En:
http://www.ietgalicia.com/portal/index.php?idm=81
Macoboy, S. 1998. The illustrated encyclopedia of camellias. Timber Press. Portland, Oregon
(EEUU).
Rodríguez-Dacal C., Izco J. 2003. Árboles monumentales en el patrimonio cultural de Galicia.
Ed. Consellería de Cultura, Comunicación Social y Turismo. Xunta de Galicia.
Salinero C., González M. 2006. La camelia en Galicia. Camelia 19: 5-14.
Ulla Lorenzo F., Pazos Otón M. 2010. Productos y destinos turísticos emergentes en Galicia.
Revista de Estudos Politécnicos vol. VIII, nº 14: 21-43.
Xunta de Galicia. 2012. Enquisa de destino 2009. Análise estatística sobre o turismo en
Galicia. Secretaría Xeral para o Turismo, Consellería de cultura e turismo. En:
http://www.ietgalicia.com/portal/index.php?idm=61
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“Rituales festivo-religiosos y turismo: entre el rezo y el espectáculo”

Celeste Jiménez de Madariaga


Directora del Dpto. Historia I
Universidad de Huelva
21071 HUELVA (España)
celeste@uhu.es

Abstract:
La práctica de la religión católica en Andalucía se caracteriza por sus manifestaciones festivo-
rituales de gran expresividad y relevancia social y cultural. Entre ellas, podemos distinguir por
la difusión que se está alcanzando, la Semana Santa, fundamentalmente en las ciudades de
Sevilla y Málaga, y algunas romerías como la Virgen del Rocío en Almonte o de la Virgen de
la Cabeza de Andújar. Los actuales medios de comunicación y la industria turística han
contribuido a difundir el conocimiento de estas manifestaciones o expresiones fuera de los
límites locales por lo que se han convertido en centros de atracción de devotos y turistas. Esto
hace que el ritual se transforme para que "ser contemplados" desde los ojos de la alteridad,
produciendo un espectáculo y una autenticidad performativa para el turismo. Este documento
replantea los rituales-festivos como objeto de estudio y confirma su especial valor para la
comprensión de la dinámica cultural en los contextos locales. Analizo la compatibilidad entre
los peregrinos y turistas, devotos y espectadores, creyentes y visitantes, apoyando mis
argumentos con ejemplos de rituales festivos-religiosos andaluces.

“Religious festive-rituals and tourism: between the prayer and the spectacle.”

The practice of the catholic religion in Andalusia is characterized by its manifestations


festive-rituals of great expressiveness and social and cultural relevance. Among them, we can
distinguish by the diffusion that they are taking, the Holy Week, fundamentally in the Seville
and Malaga cities, and some pilgrimages such as the Virgen del Rocío in Almonte or of the
Virgen de la Cabeza in Andújar. The current mass media and the tourist industry have
contributed to disseminate knowledge of these manifestations or expressions outside the local
limits so that they have become centers of attraction of devotees and/or tourists. This causes
that the ritual to be transformed for “to be contemplated” from the eyes of the otherness,
producing a spectacle and performative authenticity for tourism.
This paper rethinks the festive-rituals as an object of study and confirms its special value for
understanding the cultural dynamics in local contexts. I analyze the compatibility between
pilgrims and tourists, devotees and spectators, believers and visitors, supporting my
arguments with examples from Andalusian religious festive-rituals.

Keywords:

Religious festive-rituals, tourism, performative authenticity


Artículo:

“Rituales festivo-religiosos y turismo: entre el rezo y el espectáculo”

En todas las culturas, en todas las religiones y contextos históricos, podemos observar rituales
festivo-religiosos que se destacan como acontecimientos sociales fundamentales para entender
la complejidad cultural local y, en ocasiones, también supra-local. Se trata de rituales que
suponen “hechos sociales totales” (en el sentido maussiano), en tanto reflejan las
imbricaciones entre lo religioso y las distintas dimensiones de los sistemas culturales
(organización social, política, economía, relaciones de género, etc.). Estos rituales son,
además, referentes identitarios de primer orden, sirven para reafirmar las identidades
colectivas de los pueblos, las comunidades y los grupos que las conforman, y las
organizaciones religiosas que intervienen, todo esto en los diferentes niveles organizativos,
territoriales y político-administrativos. En ellos, los celebrantes desempeñan actuaciones
conjuntas, performances, a veces en distintas secuencias, acciones simbólicas mediante las
que la sociedad se autorepresenta y se reproduce, con gran poder de intensificación1, cuyo
efecto conduce a la reafirmación del sentimiento de comunidad y la conciencia de común
pertenencia. En este sentido, los rituales festivos comportan reflexividad social, ya que
evidencian los rasgos y contradicciones de los sistemas socioculturales con los que el hombre
enfrenta sus necesidades y desafíos adaptativos2.
Los rituales festivo-religiosos estructuran tiempos, espacios y actividades; marcan momentos
de descanso y celebración de las tareas económicas y las actividades cotidianas, y marcan
lugares enclaves desde donde se focaliza la actividad ritual. Lugar y tiempo componen un
binomio conceptual que sirve para explicar la reunión y el movimiento de personas y los
diferentes modos en los que participan en la acción ritual. De esta forma, en las diversas
religiones, algunos rituales festivo-religiosos adquieren una importancia tal que implican
desplazamiento y concentración de gentes como, por ejemplo, celebraciones en torno a
elementos considerados sagrados (ya sean anuales o con otras periodicidades) o bien las
grandes peregrinaciones a lugares santos. Ya en el pasado, son visibles las implicaciones
culturales que estos rituales pueden ejercer, bien fuesen como aglutinadores de la diversidad
interna a la propia comunidad celebrante provocando cambios culturales de carácter
endógeno, o bien por el contacto entre culturas y la difusión cultural que suponían provocando
cambios culturales de carácter exógenos. En cualquier caso, las religiones han movilizado a
las gentes hacia unos lugares determinados y en unos tiempos determinados, con argumentos
basados en los propios dogmas y creencias, lo que conlleva a interpretar estos movimientos y
concentraciones como “actos de fe”.
En la actualidad, ante la emergencia de la denominada “globalización mundial”, algunas
voces presagiaron la decadencia de las religiones tradicionales y, con ello, de los rituales que
las caracterizan. La lógica de mercado se expandía y parecía imponerse ante el pensamiento
místico-religioso, ante la lógica simbólica. Pero lejos de agonizar, presenciamos no sólo la
permanencia de las creencias y prácticas religiosas sino una revitalización generalizada; eso
sí, redefinidas bajo renovadas y múltiples interpretaciones. La incorporación de las nuevas
tecnologías y sistemas de comunicación a la cotidianidad de individuos y colectivos, se ha ido
desarrollando de manera sumamente compatible con las recientes concepciones del hecho
1
Algunos antropólogos dirán que las fiestas son “rituales de intensificación”, en el intento de
dibujar una tipología de rituales.
2
Rodrigo Moulian Tesmer (2004) muestra las contradicciones entre la reflexividad y las
mediaciones que están produciendo importantes transformaciones en las prácticas rituales,
tomando como ejemplo el lepün y el culto pentecostal.
religioso y espiritual. Esta compatibilidad ha sido posible, entre otras razones, por la ruptura
de los antiguos esquemas que separaban lo sagrado de lo profano, por la convergencia entre lo
global y lo local, por la simultaneidad entre lo personal y lo mediático, por la extensión social
del turismo y su industrialización, por la deslocalización mediática de la imagen, por la
aceptación –como un derecho fundamental a las personas3- de la pluralidad de creencias y
prácticas religiosas... al disiparse la contradicción entre la idea de progreso y religión.
En esta reinterpretación del hecho religioso, se incorpora una nueva visión de los rituales
festivos desde el patrimonio cultural, como elementos especialmente significativos de la
identidad e historia de los pueblos. La relevancia social que adquieren estas acciones
colectivas han sido valoradas por los órganos políticos y administrativos pertinentes, que se
ven legitimados para intervenir sobre ellos con, supuestamente, pretensiones de apoyo a la
ciudadanía y de salvaguarda de este patrimonio. El problema radica en aquellas actuaciones
que se desvían más hacia la politización del patrimonio con fines propagandísticos o su
comercialización con fines meramente mercantilistas. Es entonces cuando estos rituales
festivos pueden ser considerados un recurso, como factor dinamizador de las economías
locales, incluso un producto de consumo para el sector empresarial vinculado sobre todo al
turismo. Las nuevas tecnologías de la información, la extensión de los medios de difusión de
masas y la mercadotecnia, han acercado los acontecimientos festivos a gentes de otros lugares
mostrando el atractivo de contemplarlos en directo y vendiéndolos como “oferta turística”.
Con ello, nos encontramos con ejemplos de rituales festivos multitudinarios con alto grado de
espectacularización, donde actores celebrantes, aún con distintos niveles de participación
ritual, y espectadores/turistas componen un complejo escenario difícilmente comprensible
desde una lógica pragmática. Sólo teniendo en cuenta las tramas de la patrimonialización, su
politización y mercantilización, se puede entender el fuerte auge de determinados rituales
festivos religiosos, fundamentalmente aquellos en los que domina el protagonismo seglar,
actúan como elementos de expresión de identidades culturales y forman parte de la memoria
colectiva y el imaginario de los pueblos.
Para ilustrar estos y otros cambios que han llevado a la situación actual de los rituales festivo-
religiosos, apoyaré mis argumentos con los ejemplos de los casos de la Semana Santa de
Sevilla y la Romería del Rocío de Almonte (Huelva), centrando la atención en estos territorios
de la comunidad autónoma andaluza de España.

Cuando el ritual se convierte en espectáculo: el caso de dos rituales andaluces en


España.

Aunque los dos rituales escogidos, la Semana Santa de la ciudad de Sevilla y la Romería de la
Virgen del Rocío en la población de Almonte (Huelva), son ampliamente conocidos, realizaré
una breve descripción para contextualizarlos y acercarlos a los lectores foráneos y menos
próximos a estos entornos etnográficos. Ambos se localizan en la Comunidad Autónoma de
Andalucía, situándose en dos de sus ocho provincias, Sevilla y Huelva; en un caso en un
enclave urbano y capital: Sevilla, y en el otro caso, en un enclave rural y periférico: la aldea
del Rocío en el municipio de Almonte en la provincia de Huelva.
En primer lugar, debemos hacer constar la importante y secular influencia de la dimensión
religiosa en la sociedad andaluza. En Andalucía, la religiosidad adquiere connotaciones de
capital importancia para la comprensión de los modelos de identificación entre los diversos

3
La Declaración Universal de los Derechos del Hombre formulada por la ONU en 1948
reconocía, en el Art. 18, el derecho a la libertad de religión, incluyendo la enseñanza, el culto
y las prácticas tanto individuales como colectivas, tanto públicas como privadas.
colectivos. La mayor parte de las fiestas son, total o parcialmente, de tipo religioso,
caracterizadas por la riqueza de sus expresiones y contenidos, y por ofrecer significativos
matices simbólicamente relacionados con el patronazgo de determinadas devociones, y/o con
una larga trayectoria histórica, y/o con los medios de vida rurales y el ciclo anual de las
actividades laborales agroganaderas. En concreto, tanto la Semana Santa de Sevilla como la
Romería del Rocío constituyen dos manifestaciones de gran repercusión pública, con una
influencia que rebasa sus contornos territoriales, y donde se exceden los contenidos
puramente religiosos para verse implicados otros ámbitos de la vida social, desde las
cuestiones económicas a estrategias políticas y grupos de poder, la articulación de
corporaciones y asociaciones, diferenciaciones de género y edad, etc.
En cuanto a la Semana Santa, nos encontramos con un ritual de carácter imitativo4 basado en
la representación de la Pasión y Muerte de Jesucristo a través de múltiples procesiones, un
total de 60 distribuidas arbitrariamente durante la semana. Se trata, pues, de una
representación pretendiendo semejar ese pasaje final de la vida de Cristo. El elemento central
de estas representaciones procesionales son los pasos, plataformas donde se escenifica
escultóricamente algunos de esos momentos, personajes y donde las imágenes de los
“Cristos” y “Vírgenes” titulares de las hermandades5 acaparan la atención devocional de las
gentes actuando, además, como símbolos de identidades colectivas a distintos niveles y
dimensiones. Los cortejos procesionales, integrados por nazarenos y penitentes que portan
cirios, cruces y diversas insignia y que cumplen distintas funciones, conforman un conjunto
perfectamente estructurado donde la suma de participantes puede oscilar entre las 600
personas (pocas procesiones tienen menos de este número) y las 2.800 que llegan a tener las
hermandades de más renombre. En las procesiones resalta la exuberante riqueza artística y
ornamental de las imágenes, pasos y enseres. En la mayoría de las ocasiones, las tallas de
vírgenes, cristos y santos son obras de importantes escultores de reconocido prestigio en la
historia del arte español/andaluz. Estas tallas y conjuntos escultóricos se aderezan con ricos
adornos: indumentarias y palios profusamente bordados; joyas y coronas de oro, plata y
piedras valiosas; hermosas piezas de orfebrería; tallado y dorado de madera, etc. La
composición final forma una imagen peculiar, de gran valor artístico y patrimonial, a modo de
obras propias de museos que sin embargo pueden verse y se exhiben en las calles.
La suma de procesiones hace de la Semana Santa un ritual secuenciado y de carácter urbano,
es decir, las procesiones recorren las calles afectando a gran parte de la ciudad de Sevilla,
sobre todo su zona centro donde todas confluyen en un mismo recorrido, la Carrera Oficial,
para hacer “estación de penitencia” en la Iglesia Catedral. La ciudad se convierte en un gran
escenario mediante la transformación del espacio público/cotidiano –conceptualizado como
centro comercial y de sociabilidad- en espacio ritual/festivo6. Pero en esa transformación se

4
La eficacia simbólica de este tipo de ritual mantiene la misma lógica que ya J. G. Frazer
(1944) señalara en relación a la magia imitativa u homeopática, o sea, el fundamento lógico
de la asociación de ideas por semejanza bajo el principio de que lo semejante produce lo
semejante. Al realizar las mismas acciones que antes alguien hiciera se piensa conseguir los
mismos efectos.
5
Las Hermandades son agrupaciones de fieles encargadas de la custodia de las tallas
escultóricas y de la organización del ritual, y se vinculan socialmente a los barrios y enclaves
donde están situadas.
6
J. Rodríguez Mateo, en su libro “La ciudad recreada. Estructuras, valores y símbolos de las
hermandades y cofradías de Sevilla (1997), realiza un interesante recorrido por el universo
simbólico del ritual (y sus implicaciones en el asociacionismo sevillano a través de las
hermandades) en el que muestra cómo se recrea en un espacio -la ciudad- y tiempo.
produce una apropiación de ciertas zonas, la Carrera Oficial, mediante la restricción del
acceso de las personas y el control de los recorridos procesionales. Las calles y plazas de la
Carrera Oficial dejan de tener su función habitual para convertirse en grandes escenarios
donde sólo aquellos privilegiados que hayan pagado un asiento -la silla- podrán acceder. Los
dirigentes municipales apoyan estos planteamientos de privatizar durante una semana
espacios que en principio son públicos por la evidente rentabilidad económica y política que
de ello se deriva.
Lógicamente, los turistas que llegan a la Semana Santa no tienen acceso a esa zona restringida
desde donde puede contemplarse todos los desfiles procesionales. Deben acudir al encuentro
de las procesiones durante el recorrido previo o posterior, lo cual supone un dominio del
programa organizativo procesional de cada día y de la propia cartografía de la ciudad
(iglesias de las que parte y llegan, y calles por donde transcurren), algo que para los mismos
sevillanos implica todo un aprendizaje. La dificultad para los no iniciados aumenta
circunstancialmente por la multitud de personas que se mueven de un lado a otro, provocando
puntuales concentraciones aparentemente caóticas que los autóctonos saben manejar. La
complejidad y profusión que ha alcanzado este ritual festivo desborda lo imaginable al punto
que hace complicada su apreciación por parte de los turistas sin unas mínimas nociones
previas de lo que se van a encontrar. Difícilmente podemos distinguir los límites entre la
devoción, la exaltación del patrimonio artístico y el goce de los sentidos y, para los sevillanos,
la reafirmación identitaria.
No obstante, la Semana Santa sevillana como modelo de ritual festivo se ha exportado a otros
lugares, y con ello su conocimiento y dominio. Tal vez no se comparta las peculiares formas
de expresar la religiosidad que tienen los sevillanos, pero sí se puede saber y apreciar el valor
artístico que poseen tallas, pasos, exornos, músicas y procesiones en general, y puede que se
logre tener ciertas experiencias y emociones al percibir el ritual en su conjunto. Mientras que
el turista cultural le bastará con el disfrute del patrimonio histórico artístico y etnológico, al
turista religioso le moverá la intencionalidad de conseguir esas experiencias que promueve la
percepción de este ritual y lo acerca a lo sagrado.
El otro ritual festivo que proponemos mostrar es la Romería de la Virgen del Rocío,
considerada el más importante ejemplo de esta modalidad festiva en Andalucía, al menos a lo
que concentración de individuos se refiere, pues llega a alcanzar el millón de personas. En
principio se trata de un ritual festivo localizado en la población de Almonte, de donde la
Virgen del Rocío es patrona. Pero la peculiar forma de estructurar el culto y la romería,
mediante un sistema de hermandades filiales dependientes de la Hermandad Matriz de
Almonte, ha extendido la romería allí donde existan hermandades y asociaciones rocieras,
excediendo los límites de la provincia de Huelva (donde se sitúa Almonte), Andalucía, incluso
España. En la actualidad encontramos 108 hermandades filiales, concentradas
fundamentalmente en los territorios circundantes más cercanos a Almonte, pero también
distribuidas por otros muchos enclaves de Andalucía más alejados de la aldea almonteña,
distintos puntos de España (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, las Palmas de Gran Canarias,
Toledo), incluso en el extranjero como la Hermandad de Bruselas y las Asociaciones de
Argentina, Puerto Rico, Brasil o Australia.
El motivo central de esta romería es, sin duda, la devoción y culto a la Virgen del Rocío que
actúa como símbolo religioso dominante7. Como sabemos, los símbolos pueden condensar
significados diversos8, lo que permite la posibilidad de ser interpretados de distintas maneras,

7
Siguiendo la distinción propuesta por V. Turner (1990:33) entre “símbolos dominantes”,
cuya presencia es imprescindible en el ritual, y “símbolos instrumentales”, de los que se
puede prescindir.
8
De nuevo, tomando como referencia las características que V. Turner (1990) señala sobre los
a veces complementarias, pero siempre compatibles. La gente de la localidad de Almonte,
reclaman la Virgen del Rocío como algo suyo en tanto existen hechos que justifican esta
apropiación: las leyendas de aparición, el ser patrona de Almonte, la localización de su ermita
en territorio almonteño, los votos que el pueblo tiene hacia la Virgen, etc. Pero sin negar la
vinculación de esta imagen a Almonte, el mismo símbolo, Virgen del Rocío, significa un
elemento aglutinador de otras identidades colectivas y puede ser interpretado de otras
maneras: como, también, elemento aglutinador de identidades de localidades más o menos
cercanas pero estrechamente relacionadas con el origen de la extensión de la devoción rociera
(por ejemplo, en Villamanrique, La Palma, Pilas, etc.); como motivo que justifica el
agrupamiento de personas en una asociación tipo hermandades o peña; como un distintivo de
la identidad de barrio en aquellas ciudades donde coinciden distintas asociaciones tipo
rocieras (por ejemplo, las Hermandades del barrio de Triana y del barrio de la Macarena en
Sevilla), como símbolo de Andalucía para los andaluces emigrantes y las gentes de fuera de
Andalucía; etc.
La pluralidad de significados identitarios se entiende por citada estructura organizativa. En
Almonte nos encontramos con la Hermandad Matriz que tiene legitimado el usufructo de la
imagen de la Virgen, de sus posesiones y de todo lo relacionado con sus cultos, incluida la
organización de la romería. Junto a esta hermandad, se fueron creando otras hermandades
“filiales” inicialmente en localidades situadas en el mismo entorno, pero que con el tiempo se
fueron localizando en otros lugares más lejanos, algunas por influencia de la emigración
andaluza, y otras por la popularidad que esta devoción iba alcanzando. Todos estos colectivos
reconocidos por la Hermandad Matriz configuran una estructura compleja, lo que he
denominado el sistema de hermandades filiales, en el que cada grupo tiene autonomía interna
y poder de decisión en el lugar de origen pero que, una vez en tierra almonteña en la
peregrinación, la romería o cualquier otro acontecimiento festivo, deben acatar la autoridad de
la Hermandad Matriz. La propia Hermandad Matriz de Almonte ha alentado implícitamente la
creación de nuevas hermandades y otros tipos de colectivos reconocidos por ella.
Simplemente, la Hermandad Matriz ha impidiendo la participación activa en los actos
organizados durante la romería a todos aquellos grupos o asociaciones identificados como
colectivos que no estén reconocidos por ella, si bien cualquier persona puede participar a nivel
individual. Es decir, los sujetos participantes se integran en los actos programados a través de
sus hermandades.
Esta compleja red de hermandades filiales extendida territorialmente ha provocado, al menos,
dos efectos: la llegada de peregrinos desde puntos muy diversos y por motivaciones distintas
durante la romería y en otros momentos del año, y la activación de un mecanismo de difusión
del ritual festivo tremendamente eficaz allí donde las hermandades están emplazadas
reforzado por la repercusión dada en los medios de comunicación, televisión, radio y prensa.
No todo el que se acerca al ritual de la Romería del Rocío lo hace con una finalidad religiosa
devocional, existen otras motivaciones que se relacionan con lo identitario, el prestigio social,
lo económico o el mero disfrute festivo, y en esto se incluye también el turismo. Muchas
personas acuden a la Romería del Rocío por gozar de la naturaleza durante el Camino y la
peregrinación hacia la ermita. Los “caminos” se realizan por parajes realmente bellos, como el
Camino de Cádiz por el Parque Nacional de Doñana, con impresionantes paisajes, fauna y
flora que provocan la exaltación de los sentidos. Más aún, algunos peregrinos, devotos o no,
vuelven a sus lugares de origen una vez llegados a la aldea almonteña no interesándose por
los actos que allí se realizan durante los tres días (presentación de hermandades, el rosario, la
misa, la procesión). Otra interpretación alude a la autenticidad de la fiesta bajo el argumento

símbolos.
de que la “masificación” de personas que se concentran durante esos días en la aldea ha
afectado negativamente en la “esencia” de la romería. A otros, por el contrario, lo que les
atrae son los aspectos más folclóricos y expresivos de la fiesta, el cante, el baile, el derroche y
los excesos alimentarios, o el encuentro con los amigos.
Con independencia de las motivaciones que inicialmente se tengan, el turista que llega a la
Romería del Rocío se encuentra con una multiplicidad de maneras de entender el ritual, todas
perfectamente ensambladas, que aparentan inexplicables contradicciones. Por un lado hallan
un entorno extraordinariamente atractivo de marismas y pinares, pero al mismo tiempo se
topan con el bullicio y la multitudinaria concentración de personas en la aldea. La romería se
celebra en un espacio especialmente construido para el ritual, la ermita de la Virgen del Rocío
y la aldea que se ha formado a su alrededor. El aspecto de la aldea muestra este hecho: por las
calles sin asfaltar para facilitar el tránsito de los caballos, por las características
arquitectónicas de los edificios, por la abundancia de Casas de Hermandades casi siempre
vacías, etc. Dependiente del Ayuntamiento de Almonte, la aldea del Rocío es durante la
mayor parte del año un lugar fantasma donde apenas viven unas mil personas. Sin embargo,
en los días de romería, la población que se concentra en la aldea puede alcanzar cifras
exorbitantes, gentes venidas de muchos diversos sitios y que como colectivos-hermandades se
alojan en “sus” Casas. O sea, se produce una apropiación del espacio sagrado para pasar de
ser espacio de nadie (espacio vacío) a ser espacio de todos, incluidos los turistas de cualquier
procedencia.
En los dos casos descritos, Semana Santa de Sevilla y Romería del Rocío de Almonte,
podemos observar que la intervención en estos rituales no sólo se argumenta desde la
dimensión religiosa. Ha ocurrido una progresiva laización de las sociedades modernas y esta
laización, más que provocar el abandono de lo religioso, ha provocado una reintepretación,
nuevas semánticas abiertas a otras perspectivas no necesariamente religiosas. La presencia de
la Iglesia y la influencia del clero en la Semana Santa sevillana o en la Romería del Rocío
sigue siendo importante, pero el papel fundamental, sobre todo a nivel organizativo, lo ejercen
los seglares articulados a través de asociaciones tipo hermandades9.
El asociacionismo se ha convertido en una de las estrategias más efectivas para la producción
de rituales festivos religiosos. Sin embargo, la efectividad del asociacionismo no se centra
exclusivamente en el hecho de que el ritual se realice y lo haga adecuadamente. Las
hermandades y otras asociaciones son efectivas en tanto su acción se extiende en todo tiempo
-y no sólo el tiempo del ritual, o sea, los días de la Semana Santa o los días de romería- y en
todo concepto - y no sólo desde el aspecto religioso-. Por supuesto que aún hay muchas
personas que intervienen en estos rituales por motivaciones mayoritariamente religiosas, pero
también es cierto que, en los últimos tiempos, se han añadido otras motivaciones y que en
muchas ocasiones la integración de los individuos en las hermandades motiva su intervención
en el ritual y no al revés. Es decir, las personas no se integran en las hermandades para salir de
nazareno en la Semana Santa o para ir en romería al Rocío, sino que existen otras razones
directamente relacionadas con las funciones sociales que éstas cumplen: las hermandades
actúan como espacios de interacción social donde se crean y refuerzan las redes de relaciones,
sirven como mediación entre los individuos y las instituciones no sólo religiosas, son órganos
de poder donde se hace política (personas que en su vida cotidiana no poseen ningún papel de
relevancia pueden lograrlo en las hermandades), medios para adquirir prestigio social,
espacios para reflejar la disposición a una solidaridad sobre todo orgánica, escenarios para la

9
I. Moreno Navarro realizó en 1984 un estudio sobre las “cofradías y hermandades
andaluzas” donde, además de aportar un tipología de éstas, hace constar algunas de sus
funciones.
expresión y afirmación de valores, etc.
La vinculación a un símbolo religioso, aquella devoción-imagen elegida por las hermandades,
también ha perdido su condición exclusivamente religiosa. El símbolo, por las características
que antes mencioné, adquiere distintos significados que son usados según los casos. Además
de “por devoción”, algunos individuos se sienten unidos al símbolo por tradición familiar, por
vecindad, por la actividad laboral que desarrollan, por paisanaje o, simplemente, por gusto.
Así, un mismo individuo puede pertenecer simultáneamente a varias hermandades lo que
multiplica aún más las interpretaciones, y las reticula y complejiza.
Muchos nazarenos, costaleros, romeros o sencillamente espectadores, participan, cada uno a
su manera en la Semana Santa o en la Romería del Rocío, mientras que el resto del año se
mantienen al margen de los cultos ordinarios de la Iglesia (la oración, la asistencia a misa, la
confesión...), salvo aquellos acontecimientos de importancia dirigidos por las hermandades
tales como triduos, quinarios, besamanos a las imágenes, etc. No es extraño encontrar a
quienes declaran abiertamente ser personas “no religiosas” y que, no obstante, intervienen por
otros conceptos. Ya señalé algunos ejemplos: por goce estético, por afición, por disfrutar de
las manifestaciones y ese patrimonio artístico, por reafirmar identidades colectivas, etc.
Con todo nos encontramos grandes contrastes, mientras que unos rezan, otros beben, mientras
que unos hacen penitencia con una cruz al hombro, otros pasean y charlan, mientras que unos
cumplen una promesa a la Virgen, otros bailan. Los límites entre lo sagrado y lo profano se
han difuminado hasta llegar a mezclarse de manera que, incluso, para algunos también se
puede tener una experiencia religiosa bebiendo, paseando, charlando o bailando.
Los dos rituales festivos presentados se han transformado en las últimas décadas por los
efectos de una profusa difusión y publicidad, hasta convertirse en eventos multitudinarios
donde concurren todo tipo de turistas, con la rentabilidad económica que ello conlleva. Esta
transformación ha afectado al propio ritual en tanto los agentes y colectivos sociales que
poseen la capacidad de decisión sobre la organización ritual, han articulado mecanismos para
hacer de éste algo atractivo y sugerente para el visitante. Trasmitimos la idea de que los ritos
no son hechos gratuitos orientados sólo a manifestaciones religiosas o al goce puramente
estético o lúdico, sino por el contrario se vinculan a diversos aspectos de la vida social,
política y económica. La comercacilización y mercantlización de los rituales festivos, los
introduce en la cadena empresarial como producto de consumo dirigido fundamentalmente al
turismo.
Podemos entender que todo ritual festivo-religioso supone una escenificación en el sentido de
puesta en escena de unas acciones (previamente preestablecidas), con unos protagonistas y
actores rituales, en un espacio que se convierte en escenario por donde discurre la acción,
durante el transcurso de un tiempo estipulado y con secuencias fijadas. Ahora bien, la
espectacularización implica una exhibición para ser visto, representar para su contemplación,
la existencia de espectadores que miran desde la distancia sin una mirada participante.
Mientras que en la escenificación, el ritual se realiza por el poder trasformativo que éste
produce en los actores –incluso en aquellos que observan y no participan directamente en el
ritual-, en el espectáculo la puesta en escena tiene como objetivo prioritario el público, la
mera contemplación. Dicho esto, un ritual no puede concebirse asimismo como un
espectáculo, una exhibición sin funcionalidad salvo la contemplativa, dejaría de ser ritual.
Ciertos rituales festivos pueden espectacularizarse en algunos de sus aspectos, sobre todo
rituales complejos, sobredimensionados, de gran calado social, implicaciones políticas y
económicas, como los citados ejemplos. La espectacularización implica que los rituales sean
vistos con los ojos de los otredad, de modo que en algunos de los elementos y decisiones
organizativas prime la complacencia de los observadores –turistas-, algo que para políticos,
empresarios y gestores públicos es prioritario dada la importancia del turismo como fuente de
ingresos. En definitiva, se produce una confluencia de gentes en el ritual festivo religioso que,
aparentemente, no entran en conflicto coincidiendo protagonistas rituales, devotos,
espectadores, peregrinos, turistas, curiosos y creyentes.

De la religión al turismo: el turismo religioso

Volviendo a la idea de globalidad, y las decepciones halladas en sus promotores, mucho se ha


expuesto sobre las transformaciones que ésta produciría en nuestro presente, sus
interconexiones sistémicas y afectaciones a todas las dimensiones sociales y culturales. Pero,
quizás, lo más complejo de este fenómeno ha sido constatar las imbricaciones entre lo global
y lo local, al comprobar que el tan tañido proceso homogenizador se simultaneaba con la
revitalización de los localismos, en principio sin la menor contrariedad. De ahí la aparición
del posterior concepto de “glocalidad” (Robertson, 1995 y Beck, 1998), que trata de mediar
entre lo global y lo local10.
Sea como fuere, nos enfrentamos ante cambios sustanciales en nuestras sociedades actuales y,
en lo que a rituales festivo religiosos se refiere, comprobamos una de las cualidades de los
rituales, su permeabilidad, por cuanto son capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas realidades e
incorporar los elementos necesarios para mantener su funcionalidad social. Se trata de una
permeabilidad reflexiva, es decir, los rituales se empapan de la sociedad, son un reflejo de
éstas, a la vez que la sociedad se muestra a si misma mediante el ritual. Esta permeabilidad es
lo que hace que los rituales sean tan útiles para analizar colectivos sociales y articulaciones
con los elementos de la cultura que le sirven de contexto.
En la religión católica, algunos rituales festivo-religiosos se destacan por su extensión,
pujanza y vigencia, entre otros, las romerías y peregrinajes, las celebraciones de la Semana
Santa, y las fiestas patronales. Ya hemos vistos dos ejemplos de rituales en Andalucía
(Semana Santa de Sevilla y Romería del Rocío de Almonte), pero junto a estos, otros muchos
rituales jalonan el ciclo festivo de los pueblos y ciudades, y resultan ser especialmente
significativos para entender sus particularidades socioculturales. Al constituir, asimismo,
Andalucía un enclave preferente como destino turístico, la intersección entre alguno de estos
rituales y el turismo ha sido inexcusable, sobre todo desde que el turismo se ha desviado del
sol y las playas, y ha buscado otros atractivos.
Así uno de los ámbitos donde se evidencia los cambios acontecidos en los rituales festivos en
los últimos tiempos es, sin duda, en el turismo. En general, la actividad turística se ha
transformado de manera exponencial, a la vez que se extendido socialmente y se ha
industrializado pasando a ser uno de los sectores económicos más influyentes a nivel
internacional. Según la OMT, el turismo es la industria de mayor crecimiento en todo el
mundo, y nada deja prever que su ritmo vaya a disminuir en el siglo XXI, a pesar de la
incertidumbre y crisis económica en la que estamos inmersos. Las llegadas de turistas
internacionales crecieron un 4,4 % en 2011 hasta alcanzar un total de 980 millones, frente a
los 939 millones alcanzados en 201011. Los flujos de capital que se derivan de turismo afectan
tanto en términos macroeconómicos como microeconómicos, tanto en las zonas emisoras
como, sobre todo y especialmente, en las zonas receptoras.
Pero el desarrollo del turismo a gran escala no sólo ha tenido efectos en el ámbito económico
sino, también y de forma bastante significativa, en lo social y cultural, jugando un papel

10
El mismo Ulrich Beck nos proporciona una definición de glocalidad, en donde “... lo local
debe entenderse como un aspecto de lo global. La globalización significa también
acercamiento y mutuo encuentro de las culturas locales, las cuales se deben definir de nuevo
en el marco de este clash localities”.
11
Barómetro OMT del Turismo Mundial – Vol. 10, enero 2012.
importante en el proceso de imbricación entre lo global y lo local. El turismo pone en contacto
a diferentes culturas: la local o receptora con la foránea o emisora. La sociedad autóctona que
recibe turismo permite la visión de su cultura a los visitantes y, a veces, incluso la muestra, o
sea, actúa activamente posibilitando a los foráneos su acercamiento o incorporación más o
menos transitoria. En este sentido, las repercusiones socioculturales más notables devienen de
los cambios endógenos acontecidos en el propio turismo, pasando del denominado “turismo
de sol y playa” (convencional, pasivo y estacional), a un turismo más exigente y
especializado, que busca nuevos destinos y experiencias, en los que está siendo fundamental
la difusión a través de los mass media y el uso de las TICs. En esta redefinición del turismo,
se incluye los denominados “turismo religioso” y “turismo espiritual”.
Como planteaba al comienzo, los movimientos de personas con una finalidad religiosa han
existido desde la antigüedad y en la mayoría de las religiones predominantes. Las
peregrinaciones a lugares sagrados, centros de culto religioso y congregaciones en
determinados emplazamientos para la celebración conjunta de un ritual, habían sido
planteadas como una muestra de devoción, con una intencionalidad individual, que en muchas
ocasiones suponía el cumplimiento de una promesa, o bien se concebía como un sacrificio y
penitencia; incluso una obligación preceptiva que se debía efectuar. El “turismo religioso”
incorpora a esta práctica ya existente, cuanto menos, dos matices importantes: su masificación
y generalización (dando la posibilidad de movimiento a muchas más personas y de más
variada índole), y su comercialización (los operadores y agencias de viaje han sabido captar
esta demanda y hacer negocio). Aparece, entonces, la disociación entre el desplazamiento a
un lugar “sagrado” como experiencia religiosa y la visita por el atractivo histórico-cultural
que estos lugares puedan tener, siendo en muchos casos lugares que concentran valiosos
bienes patrimoniales tanto materiales (inmuebles y muebles) como inmateriales.
Si buscamos por World Wide Web – Red, encontraremos portales especializados en “turismo
religioso”, como el sitio web gestionado por la agencia de viajes Jetcommunity, SL12, de
carácter internacional y plurireligioso, en la que encontraremos desde visitas al Vaticano,
Nepal, Taj Mahal, a otros destinos como: “Monasterio de Montserrat, Camino de Santiago, El
Arca Perdida en Turquía, Procesiones y vírgenes, Los viajes de San Pablo, Viajes a Fátima, y
Viajes a Lourdes”. Las propias instituciones religiosas han sucumbido a esta comercialización
de los lugares sagrados facilitando la llegada de viajeros. En la Iglesia Católica, la Santa Sede
recoge la importancia del turismo e incluye un servicio especialmente dedicado al “Turismo,
Peregrinaciones y Santuarios”, uniendo turismo y pastoral. En el año 2006, se celebró en
Roma una Reunión de los Directores Nacionales para la Pastoral del Turismo en Europa, en
el que intervinieron representantes de distintos países y de la Curia romana, para analizar el
estado de la cuestión y buscar vías de interconexión entre turismo y la actividad pastoral,
teniendo en cuenta, además, el destacado patrimonio histórico cultural de la Iglesia en Europa.
Asimismo, la Iglesia organiza unas Jornadas Mundiales de Turismo, habiendo realizado ya la
treintava edición en 2009, que fue dedicada al “El turismo, consagración de la diversidad”.
Por su parte, la Conferencia Episcopal Española recoge esta tendencia con la creación de un
Departamento de Pastoral de Turismo y Tiempo Libre que, entre otras actividades, organiza a
nivel español unas Jornadas Nacionales de Pastoral de Turismo. En el año 2008, estas
jornadas se celebraron en Ávila, y en ellas se trataba de definir qué entiende la Iglesia por
“turismo religioso”. Así, su lema fue: “El turismo religioso. Su necesaria conceptualización”,
y en su presentación se decía:
“…El turismo ha ido tomando diversos rostros o formas que han dejado de ser un calificativo
del concepto genérico para convertirse en una entidad propia. Entre estas aparece el llamado
“turismo religioso”, que limita con otras experiencias similares como son la peregrinación o el

12
http://www.turismoreligioso.info/
turismo cultural. Todos los agentes implicados en este ámbito turístico, de manera especial la
Iglesia, pero no exclusivamente, somos conscientes de que al definirlo es en ocasiones un
concepto equívoco e incluso vacío del contenido que le es propio.”13
Es más que evidente la preocupación de la Iglesia por legitimar una modalidad de turismo, el
religioso –se entiende que católico-, que está siendo abordado por las empresas turísticas con
cierto éxito, incluso por instituciones públicas con fines promocionales. No obstante, la
comercialización de lo “religioso” por parte de la Iglesia con fines implícita o explícitamente
turísticos no es nada nuevo, dado su rico patrimonio histórico-artístico. Son muchas las
catedrales e iglesias que combinan su función religiosa como centros de culto, con la
museológica entrando en el circuito de visitas turísticas por un precio más o menos módico.
La novedad está en ofertar también la experiencia religiosa y el encuentro de lo sagrado. Esto
es lo que diferencia el turismo religioso del turismo cultural, un matiz –lo experiencial- que la
Iglesia pretende legitimar como de su competencia. Distinguimos, pues, entre el atractivo que
el “lugar sagrado” posee por sus valores histórico-artísticos (turismo cultural), de los valores
místico-devocionales (turismo religioso), aunque ambos se puedan compenetrar. Los enclaves
donde se ubican reliquias (sudario de Turín), imágenes de devoción (Virgen del Pilar de
Zaragoza), apariciones (Fátima y Lourdes), sepulcros de santos (Santiago de Compostela), y,
como no, los lugares relacionados con vida y muerte de Jesucristo, han sido y son destinos
preferentes de los católicos en busca del contacto con lo sagrado, si bien en los últimos
tiempos, estos desplazamientos a los “lugares sagrados” no siempre se conceptualizan como
peregrinación, ya que han perdido la perspectiva del sacrificio o expiación. En muchos casos
se trata de viajes programados por las mismas agencias, que ofertan comodidad,
rentabilizando el tiempo del viajero, e incluso organizado según preferencias (“viajes a la
carta”). La peregrinación supone recorrer un “camino”, más o menos largo pero con la
intencionalidad de realizar un esfuerzo; es el caso del Camino de Santiago planteado como
peregrinación.
Junto con los lugares y enclaves sagrados, la práctica católica se extiende también a los
rituales festivo-religiosos, realizando la visita durante el desarrollo de éstos. El turismo
religioso se hace coincidir bien con la celebración de las fiestas católicas más generalizadas o
con rituales festivos que adquieren peculiaridades a nivel local, siendo estas peculiaridades lo
que los hacen especialmente atractivos. Como ya indicaba, romerías, fiestas patronales,
rituales que han singularizado de algún modo la Semana Santa o el Corpus Christi, mezclan
su interés entre lo cultural y lo religioso.
Andalucía ha sido y es un importante destino turístico internacional, que durante mucho
tiempo se ha destacado por su oferta de sol y playa. Sin embargo, los cambios de valores que
ha experimentado el sector turístico han producido la diversificación de la oferta andaluza,
aumentando el turismo cultural de interior, más demandado por el viajero nacional. En esta
línea, señalaba como Andalucía se destaca por sus manifestaciones festivo rituales de gran
expresividad y relevancia social y cultural. Los dos ejemplos mostrados son prueba de ello,
junto a la Semana Santa que se celebra en otras ciudades como Málaga, el Corpus Christi de
Granada y otras romerías como la de la Virgen de la Cabeza en Andújar (Jaén). Los actuales
medios de comunicación y la industria turística han contribuido a difundir el conocimiento de
estas manifestaciones fuera de los límites locales de modo que se han convertido en focos de
atracción de devotos y/o turistas. Frecuentemente, estos rituales festivos se presentan entre los
productos ofrecidos por las agencias de viajes, incluso en aquellas especializadas en “turismo
religioso”. La agencia Viajes Fiesta S.A., por ejemplo, posee un perfil de especialización en

13
Programa de las Jornadas Nacionales de Pastoral de Turismo celebradas en Ávila (España),
del 11 al 13 de noviembre de 2008.
http://www.conferenciaepiscopal.es/actividades/jornadas/2008/Turismo2.pdf
peregrinaciones, y entre los itinerarios que proponen para cualquier época del año se incluye
“Virgen del Rocío” y “Sevilla”14. En el viaje al Rocío, además de la visita al santuario, se
ofrece otros alicientes que se vinculan con el ritual: trayecto en carriola y en coche de caballo
por el camino del Rocío con entrada a la aldea por el Ajolí; parada en el camino para tomar un
aperitivo rociero, amenizado por un coro rociero, y almuerzo y cena en una casa del Rocío o
Casa Hermandad. Por otro lado, la oferta de viaje a Sevilla contiene las visitas a la Basílica de
la Virgen de la Macarena, Iglesia de Nuestra Sra. de la Esperanza de Triana, la Capilla de
Jesús del Gran Poder, y la Catedral, o sea, los centros devocionales relacionados con la
Semana Santa más populares y conocidos. En ninguno de los dos casos se ofrecen “servicios
religiosos” como misas o rosarios.
No obstante, son muchas las agencias que, dado el momento, organizan viajes al Rocío y a
Sevilla, coincidiendo con el ritual festivo de la Romería y la Semana Santa, combinando el
atractivo cultural y lo religioso. Al mismo tiempo, las nuevas tecnologías de la información
facilitan la llegada de turistas que organizan sus propios viajes según sus intereses. En uno u
otro caso, la participación del turista en el ritual festivo es siempre relativa y externa,
quedando la mayoría de las veces como mero espectador.
A diferencia del turismo religioso, el turismo espiritual incide más en la experiencia y la
búsqueda de percepciones deseadas, capaces de hacer escapar a los individuos de un mundo
urbanizado, consumista y tecnológico. El turismo espiritual prescinde de cualquier
concepción religiosa y remite al contacto con lo trascendente, lo místico, lo vital, lo mágico y
el encuentro con la naturaleza. A menudo implica actividades de meditación, relajación, yoga,
senderismo, aislamiento, alimentación “sana”, etc. Evidentemente, aunque diferentes, el
turismo religioso y el espiritual poseen ciertas conexiones, sobre todo en los lugares que se
ofrecen como destinos, puesto que muchos lugares sagrados de nuestras religiones están en
entornos privilegiados de la naturaleza que realmente acercan a los individuos a lo
trascendental con independencia de su vocación religiosa. No pocos santuarios, monasterios y
conventos se han convertido en destinos demandados por turistas que esperan encontrar la
armonía espiritual lejos de las grandes ciudades.
En cualquier caso, la posibilidad de conjugar el binomio religión–turismo muestra las
transformaciones que han acontecido en la conceptualización tanto de uno como del otro. Las
aparentes contradicciones se disipan desde la lógica del mercado bajo su redefinición como
“turismo religioso y/o espiritual”, y desde la lógica simbólica por la capacidad que los
símbolos poseen de ser reintrepretados con significados distintos más allá del puramente
religioso (patrimonial, identitario, social, etc.). Este juego entre reinterpretación simbólica y
mercado se aprecia especialmente en las trasformaciones habidas de los rituales festivo-
religiosos y sus nuevas dinámicas (como apreciamos en los ejemplos dados), y en las nuevas
semánticas atribuidas a lo sagrado, fundamentalmente a los lugares de culto. Todo ello hace
compatible que de cara al turismo, el ritual se convierta en espectáculo y el lugar sagrado en
escenario, a la vez que los devotos peregrinan y rezan.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA

AGUDO TORRICO, Juan: “De rituales festivo-ceremoniales a patrimonio intangible. Nuevas


recreaciones de viejas tradiciones”, en Fiestas y Rituales, X Encuentro para la Promoción y
Difusión del Patrimonio Inmaterial de Países Iberoamericanos. Lima, Corporación para la

14
http://www.peregrinaciones.es/
Promoción y Difusión de la Cultura, pp. 51-66, 2009
BECK, Ulrich: ¿Qué es la globalización? Falacias del globalismo, respuestas a la
globalización. Paidos, Barcelona, 1998.
COMELLES, José María: “Los caminos del Rocío”, en S. Rodríguez Becerra (ed.),
Antropología Cultural de Andalucía. Consejería de Cultura, Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla,
1984.
GARCÍA CANCLINI, Néstor: “Los usos sociales del patrimonio cultural”, en Patrimonio
etnológico. Nuevas perspectivas de estudio. Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico,
Sevilla, 1999, pp. 16-33.
HERNÁNDEZ RAMÍREZ, Javier: La imagen de Andalucía en el turismo. Fundación Centro
de Estudios Andaluces, Sevilla, 2008.
JIMÉNEZ DE MADARIAGA, Celeste: Más allá de Andalucía. Reproducción de devociones
andaluzas en Madrid. Fundación Blas Infante, Sevilla, 1997.
LEACH, Edmund: Cultura y comunicación. La lógica de la conexión de los símbolos. Siglo
XXI, Madrid, 1993 (1976).
MORENO NAVARRO, Isidoro: “Rituales festivos e identidades colectivas en tiempos de
globalización”. En J. Marcos, S. Rodríguez y E. Luque (eds.), Nos-Otros: Miradas
antropológicas sobre la diversidad. Asamblea de Extremadura, Mérida, 2010, pp. 725-748.
MOULIAN TESMER, Rodrigo: “De la Reflexividad social a las mediaciones rituales:
Mutaciones, convergencias y paradojas en el Lepün y el culto pentecostal”, Revista Austral de
Ciencias Sociales, nº 8: 29-50, 2004.
PRATS LLorenç y SANTANA, Agustín (coord): “Turismo y patrimonio. Entramado
narrativos”, Pasos. Revista de Turismo yPatrimonio Cultural, nº 5, 2011.
ROBERTSON R. “Glocalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity”, en
Featherstone, M., Lash, S. y Robertson, R. (eds.): Global Modernities, Sage, Londres, 1995.
RODRÍGUEZ MATEOS, Joaquín: La ciudad recreada. Estructuras, valores y símbolos de
las hermandades y cofradías de Sevilla: Diputación de Sevilla, Sevilla, 1997.
TURNER, Víctor: El proceso ritual, Taurus, Madrid, 1988
TURNER, Víctor: La selva de los símbolos, Siglo Veintiuno, Madrid, 1999.
What does UNESCO's World heritage list mean for tourism?
The endorsement effects of UNESCO’s World Heritage designation
on tourists’ pro-environmental behaviour.

Cindy Y. Heo
Assistant Professor
School of Hotel and Tourism Management
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

1
ABSTRACT

UNESCO’s World Heritage designation was initiated to preserve important natural and
cultural heritage. But the World Heritage designation is used as a tool for attracting a number
of tourists through tourism marketing campaigns and World Heritage sites acts as an
important attraction to tourists. As World Heritage sites was becoming popular among the
tourist, many negative effects on precious cultural and natural heritage sites became concerns
for Heritage managers. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the factors that
induce tourists' pro-environmental behavioral intentions at the heritage site. More specifically
this study examined the endorsement effects of UNESCO’s World Heritage designation on
tourists' pro-environmental behavioral intentions at the heritage site and whether this
endorsement effects of World Heritage designation differ across different levels of tourist
destination awareness.

Key words: Heritage tourism, UNESCO’s World Heritage List, Tourist pro-environmental
behaviour

2
INTRODUCTION

The World Heritage designation had initially been designed as a conservation tool for sites
deemed to be of outstanding universal value, but the World Heritage designation has evolved
into a brand and seal of approval of the heritage site. World Heritage sites have attracted the
attention not only of the heritage professionals, but also of tourists, the tourism industry, and
academic researchers. However, the increased numbers of tourists brought about many
negative effects on precious cultural and natural heritage sites, and the need for more
effective and comprehensive site management has been highlighted (Landorf, 2009). Heritage
managers are now under increased pressure to preserve fragile natural and cultural heritage.
The main challenge facing the heritage tourism sector may be to find the right balance
between consumption of extrinsic values by tourists and conservation of the intrinsic values
by cultural heritage managers (McKercher & du Cros, 2002). Despite the fact that quite a few
scholarly studies have been conducted, there appears to be a scarcity of study, which attempts
to understand whether World Heritage designation can promote tourist’s pro-environmental
behavioral intentions. Therefore, the objective of this study attempts to examine the
endorsement effects of UNESCO’s World Heritage designation on tourists' pro-
environmental behavioral intentions at the heritage site. In addition, this study identify
whether this endorsement effects of World Heritage designation differ across different levels
of tourist destination awareness.

LITERETURE REVIEW

Heritage Tourism & UNESCO World Heritage

Tourism has started with the exploration of cultural, historical and natural heritage (Ryan &
Silvanto, 2009). Heritage is regarded as one of the more significant and fastest growing
components of tourism in many countries (Hervert, 2001). The relationship between heritage
and tourism is well documented in the literature (e.g., Robinson, 2000; Loulanski &
Loulanski, 2011; Smith, 2006; Timothy, 2007; Timothy & Boyd, 2003). Due to globalization
and increase of personal income and leisure time, the scale of heritage tourism expanded
(Herbert, 1995). Cultural and heritage tourism has been gaining importance recently not only
for its’ economic gains but due to more sustainable approaches. The increased numbers of
tourists from the rapid growth of heritage tourism brought about many adverse effects on
heritage sites.

The idea of creating an international movement for protecting heritage sites emerged and the
General Conference of UNESCO adopted the 'Convention concerning the Protection of the
world Cultural and Natural Heritage' in 1972. The objective of the Convention is to identify
the heritage that is of 'outstanding universal value' and inscribe it on the World Heritage List.
As of March 2012 there were 936 properties inscribed on the World Heritage List consisting
of 725 cultural (places of historical significance, monuments, groups of building or sites), 183
natural (natural features, geological and physiographical feather, and natural sites) and 28
mixed properties in 153 different countries who are part to the convention. Cultural locations
such as Kyoto, Rome, and Venice have received World Heritage status along with natural
areas such as Grand Canyon and Great Barrier Reef. To be included on the World Heritage
List, sites must be of outstanding universal value and meet at least one out of following ten
selection criteria.

3
(1) to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;
(2) to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a
cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts,
town-planning or landscape design;
(3) to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization
which is living or which has disappeared;
(4) to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological
ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history;
(5) to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use
which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment
especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;
(6) to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with
beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee
considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria);
(7) to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and
aesthetic importance;
(8) to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the
record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or
significant geomorphic or physiographic features;
(9) to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological
processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine
ecosystems and communities of plants and animals;
(10) to contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of
biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal
value from the point of view of science or conservation.

Although World Heritage designation considered as a preservation initiative to protect fragile


natural and cultural heritage, the role of the World Heritage designation in tourism are
increasingly important. The World Heritage Sites are often used as a tool for attracting a
number of tourists through tourism marketing campaigns and help to enhance the
international visibility of destinations. World Heritage designation acts as an important
attraction to tourists although properties range in size and profile (Hall & Piggin, 2002). The
craving to grow tourism has led to surge in the number of natural and cultural sites submitted
to the UNESCO for inclusion on the World Heritage List. Indeed, previous research suggests
that World Heritage designation increases the popularity of a location or destination with
tourists (e.g., Ashworth & Tunbridge, 1990; Drost, 1996). Buckley (2004) found UNESCO's
world heritage designation has yielded significant increases in proportions of international
visitors to individual sites.

As the World Heritage sites become very popular among tourists (Evans, 2001; Rakic &
Leask, 2006; Shackley, 2006) and the World Heritage related issues thus also attracted great
attention of the wider academic community. The main topics within the academic research
have been the issues of tourism management and marketing (e.g., Boyd & Timothy, 2006;
Fyall & Rakic, 2006; Hall & Piggin, 2003; Shackley, 2001), policy and conservation (e.g,
Ashworth & van der Aa, 2002; Kavoura, 2001; Rakic & Leask, 2006) and tourists’
understanding of the significance of the World Heritage Site status (e.g., Moscardo, Green &
Greenwood, 2001). Hall and Piggin (2002) found the gap in business knowledge of World
heritage and associated value. Ryam amd Silvanto (2009) discussed the World Heritage
4
designation from a destination branding perspective. In addition, there have also been
research which looked at the implications of a World Heritage Listing for the local population.
For example, Evans (2002) addressed the realities of living in a World Heritage city. Others
focused on tourists to World Heritage sites. According to Moscardo et al. (2001)’s study,
tourists to the Great Barrier Reef concerned about the protection and conservation of this
World Heritage site and recognized that tourism has the potential to have negative impacts on
the reef. Visitors to the Great Barrier Reef do care about the environment of the area although
they do not have any detailed knowledge about why the area is important and what activities
threaten it. However, the majority of studies focused on the supply side of heritage and its
management, while relatively few have interested in the demand side (Loulanski & Loulanski,
2011).

Endorsement Effects

In general, most tourists are not able to evaluate the cultural value and importance of the
heritage site for themselves. Since tourists can be convinced that heritage sites on the World
Heritage List have received expert verification and have been proved to be of exemplary
importance, the World Heritage designation has become a widely accepted confirmation of
value and authenticity for tourism destinations (Ryan & Silvanto, 2009). As World Heritage
sites have become so popular among tourists, some scholars are speaking of the World
Heritage designation as a ‘brand’ (Hall & Piggin, 2003) and others speak of it as an
authenticity stamp for the heritage tourist or a trademark (Rakic & Leask, 2006).

Researchers found that endorsements reduce consumer search costs and grant a competitive
advantage for a recommended product or service (Ohanian, 1991). Endorsement refers to any
person or an organization which is publicly known and who appears in an advertisement with
a product with the purpose of promoting the product (McCracken, 1989). The use of celebrity
or a third-party organization as part of marketing communications strategy is a fairly
common practice for many firms in supporting company or brand image. Endorsements have
been found to be effective in persuading consumers to use the endorsed product rather than
unendorsed substitutes. Many marketing studies have examined the effects of product
endorsements by a third-party organization, by a celebrity, or no endorsement on perceived
product quality, attitude toward the manufacturer, purchase risk, and information value (e.g.,
Dean & Biswas, 2001). Dean and Biswas (2001) argued product endorsements by third-party
organization may function as signals of unobservable product quality. By providing an
evaluation of the products based on the experience characteristics, endorsements by third-
party organization may reduce consumer uncertainty and risk perception in a purchase
situation and consumers' need for product information gathering. Petra (2009) discusses the
celebrity endorsement effects on destination image in tourism advertising, but the effects
were not empirically tested. While celebrity or a third-party organization endorsement for
consumer products is widely used in advertising, it gains little attention from tourism scholars.
Thus, there appears to be a gap in our knowledge about the endorsement effects on tourism
destinations. Particularly, the existing literature has not yet explored whether UNESCO
World Heritage designation affect tourist’s attitude toward the heritage site and pro-
environmental behaviour at the heritage site.

Pro-environmental Behaviour

To stimulate tourist's pro-environmental behaviour at the heritage site, a better understanding


of psychological factors that influence their willingness to act in a pro-environmental manner
5
is important. Several research has explored different psychological determinants of daily pro-
environmental behaviour (Gardner & Stern, 1996). Previous researchers have been focused
on predictors on one specific level of abstraction, such as general values, environmental
values, attitudes or norm when trying to predict or explain pro-environmental behaviour.
Such factors as value orientation, environmental values, attitude and norms have been found
to influence specific pro-environmental behaviour such as recycling (Hopper & McCarl-
Nielsen, 1991; McCarty & Shrum. 1994; McKenzie-Mohr, Nemiroff, Beers, & Desmarais,
1995); consumption style (Homer & Kahle, 1988; Widegren, 1998), energy conservation
(Stern & Gardner, 1998), choice of travel mode (Garvill, 1999; Noordlund & Garvill, 2003),
and general pro-environmental behaviour (Grendstad & Wollebaek, 1998; Thompson &
Barton, 1994). A few studies focused on tourist’s pro-environmental behaviour at the tourism
destination. For example, Dolnicar and Leisch (2008a) demonstrated that pro-environmental
behaviour at home is strongly related to pro-environmental behaviour on vacation. Dolnicar
and Leisch (2008b) also found that market segments based on past pro-environmental
behaviour at the destination represent distinctive groups with respect to psychographic,
behavioural and socio-demographic personal characteristics. Ramkissoon, Weiler, and Smith
(2012) discussed the relationship between place attachment and pro-environmental behaviour
in national parks. However, the relationship between World Heritage designation and
tourist’s pro environmental behaviour at the heritage site has not discussed yet.

METHODS

The purpose of this study is to identify the endorsement effects of UNESCO’s World
Heritage designation on tourists' pro-environmental behavioral intentions at the heritage site
and to examine whether this endorsement effects of World Heritage designation differ across
different levels of tourist destination awareness. For this purpose, a factorial experiment, a 2
(UNESCO World Heritage endorsement vs. No endorsement) × 2 (Well-known destination
vs. Unknown destination), was conducted (Table 1).

Taj Mahal and Ajanta Cave were selected as two heritage sites. Both sites are located in India
and gained UNESCO World Heritage designation in 1983. While Taj Mahal is the
internationally well-known heritage, Ajanta Cave is relatively less known to tourists. The
question to check respondents’ awareness of the two heritage sites was included in the
questionnaire. The list of pro-environmental behaviours at the destination was developed
based on previous studies (e.g, Brown, Ham, & Hughes, 2010; Nordlund & Garvill, 2003). A
seven-point Likert scale was used to measure seven pro-environmental behaviour at the
heritage site. The four versions of the survey differed only in the destination information
section.

University students enrolled in undergraduate hospitality program were used as subjects; they
received extra credit for their participation. The email with the link to the online survey has
been sent out to 214 students, and 156 students have completed the survey. Participants received
different versions of the survey instruments.

Table 1. Experimental Design


Manipulations
Destination Ajanta Cave Taj Mahal
UNESCO WHL Endorsement Endorsement No Endorsement

6
RESULTS

A T-test was used for manipulation check and the result revealed the respondents awareness
for two heritage sites are significantly different (t-value = 7.13, p-value: .00). Mean scores for
pro-environmental behaviour at the heritage sites were presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Descriptive Statistics


WHL Std. Std.
Pro-Environmental Behaviour Destination N Mean
Endorsement Deviation Error
PEB1) I would not mind Ajanta Cave Yes 38 5.58 1.328 .215
walking or using other modes No 54 5.70 1.127 .153
Taj Mahal Yes 24 5.33 1.204 .246
of transportation than car at this
No 40 5.55 1.131 .179
heritage destination.
Total 156 5.58 1.186 .095
PEB2) I would try not to Ajanta Cave Yes 38 6.42 .826 .134
damage this heritage No 54 5.96 1.115 .152
destination. Taj Mahal Yes 24 6.00 1.180 .241
No 40 6.30 1.067 .169
Total 156 6.17 1.059 .085
PEB3) I would not litter on the Ajanta Cave Yes 38 6.37 .819 .133
ground at this heritage No 54 6.22 1.144 .156
Taj Mahal Yes 24 6.08 1.060 .216
destination.
No 40 6.40 1.081 .171
Total 156 6.28 1.040 .083
PEB4) I would pick up litter Ajanta Cave Yes 38 4.58 1.328 .215
that is not my own. No 54 4.44 1.110 .151
Taj Mahal Yes 24 4.83 1.373 .280
No 40 4.05 1.484 .235
Total 156 4.44 1.321 .106
PEB5) I would try to save water Ajanta Cave Yes 38 5.53 1.109 .180
when I travel. No 54 5.56 1.040 .142
Taj Mahal Yes 24 4.92 1.412 .288
No 40 5.40 .982 .155
Total 156 5.41 1.118 .090
PEB6) I would try to save Ajanta Cave Yes 38 5.26 1.223 .198
electricity when I travel. No 54 5.44 1.110 .151
Taj Mahal Yes 24 4.83 1.551 .317
No 40 5.25 1.193 .189
Total 156 5.26 1.238 .099
PEB7) I am willing to donate Ajanta Cave Yes 38 5.16 1.480 .240
money for protecting this No 54 4.78 1.208 .164
heritage destination. Taj Mahal Yes 24 4.50 1.745 .356
No 40 4.15 1.369 .216
Total 156 4.67 1.443 .116

7
The study performed seven factorial ANCOVA with the dependent variable of pro-
environmental behaviour and gender was included as a covariate variable. For PEB2 (I would
try not to damage this heritage destination) as the dependent variable, gender (f-value: 9.04,
p-value: .00) and interaction between endorsement and destination (f-value 5.41; p-value .02)
was significant, but neither endorsement nor destination was significant.

Table 3. Factorial ANCOVA results


(PEB2) I would try not to damage this heritage destination)
Type III Sum of
Source df Mean Square F Sig.
Squares
Corrected Model 15.539a 4 3.885 3.710 .007
Intercept 234.028 1 234.028 223.480 .000
Gender 9.462 1 9.462 9.035 .003
Endorsement 1.179 1 1.179 1.125 .290
Destination .806 1 .806 .770 .382
Endorsement * Destination 5.669 1 5.669 5.414 .021

Error 158.127 151 1.047


Total 6106.000 156
Corrected Total 173.667 155
a. R Squared = .089 (Adjusted R Squared = .065)
b. Computed using alpha = .05

Figure 1)

8
For PEB4 (I would pick up litter that is not my own) as the dependent variable, endorsement
was found to be significant (f-value 4.19; p-value .04) was significant, but destination was
not significant.

Table 4. Factorial ANCOVA results


(PEB4: I would pick up litter that is not my own.)
Type III Sum of
Source df Mean Square F Sig.
Squares
Corrected Model 10.530a 4 2.633 1.530 .196
Intercept 176.587 1 176.587 102.624 .000
Gender .001 1 .001 .001 .982
Endorsement 7.214 1 7.214 4.193 .042
Destination .163 1 .163 .095 .759
Endorsement * Destination 3.775 1 3.775 2.194 .141

Error 259.829 151 1.721


Total 3340.000 156
Corrected Total 270.359 155
a. R Squared = .039 (Adjusted R Squared = .013)
b. Computed using alpha = .05

Figure 2)

9
For PEB7 (I am willing to donate money for protecting this heritage destination) as the
dependent variable, gender (f-value 5.58; p-value; .02), endorsement (f-value: 4.01; p-value;
0.5) and destination (f-value 10.32; p-value .00) were found to be significant was significant.

Table 3. Factorial ANCOVA results


(PEB7: I am willing to donate money for protecting this heritage destination.)
Type III Sum of
Source df Mean Square F Sig.
Squares
Corrected Model 31.929a 4 7.982 4.146 .003
Intercept 112.062 1 112.062 58.202 .000
Gender 10.749 1 10.749 5.583 .019
Endorsement 7.864 1 7.864 4.084 .045
Destination 19.872 1 19.872 10.321 .002
Endorsement * Destination .044 1 .044 .023 .880

Error 290.737 151 1.925


Total 3720.000 156
Corrected Total 322.667 155
a. R Squared = .099 (Adjusted R Squared = .075)
b. Computed using alpha = .05

10
DISCUSSION

The number of tourists to World Heritage sites has increased rapidly, prompting heritage
management to seek enhanced tourist management including communication intending to
influence tourist’s behaviour to reduce negative impacts and strengthen preservation viability.
This study attempted to identify whether World Heritage designation can affect tourist's pro-
environmental behavioral intention. The results indicate inconclusive as to the endorsement
effects of UNESCO World Heritage designation on tourist’s pro-environmental behavioral
intention.

This study is experimental in nature, and ,to the best our knowledge, one of the first few
studies exploring the endorsement effects of UNESCO’s World Heritage designation on
tourists' pro-environmental behavioral intentions at the heritage site. Interesting results
suggest future research directions. Additional research is needed to investigate the
endorsement effects of using different settings and other factors. In addition, future research
can study cognitive procession as a mediator to better understand the underlying mechanism
for the endorsement effects on pro-environmental behaviour.

Several limitations of this study should be noted. First, the nature of the scenarios might limit
the generalizability of results from the study. Second, the experiment in the study was
scenario-based and did not occur in a field setting. Capturing all of the nuances of actual
situation in a scenario is difficult, and consequently respondents may have difficulty
predicting their behaviour in hypothetical situation. Also, the results should be considered
exploratory due to several limitations in our data. Of particular importance is that small
sample size warrants caution in results interpretation. Another significant limitation relates to
participants used in this study, because all participants were undergraduate students.

11
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13
NATURAL HERITAGE, TOURISM AND ICTS FOR VISITORS. THE CASE OF
THE 'SEA AND LAND' NATIONAL PARK OF THE ATLANTIC ISLANDS

Dr. David Casado Neira


Universidad de Vigo
dcneira@uvigo.es

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present a study of the virtual guides –with multimedia
portable information– available for the 'Sea and Land' National Park of the Atlantic Islands in
Galicia. Notwithstanding technical limitations, the use of multimedia guides in natural
environments offers a plenty of advantages, especially where offering information on
analogue supports is difficult or not desired. A natural environment is a place to be explored,
where pleasure, physical activity, land navigation, contemplation of the landscape and
knowledge are strongly linked and a multimedia portable guide can enlarge this "experience
in the nature". The used of multimedia guides can be rated as positive: some of the m-learning
advantages are widely implemented (specially in the use of audio files, and portable
information), but also some given functions are constricted by technical and conceptual
handicaps that may limit the visitors' interest to use this services.

Keywords: natural guide, natural heritage, outdoor tourism, virtual guide

1 Multimedia and virtual guides for tourisitc purposes in outdoors locations


Environmental education and approaches to biological life and ecosystems may
benefit most from the use of m-learning as a powerful tool to enhance knowledge, and as an
added marketing tool target to gain new visitors. In contrast to city locations (urban outdoors)
or indoors locations, non-urban outdoor spaces (referred to as outdoors from this point) are
environments with limitations for analogical information facilities, having in most cases a
lack of infrastructure at the points of interest (POIs). Outside museums or visitor information
offices, a natural environment cannot be restricted to an exhibition room or information
panels. A natural environment is a place to be explored, where pleasure, physical activity,
land navigation, contemplation of the landscape and knowledge are strongly linked: what
could be called an "experience in the nature". Its implementation needs to be designed to
satisfy the needs of the public, and to offer a more intense experience in the nature under the
universal principle of design for learning. This involving multisensory, multimodal learning
nature by touching, seeing, listening, smelling, and tasting (Sonneveld, Ludden, and
Schifferstein, 2008). City-multimedia guides and touristic services based upon geolocation
technologies (GPS location, Wi-Fi hotspot location, geotagging, geo-referenced content of
points of interest –POI–…) are becoming increasingly popular. There is also a third kind of
use where m-learning profits from the flexibility and mobility offered by this technology;
outdoor activities in natural spaces. This form of nomadic inquiry (Hsi, 2003) may be of
special interest not just to offer independent access to information but also to generate
spatially situated knowledge (Kukulska-Hulme et al, 2009).
At the present we may notice a lack of specific portable multimedia guides or at least
natural guides developed or adapted for PDAs and tables for natural spaces in Spain.
Technically, multimedia guides for outdoor use have to deal with four main handicaps in the
wild: nonexistent, weak or broken data connection, adverse light conditions for LCD displays
(both capacitive or resistive), limited battery life and malfunction under adverse weather (rain
or extreme temperatures). Notwithstanding technical limitations, the use of multimedia guides
in natural environments offers a plenty of advantages, especially where offering information
on analogue supports is difficult or not desired. In the near future, considerable development
of the technical possibilities of new devices is expected, this will allow new and more
sophisticated functions, but for learning purposes we should focus on the opportunity such
initiatives create for developing more advance ways of knowledge acquisition. By the
moment visitors of natural spaces are limited to web virtual guides (not optimized for PDAs
or tables screen sizes), indeed these guides content mostly digitalized information of previous
sources and images designed as a printed guide, this means explanatory texts and
exemplifying photos, occasionally panoramic videos and audio samples of birds1. The
opportunity to access to online information on a natural area is the great value for pedagogic
purposes, in this case the access to information is only possible previous or after, not during
the visit. Situated information is the main advantage of the use of portable digital guides, thus
the information must be, first, developed and implemented for the technical requirements of
PADs and tables. And, second, a global concept is needed in order to integrated the
pedagogical and the touristic aspects, targeting to two different aims, one for environmental
education and one to offer services of visitor interest (routes, how to get to, reservations…).2
An analysis of the information offered, and how it is offered in such multimedia
outdoor guides is necessary to develop multimedia guides with both educational and touristic
value. The central question is how bringing contents to an electronic gadget can create other
wider benefits, rather than simply shifting the material support of the information, from
analogue to digital. We should also consider that the perception and expectations of the part
of the public in the use of ICTs for educational and tourist purposes present a complex image
(Walker, 208). ITCs are not expected to be implemented as a current form of the text panel,
the catalogue, or the information in images, audio, multimedia guides in portable devices, etc
... but as tools which enrich the visit not only offering information but more customized, with
different discourses and, mainly with possibilities of experimenting and living a cognitive and
sensory enriched experience. This makes us think about a use of ITCs where the visitor takes
an active part in knowledge and is not a mere consumer of information. On the other hand, we
have to assume that the resource of ITCs as a tool directed to achieve a greater participation
of public and a more active experience must be in consonance with the expectations of
visitors. This leaves us in the expectation by the visitors of natural spaces towards a use of
technologies (digital or analog) which operate in all spheres of human perception (visual,
olfactory, taste, auditory and tactile).
The digital visitor guides for the 'Sea and Land' National Park of the Atlantic Islands
fulfill some of the advances functionalities of a digital portable guide targeted for the general
public, with both aims didactic and touristic oriented, with pedagogical contents and useful
infos for visitors. Our aim is to present and analyze the strong and weak points of this guides
under several perspectives, from formal to conceptual, from usability to contents.

1
For example the multimedia guide of the Málaga Mountains Natural Park,
http://montesdemalaga.org/index.html, retrieved 3rd May, 2012.
2
The following examples of digital portable guides could be considered: NABU-
AlbEntdecker for the Alb Mountains in South Germany (http://www.nabu-albentdecker.de),
iWebPark SNP for the Swiss National Park in East Switzerland
(http://www.nationalPark.ch/go/de/besuchen/wandern/digitaler-guide-webParksnp) or the
Northumberland Rock Art (http://rockart.ncl.ac.uk/interactive/,
http://rockartmobile.wordpress.com/) (Galani et al. 2011). All of them have different
functionalities and conceptions, but all of them seek for alternatives to the static, print-like
guides, taking advance of the possibilities of the ubiquitous learning.
2 The digital visitor guides for the 'Sea and Land' National Park of the Atlantic
Islands
The 'Sea and Land' National Park of the Atlantic Islands is situated around the
Southern Coast of Galicia. The park consists of four island groups (Cíes, Ons, Salvora and
Cortegada) with an area of 1.200 hectares and 7.200 sea miles. It is a sea and land ecosystem
at three levels: underwater, intertidal zone and emerged land. It was created in 2002, with an
increasing number of visitors since its creation3, thus a high potential for a multimedia or
digital portable guide.
This park has two guides based on information offered on the internet pages as virtual
visits, one provided by the Park Agency4, and the other provided by the Spanish Network of
National Parks5. A two-headed administration structure is the origin of this overlap, the Park
Agency responsible for the management of the Park belongs to the Galician Government,
whilst the Spanish Network of National Parks is division within the Spanish Department of
Environment, Rural and Maritime Affairs, which determines the environmental conservation
guidelines of all national Parks in Spain.
In both cases the guides consist of web contents and visitors’ guides with some
possibility to be used in a PDA, in any case they are not really designed as multimedia PDA
guides, furthermore the websites are not optimized for PDAs. Although the information
provided by both sites is about the same locations, it is not systematic, the sites are not
directly linked. Only in one case where a link in some PDF documents of the first web (Park
Agency) redirects to the second (Spanish Network of National Parks). The information given
in both sites is not identical, so we will be taking both in consideration here. In a real situation
the visitor could get into the Park with two different guides systems with different contents
and structures.

2.1 Park Site: Information for the Visitor


At the first site (provided by the Park Agency) the visitor can access the multimedia
contents by selecting the heading Information for the Visitor. The structure of the information
is as follows: a link to each Island group (for all the same under-headings: how to get to the
Island, facilities, activities, download flyer), recommendations (for visitor), know more (about
physical world, fauna, flora, sea-life, history/archeology, very similar info also available as
PDF file), audio-guides (for ten routes), addresses of interest (Park administrations,
facilities…).

Visitor information >


Cíes > How to get to
Facilities
Activities
Download flyer
Ons > [same as Cíes]

3
In 2002 the number of visitors was 192.579, in 2011: 322.296, from:
http://reddeparquesnacionales.mma.es/parques/cies/guia_info_visitantes.htm, retrieved 30
Abril, 2012.
4
From: http://www.parquenacionalillasatlanticas.com/glg/informacion_audioguias.php/
Retrieved 2nd Mai, 2012.
5
From: http://reddeparquesnacionales.mma.es/parques/cies/ Retrieved, 2nd Mai, 2012.
Cortegada > [same as Cíes]
Sálvora > [same as Cíes]
Recommendations > Visitors' recommendations and
rules. What is not allowed
To know more > Physical World
Fauna
Flora
Sea-life
History/Archeology
Audio-guides > Cíes (4 routes), Ons (4), Cortegada
(2)
Addresses of interest > Park office, authorities, ferries,
accommodation/eating, councils,
tourism info, others
Table 1. Structure of the 'Sea and Land' National Park of the Atlantic Islands – Park Agency Web

For every island group it is possible to print or download a PDF file with a sketch of
the islands including the line of the proposed routes and the POIs (geographical references,
facilities and restricted areas). For every route the visitor can preload on their PDA or mp3
player the audio files (mp3 format) with the spoken tour through the route. Short information
about every route is also provided on the site with information on distance, estimated time and
difficulty level of the track (without an explanation of the difficulty level), a general
description and more information on the track (slope, circular or one way route, POIs) is also
provided, for eight routes of ten suggested routes. Only information for the emerged land is
provided, with special attention to vegetal and animal life, geographical POIs and
historical/cultural issues. Also under the heading Know More, it is possible to access general
information for all the islands regarding natural life and cultural issues. This information is
also offered as PDF file in DIN A4 (21x29,7 cm) text document layout: physical world (12
pages, size 4,1 MB), fauna (11 pages, 852 KB), flora (24 pages, 6,1 MB), sea-life (22 pages,
10,6 MB), history/archeology (23 pages, 8 MB). In short, not really implemented to be
viewed in a PDA.
Under the heading Audio-Guides the visitor can download the linked audio files for
the routes and a map of the routes at each island as PDF file; Ons: 303 KB size –DIN A4
format–, Cíes: 614 KB size –DIN A4 format– and Cortegada: 713 KB size –87,07x62,48 cm–
. The map for the Cortegada Island appears as photo illustrating the text (jpg file, 66 KB,
762x489 pixels), the downloadable file is a topographic map with no route information or
POIs. There are audio guides for three of the four island groups (Cíes –four routes–, Ons –
four–, Cortegada –one with two alternatives–). An audio guide can be downloaded compiled
in a folder, every folder contains a number of mp3 files depending on the POIs at the route,
the audio guide is a sample of short explanations of the points tagged at the maps included in
the flyers. The audio folders have a size between 28,6 MB (Lighthouse Peak Route at Cíes
Islands) and 6 MB (Castle Route at Ons Island), the single audio files between 6,3 MB and
415 KB. Each folder has a duration between 24 minutes and 15 seconds (Lighthouse Peak
Route, Cíes Islands) and 5m32s (Castle Route, Ons Islands). The number of single audio-files
per folder varies from fifteen (Lighthouse Peak Route, Cíes Islands) to seven (Castle and
Lighthouse Routes, Ons Islands). This leads to an audio-guide system that makes demands on
the listener's patience through both the long duration of the audio files, and their varying
length.
Except for the audio files, all the information in both cases above does not consist of
material designed specifically for PDA use, a flyer is available for every island group (four in
total). The doubled-sided flyers (see Fig 1) have an original print size of 42,88x21 cm –pro
face– and a file size of around 1,2 MB. In addition, the page layout (colors, font size,
text/image box distribution…) makes the documents unsuitable for a PDA display. The flyers
include a general introduction to the Park, a brief description of the routes (shorter than at the
internet site but with maps and photos of the POIs), and advice to park visitors (including
regulations concerning pets, waste, noise and camping).

Fig 1. Flyer of the Cíes Island Group

On the website it is possible to read the information in Galician, Spanish or English;


the Galician and the Spanish on-line text versions are original, the English one is a translation
provided by the Google Translate service (clicking on English, a menu with all the languages
available is displayed). But the information is not consistent between languages. It seems that,
for some reason, some material was elaborated in one of the two main languages in Galicia
and it was uploaded to the web without any language principle. The visitor may be surprised
by the random and unclear use of the language. This is also true for the English and other
language versions of the site, taking into consideration that the audio files and flyers are the
same as those in Galician or Spanish above, we may conclude that the site does not provide a
real multilingual guide facility.

2.2 The Park Site: Virtual visit


In the second site (provided by the Spanish Network of National Parks) we will focus
on the information presented under the headings Visitor’s Guide and Virtual Visit, although
the Virtual Guide provides material for a visit at ground level. An open question is whether
this visitor guide was thought as a virtual web-based guide or as information to be used at the
location, some parts of it appears targeted in this direction, although this aim isn’t fulfilled. In
conception, it is not very different from the Park Agency page. In this case there is only static
visual information available at the site (text documents, photos, audio files and maps). All the
visitor’s guide information is only provided in Spanish, even though there is a menu option
for other languages.

Fig 2. Web view of the Visitor's Guide

Under the heading Virtual Visit a menu is displayed in which the user can click on
three items: flora, fauna and routes. Under Flora the same common window is showed, on its
left side a list of plants can be seen, clicking on the single link a photo and a brief explanation
of the plan is given; the same procedure is used for Fauna. The items are listed alphabetically
by their common name. The text explanations are not systematic descriptions of the plants
and animals, for example, in some cases the taxonomic category of a plant or animal is given,
in many not, moreover the descriptions are sometimes centered on the characteristics of the
plant/animal, sometimes on their ecological value or rarity, without morphological
description. The texts are in a simple language, except for a few specialist terms familiar to
natural scientists, such as 'dioecious'. Due to the reduced built-in window size and reduced
font size this site is also not suitable for a PDA display. The only audio files are linked to bird
items, for nearly every bird a song sample is provided (around five-seconds duration per
sample). Under routes the user is redirected to the heading Activities of the Visitor Guide.
The Visitor Guide consists of six sections, in this order: Location, Park Map, Permits,
General Information and Activities, and a link to double-sided flyer with general information,
this information is given only in paper form (PDF file, size 1,1 MB, 44,6 × 60,61 cm pro face)
and it is not shown directly on screen. As in the example given above, the document
(structure, font size, colors, photos and maps) is laid out as a poster and not suitable to be read
using a digital device.

Virtual Visit >


Fauna > [contents]
Flora > [contents]
Routes > Ons Island Routes
Cíes Island Routes
Visitor's Guide >
Flyer: general information > [pdf]
Location > [contents]
Park Maps > General, Cíes, Ons, Sálvora,
Cortegada maps
Permits > Anchoring, diving, for camping
General information > Facilities, authorities and services
[blank]
Recommendations: links, routes,
recommendations
Park rules
Visitors number
Natural environment:
Councils
Natural and cultural heritage:
Activities > Routes [same as under Virtual Visit]
Table 2. Structure of the 'Sea and Land' National Park of the Atlantic Islands – Spanish Network of National
Parks Web

Location. This leads us to a short explanation of the Park's location and a sketched
map of all the islands forming the Park. This general map can also be downloaded as a jpeg
file (size 299 KB, 2195x3160 pixels), but it remains an overview map. A link to how to get to
the Park is provided, as well as written information about the ferry transport to the Cíes and
Ons Islands is provided but not for the Cortegada and Sálvora Islands. Another sketched map
of the ferry connections from the mainland to the island is displayed (JPEG file, 221 KB,
1174x1667 pixels).
Park Maps. The next link to Park Maps offers the possibility to download five maps in
PDF format, one general (the same two maps as in heading Location, but put together in a
different format –size 737 KB, DIN A4 format–) and one for each Island group, in this case
these are topographic maps with geographical (rather than tourist) information. The technical
features of the maps are as follows: Cíes, –2,4 MB, 19,41x27,73 cm– Ons –1,3 MB,
19,41x27,73 cm–, Cortegada –2,2 MB, 19,58x28,12 cm– and Sálvora –1,4 MB, 19,44x27,73
cm–. Once again the visitor has to deal with maps which are oversized and inadequate for a
PDA. Printing the maps is the best option.
Permits. For camping it is possible to link to the online reservation centers for each
island. For anchoring and diving, paper forms can be downloaded from the site, for navigation
an extra link to an on-line request is provided. Surprisingly, under this link, redirecting to a
new site6, the information is provided in Galician, Spanish and English.
General Information. Besides to the flyer with general information, some other facts
already given under other headings are repeated here. It is divided in the following items: (a)
Facilities, info points and services (containing brief information on: visitors’ centers, the park
administration office and camping facilities). (b) Recommendations. (c) Park rules. (d) Visitor
numbers: a graph showing the visitor number trends from 2002 to 2010. (e) Environment.
This leads to extended texts on four general topics –physical world, sea world, on land world
(flora/fauna), and conservation and biodiversity–, some information given here also differs
from the information available at Virtual Visit. (f) Councils opens a table with the links to the
local councils in the Park. (g) Historic and cultural heritage, a succinct introduction to
heritage value of the Islands can be read here.
Activities. In this case the visitor is redirected to the same information included under
the topic Routes in the Virtual Guide.

3 From digitalized information to digital guides


In our two cases of study we can find different ways to access information but not a
real alternative to traditional learning strategies beyond personal access to given contents. The
visitor can select which items they want to check and when they do so, by using some kind of
travel guide with dynamic documents, but the learning strategies remain the same as in
conventional learning. The Sea and Land' National Park of the Atlantic Island digital guides
couldn’t properly be considered a multimedia guide or even a virtual visit due to this lack of
structure and usability, it is more an attempt to offer the visitor the possibility to download
digitalized infos (audio, images and texts) into a PDA, with a closed and static structure.
Considering the principles of e-learning –portability, connectivity, flexibility, instantly
communication, motivation and active learning experiences– (Knight, 2005) no many of them
are to find in these guides. Using as reference functions found in other portable multimedia
guides (Casado-Neira, 2012) the 'Sea and Land' National Park of the Atlantic Islands guides
fulfill part of them, adding and extra value to the web based information, but a multimedia or
digital portable guide may still be developed with the aim of offering an dynamic situated
information system previous, during and after the visit at the location.

Features Implemented Features Implemented


Specific Contents No Geolocation No
PDA adapted Infos No Static Maps Yes
Texts Yes Dynamic Maps No
Audios Yes Additional Infos Yes
Photos Yes Games/Simulations No
Videos No Self Research No
Augmented reality No Guided Visit Yes
Specific App. No Web info Yes

Table 3. Features in the 'Sea and Land' National Park of the Atlantic Islands guide

The basis of m-learning is a located (in time and space) learning experience, some
authors (Kambourakis, Kontoni, and Sapounas, 2004) consider m-learning a way of obtaining

6
From: http://www.iatlanticas.es/ Retrieved 2nd Mai, 2012.
knowledge outside of space/time parameters, but otherwise the main benefit of m-learning is
the possibility to generate space/time related knowledge, some basic examples of this can be
found in the use of city guides based on augmented reality or applications for location
sharing, like 'find my friends' –both based on space location, or communication services for
instant messaging or flowing reports –both based on synchronicity–. Thus m-learning is
portable but not necessarily decontextualised and we may consider spatial/time
contextualisation as its main, but not sole, advantage.
Due to the fast development of new gadgets and applications created for PDAs and
similar (mainly by the rise of App On-line Shops) it does not seem possible to define a static
and closed corpus of functions and characteristics of multimedia or digital portable guides,
other than that of nomadic inquiry. Otherwise, even regarding the features given to m-
learning (Yahua, Arniza, and Abd, 2010): permanency, accessibility, immediacy of the
information for learners and context-awareness; all of them are related to the access to
information, not to the advantages for developing the visitor knowledge in a natural
environment.
Self-researching (Marsick & Watkins, 2001) is the gate that connects to the nuclear
qualities of m-, and e-learning as well as learning strategies based upon social, constructivist
and collaborative principles. But there is a lack of features, that may be considered
fundamental to achieve this active visit experience, like on-line info updates (based on
dynamic database with up to data contents), extendable and durable contents (possibility of
acceding to the contents after or previous to the visit, links to further information, eventually
storage for off-line use), personalization (preferences based user’s profile, information
adapted to the user’s profile), collaborative work (connection between gadgets for cooperative
learning) and social networking (users' valuations and reviews, file share features,
microblogging). Despite the remarkable chances for nomadic inquiring, contents are not
everything, and in the two cases here analyzed only a personalized, collaborative and deeper
visit and learning experience can be offered with limitations.

4 Conclusion
For the two guides here presented, attending to the formal aspects only the formal
variables can be considered (information type, information structure), for the other ones
(usability, quantity, substantiality, applicability) is necessary to carry out tests with visitors in
experimental reseach. In this context 'easiness' is synonymous for user usability, 'quality'
refers to the information a person can earn –it has not to do with the quantity of information is
offered, but with the information absorbed by the person, thus it is an individual measurable
value–, 'substantiality' –also individual and measurable in the time–, and 'applicability', using
the information/skills learned to deal with a problem or to enlarge own knowledge.
'Applicability' is the key of all four elements because it turns information into knowledge,
obviously it can only be measure at personal level and in problem solving situations.
Educational purposes and demands of visitors must be taken in account in order to develop a
multimedia or digital portable guide, which can be an added value to the personal vivid
experience of the natural environment.
In resumé, the used of multimedia guides and virtual visits can be rated as positive:
some of the ubiquitous advantages are widely implemented (specially in the use of audio and
video files, and located information). On the other hand some given functions are constricted
by technical handicaps and the information provided, in many cases, does not suppose a
significant quality shift from conventional information panels or printed guides (static
information, not user adaptive, poor self exploring functions…). Despite the remarkable
chances for nomadic inquiring, contents are not everything, and in the two cases here
analyzed only with limitations a personalized experience can be offered. A deep concept has
to be achieved for natural environments where pleasure, physical activity, land navigation,
contemplation of the landscape and knowledge are strongly linked.

5 Acknowledgements
The author would like to thank the University of Vigo by supporting him for a
research semester and the Knowledge Media Research Center (Tübingen – Germany) by
hosting him during 2011. This paper was partially supported by the Galician Government
under the grant 08SIN009305PR.

6 References
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ubiquitous learning: A discussion. International Journal of Education and Development
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http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu/viewarticle.php?id=785
TURISMO DIGITAL EN MUSEOS. TICS EN MUSEOS Y DEMANDAS DE
VISITANTES / DIGITAL TOURISM IN MUSEUMS. ITCS IN MUSEUMS AND
VISITORS' DEMANDS

DR. DAVID CASADO NEIRA Y DR. FÁTIMA BRAÑA REY


FAC. CIENCIAS DA EDUCACIÓN
UNIVERSIDADE DE VIGO
DCNEIRA@UVIGO.ES

Resumen
Las TICs en museos se han venido utilizando como una herramienta educativa,
pero más allá de este uso también se han introducido guías multimedia y otras TICs como
un recurso de promoción turística destinado a atraer más visitantes. Desde la introducción
de las primeras pantallas informativas y audio-guías en museos, las tecnologías auxiliares
destinadas a visitantes han ido animando el debate museístico y dinamizando las formas de
comunicación a través de los medios sociales. En este trabajo hemos llevado a cabo un
estudio sobre la percepción y expectativas por parte del público general de la
implementación de TICs en museos destinadas a ofrecer una experiencia más activa y
atractiva. La percepción y expectativas de parte del público con respecto a las TICs en los
museos presenta una imagen de luces y sombras. A la espera de más avances en la
investigación en este campo nuestras conclusiones apuntan a que el potencial de la TICs
como medio para conseguir una mayor participación del visitante en las exposiciones y
para servir como atractivo turístico añadido no ha aun alcanzado un nivel óptimo de
madurez, siendo su interés relevante pero limitado para el público potencial.
Palabras clave: TICs, redes sociales, multimedia, público, museo

Abstract
ITCs in museums have being used as an educational tool, but furthermore
multimedia guides and other ITCs resources have been implemented in many case mainly
as a reclaim targeted to tourist attraction to gain visitors. Since the introduction of the first
screen kiosks or the first audio-guides in the museums, auxiliary technology addressed to
visitors has been empowering the museum scene and breaking ground in their
communications through social media. In this work we have carried out a study about the
perception and expectations from the public of the use of the ITCs as a tool aimed at
enjoying a more active experience in the museum and to make museums more attractive to
the general public. In this sense, and according to our results, the expectations of the
visitors regarding museums are marked by a previous conception which must be taken into
account when organizing exhibitions and other services for the public. The perception and
expectations on the part of the public in the use of ICTs in museums present a complex
image of chiaroscuros. While expecting to be able to advance more results the announced
potential of the ITCs towards a more active role of the visitors to museum exhibitions and
as added touristic attraction to gain visitors does not seem to have reached a degree of
maturity and excellent development.
Keywords: ITCs, social net, multimedia, visitors, museum

1. Introducción
Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TICs), como una herramienta
para la promoción de museos y para abrir el museo a la participación del/la visitante, más
allá de ser un recurso expositivo es un tema recurrente en la actual discusión sobre museos
y tecnologías digitales. Sumado al hecho de que los museos pueden funcionar como polos
de atracción turística, el incremento del flujo de visitantes se ha ido consolidando como un
objetivo de las políticas museísticas, por intereses educativos y, cada vez más, por motivos
de financiación de las propias entidades. Tras el boom del fenómeno de la Web 2.0 y de las
redes sociales, sumado a la ubicuidad del acceso a información digital a través de
dispositivos portátiles parece que nos acercamos a un nuevo ciclo que supondría un nuevo
paradigma en las relaciones entre museo y público, al enriquecer la experiencia expositiva
y al traspasar el museo el espacio expositivo, especialmente interesante allí donde el
público también busca flexibilidad y servicios compatibles con sus demandas de
movilidad. El aprendizaje ubicuo (Cope y Kalantzis, 2008), sus implicaciones en la
personalización y autonomía del acceso a la información, así como el aprendizaje
colaborativo (Jonson, Jonson y Holubec, 1999) parecen suponer que las TICs están
destinadas ya a ocupar un papel fundamental en el ámbito museístico. Más allá de
diferentes propuestas, experiencias y aplicaciones de TICs en museos que nos ilustran
sobre las posibilidades, los problemas y futuro de su implantación, en este estudio
abordamos la percepción de las tecnologías digitales por parte del púbico de museos, con
especial atención a sus expectativas y atractivo para visitantes.
Hoy en día no cabe considerar las TICs como un fenómeno nuevo en nuestras
sociedades, otra cuestión es cómo se puede optimizar y emplear en la relación de museos
con el público. Conscientes de las diferentes perspectivas con las que se pueden abordar la
relación entre museos y sus públicos en el uso de las nuevas tecnologías nuestra propuesta
se ciñe al ámbito expositivo, ahí donde cobra especial interés para los/las visitantes. Hemos
realizado una investigación con e objetivo de entender cómo el público percibe el uso de
las TICs en los museos que visita. Nuestra tesis es que si bien las TICs pertenecen ya
necesariamente al ámbito del museo, su implementación ha de orientarse a las necesidades
del público y supeditarse a las necesidades expositivas destinadas a ofrecer una experiencia
en el museo más intensa bajo el principio del universal design for learning1 para dotar a
museos de un interés y atractivo añadido a sus colecciones, y así lo demandan los/las
visitantes.

2. Metodología y muestra
El presente estudio se realizó en base a encuestas (con preguntas abiertas y
cerradas) sobre una muestra de 115 personas, todas ellas visitantes de diferentes museos y
que atienden a diferentes perfiles como público de museos. Estamos por lo tanto lejos de
un estudio de público pues la población a la que hacemos referencia no está circunscrita a
un grupo determinado de museos sino a la característica de haber sido en últimos diez años
público de museos así como tener entrenamiento y destreza en el uso de TICs. En este
sentido nuestro objetivo no ha sido caracterizar el público sino indagar sobre la percepción
en relación con el uso de TIC’s.
El abanico de edades va de los 17 a los 40 años, todas las persoas presentan
estudios entre formación profesional y superiores, con una composición de mujeres
(56,5%) y hombres (43,5%), activos en diversos ámbitos laborales o no. Su nivel de
alfabetización tecnológica se midió en base a su acceso a internet, uso de equipamiento
electrónico (ordenadores, tabletas, smartphones) y uso de servicios asociados a las TICs
(blogs, redes sociales, software de productividad, chat, compras on-line…) de diversos

1
"Universal design for learning goes beyond physical accessibility. It involves creating
multisensory, multimodal learning experiences from which all visitors can learn by
touching, seeing, listening, smelling, and sometimes even tasting" (Reich y Lindgren-
Streicher, 2005).
ámbitos. En esta comunicación vamos a analizar cuatro ámbitos concretos sobre la
experiencia de la visita a museos y las TICs: percepción (sobre aspectos atractivos que
presentan museos de acuerdo a su), carencias (o las demandas generales que el público
tiene de museos), usos (que los/las encuestadas han hecho en sus visitas a museos de
recursos TICs) y expectativas (sobre la incorporación de TICs en la experiencia
expositiva). Presentamos pues un análisis descriptivo como primera parte de una
investigación más amplia que estamos llevando a cabo sobre el uso de las TICs como
recurso de potenciación de visitantes en museos y otros lugares de interés turístico, como,
por ejemplo, parques naturales o visitas arqueológicas. Las encuestas se realizaron fuera
del espacio de visita de museos por lo que los datos hacen mención a la impresión que les
queda a los sujetos entrevistados sobre su experiencia y no tanto sobre una visita concreta a
un museo determinado.
Los/las encuestadas podían elegir entre una serie de respuestas cerradas
predefinidas a un estudio exploratorio previo, en tres de cuatro temas abordados debían
marcar las tres opciones que consideraban más importantes de las ofrecidas como repuesta,
de este modo se les obligó a establecer una serie clara de prioridades.

3. Percepción
Los/las visitantes cuando acuden a un museo tienes motivaciones diversas y no
muy claras pero marcadas por la curiosidad y la receptividad previas.2 El museo se puede
entender como una caja de sorpresas, un ecosistema en sí mismo diferente del ámbito
habitual. Los aspectos que resultan más atractivos de un museo no ofrecen sorpresas
iniciales en las opiniones del público que subraya la función conservadora y expositiva
como las más identificables. Así, en una ponderación de los tres ítems preferentes: la
colección exhibida es el elemento central que justifica la visita (véase gráfica 1). Aunque
se ha identificado la colección como el principal atractivo de un museo (76,1%), la
información que sobre ellas se da se sitúa, a una distancia considerable, en segunda y
tercera posición, bien como información in situ (48,7%), bien a través de visitas guiadas
(46,0%) –datos que se corroborarán en la falta de demanda de estos como se verá en el
apartado siguiente–. Hasta aquí nos encontramos con el corpus convencional de un museo
(piezas y discurso), en este corpus las instalaciones en las que se recrea ese ecosistema se
valoran en quinta posición (36,3%) así como la amabilidad del personal (sexta posición,
33,6%), ambas ligeramente por debajo de la presencia de TICs (38,1%).
Parece paradójico que tanto las instalaciones y el personal, siendo partes
fundamentales del museo, no sean valoradas de manera más positiva, pero esto se puede
explicar simplemente porque son elementos que no se hacen evidentes durante la visita, y
quedan desplazados por la experiencia directa centrada en el disfrute de la exposición.
Resulta interesante estos datos pues, avanzado nuestro estudio, podrían dar luz sobre si la
visita a los museos se valora, por parte del público, como una experiencia global en el
mismo sentido que son valoradas las actividades/destinos turísticos en que se tiene en
cuenta tanto servicios como la experiencia, motivación…
En cualquier caso, la consideración de las TICs cabe entenderla a la luz de su papel
auxiliar tanto para la muestra de piezas como de información. En este sentido, el atractivo
de las TICs en el museo no se considera como una prioridad, lo que responde también al

2
“La necesidad cultural aparece como producto consecuente y paralelo al proceso
educacional (social) que se desarrolla en diversas y progresivas escalas de valores desde la
curiosidad hasta las cimas superiores del conocimiento” (León, 1988. p. 172).
concepto clásico del museo como espacio expositivo3 y se aleja de elementos como
cartelas y textos que aportan información sobre el discurso y la colección.

Gráfica 1. Aspectos atractivos de museos según visitantes


Por el contrario, los servicios no directamente ligados a la exposición, como áreas
de descanso –más sobre este aspecto en el siguiente apartado– o tienda del museo ocupan
las últimas posiciones (11,5% y 9,7%, respectivamente). Así observamos cómo, si bien
el/la visitante no tiene una expectativa concreta de lo que se va a encontrar en un museo, sí
que tiene una idea de lo que es un museo concebido como espacio expositivo articulado en
torno al acceso a las piezas y la información relativa a ellas, no es casual que la
importancia de las piezas y la imagen del museo en este sentido lleve a que los museos más
visitados fuesen principalmente grandes museos de estado y con especial incidencia las
pinacotecas española y francesa4.

4. Carencias
En este apartado se recogieron las demandas generales que los/las visitantes hacen
a los museos, en esta ocasión también se les pidió que eligiesen los tres aspectos que les
parecían fundamentales. Los resultados nos muestran cómo hay una clara jerarquización de
las carencias orientadas principalmente a la visita al museo como una experiencia más
enriquecedora (véase gráfica 2). En primera posición se solicitan visitas más atractivas
(63,1%) –queda abierto lo que cada persona encuestada considera que hace más atractiva
una visita– pero en vista de las otras respuestas y según estudios previos (Walker, 2008:
112; Braña, 2008) ya podemos avanzar que se situaría en el ámbito de la intensidad en la
visita, marcada fundamentalmente por un mayor nivel de experiencia (estímulo cognitivo y
sensorial), y no ser un mero receptor pasivo de un discurso expositivo monocorde. En
3
Con respecto a la motivación para realizar la visita como primer valor (46,4%) el conocer
y apreciar las colecciones de museos (Laboratorio permanente de público en museos,
2010).
4
Los resultados son muy variados y ocupan un amplio espectro (89 museos en total), de
cuales entre los más visitados se sitúan: Musée du Louvre (París), Museo del Prado
(Madrid), Fundação Serralves (Oporto), Museo Etnolóxico de Ribadavia, Museo do Pobo
Galego (Santiago de Compostela), Domus (A Coruña), Marco (Vigo), Museo de
Pontevedra. Como se puede observar la proximidad geográfica resulta un factor
fundamental a la hora de elegir museos, con la excepción de las grandes pinacotecas.
segunda posición los resultados apuntan a que se desearía una mayor variedad en la
exposición (48,6%), teniendo en cuenta que ni la inclusión de más piezas (quinta posición,
con un 21,6%) ni más información (octava posición, 18,0%) son prioritarias, lo que nos
hace colegir que la consecución de visitas más atractivas se sitúa, como indicábamos, en el
terreno vivencial, con un mayor nivel de participación de la exposición o bien harían
referencia a una exposición diseñada en función más de impactos sobre el visitante que del
discurso lineal. Esto nos situaría ante un tipo de exposiciones que se articulen no como
discursos cerrados, sino como universos a explorar e interpretar.

Gráfica 2. Demandas de visitantes a museos


La solicitud de más actividades complementarias, siendo significativa (36,9%)
ocupa la tercera posición con una diferencia significativa con respeto a las dos anteriores.
Parece que el objetivo principal de la visita puntual es conocer la exposición y en ese
contexto se debe hacer la visita más atractiva y variada. Las actividades complementarias,
aun así son una prioridad por encima de mejores instalaciones (cuarta posición, 23,4%),
mejores accesos (sexta posición, 21,6%), o más zonas de descanso (novena posición, 18%)
–ninguno de los/las encuestadas presentaba problemas graves de movilidad– lo que sitúa
los contenidos de la exposición (piezas y mensaje) por encima de aspectos como la
infraestructura o la dotación.
Tanto las visitas guiadas (séptima posición, 20,7%) como la demanda de más
información (octava posición, 18%), aun siendo significativas, se encuentran a la cola de
las demandas explícitas, esto quizá se entienda en relación, por un lado, con la saturación
informativa y, por el otro, por un deseo de autonomía del visitante durante la exposición,
pero sería necesario profundizar en estos aspectos para poder ofrecer una explicación
contrastada. La demanda de más zonas de descanso ocupa también el valor más bajo (18%)
lo que habría que poner en relación con la fatiga museal5. En este sentido sería interesante
contrastar estos datos con variables que nos lleven a vincular datos que hemos recogido en
cuanto a valoración de la experiencia de estos usuarios y la fatiga museal.

5
Fatiga o cansancio en museos es un elemento importante que se puso de manifiesto a
partir de las características museografía y arquitectura en relación con la ocupación del
espacio (Gilman, 1916); posteriormente con el cansancio psíquico y cognitivo (García
Blanco, 1999; Screven, 1993).
5. Usos
En la práctica el público encuestado demuestra una amplia experiencia o contacto
con la implementación de TICs en museos, por lo que no se puede considerar que sea ya
una novedad. Los/las visitantes encuestadas incorporan las TICs a su vida cotidiana y están
familiarizadas con su uso por parte de museos, por lo tanto pueden valorar de forma
contrastada la utilización que de ellas se haga. En este estudio, ante la cuestión 'Cuál de las
siguientes TICs has visto/usado en un museo en el último año' (con respuesta múltiple) nos
encontramos con un refrendo de la concepción expositiva convencional ya abordada
anteriormente, pero en este caso que responde a la puesta en marcha de propios museos.
Los/las visitantes de nuestra muestra entienden que el uso de las TICs se realiza
fundamentalmente como medios de acceso a información predefinida y estructurada, muy
semejante a los recursos expositivos tradicionales (piezas y paneles informativos) pero en
soporte digital. Lo digital substituye funcionalmente a lo analógico pero no se implementa
con un valor añadido en lo que corresponde a interacción, personalización y participación
del/la visitante una vez que este está en el museo. Como se refleja en la gráfica 3 el recurso
más percibido por nuestra muestra han sido dispositivos de proyección de imagen (75,2%),
pantallas de información (69,5%) y dispositivos de reproducción de audio (64,8%), como
podemos ver todas formas metonímicas del panel informativo impreso (o leído). La
versión digital de la visita guiada, las audio-guías se consideran presentes en cuarta
posición (45,7%), ya con un salto significativo con respecto a anteriores. Sobre este dato
creemos de interés comentar como sólo el 12,3% de los/las visitantes a museos españoles
ha utilizado las audio-guías (Laboratorio permanente de público en museos, 2010: 171). Es
relevante también indicar la reducida oferta de audio-guías por parte de museos de carácter
regional o local, dado el coste y complejidad de aplicación de las audio-guías
(mantenimiento de aparatos, actualización de la información, diseño de contenidos
específicos…). Las webs del museo son usadas con la misma frecuencia que las audio-
guías (45,7%) de forma previa o posterior a la visita como forma de búsqueda de
información sobre servicios del museo, más que sobre contenidos de la exposición lo que
lo sitúa fuera de la experiencia expositiva, como ocurre con el correo electrónico (30,8%),
blogs (27,6%) y las redes sociales (en última posición, 15,2%); resulta destacable que
precisamente en aquellos ámbitos en los que las TICs potencialmente podrían aportar más
a la participación del público en el museo y a adquirir un papel más activo no se usan de
forma generalizada no son que las personas encuestadas destacan.
Podemos inferir de estos datos que el público sigue apostando por la visión
tradicional de museos como conservadores y expositores de piezas. No siendo las opciones
que facilita la web 2.0 aprovechadas por éstos. La pregunta es si no se usan por falta de
interés o de disponibilidad, y que el uso de las TICs viene sobre todo definida por su
puesta en marcha por las propias instituciones.
Gráfica 3. Uso de TICs por visitantes en museos
Con respecto a las herramientas usadas en la experiencia in situ también
observamos de la misma forma cómo las posibilidades de permitir una mayor participación
del público o no se ofrece, o no es utilizada por éste. Aunque en este sentido tanto los
programas interactivos (sexta posición, 43,8%) como las guías visuales (séptima posición,
42,9%) gozan de una implantación (efectiva o percibida subjetivamente) no desdeñable.
No así en el caso de juegos digitales (novena posición, 28,6%) y recursos de realidad
visual (onceava posición, 21,9%). Si bien hay TICs que pueden ser incorporadas con un
bajo coste en infraestructura (por ejemplo un blog) hay que tener en cuenta la necesidad de
personal específicamente formado –no siempre asumible– el coste en recursos humanos y
la necesidad de tener un concepto claro para su implementación (Gammon y Burch, 2008),
y una relación coste-beneficio en términos de atraer, satisfacer y fidelizar al público (Falk
y Dierking, 2008: 28). Por otro lado, otros usos como realidad virtual suponen una gran
inversión en tiempo, recursos y dinero, añadido a esto hay que abordar la utilidad
contrastada en aplicaciones concretas (y no su posible potencialidad) de muchos de estos
recursos para facilitar una mayor participación del público, que este asuma un papel más
activo y pueda disfrutar de una experiencia museística más intensa.
Podemos agrupar como primera aproximación la importancia de atender a clasificar
el uso de las TICs según sean meramente informativas como sería el caso de las webs en
las que parece que se buscan informaciones: horarios, precios… También tendríamos
aquellas que fomentan la acción/participación en la visita y que aun pudiendo ser usadas
fuera del recinto del museo se asocian a la visita como las audio guías, aplicaciones de
realidad aumentada, entre otras. Como se puede apreciar es este último grupo el que cuenta
con mayores porcentajes. Así pues, a la vista de estos resultados parece pertinente asociar
el uso de las TICs con la tipología de visitantes según su grado de motivación. En ambos
polos tendríamos desde actores (visitantes activos en la visita que adaptan ésta a sus
intereses) hasta llegar a espectadores (visitantes pasivos que se limitan a la contemplación)
(García Blanco, 2002).
6. Expectativas
En este apartado incluimos la percepción de los/las entrevistadas a cerca de la
potencialidad del uso de las TICs en museos. Cómo se puede observar en la gráfica 4 la
percepción acerca de la forma en la que las TICs deberían de ser implementadas en el
museo ocupa rangos muy amplios. En esta ocasión los/las encuestadas debían indicar las
tres opciones que consideraban prioritarias en el uso de las TICs en el museo desde su
punto de vista. En base a usos relativos a la experiencia en/con el museo en el mayor
número de casos (64,0%) las TICs deberían de servir para ofrecer mayor dinamismo en las
visitas, una forma de ofrecer más estímulos y romper una narrativa expositiva monocorde.
En segunda posición se demanda un uso orientado a acceder a más y mejor información
(60,5%), lo que implica una alternativa a paneles impresos junto a objetos. Abierto queda
cómo cada persona encuestada entienda subjetivamente qué implica más y mejor
información, si se trata de más cantidad, más avanzada, sincrónica o diacrónica, en forma
de texto, imágenes, archivos de sonido, etc., lo que deberá ser abordado en estudios
posteriores. En tercera posición se considera que las exposiciones podrían ser más
entretenidas a través del uso de recursos en TICs (58,8%) ampliando así la experiencia de
la visita, en línea de la ruptura de la narrativa monocorde se reclama también una
experiencia más activa en la visita, no únicamente de mera espectadora pasiva. En cuarta
posición se ha ubicado la opción “hacer el museo más atractivo” (53,5%) lo que nos lleva a
considerar que el uso de TICs podría llegar a ser un recurso importante a la hora de captar
y atraer a más visitantes, este ítem cabe entenderlo en coherencia con las tres prioridades
anteriores.

Gráfica 4. Expectativas de visitantes sobre la incorporación de TICs en museos


Los ítems menos valorados son los referidos a la posibilidad de comunicarse con
otros (27,2%), es decir, compartir la experiencia de la visita con amigos o conocidos. La
visita al museo se entiende ante todo como una experiencia en tiempo real, en el espacio
expositivo, y vívida. La posibilidad de compartir la experiencia no se sitúa como una
prioridad con respecto a otros valores, aquí cabe cuestionarse si la posibilidad de
implementación de funciones ligadas al uso de las redes sociales tiene por sí misma una
demanda significativa. Así mismo, la asunción de que las TICs deben ser parte de la
evolución actual de museos solamente se contempla en última posición (22,8%). De esta
forma las personas encuestadas no consideran que la incorporación de TICs sea un
ndicativo del hecho de estar a la altura de tiempos a través de las TICs.
Como queda patente en datos anteriores sí hay una aceptación latente de estas
tecnologías, pero esto cobra sentido siempre y cuando se oriente de forma funcional a
satisfacer las demandas de una mejor experiencia en relación a la exposición para el/la
visitante y no como una mera situación dada por la posibilidad de acceso a la tecnología.
Igualmente la consideración del museo más allá de su faceta expositiva no se manifiesta en
datos recogidos. Estos nos llevan a entender la idea de museo como un servicio expositivo
de ocio y sus recursos web como opciones de acceso a información básica de este servicio
que, como ya hemos visto, se espera esté centrado en la exhibición de la colección.
En este sentido, y de acuerdo a nuestros resultados, las expectativas del púbico con
respecto a museos, aun siendo abiertas, están marcadas por una concepción previa que
debe de ser tomada en cuenta a la hora de organizar las exposiciones y otros servicios. Esto
no quiere decir evidentemente que el público deba determinar lo que se va a encontrar en
un museo pero hay una serie de ideas preconcebidas y preferencias que deberían de ser
tenidas en cuenta a la hora de atraer a visitantes, es decir, en qué aspectos y áreas los/las
visitantes pueden ser más receptivas y activas o, por el contrario, más reticentes o
indiferentes. En este sentido, coincidimos en que se debe de alcanzar un equilibrio entre
estructura de la visita y posibilidad de exploración autónoma del/la visitante (Smith y
Tinio, 2008).
A pesar de las posibilidades de las TICs como sustitutos de la información impresa
analógica se observa una preferencia por una experiencia en vivo, directa y experimental,
en donde las TICs sí podrían ser una herramienta que potencie las experiencias sensitivas y
cognitivas, como se hace palpable en el éxito de museos que ofrecen al público esta
posibilidad, como se observa en los museos experimentales (Hsi, 2008). Recordemos como
los/las visitantes reclaman ante todo visitas más atractivas, la cuestión es en qué medida la
incorporación de TICs, en forma, por ejemplo, de tecnologías multimedia, pueden
satisfacer esa demanda de participación en la experiencia expositiva de una forma más
activa, a través de un mayor grado de experiencias, personalización o autonomía en la
visita.

7. Discusión
La percepción y las expectativas por parte del público en el uso de TICs en museos
presentan una imagen compleja de claros y oscuros. A la espera de poder avanzar más
resultados la potencialidad anunciada de las TICs hacia una mayor implicación y papel
más activo de los/las visitantes de exposiciones museísticas parece no haber alcanzado aún
un grado de madurez y desarrollo óptimo. El público no tienen una idea clara sobre la
experiencia expositiva pero necesita ser activado, pero otro tipo de actividades que lleven
una experiencia vívida y sensorial compleja son demandadas, en este sentido la TICs
podrían ser implementadas.
Consideramos que las TICs no deben der ser incorporadas a los museos
necesariamente como un sustituto del panel de texto, del catálogo, ni siquiera como soporte
para imágenes, sonido, guías multimedia en dispositivos portátiles, etc., sino como
herramientas que enriquezcan la visita no ofreciendo más información, sino más
personalizada, con diferentes discursos y, fundamentalmente, con posibilidades de
experimentar y vivenciar una experiencia cognitiva y sensorialmente enriquecedora. Esto
nos sitúa en la expectativa por parte de los/las usuarias de museos hacia un uso de
tecnologías (analógicas y/o digitales) que operen en todos ámbitos de la percepción
humana (visual, olfativa, gustativa, auditiva y táctil). Lo que nos hace pensar en un uso de
TICs en las que el/la visitante sean parte activa del conocimiento y no una mera
consumidora de información. Pero por otro lado, hay que asumir que el recurso de las TICs
como instrumento orientado a conseguir una mayor participación del público y una
experiencia más activa debe de estar en sintonía con las expectativas de los/las visitantes,
entre las que persiste una imagen del museo como un espacio expositivo de piezas.
Hay que tener en cuenta que si no esperadas, sí hay una receptividad hacia el uso de
TICs con finalidades expositivas. El recurso a la implantación de TICs como un valor
añadido para atraer al público no se puede colegir de los presentes datos, si atendemos
asimismo al tipo de museos más visitados (véase nota a pie 4) cabe cuestionarse si
realmente esa implementación, al margen de sus beneficios educativos, se puede
considerar un recurso determinante para el incrementar el interés turístico de un museo,
como recogen ya otros estudios (Benítez, 2011).
En este sentido los resultados obtenidos en el caso de la situación de los museos
etnográficos en Galicia (Casado-Neira y Braña, 2012) parecen extrapolables: el uso de las
TICs hacia el público se orienta sobre todo a servir de tarjeta de visita, la aplicación de
TICs se piensa fundamentalmente como presencia en la red. Se considera que la misión
primaria de un museo es la de ofrecer conocimiento, y la secundaria la de ofrecer una visita
interesante y placentera a los/las visitantes. En este sentido la introducción de TICs se
podría considerar como una herramienta que dé valor añadido a las actividades del museo,
aspecto ésta ya ampliamente documentado (Bearman y Trant, 2010; Filippini-Fantoni y
Bowen, 2008), ya no solo en la propia experiencia museística, sino también como un
atractivo extra destinado a captar visitantes.

8. Bibliografía
Bearman, David y Trant, Jennifer, (eds.), Museum and the Web, Toronto, Archives &
Museum Informatics, 2008.
Benítez Ramos, Ana, "Reflexiones sobre usuarios del museo y estrategias de captación a
través de las nuevas tecnologías", El escritorio del museólogo, 14 enero, 2011,
http://elmuseologo.blogspot.com/2011/01/reflexiones-sobre-los-usuarios-del.html
[Retrieved 12/02/2012].
Braña, Fátima, O Museo do Pobo galego: contedor de valores, Santiago de Compostela,
Fundación Antonio Fraguas, 2008.
Casado-Neira, David y Fátima Braña Rey, Fátima "Is it possible to bring multimedia life
into ethnological museums? Demands, limits and fears of museum workers", en:
Proceedings of INTED 2012, Valencia: IATED, 2012, pp. 4124-4132.
Cope, Bill y Kalantzis, Mary, New Learning: Elements of a Science of Education,
Cambridge, University Press, 2008.
Falk, John H. y Dierking, Lynn D., "Enhancing visitor intecaction and learning with
mobile technologie", en: Loïc Tallon and Kevin Walker (eds.), Digital
Technologies and the Museum Experience. Handheld Guides and Other Media,
Plymouth: AltaMira Press, 2008, pp. 19-33.
Filippini-Fantoni, Silvia y Bowen, Jonathan P., "Mobile Multimedia: Reflections from Ten
Years of Practice", en: Loïc Tallon and Kevin Walker (eds.), Digital Technologies
and the Museum Experience. Handheld Guides and Other Media, Plymouth:
AltaMira Press, 2008, pp. 79-96.
Gammon, Ben y Burch, Alexandra, "Designing Mobile Digital Experiences", en: Loïc
Tallon and Kevin Walker (eds.), Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience.
Handheld Guides and Other Media, Plymouth: AltaMira Press, 2008, pp. 35-60.
García Blanco, Ángela, La exposición un medio de comunicación, Madrid, Akal, 1999
García Blanco, Ángela, "¿Usuarios o visitantes de museos?", en: Museo, nº 6, 2002, p.
171-188.
Gilman, Benjamin Ives, "Museum fatigue", Scientific Monthly, nº 12, 1916, pp. 177-189.
Hsi, Sherry, "Designing for Mobile Visitor Engagement", en: Loïc Tallon and Kevin
Walker (eds.), Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience. Handheld Guides
and Other Media, Plymouth: AltaMira Press, 2008, pp.125-145.
Jonson, David; Jonson, Rogers y Holubec, Edythe, El aprendizaje cooperativo en el aula,
Buenos Aires, Paidós, 1999.
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de público en museos del Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid, Ministerio de Cultura,
2010.
León, Aurora, El museo: teoría, praxis y utopía, Madrid, Cátedra, 1988.
Reich, Christine A. y Lindgren-Streicher, Anna May, "Universal Design Literature
Review", Boston, Museum of Science, 2005,1-5, http://ebookbrowse.com/starkey-
ail-605-7-issues-literature-review-universal-design-for-learning-pdf-d264013159
[Retrieved 7/1/2012].
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n. 2), París: UNESCO, 1993, pp. 4-5.
Smith, Jefrey y Tinio, Pablo P. L., "Audible Engaged: Talking the Walk", en: Loïc Tallon
and Kevin Walker (eds.), Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience.
Handheld Guides and Other Media, Plymouth: AltaMira Press, 2008, pp. 63-78.
Walker, Kevin, "Structuring Visitor Participation", en: Loïc Tallon and Kevin Walker
(eds.), Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience. Handheld Guides and
Other Media, Plymouth: AltaMira Press, 2008, pp. 109-124.
Destination Image of Istanbul Among University Students from
Different Nationalities

Deniz Maden
Research Assistant, Ege University
deniz.maden@ege.edu.tr

Nahit Erdem Köker


Dr. Research Assistant, Ege University
nahiterdem@hotmail.com

Füsun Topsümer
Prof. Dr., Ege University
ftopsumer@hotmail.com

Abstract
This study investigates the destination image of Istanbul and compares the perceived images
of people from different countries. The research has been applied to a sample of university
students (bachelor, master and doctoral) who are coming from different countries around the
world and situated in Italy for their studies. A quantitative research has been used by applying
a survey with measures derived from the existing research in the field.

The objectives of this study is to display the perceptions on Istanbul’s destination image from
the point of view of the chosen sample and compare these perceptions according to
nationality. With this study, the researchers are looking forward to contribute to the academic
literature by projecting perceptions of university students of a multinational sample. It is also
aimed to contribute to the further strategies and work on the destination image of Istanbul.

Keywords: Destination image, Image perception, Destination image of Istanbul,

INTRODUCTION
In the current globalized world, cities are in fierce competition to attract attention, both in
economic and touristic areas. While international movement has been rapidly increasing in the
recent years, building and enhancing a differentiated destination image has become crucial for
cities. To become a preferable destination, a city should differentiate its image among
competitor destinations.

To manage the destination image of a city, first of all, the perceived image of the city should
be stated. The perceptions show the oppurtunities and threats for the destination image of the
city. Setting out the perceived image will enable the destination to compare the perceived
image with the desired-ideal image and move forward with building and improving the
desired image of the destination. Thereby, managing and differentiating the destination image
will be put on a healty footing. For this reason, this study focuses on understanding the
perceptions of Istanbul’s destination image. It is aimed to provide useful data for academic
studies and also contribute to the further destination image strategies for Istanbul.

LITERATURE REVIEW
In the literature review part; first of all the concept of destination image have been defined
and the components which compose it have been explained depending on several existing
research. Because of the reason that this research includes a multinational sample, the issue of
image perceptions among different cultures and nationalities have been undertaken. Finally, a
general picture of the perceived destination image of Istanbul was drawn, depending on the
antecedents of the existing research.

Destination Image: While the fierce competition has affected all kinds of businesses and
brands around the world, the competition among destinations has also been increasing. In the
case of cities, the competition has been growing more than ever due to cheaper and easier
travel opportunities, international investors, a growing free labour force flow and ofcourse
due to the Internet (Papp-Váry, http://kgk.uni-obuda.hu/sites/default/files/30%20Papp-
Vary%20Arpad_2.pdf). Thus, it has become very important for destinations to differentiate
themselves among competitors and obtain a favorable position in the minds of potential
visitors by developing a positive and a memorable image (Gnoth, Baloglu, Ekinci &
Sirakaya-Turk, 2007 as cited in Sahin & Baloglu, 2011: 71).

Destination image studies have been a popular tourism research area since then it started in
1970’s (Hosany et al., 2006 as cited in Sahin & Baloglu, 2011: 71). “The importance of
destination image is widely recognised for its significant effect on the behavioural intentions
of tourists (Krasteva, Wickens & Bakır, 2010: 67)”. Many research provides evidence that
destination image affects touristic decisions (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999; Pike & Ryan, 2004;
Tapachai & Waryszak, 2000). According to these facts, destination image plays a critical role
for the city to be chosen by foreign visitors.

“A city’s image heavily influences destination choices, creates destination brand value and
serves as an indicator for the substitutability of destinations’’ (Dolnicar and Grabler,
2004:100) rise the importance of destination image building process. Baloglu and McCleary
(1999: 870) define destination image as; ‘‘an attitudinal construct consisting of an
individual’s mental representation of knowledge (beliefs), feelings, and global impressions
about an object or destination’’. Destination image can be defined as “the perception of a
person or a group of people regarding a place. This perception is formed by one’s sum of
beliefs, ideas and impressions about that place (Crompton, 1979; Hosany et al., 2006 as cited
in Sahin & Baloglu, 2011: 71)” . In short words, destination image may be summarized as a
combination of factors which create the perception and representation of a place.

In their study, Gallarza et al. (2002), grouped the studies on destination image which were
done between 1971 and 1999. They ended with seven distinct topics; studies on
conceptualization and dimensions, destination image formation process, assessment and
measurement of destination image, influence or distance on destination image, destination
image over time, active and passive role of residents in image study and destination image
policies such as positioning and promotion. Also, perceived value has been emphasized as the
object of attention by researchers in tourism (Baloğlu, 2001; Dolnicar S. & Grabler K., 2004;
Kashyap & Bojanic, 2000; McCartney, 2008; Murphy,Pritchard, & Smith, 2000; Oh, 2000;
Oh, 1999, 2000; Petrick, 2004; Tam, 2000; Woodruff, 1997).

In the literature, there are some discussions aboout the similarities and differences of of
destination branding and destination image. It is important to distinguish these two concepts.
Ekinci (2003), building on the work of Cai (2002) and Konecnik (2004) suggests that
destination branding constitutes the core of destination image. When the evaluation of a
destination image includes a strong emotional attachment, the process of destination branding
begins.
It has been established by Fakeye & Crompton (1991) that “destination image influences the
earliest stage in the decision making process by encouraging individuals to form expectations
and assumptions about the destination prior to their actual experience of it (Krasteva,
Wickens & Bakır, 2010: 68)”. In their 2001 study, Baloglu and Mangaloglu indicate that the
perceived image of the destination is a main competition factor. Therefore, understanding the
perceptions of the visitors about a destination is much more valuable then only understanding
the features and what the destination has to offer.

Gunn (1972) proposed a destination image formation model which consists of ‘organic’,
‘induced’ and ‘modified induced’ images. The organic image is formed by the information
assimilated from non-touristic, non-commercial sources and the opinions of family and
friends. The induced image is formed through accessing additional, more commercial sources
of information and the modified induced image is based on first hand information and
destination experience (Krasteva, Wickens & Bakır, 2010: 68). Echtner and Ritchie (1993)
proposed a model of destination image which consists of attribute-based and holistic
components. These components are formed by functional (tangible) and psychological
(intangible) characteristics.

Destination mage has a multi-dimensional construct, mainly determined by personal


(psychological and social) and destination factors (affective and cognitive constructs)
(McCartney, 2008:14). .

According to many researhers (Beerli, Diaz, & Pérez, 2002; Bigné, Sánchez & Sánchez,
2001; Crompton, 1979; Hosany et al., 2006; Baloglu & McCleary, 1999; Stern and Krakover,
1993), destination image is considered as a multidimensional construct of two main
dimensions which form the overall image about that place; cognitive evaluation and affective
evaluation. “Cognitive evaluation is determined by beliefs and knowledge about a place,
whereas affective evaluation is all about feelings towards that destination (Baloglu &
McCleary, 1999 as cited in Sahin & Baloglu, 2011: 71)”. Thereby, the cognitive evaluation of
a destination is formed depending on the knowledge of the place. When the knowledge of the
place is higher, the credibility of cognitive evaluation increases. In affective evaluation, the
place is evaluated depending on the affective quality of the sum of the attributes of that
destination (Baloglu & Sahin, 2011; 71). Though, many studies have focused on these two
types of evaluations of image, some studies also establish the existence of a third image
component, the conative one which refers to the behavioral action that results from cognitive
and affective evaluations (Choi, Lethton, Morrison, 2007; Dann, 1996; Gartner, 1993; Ger,
1991; Parameswaran & Pisharodi, 1994 as cited in Martinez & Alvarez, 2010: 750). In
addition to this consturcts, Hosany & Ekinci, 2003, suggested that an overall destination
image also includes brand personality which “is the set of human characteristics associated
with a brand (Aaker, 1997: 347)”. These classifications all suggest that a destination image is
formed with the joint affects of the mentioned componens.
Table 1: The Formation of Destination Image
Source: Baloglu & McCleary (1999, 870); Pikkemaat (2004, 89); Peters & Pikkemaat 2003, 158) as cited in
McCartney G. (2008). “Does one culture all think the same? An investigation of destination image perceptions
from several origins”. Tourism Review, vol. 63 no. 4, 15

Image Perceptions of Different Nationality and Cultures: As well as personal factors such
as demographic factors and psychological factors effect in determining the overall image, it is
also agreed that geographic and cultural differences will result in different destination
perceptions (Chen, 2001; Bonn et al., 2005, as cited in McCartney, 2008: 14). There are some
studies which direct their interest to perceptions among different nationalitis and cultures:
Correia and Crouch (2004) suggested that tourist decision-making behavior differs
significantly by country of origin. Bonn et al. (2005) also highlighted the importance of image
perceptions based on country of origin. They suggested that country of origin is a key
consideration in determining a specific positioning strategy for a destination. Thereby, they
mentioned that destination managers need to understand of how the tourism product and
service quality components are perceived across nations and cultures and create. Komppula
and Saraniemi (2004) mentioned the effects of cultural affiliation and McCartney, (2008)
mentioned that possible competitive advantages considering the diversified perceptions in
mind (McCartney, 2008: 15). MacKay and Fesenmaier’s (2000) recommended attention to the
refinement of attributes across cultures in what to include and exclude in destination image
propositions. Pizam and Sussmann (1995) found that tourism experiences could differ, with
French, Italian and American tourists. They reached results such as Japanese people not
being as much as interested in authenticity then Europeans (McCartney, 2008: 15).
Depending on the antecedents of existing research, culture and nationality differences are
important factors which affect destination image perceptions. Therefore, it is important to
understand how image perceptions differ among diverse nationality and cultures.

Moving from the findings of existing research mentioned above, in this study the image
perceptions of Istanbul will be stated with a research including participants from different
nations and cultures.

Destination Image of İstanbul: Cities are the places where people gather, interact, form
groups and share a common life together (Kuzgun, Göksel, Özalp, Somer & Alvarez, 2010:
29). Building and managing a successfull destination image for a city, depends on
differentiating it among its competitors. For this, the main factor that helps the city is its spirit
which gives its own identity, its main color, and basic characteristics (Karlığa, 2009). Hosting
people from many different nations, diverse ethnic roots, diverse religions, witnessing the
periods of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, with all their traditions, cuisines, arts,
religions, languages and life styles enrich the soul of Istanbul (Kuzgun, et. al., 2010: 30). For
centuries, Istanbul has been the meeting point of various cultures. Therefore, Istanbul has a
very unique combination of historical and cultural background. Istanbul has been attracting
attention with its cultural and historical heritage, geographical situation, events, organizations
and also with its economical and developing business world (Kuzgun, et. al., 2010: 28).

Istanbul is the largest and most popular city of Turkey. With its unique cultural, historical and
geographical characteristics, it has been taking interest of many foreign visitors. In 2011,
Istanbul was visited by 8.057.879 foreign visitors, which indicates an increase of 16% (Haber
Turizm, 2012). Also, in the first three months of 2012, 1.605.612 foreigners has visited
Istanbul, which shows an increase of 17.5% compared to the first three months of 2011
(Tourism&Aviation, 2012). On the other hand, for years, Istanbul has been trying to manage
its destination image but have faced many obstacles. Therefore, this study is focused on
measuring the perceived destination image of Istanbul.

Many studies were done concerning the destination image of Istanbul. Some of them include:
(Gözler, 2007; Kuzgun, et. al.: 2010; Seçilmiş & Ünlüönen, 2009; Şahin, 2008; Şahin &
Baloğlu: 2011; Üner, Güçer & Taşçı, 2006). Şafak (2008), measured the brand personality
and destination image of Istanbul and compared the perceived image and personality across
different nationalities by applying a survey to a sample of 334 tourists while visiting Istanbul.
Şafak & Baloğlu, (2011) focused on the same topic using both quantitative and qualitative
methods. The study showed that “first-time visitors from different geographic and cultural
backgrounds have different perceptions of the brand personality and image of Istanbul (Şafak
& Baloğlu, 2011: 87)”. Thereby, they suggested a customized approach for cities to assess
their brand image and personality for multiple countries and identities. Üner M. & Güçer E. &
Taşçı A. (2006) aimed to determine the image in the foreigners view of the city of Istanbul.
An interesting result which they came up with was that; visitors who like to participate in
cultural events prefer to go to Istanbul. These people are also inclined to visit alternative
destinations. Seçilmiş & Ünlüönen (2009), departed from the idea that one of the most
important things for tourists while travelling is safety. In their study, the wanted to draw
attention to safety in tourism by determining whether Istanbul is regareded as safe by tourists
and suggested further planning on the topic, such as increasing the importance given to
educations about tourism safety, increasing the number of infopoints for tourists,
collaborating with the home countries of the tourists.

METHODOLOGY
In this study, a survey has been used to measure the perceived destination image of Istanbul.
The survey instrument consists of six categories of questions; perceptions of destination
questions (Baloğlu, 2001), feelings generated by beauty of historic–cultural heritage (Royo-
Vela, 2009), expected experience questions (Taşçı, Gartner & Çavuşgil, 2007), questions
about potential worries (Sussmann & Ünel, 1999), familiarity questions (Baloglu, 2001) and
demographic questions.
Feelings generated by beauty
of historic–cultural heritage

Expected experience

Experiential dimension of familiarity


PERCEIVED
DESTINATION
Informational dimension of familiarity IMAGE OF ISTANBUL

Potential worries

Nationality

Table 2: Design of the research

Measures: To display the destination image of Istanbul among participants,


perceptual/cognitive items scale of Baloğlu (2001), which consists of three dimensions
(quality of experience, attractions, value/environment) was used (Table 3). Baloğlu, 2001
developed a perceptual/cognitive items from the literature review and content analysis of
Turkey's guidebooks and brochures and measured these on a five point scale.

Quality of experience
Standard hygiene and cleanliness
Quality of infrastructure
Personal safety
Good nightlife and entertainment
Appealing local food (Cuisine)
Suitable accommodations
Great beaches/water sports
Interesting and friendly people
Attractions
Interesting cultural attractions
Interesting historical attractions
Beautiful scenery/natural attractions
Value/Environment
Good value for Money
Unpolluted/unspoiled environment
Good climate

Table 3: Perceptual/cognitive items Scale


Source: Baloğlu Ş. (2001). “Image variations of Turkey by familiarity index: informational and experiential
dimensions”. Tourism Management 22, 131.

One of the most important characteristics which affect the perceived image of a destination is
its beauth of historical and cultural heritage. Creaco & Querini, 2003 suggested that for
making tourism compatible, the preservation and good use of historical-cultural heritage
carries an important role. To determine the feelings generated by beauty of historic–cultural
heritage about Istanbul, the scale of Royo-Vela, 2009 was used.

Feelings generated by beauty of historic–cultural heritage


Feeling an authentic experience
Feeling of personal and intellectual growth
Feeling of admiration for the architecture of the past and how it stands the test of time
Emblematic buildings or structures
A place with a beautiful urban ensemble
Feeling of getting a second wind, of filling up with energy
Feeling of going back in the past of getting lost among the stones
Monumental diversity

Table 4: Feelings generated by beauty of historic–cultural heritage


Source: Royo-Vela M. (2009). “Rural-cultural excursion conceptualization: A local tourism marketing
anagement model based on tourist destination image measurement”. Tourism Management 30, 426.

To see the expected experience of the atmosphere or mood of Istanbul, the scale of Taşçı,
Gartner & Çavuşgil, 2007 was used.

The atmosphere or mood expected


Istanbul has a calm/peaceful/relaxing atmosphere
Istanbul has a busy/exciting/adventurous atmosphere
Istanbul has a fun/happy atmosphere
Istanbul has a different/unique/exotic atmosphere

Table 5: The atmosphere or mood expected


Source: Taşcı A. & Gartner W. & Çavuşgil S. (2007). “Measurement of destination brand bias using a quasi-
experimental design” Tourism Management, Volume 28, Issue 6, December, 1529–1540.

Cohen (1972) defined familiarity as preference for the tourist which is an as essential factor as
comfort. According to Baloglu’s study (2001); consumers familiar with Turkey had more
pleasurable, arousing, relaxing, and exciting images of the coutnry. Familiarity does not only
occure by visiting the place. Infact, is a multidimensional issue.. Baloglu (2001) defined three
types of familiarity; informational: the extent of sources of information used, operationalized
as single or multiple sources. The second was experiential: the extent of past experiences,
operationalized as first-timer or repeater. The third type was self-rated: how familiar
respondents thought themselves to be with a place. The work of Prentice (2003) added a
fourth type to this typology; educational which indicates the extent of personal educational
involvement with a place (Prentice, 2004: 926).

To see how familiar the participants to Istanbul, the familiarity index of Baloğlu, 2001 was
used. The index includes two parts; the experiential dimension, and informational dimension.
For the experiental dimension, respondents were classified into three categories based on their
past experience and number of visits; non-visitors, first-time visitors and repeat visitors (2 or
more visits). For the informational dimension, 9 kind of information sources were signified by
Baloğlu, 2011: Travel Agents, Brochures/Travel Guides, Friends/Family Members, Airlines,
Tour Operator/Company, Advertisements, Books/Movies, Articles/News, and Direct Mail
from Destination. Together with Baloğlu’s categorization of information sources, the
categorization of Alvarez, Korzay, 2011: Previous experience, Word-of-mouth, Web sites,
Television,Written press, Books, Travel Agent, Tourism Offices was combined and used.
The country of origin is one of the most important factors which strongly affect the image of a
product, service and a place. Thereby, the country image is a fundamental factor which affects
the destination image of a city. Hence, in determining the factors which generate the worries
about Istanbul, the factors which generate the worries about Turkey are very effective.

Country image is defined as “the sum of beliefs and impressions people hold about places.
Images represent a simplification of a large number of associations and pieces of information
connected with a place. They are a product of the mind trying to process and pick out
essential information from huge amounts of data about a place” (Kotler & Gertner, 2002:
251). As indicated by (Martínez & Alvarez, 2010: 758) the need for also considering the
coutnry image for destination image studies about developing countries. Therefore, it is
thought that travellers are also effected by general worries about Turkey while perceiving the
image of Istanbul.

Many studies such as; Baloglu & Mangaloglu 2001; Sonmez & Sarakaya 2002; Altmbagak
2004; Tasci, Gartner & Cavusgil, 2007) have found out that there are many negative factors
which affect the image of Turkey. According to these studies, Turkey is affected by negative
stereotypes and connotations. There are several factors which lead the image of the country to
this. These are rooted on historical, religious and geographical reasons and also depend on the
affects of media. The negative perceptions result from several reasons such as identifying
Turkish communities with the Ottomans, the wars which took place in the past which created
fear among Turks, associating Turkey with Islam and assimilating it with other muslim
countries. Also the news about Turkey in international media, usually include negative point
of views, mainly covering; economic issues, Armenian, Cyprus and Kurdish problems
(Alvarez, 2010: 129). Because of these factors summarized above, Turkey is facing many
problems with its international image. Hence, Istanbul is also being affected by these negative
circumstances.

The scale of Sussmann and Ünel, 1999 was used to discover the worries about being in
Istanbul which affect its image. These factors include; personal safety, treatment of female,
terrorism, helpfulness of police, local temperament, hospitality, friendliness, reliability of
transport, religiousness, understanding English, honesty of locals and traffic congestion .

Finally, questions about demographics and nationality took place in the questionnaire. The
survey instrument was prepared in two languages; English and Italian. English was the
original language of the survey instrument. It was translated to Italian by two native half
English, half Italian speakers. Participants were asked to choose the language they want to
complete the survey in.

Sample: The target population for this study was university students who are staying abroad.
The reason for choosing this sample was because of their growing interest in travel and being
important potential visitors of Istanbul for the future. The survey was applied to the students
in Torino-Italy in the university residence of University of Torino.

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION


The results of the research has been analyzed using several methods on SPSS 15. First,
demographic breakdown and exploratory factor analysis was done. After the factor analysis,
further analyses were carried out with the new structure of the dimensions. These anaysis
included multirative ANOVA and correlation analysis.
Nationality and Other Demographics of the Respondents: Because of that this research
took place in Italy, many of the respondents were from EU Countries. The nationalities of the
participants are shown on Table 6.

EU Countries 180
Far East Countries 13
African Countries 7
Balcan Countries 6
Russia 5
Middle East Countries 3
Australia 2
Canada 2
TOTAL 218
Table 6: Nationalities of the participants

%71.6 of the participants were BA students, %22.9 were MA and %4.1 percent were PhD
students, while %1.4 selected “other” as their level of education. 147 participants were aged
between 18-25, 54 between 26-35, 4 between 36-45 and 3 who mentioned to be older than 45.
119 of the participants were female and 99 were male.

Exploratory Factor Analysis: In the beginning of the study, 6 dimensions were detected to
measure the perceptions about Istanbul. These were; quality of experience, attractions,
value/environment, feelings generated by beauty of historic–cultural heritage, expected
experiences and potential worries. Also, familiarity questions (experiential dimensionan and
informational dimension) took place in the survey, which let the researchers see the previous
visits of the participants to Istanbul and the sources used by the participants to get information
about Istanbul.

After the factor analysis, the researchers ended up with 8 dimensions formed by 24 strong
factors, which all passed the limit of 0.6. The three dimensions of quality of experience,
attractions and value/environment was a set of perceptual/cognitive items developed by
Baloğlu (2001). After the factor analysis, these 3 dimensions were again formed but with
some questions changing places. Factors about potential worries formed 3 different
dimensions. Factors concerning feelings generated by beauty of historic–cultural heritage and
expected experiences again turned out to be dimensions after the analysis, but with the loss of
some questions from the previous setting.

The results of the KMO and Bartlett's Test equaled to 0,728, which showed that there were
enough number of participants in the research. All eigenvalues above 1.0 proove that the
dimensions are strong. The first dimension has a variance of 18%, which is the highest. The
result of the total Cronbach's Alpha was found as 0,618.

Interesting historical attractions ,834


Interesting cultural attractions ,811
Appealing local food (Cuisine) ,707
Suitable accommodations ,667
Beautiful scenery/natural attractions ,647
Personal safety ,845
Treatment of females ,801
Terrorism ,750
Helpfulness of police ,639
Friendliness ,866
Hospitality ,849
Understanding English ,616
Quality of infrastructure ,823
Standard hygiene and cleanliness ,794
Personal safety ,764
Unpolluted/unspoiled environment ,760
Great beaches/water sports ,726
Good climate ,660
Istanbul has a different/unique/exotic atmosphere ,755
Istanbul has a busy/exciting/adventurous atmosphere ,715
Feeling of going back in the past of getting lost among the stones ,774
Feeling of getting a second wind, of filling up with energy ,719
Traffic congestion ,845
Religiousness ,603
Table 7: Results of the exploratory factor analysis

Relations of Nationality and Perceptions about İstanbul: To determine the relations of


nationality and the perceptions about Istanbul, researches have applied multivariate ANOVA.

Perceptions about the first dimension, which is formed of; interesting historical attractions,
interesting cultural attractions, couisine, suitable accommodations and beautiful
scenery/natural attractions are in the highest level among the Middle Easterns
(mean=23,6667). The perceptions about these statements are in the lowest level among Far
Easterns (mean=18,6923).

The second dimension is formed of the worries about personal safety, treatment of females,
terrorism and helpfulness of police. These worries are on the highest level among the Balcan
participants (mean=13,5000), while they are in the lowest level among Canadians
(mean=9,0000). This was an unexpected result for the researches, due to the closer distance
and relationships between Turkey and Balcan countries.

The third dimension is formed of the worries about friendliness, hospitality and understanding
english. These worries are on the highest level among Far Easterns (mean=9,7692), while
lowest among Canadians (mean=3,5000).

Perceptions about the fourth dimension which is formed by; quality of infrastructure, standard
hygiene/cleanlinessand personal safety are on the highest level among Middle Easterns
(mean=11,3333). The perceptions are on the lowest level among Italians (mean=8,5411).

Perceptions about the fifth dimension which is formed by; unpolluted environment, great
beaches and good climat are on the highest level among Middle Easterns (mean=13,3333),
while they are on the lowes level among Australians (mean=9,5000).

Sixth dimension demonstrates the expected experiences which is formed by the statements of;
Istanbul has a different/unique/exotic atmiosphere and Istanbul has a
busy/exciting/adventurous atmosphere. These statements are mostly agreed by EU countries
except Italy (mean=7,7059). It was mostly disagreed by Australians (mean=6,5000).

Seventh dimension demonstrates the feelings about Istanbul, using the statements; feeling of
going back in the past of getting lost among the stones, feeling of getting a second wind, of
filling up with energy. These statements are mostly agreed by Canadians (mean=8,5000),
while mostly disagreed by Russians (mean=6,2000).

Finally, the eight dimension includes worries of; traffic congestion and religiousness. These
worries are on the highest level among Australians (mean=6,5000), while they are on the
lowest level among Canadians (mean=6,5000).

Effects of Familiarity on the Perceptions About İstanbul: Effects of familiarity on the


perceptions about Istanbul has been measured in two different parts; experiential dimension
and informational. Experiental part includes the number of visits and the informational part
includes sources used to get information about Istanbul.

1. Effects of Number of Visits on the Perceptions about İstanbul: By applying multivariate


ANOVA, researches have reached the results which show the agreement levels of participants
to each one of the eight dimensions, according to their number of visits and willingness to
visit. For each of the 8 dimensions, the table includes; the number of visits of all participants
and the most frequently chosen answer from each group (never visited, visited once, visited
more than once) to the question about willingness to visit Istanbul. In table 8, the mean
variables and the standard deviations can be seen.
Descriptive Statistics
Number of visits Willingness to visit Mean Std. Deviation
Never extremely 20,0098 2,96011
Dimension 1 Once extremely 21,7333 2,05171
more than once extremely 22,5556 1,50923

Never not at all 16,4444 1,81046


Dimension 2 Once not at all 12,6667 2,30940
more than once not at all 16,0000 .

never not at all 9,7778 1,64148


Once moderately 8,7778 3,27024
Dimension 3
more than once moderately 7,3333 2,08167

Never extremely 8,8922 1,68221


Dimension 4 Once moderately 10,3333 1,73205
more than once moderately 10,6667 1,52753
never moderately 10,0299 2,46779
Once moderately 10,8889 2,36878
Dimension 5
more than once moderately 11,6667 2,08167

never extremely 7,7255 1,55530


Once extremely 7,4667 1,35576
Dimension 6 more than once extremely 8,6667 1,00000

Never extremely 7,3137 1,37142


Dimension 7
Once extremely 7,7333 1,43759
more than once not at all 8,0000 .
never not at all 6,8889 1,26930
Once not at all 8,0000 1,73205
Dimension 8 more than once not at all 7,0000
Table 8: Effects of Number of Visits on the Perceptions about Istanbul

It is seen that, the most frequent answer given about the willingness to visit Istanbul is
“extremely”. Mostly, the people who have never visited Istanbul indicated that they would
exteremely would like to visit. People who have been to Istanbul before, have less desire to
visit again. This result may be interpreted in two ways; first it is expected for people who
have been there before to have less desire to visit because they have already seen it, second
this may be based on the negative perceptions or experiences. ……………………

Looking at the results on the first dimesion, experiental familiarity which is increased by
visits, are in direct proportion with the perceptions. People who have visited Istanbul more
than once have the most positive perceptions, while people who have never visited have the
least. In the second dimension which is composed of some potential worries, it seen that that
people who have once been to Istanbul has less worries. While people who have never been
there have the most. Interestingly, people who have been to Istanbul more than once have
more worries than one time visitors. In the third dimension, the perceptions and experiental
familiarity are in diverse proportion. This shows that people who have been to Istanbul have
more negative perceptions about; friendliness, hospitality and understanding english. In the
fourth dimension a direct proportion exists between experiental familiarity and perceptions
about; quality of infrastructure, standard hygiene and cleanliness and personal safety. The
same ratio exists again for the fifth dimension which consist of; unpolluted/unspoiled
environment, great beaches/water sports and good climate. The fifth dimension includes the
perceptions about polluted/unspoiled environment, great beaches/water sports an good
climate. Again, a direct proportion exists in this dimension. When the experiental familiarity
to the destination increases, these perceptions also increase positively. Sixth dimension which
is about the expected experiences, is on the highest level among visitors who visited Istanbul
more than once. In the seventh dimension which is on feelings generated by beauty of
historic–cultural heritage, the direct proportion again exists among the level of experiental
familiarity and feelings. Finally, on the last dimension about worries, it is seen that people
who have visited Istanbul have higher worries about religiousness and traffic congestion. This
stands as an unexpected result for the researchers.

To have a brief evaluation of the relation between number of visits (shows the experiental
familiarity to the destination in this research) and perceptions about Istanbul, few outstanding
points can be mentioned. First, it is seen that, mostly the experiental familiarity and
perceptions are in direct proportion (except for friendliness, hospitality and understanding
english). In other means, when number of visits increase, also the the perceptions increase in a
positive way. While people who have visited Istanbul have less worries about; personal
safety, treatment of females, terrorism, helpfulness of police, quality of infrastructure,
standard hygiene and cleanliness and personal safety. However, the wories about
religiousness and traffic congestion increases.

2. Effects of Information Sources Used on the Perceptions about İstanbul: Using


correlation analysis on SPSS 15, the researchers have detected the relations between the 8
dimensions with sources used to reach information about Istanbul. Thereby, the relations
between the dimensions which form the perceptions about Istanbul destination image and the
sources of information used by the participants were compared.

Usage of written press has the highest positive relation with the 6th dimension, while the
lowest negative relation with the 3rd dimension. This means that usage of written press
increases the expected experience while decreases the worries about friendliness, hospitality
and understanding english.

Direct mail from destination has the highest positive relation with the 4th dimension, while
the lowest negative relation with the 1st dimension. This means direct mails from destination
increase the positive perceptions about quality of infrastructure, standard
hygiene/cleanlinessand personal safety. It decreases the perceptions about interesting
historical attractions, interesting cultural attractions, couisine, suitable accommodations and
beautiful scenery/natural attractions

Television has the highest positive relation with the 8th dimension, while the lowest negative
relation with the 5th dimension. This means television increases the worries about traffic
congestion and religiousness, while decreases the perceptions about unpolluted environment,
great beaches and good climate.

Websites has the highest positive relation with the 1st dimension, while the lowest negative
relation with the 8th dimension. This means websites increases the positive perceptions about
interesting historical attractions, interesting cultural attractions, couisine, suitable
accommodations and beautiful scenery/natural attractions while decreases the worries about
traffic congestion and religiousness.
Word of mouth has the highest positive relation with the 7th dimension, while the lowest
negative relation with the 3rd dimension. This means that word of mouth increases the
positive feelings about Istanbul, while decreases the worries about friendliness, hospitality
and understanding english.

Previous experiences have the highest positive relation with the 1st dimension, while the
lowest negative relation with the 3rd dimension. This means that previous experiences
increases the positive perceptions about interesting historical attractions, interesting cultural
attractions, couisine, suitable accommodations and beautiful scenery/natural attractions, while
decreases the worries about friendliness, hospitality and understanding english.

Articles/news have the highest positive relation with the 8th dimension, while the lowest
negative relation with the 3rd dimension. This means that articles/news increase the worries
about traffic congestion and religiousness, while decreases the worries about friendliness,
hospitality and understanding english.

Usage of books/movies have the highest positive relation with the 6th dimension, while the
lowest negative relation with the 2nd dimension. This means that usage of books/movies
increase the expected experience while decreases the worries about personal safety, treatment
of females, terrorism and helpfulness of police.

Advertisements has the highest positive relation with the 2nd dimension, while the lowest
negative relation with the 5th dimension. This means advertisements increases the worries
about personal safety, treatment of females, terrorism and helpfulness of police, while
decreases the perceptions about unpolluted environment, great beaches and good climate.

Tour operators/companies has the highest positive relation with the 5th dimension, while the
lowest negative relation with the 6th dimension. This means information from tour
operators/companies increase the increase the perceptions about unpolluted environment,
great beaches and good climate, while decrease the expected experience.

Information from the airlines has the highest positive relation with the 6th dimension, while
the lowest negative relation with the 7th dimension. This means that from the airlines
increases the expected experience while decreases the feelings generated by beauty of historic
cultural heritage.

Friends and family members have the highest positive relation with the 1st dimension, while
the lowest negative relation with the 3rd dimension. This means that they increase the positive
perceptions about interesting historical attractions, interesting cultural attractions, couisine,
suitable accommodations and beautiful scenery/natural attractions, while they decrease the
worries about friendliness, hospitality and understanding english.

Brochures and travel guides have the highest positive relation with the 6th dimension, while
the lowest negative relation with the 8th dimension. This means that brochures and travel
guides increase the expected experience while decrease decrease the worries about traffic
congestion and religiousness.
Finally, travel agents have the highest positive relation with the 8th dimension, while the
lowest negative relation with the 6th dimension. This means that travel agents increase the
worries about traffic congestion and religiousness while decreases the expected experience.

To summarize the results; seven of the information sources (direct mail, websites, previous
experiences, articles/news, books/movies, tour operators, friends and family members)
increase perceptions about Istanbul. Three of them (written pres, airlines, brochures/travel
guides) increase the expected experience, one of them (word of mouth) increases positive
feelings, while three of them (television, advertisements and travel agents) increase the
worries. Eight of the sources (written press, websites, worf of mouth, previous experiences,
articles/news, books/movies, friends/family members, brochures/travel guides decrease the
worries. Three of them decrease the perception (direct mail, television, advertisements). Tour
operators/companies and travel agents decrease the expected experience. Airlines decreases
the feelings generated by historical heritage.

CONCLUSION
In this research, the researchers have found two main results; results about the nationality’s
effects on perceptions about Istanbul and results about familiarity’s effects on the perceptions
about Istanbul.

There were several points which stand out in the results about relations of nationality and
perceptions about Istanbul The researchers have found that among all nationalities, Middle
Easterns turned out to have the most positive perceptions about Istanbul while having less
worries. Concerning the geographical distance of Turkey to the middle east, this was an
expected result for the researchers. Also, it is thought that religious factors are important in
decreasing the worries among Middle Easterns, while it increases the worries among people
who are not muslim. An interesting result for the researchers was that, participants from the
Balcan countries which is geographically near to Turkey have more negative perceptions
about several issues then the participants from very far countries like Canada have more
positive perceptions. It turned out that Europeans have less negative perceptions and less
worries about Istanbul than expected. On the other hand, the results don’t show that they have
very positive perceptions either.

Familiarity was measured in two ways; experiental and informational. Out of the three
dimension on perceptual/cognitive items, two of them are increased by experiental familiarity.
Out of the three dimensions about worries, two of them are decreased by experiental
familiarity. The dimension about feelings generated by beauty of historic–cultural heritage
increases with experiental familiarity, as well as the dimension about expected experience.
Looking at the informational familiarity, seven of the fourteen sources increase positive
perceptions. Three of them increase the expected experience, one of them increases positive
feelings, three of them increase the worries, eight of the sources decrease the worries, three of
them decrease the perception, two of them decrease the expected experience and one of them
decreases the feelings generated by historical heritage. So, the researchers ende up with the
results that; experiental familiarity and informational familiarity increase the perceptions
about Istanbul. But looking at the results of this study, the researchers suggest that experiental
familiarity have more positive effects on the perceptions about Istanbul.

Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research: Researchers detected two limitations in
this research: First; though the number of the sample was sufficient according to the KMO
and Bartlett's Test (0,728), the research could have included a more number of participants.
Researchers had to setle with 218 participants due to the lack of time. Therefore, the research
may be expanded in the future. The second limitation is that, this study has only been done in
Italy, in a place where there are students from other nationalities. However, the sample
includes mostly Italians. Further research may be done with a sample which contains a
balance in the participants nationalities. Also, the study may be focused on only one
nationality.

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Crises that scare five-star tourists: early perceptions of risk

Dr. Diego Rodríguez-Toubes


Dª Isabel Rodríguez Fernández-Arroyo
Facultade de Ciencias Empresariais e Turismo
Universidade de Vigo
32004 Ourense
(34) 988 368753 - drtoubes@uvigo.es

Abstract
Negative images of tourist destinations can occur as a direct result of a crisis or disaster,
which affects consumer confidence, the decision making process and ultimately the
destination choice and behavior. Negative perceptions can affect the image of entire regions
and countries drastically affecting the competitiveness of the destination. This suggests that
image management in this field is an important aspect of communication and tourism
marketing. The summer tourist season of 2011 was marked by the influence of impacts of
crises and disasters of different signs that affected several tourist destinations in the months of
February and March of that year. A first study among customers of a five-star hotel located in
Vigo (Galicia) was performed in this work. Early perceptions of the events which occurred in
Japan, Egypt, Morocco and Mexico have been considered and the influence on decision
making the trip to those countries. The perception of risk and information search are
considered important factors influencing the decision making travel. The type of risk faced
(crime, natural disaster, political upheaval and riots, and health-related risks), sex and age are
factors that influence the risk perception of destinations affected by crises and disasters.

Keywords: crisis, decision making, disaster, risk perception, tourist destination

Introducción
Cualquier destino turístico está expuesto a sufrir el impacto de sucesos negativos que dañen
su imagen. Estos sucesos pueden ser de origen natural, como las catástrofes, o provocados por
el hombre, como aquellos relacionados con la delincuencia, el terrorismo o los altercados
políticos. La confianza de los turistas hacia el destino que sufre estos impactos se ve alterada
y como consecuencia influye en la toma de decisión del viaje, principalmente en el corto
plazo. La percepción de riesgo puede afectar a la imagen de países enteros aunque realmente
los sucesos negativos se limiten a áreas delimitadas y concretas del país. Este comportamiento
del turista afecta a la competitividad del destino y por ello es conveniente comprender bien los
mecanismos de la percepción de riesgo de los viajeros, cómo afecta a la toma de decisiones en
el corto y largo plazo y cuál es la imagen que proyecta el destino turístico en éste ámbito.

En este trabajo se pretende analizar la influencia en la toma de decisiones de los viajeros de


los impactos y sucesos negativos de distinto carácter que afectan a destinos turísticos. El
estudio de este problema es más bien escaso en la literatura académica, en los últimos años

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diversos autores han tratado el asunto señalando que la percepción de seguridad y el riesgo
percibido son factores clave en el proceso de toma de decisiones del viajero y uno de los
motivos más determinantes en la decisión de visitar un destino (Fuchs y Reichel, 2006 y Law,
2006). Los responsables del turismo deben gestionar esa percepción mediante el manejo de la
información que se proporciona. La esencia de la gestión de crisis en el turismo es “el arte de
eliminar todo el riesgo e incertidumbre posible de modo que permita alcanzar más control
sobre el destino” (Fink, 2002: 15). La gestión de la incertidumbre hay que enfocarla hacia una
mejor gestión de la información, “gestión de riesgo es, en gran medida, gestión de la
información” (Slevitch y Sharma, 2008: 87).

Con el fin de dar respuesta al objetivo planteado se ha realizado una aproximación al


problema empleando como método de investigación el estudio de caso, tomando como unidad
de análisis un exclusivo hotel de cinco estrellas del sur de Galicia. Se ha tenido en cuenta el
carácter representativo de la unidad de análisis y de la muestra teórica escogida con la
intención de que su relevancia facilite el desarrollo de una teoría inductiva basada en la
observación y exploración. Los datos de percepción de riesgo y elección de viaje se han
recogido mediante entrevistas realizadas a los clientes por medio de cuestionarios, muy poco
tiempo después de que eventos de distinto signo afectasen a cuatro destinos turísticos
internacionales. El enfoque del estudio de caso como metodología de investigación se ve
conveniente en la realización de este estudio por la escasez de literatura sobre el tema y
tratarse de un estudio de aproximación en el cual es necesario obtener información muy
cercana en el tiempo a los sucesos acaecidos en los destinos turísticos.

Como consecuencia de este trabajo se observa que los responsables de los destinos turísticos
afectados deben conocer bien cuál es el abanico de riesgos que potencialmente pueden afectar
a sus territorios y qué percepción tienen los turistas de los principales países emisores sobre
los riesgos de su zona. También se ve imprescindible un esfuerzo por parte de los medios de
comunicación en la difusión de noticias objetivas y precisas sobre la situación y los riesgos
del destino turístico y no se generalicen indiscriminadamente la extensión de los sucesos a
todo el territorio. Esta forma de actuar puede favorecer la reducción la incertidumbre a la que
se enfrentan los turistas en la toma de decisión de su viaje.

Marco teórico
A pesar de la importancia de la percepción de riesgo por parte del turista y de la necesidad de
implementar medidas de marketing para ofrecer una imagen de seguridad en el destino, el
elemento de riesgo como componente de las decisiones del turista ha recibido una atención
limitada (Sönmez, 1998). En los últimos años se ha comprobado como una creciente
amenaza para el turismo procede de la pérdida de confianza del consumidor sobre las
condiciones de seguridad del viaje que va a realizar. El riesgo percibido aparece como un
elemento dominante, a evitar por todo destino turístico, pues “la percepción de riesgo en un
factor clave que influye sobre los viajeros en la toma de decisiones de sus viajes” (Law, 2006:
290), los turistas prefieren visitar destinos en los que el nivel percibido de riesgo no sea alto.

El reconocimiento del riesgo por parte del turista que debe tomar una decisión de viaje es muy
sensible. La demanda turística presenta un mayor índice de elasticidad por nivel de riesgo
percibido que cualquier otro sector a causa de los elementos hedonísticos que los
consumidores atribuyen a estos servicios, una noticia sobre la cancelación de reservas
contribuye a incrementar la percepción de peligrosidad o inseguridad por encima de los
índices reales (González-Herrero y Pratt, 1998). En ciertas circunstancias, cuando un destino
es percibido como de riesgo o peligroso la demanda turística se inclina a buscar otros destinos

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o regiones. Los viajeros eligen destinos seguros debido a que en la idea del viaje las
expectativas positivas y los recuerdos son elementos principales en el proceso de toma de
decisión (Schluter, 2008). El consumo, y sobre todo el turístico, es un acto voluntario sensible
a la publicidad negativa de los destinos, esto hace que la percepción de riesgo dependa en
gran medida de la cobertura informativa de los medios de comunicación, y actualmente las
redes sociales, sobre el suceso negativo que afecta a un determinado destino turístico. Aunque
un país trate de ocultar información sobre los conflictos o algún tipo de catástrofe que haya
sucedido en su territorio, la evidencia de los problemas termina por salir a la luz pública y
llega al conocimiento de los turistas del mercado emisor afectando negativamente a la
demanda turística de ese destino (Levantis y Gani, 2000).

Para Donilcar (2005) existe un paralelismo entre el riesgo y el temor en el proceso de compra
cuando se trata de un producto. En este ámbito es necesario realizar una distinción entre
riesgo y percepción de riesgo. En el ámbito del turismo el riesgo es un “shock, amenaza o
desastre que puede impactar negativamente el sector turístico” (Law, 2006: 290), sin
embargo, la percepción de ese riesgo por parte de los turistas puede tener más influencia a la
hora de la decisión del viaje. En la crisis del virus del SARS que afectó a los hoteles de Hong
Kong en febrero de 2003 “fue el miedo al SARS más que el virus en sí lo que produjo una
intranquilidad social, indecisión a viajar y pérdidas económicas” (Lo et al., 2006: 66).

En los últimos años se han publicado varios estudios analizando el comportamiento del turista
desde la perspectiva de la percepción del riesgo en diversos ámbitos del turismo. Para Law
(2006) la percepción del riesgo depende en parte de la procedencia del turista, en su trabajo
distingue una valoración del riesgo distinta por parte de los viajeros orientales y los
occidentales. Depende también del grado de familiarización que el turista tenga con el
entorno, los turistas se sienten más seguros en entornos familiares mientras que en entornos
nuevos se pueden percibir mayores riesgos o mayor nivel de inseguridad. Lepp y Gibson
(2003) analizan la influencia de tres variables que afectan a las diversas situaciones de riesgo
percibido por turistas internacionales. Estas tres variables son: el sexo, la experiencia viajera y
rol-motivación turística. A su vez identifican siete factores o situaciones de de riesgo: salud,
guerra e inestabilidad política, terrorismo, alimentos desconocidos, barreras y diferencias
culturales, radicalismo político o religioso, pequeña delincuencia. No citan en su estudio los
desastres naturales. Encuentran que la motivación turística es la variable más significativa: los
turistas que buscan destinos familiares son los más adversos al riesgo. Los turistas
experimentados normalmente consideran horizontes de corto plazo y si han tenido
experiencias de crisis consideran que es difícil que vuelvan a ocurrir en la misma zona
(Pechlaner et al., 2007).

Slevitch y Sharma (2008) defienden la naturaleza multidimensional del riesgo percibido y


proponen ocho tipos de riesgo percibido: riesgo para la salud o la vida, riesgo financiero,
riesgo en la satisfacción personal, riesgo social, riesgo de pérdida tiempo, riesgo técnico,
riesgo político y riesgo por terrorismo. Según estos autores el riesgo percibido disminuye
cuando mejora la calidad información, sin embargo existen tipos de percepción de riesgo que
pueden aumentar cuando la cantidad de información aumenta, esto sucede con el riesgo
social. Según González-Herrero (1998) la mayoría de los turistas califican la seguridad y el
confort como dos elementos esenciales del destino turístico a la hora de la elección y los
riesgos más habituales percibidos por los viajeros son, por este orden, criminalidad, seguridad
aérea, amenazas terroristas y acceso a servicios sanitarios. Mäser y Weiermair (1998)
clasifican los riesgos que afronta el viajero en desastres naturales, higiene y enfermedades,
crímenes y accidentes. Chen y Gursoy (2001) identifican como los principales tipos de riesgo,

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y los más influyentes, la limpieza y la seguridad. A su vez, Law (2006) considera que los tres
factores de riesgo percibido de mayor influencia son: las enfermedades infecciosas, los
ataques terroristas y los desastres naturales, e incide que esta percepción de riesgo puede
revertir en el corto y medio plazo.

La reacción de los turistas es distinta según la tipología de crisis o más precisamente cuál sea
el elemento de riesgo. Algunos estudios muestran que los turistas tienen una mayor
consideración de riesgo ante los ‘riesgos sigilosos’ (stealth risks) que frente a los grandes
riesgos puntuales (Moreira, 2010). Los riesgos sigilosos presentan un incremento gradual de
condiciones negativas, por ejemplo el nivel de delincuencia, y un gradual descenso de
condiciones neutras o positivas, por ejemplo, la calidad del aire, y tienen la característica
principal de su constante permanencia y su extensión en el tiempo. Este tipo de riesgos tienen
mayor influencia en la percepción de los turistas que los que concentran el impacto y las
consecuencias en un corto periodo de tiempo. En la gestión del tsunami que afectó a los países
del sudeste asiático en diciembre de 2004 un objetivo prioritario de los organismos
comercializadores del turismo tras el impacto inicial fue la recuperación de la imagen y la
credibilidad con el fin de recobrar rápidamente los flujos de turistas al destino. A diferencia
de otras emergencias, como la ocasionada por el virus del SARS, el tsunami no introdujo una
incertidumbre generalizada en los mercados. Los viajeros entendieron que el tsunami fue un
evento puntual que podría haber ocurrido en otro lugar y no era probable que se repitiera. Los
potenciales visitantes tenían la necesidad de información sobre el actual estado de los hechos,
pero en su gran mayoría la percepción de riesgo no era alta (WTO, 2005).

Según Nelsen (2005) todas las crisis y desastres producen daños potenciales sobre la imagen
del destino, pero la estigmatización sólo ocurre cuando confluyen tres condiciones: los
visitantes perciben y asimilan de una situación de descrédito para el destino, los visitantes
consideran que la situación es una amenaza, y los visitantes juzgan al destino -o a las personas
que lo representan- responsables en parte de la situación. Se debe actuar sobre los aspectos
cualitativos y los atributos del riesgo percibido, aspectos a los que los consumidores le dan
más importancia. Sin embargo se pone mucho esfuerzo -lógico, por otra parte- en reducir los
riesgos cuantitativos y técnicos, de manera que existe un desequilibrio que es necesario
gestionar. El riesgo percibido, el que realmente afecta a las decisiones de los consumidores, se
puede gestionar por medio de apropiadas estrategias de comunicación: el riesgo actual puede
ser el mismo, pero la seguridad percibida y la incertidumbre puede ser mejorada.

El impacto más grande en los destinos turísticos que han sufrido y sufren el azote de sucesos o
acontecimientos negativos y riesgos es, posiblemente, la incertidumbre que genera (Pike,
2004). Esta incertidumbre puede ser de tres tipos:
- Incertidumbre de los viajeros, al valorar el riesgo de su seguridad personal sobre lo que,
en último término, es una actividad discrecional. Durante los periodos de inseguridad, los
consumidores pueden optar por viajar a otras zonas más seguras o retrasar sus planes de
viaje.
- Incertidumbre de los propietarios de pequeños negocios, debido a las inversiones que han
de realizar en la mejora, mantenimiento, reparaciones y en nuevos productos.
- Incertidumbre de los trabajadores del sector turístico y del futuro de sus empleos.

Las organizaciones de promoción turística en destino deben evitar por todos los medios que
los turistas pierdan la confianza en ese destino gestionando los diversos tipos de
incertidumbre. La gestión del riesgo percibido en el contexto de la elección de un destino se
puede realizar de diversas maneras (Holloway, 2004: 122): familiarizando al consumidor con

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el producto o servicio ofrecido, dando confianza y estabilidad en las decisiones de compra;
reduciendo las expectativas del producto en la mente del consumidor, aunque esta tarea no es
fácil ya que el turista tiene tendencia a idealizar sus decisiones de compra; y maximizando el
conocimiento del producto por parte del consumidor, es decir reduciendo la incertidumbre.

Dado que la incertidumbre y las consecuencias (o resultados de las decisiones) son las dos
grandes dimensiones que componen el riesgo percibido, y solamente la incertidumbre es
controlable, se trata de gestionar la incertidumbre por medio del manejo de la información.
(Slevitch y Sharma, 2008). Por ejemplo, aunque el daño de los sucesos esté limitado a una
zona, los visitantes pueden tener la percepción de que todo el territorio está afectado y es una
zona de riesgo. Es necesaria una información precisa sobre la zona que ha sido afectada ya
que una percepción equivocada de la extensión de los daños puede impedir el flujo del
turismo (Huang y Min, 2002).

Metodología
Un objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar la influencia en la toma de decisiones de los
viajeros de los impactos y sucesos negativos de distinto perfil que afectan a destinos
turísticos. Se ha tomado como unidad de análisis un exclusivo hotel de cinco estrellas situado
en Vigo (España). Para la selección de la unidad de análisis se tenido en cuenta el carácter
representativo del hotel. Se ha empleado la metodología del estudio de caso debido a que en
éste método de investigación no se selecciona una muestra representativa de una población
sino una muestra teórica. El objetivo de la muestra teórica es elegir casos que probablemente
pueden replicar o extender la teoría emergente y a los que deben añadirse sucesivos casos
hasta la saturación de la teoría (Eisenhardt, 1989). De esta manera la relevancia del caso y su
generalización no provienen del lado estadístico, sino del lado lógico: las características del
estudio de caso se extienden a otros casos por la fortaleza del razonamiento explicativo
(Mitchell, 1983). A partir del estudio, la observación y recolección de datos se pueden
plantear hipótesis para el desarrollo de una inferencia lógica.

Se ha realizado una primera aproximación sobre la percepción de riesgo a viajar a cuatro


destinos turísticos -Japón, Egipto, Marruecos y México- por parte los clientes del hotel. Esta
aproximación es de interés pues permite explorar y evaluar las primeras reacciones de los
turistas, su percepción de riesgo hacia los sucesos ocurridos en estos países y la influencia en
la toma de decisión a la hora de proyectar un viaje. La gran exposición mediática a la que se
han visto sometidos los cuatro destinos seleccionados, tanto en los medios de comunicación
tradicionales como en las redes sociales, facilita su conocimiento y clasificación por parte de
los encuestados.

Los datos se recogieron mediante entrevistas utilizando como herramienta un cuestionario con
el propósito de recopilar la mayor información posible de los aspectos considerados
relevantes en el menor tiempo posible, y muy poco tiempo después del impacto de los sucesos
negativos en los cuatro países citados. Se realizaron las entrevistas a los clientes del Hotel
Pazo Los Escudos & Hotel Resort, exclusivo hotel de cinco estrellas situado en Vigo, único
hotel de 5 estrellas de la zona sur de Galicia junto con el Gran Hotel de La Toja. Se ha tenido
en cuenta en la selección del hotel la mayor capacidad adquisitiva de sus clientes habituales,
el mayor volumen de gasto y las mayores posibilidades teóricas de realizar los viajes a los
cuatro países especificados en el análisis.

La recogida de datos se realiza cuando los sucesos acaecidos en los cuatro países están
todavía presentes en los medios de comunicación, y los turistas están planeando los viajes de

5
sus vacaciones de verano. Esta cercanía en el tiempo es un elemento fundamental del trabajo
ya que diversos estudios señalan como, en general, el impacto de sucesos negativos en
destinos turísticos no van más allá del corto plazo, debido a que los turistas normalmente
consideran horizontes de corto plazo (Law, 2006 y Pechlaner et al., 2007). Los medios de
comunicación emitieron noticas sobre los eventos negativos en los cuatro países del análisis al
menos durante los meses de febrero, marzo y abril; la encuesta se realizó en la primera
semana de mayo por lo que el conocimiento de los hechos y la percepción de los encuestados
era muy reciente permitiendo unas respuestas más precisas.

El cuestionario presentado a los clientes del hotel consta de cinco preguntas (ver Anexo). La
primera mide, en una escala de Likert de 1 a 5, la percepción de riesgo a viajar en la
actualidad a unos de los cuatro destinos seleccionados. La segunda pregunta pretende medir el
tipo de riesgo que se considera dominante en cada destino, siendo los tipos de riesgo posibles
la delincuencia, epidemias, catástrofes, conflictividad política y terrorismo. La tercera
pregunta valora el tipo de riesgo que influye más a la hora de elegir un destino turístico,
independientemente de los destinos escogidos en las preguntas anteriores. En la cuarta y
quinta pregunta, se cuestiona sobre las objeciones a viajar esos destinos en el corto plazo y en
el plazo de un año. Por último, se solicitan los datos de edad, estudios, sexo y procedencia. Se
obtiene en la recogida de datos de los clientes del hotel 80 cuestionarios válidos que se
consideran suficientes para cubrir el objetivo fijado en un estudio de estas características.

Estudio de caso
Entre los meses de enero y abril de 2011 una serie de desastres y sucesos de distinto signo
afectaron a cuatro países: Japón, Egipto, Marruecos y México. En ese periodo estos cuatro
países experimentaron, o se intensificó, algún tipo de impacto negativo que afectó a su
imagen. La temporada de turística del verano de 2011 en esos destinos estuvo marcada por la
influencia del impacto de la crisis, su imagen se vio afectada por las amenazas para la
seguridad e incertidumbre que difundían, intensa y extensamente, los medios de
comunicación.

Se han escogido los destinos de Japón, Egipto, Marruecos y México pues presentan
características diferentes en cuanto al tipo de amenaza que afectó a su territorio. Japón, como
destino que ha sufrido una catástrofe natural (terremoto y tsunami) y posteriormente la
amenaza de la contaminación nuclear; Egipto, país que ha sufrido las consecuencias de las
revueltas de la llamada Primavera Árabe y que presentaba un estado de inestabilidad política;
Marruecos, como destino cercano a la península y que ha sufrido atentados terroristas de
origen yihadista dirigidos a turistas occidentales; y por último México como destino con un
alto grado de delincuencia y de inseguridad ciudadana en algunos de sus estados más
turísticos. Para un mejor conocimiento del caso se expone a continuación una sinopsis de los
sucesos acaecidos en esos cuatro países en los primeros meses de 2011.

Terremoto y tsunami de Japón


El 11 de Marzo del año 2011 Japón sufrió un terremoto de escala 8.9, el de más alta magnitud
en 140 años. Este terremoto tuvo su epicentro en la costa este, cerca de Honshu, y provocó un
devastador tsunami con olas de hasta 10 metros. La Agencia Nacional de Policía japonesa
confirmó 15.845 muertes, 3.380 personas desaparecidas y 5.893 heridos en las 18 Prefecturas
de Japón (NPAJ, 2012). A esto hay que sumarle los grandes destrozos que sufrieron las
centrales nucleares que provocaron fugas radiactivas lo que obligó al gobierno nipón a tomar

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medidas extremas de seguridad. Este, no es un hecho aislado, desde el año 1973 Japón ha
experimentado nueve terremotos de magnitud igual o superior a 7 en la escala de Richter.

Conflictividad política en Egipto


En el año 2011 comenzaron las revueltas conocidas como la Revolución egipcia. Se
produjeron manifestaciones callejeras que empezaron el día 25 de enero de ese año y que se
extendieron por todo el país durante 18 días hasta la dimisión del presidente Mubarak. Las
protestas y manifestaciones tuvieron frecuentes episodios de violencia, con combates
callejeros entre manifestantes y fueras pro-gubernamentales. Los altercados se produjeron de
manera continua con ataques a oficinas de policía y ocupación de edificios oficiales por todo
el país. Se paralizaron los aeropuertos, se produjo el cierre de museos, como el Museo
Nacional de El Cairo donde parte del patrimonio arqueológico que contenía fue robado o
destrozado.
Terrorismo en Marruecos
El 28 de abril de 2011 un terrorista suicida hace estallar una bomba en el café Argana de la
plaza Yemaa al Fná de Marraquech provocando la muerte de 17 personas de los cuales 14
eran turistas extranjeros. El café Argana era el emplazamiento habitual de turistas y visitantes
de la plaza más visitada de Marruecos (ABC, 2011). En los últimos 10 años se han producido
seis atentados dirigidos a turistas, éste último se ha convertido en el acto terrorista más
sangriento perpetrado en Marruecos desde los atentados suicidas de mayo de 2003 en
Casablanca en los que fallecieron 45 personas.

Delincuencia en México
El crimen organizado y la delincuencia se encuentran entre los problemas más urgentes que
debe afrontar México en estos momentos. La escalada creciente de delincuencia y actos
criminales en México no tiene parangón a ningún otro país del mundo. El número de
homicidios perpetrados por el crimen organizado en 2010 alcanzó la cifra de 15.273
fallecidos, aumentado un 58% el número de asesinados con respecto a 2009. Sólo tres años
antes, en el 2007, fueron 2.826 los ejecutados (El Universal, 2010). Los crímenes se
concentran en estados como Chihuahua, Sinaola y Tamaulipas (en estos tres el 50% del total),
pero la percepción de la comunidad internacional es que todo el país vive sumido en una ola
de violencia y crimen que el gobierno del país no es capaz de frenar.

Análisis de datos e interpretación de resultados


El 53% de los que responden al cuestionario son mujeres y el 47% hombres. Entre las
mujeres, el segmento de edad más numeroso está entre los 40 y 59 años, que representa el
41% de los encuestadas. El segundo segmento de edad más representativo se sitúa entre los 25
y 39 años y representa el 32% del total de las mujeres. Entre los hombres, el segmento de
edad entre los 40 y 59 años vuelve a ser el más numeroso con el 50% de los encuestados
varones, y el segmento de edad entre los 25 y 39 años representa un 34% del total de los
varones.

La valoración personal del riesgo a viajar a los diferentes destinos se presentan en las Figuras
1 a 4. En el análisis de los datos nos centraremos predominantemente en las valoraciones
extremas de riesgo, es decir cuando se considera riesgo ‘alto’ o ‘bastante alto’.

Según los resultados, podemos ver que el 48,7% de los encuestados consideraba que el riesgo
viajar a Japón era alto o bastante alto. Sin embargo, el destino con mayor percepción de riesgo

7
es Egipto ya que el 63,7% de los encuestados consideraba alto o bastante alto el riesgo de
viajar a este país en el mes de mayo.

Viajar a Marruecos y México, tiene un riesgo percibido medio, en el primer caso el la


valoración de riesgo alto o bastante alto alcanza el 38,7%, y en el caso de México el 41,2%.
Estos resultados se repiten para los hombres aunque cabe destacar que los destinos más
peligrosos para hombres cuya edad es de 60 años o más son Marruecos y México, con la
misma valoración. Por otra parte, las mujeres con edades comprendidas entre los 25 y 39 años
ven con mayor riesgo Japón que el resto de destinos presentados.

Figura 1. Percepción de riesgo a corto plazo de viajar a Japón

Figura 2. Percepción de riesgo a corto plazo de viajar a Egipto

Figura 3. Percepción de riesgo a corto plazo de viajar a Marruecos

8
Figura 4. Percepción de riesgo a corto plazo de viajar a México

En las Figuras 5 a 8 se presentan la valoración del tipo de riesgo que afecta más a cada zona.
Se presentan 5 riesgos posibles que se pueden dar en cada destino turístico seleccionado:
delincuencia, posibles epidemias, catástrofes, conflictividad política y terrorismo.

Figura 5. Valoración de riesgos en Japón

9
Se observa que el tipo de riesgo que, para los encuestados, más afecta a Japón es que ocurra
una catástrofe: el 65% de los encuestados consideran que el riesgo de catástrofe es alto (50%)
o bastante alto (15%). También es alta o bastante alta la valoración de riesgo de epidemias
pues alcanza el 35%. El resto de riesgos no se considera que afecten de importancia a Japón
como destino turístico.

Figura 6. Valoración de riesgos en Egipto

En el caso de Egipto, el tipo de riesgo que perciben los encuestados se deriva de la


conflictividad política del país, así lo creen un 82,5% del total de los encuestados que opinan
que afecta de modo alto o bastante alto. El terrorismo también se considera un riesgo alto o
bastante alto por un 56% de los encuestados. Epidemias y delincuencia se consideran como
riesgo medio y por último el riesgo de catástrofe se considera en su mayoría bajo.

10
Figura 7. Valoración de riesgos en Marruecos

En el caso de Marruecos, los resultados son más variados. Por un lado, al igual que en Egipto,
el mayor riesgo percibido del destino son las consecuencias derivadas de la conflictividad
política ya que un total de 57,5% de los encuestados opina que este riesgo es alto o bastante
alto. El terrorismo es el siguiente riesgo que se percibe más importante en Marruecos: un
47,6% de los encuestados lo considera alto o bastante alto. La delincuencia es considerada
más bien un riesgo medio, y las epidemias y las catástrofes riesgos bajos para Marruecos
como destino turístico.

Se observa en estos resultados que el atentado terrorista del 28 de abril en la plaza más
turística de Marraquech no ha afectado tanto en las percepciones como para considerarlo el
principal riesgo de Marruecos, y esto a pesar de que el suceso es muy reciente en el momento
de realizarse la encuesta y es el acontecimiento más actual de los sucesos que se analizan de
los diferentes países. Por sexos se observa como la amenaza terrorista tiene más importancia
para las mujeres; en el segmento entre 40 y 59 años el terrorismo es el principal riesgo.

Figura 8. Valoración de riesgos en México

El mayor riesgo percibido de México es la delincuencia, un 60% la considera un riesgo alto y


el 31,3% bastante alto, es decir el 91,3% de los encuestados sitúan la delincuencia en los dos
puntos extremos de la escala de riesgo. Es evidente el peso de las noticias y acontecimientos
sobre el crimen organizado y la delincuencia en este país sobre imagen que proyecta en la

11
percepción de los posibles visitantes. La percepción de riesgo de otras amenazas tiene mucha
menos importancia, así la conflictividad política, el terrorismo y las epidemias los podríamos
catalogar como de riesgo medio-bajo y las catástrofes como de riesgo bajo. Sólo un 3,6%
consideró como riesgo alto las catástrofes en México, y esto a pesar del frecuente azote de
huracanes en este país en la temporada de agosto a octubre y tratarse de una realidad que
tampoco esconden los medios de comunicación. Sin embargo, la percepción de los
consultados no es absoluto de riesgo ya que el 62% considera bajo o bastante bajo este tipo
de amenaza. Estos resultados confirman la teoría de Moreira (2010) acerca de la mayor
consideración de los ‘riesgos sigilosos’ sobre los grandes riesgos puntuales. Un tipo de riesgo
de incremento gradual como sería la delincuencia tendría una mayor influencia en la
percepción de los turistas que los que concentran el impacto y las consecuencias en un corto
periodo de tiempo.

En la Figura 9 se presenta la influencia de los cinco tipos de riesgos mencionados en la toma


de decisión del viajero. En una escala de 1 (afecta poco) a 5 (afecta mucho) se puede observar
que, independientemente de los destinos turísticos seleccionados para la encuesta, los riesgos
de epidemia y terrorismo son los tipos de riesgo que más afectan en la elección de un destino;
el 62,5% de los encuestados considera que las epidemias afectan bastante o mucho en la
decisión de su viaje y el 60,1% con el terrorismo. Este hecho llama la atención con las
conclusiones extraídas en el caso de Marruecos donde se veía que la amenaza terrorista no era
el riesgo de mayor importancia a pesar de la cercanía en el tiempo del atentado de
Marraquech, esto hace suponer que los encuestados no han asociado Marruecos con la imagen
de un país en el que el terrorismo es una amenaza importante, sino que se vincula en mayor
medida a la conflictividad política y los altercados relacionados.

Los riesgos que menos afectan en la decisión de viaje son la conflictividad política y las
catástrofes naturales. La mayoría de los encuestados manifiestan que la influencia de estos
riesgos entre media y poca. Con más probabilidad los turistas evitarán viajar a aquellos
destinos con riesgo alto, por ello es interesante valorar qué tipo de riesgos afectan más en la
decisión de viaje. Se observa que los riesgos que más preocupan a los encuestados son: las
epidemias (35%) y el terrorismo (31,3%), seguidos de la delincuencia y las catástrofes (ambas
el 30%) y, por último, la conflictividad política (22,5%).

Figura 9. Influencia del tipo de riesgo que en la elección del destino


40,0

35,0

30,0
Epidemias

25,0
e
j Terrorismo
ta
n
e20,0
c
r
o Delincuencia
P
15,0
Conf lictividad
10,0 Política

Catástrof e
5,0

0,0
Poco Algo Medio Bastante Mucho

12
En la Figura 10 se presentan los resultados tras preguntar a los encuestados sobre su elección
de viaje, si tuvieran oportunidad, a alguno de los cuatro destinos. La pregunta es doble pues,
por una parte, se pide que manifiesten si escogerían ese destino para viajar el próximo verano
(sólo un mes después de la realización de la entrevista) y, por otra parte, si escogerían ese
destino para viajar un año después, de esta forma se pueden observar las expectativas de la
evolución del riesgo para los diferentes destinos y sus amenazas asociadas. Se analiza,
además, el grado de generalización de los riesgos a todo el país o si la percepción de riesgo, y
consecuentemente la decisión de no viajar, se reduce a las zonas afectadas por los sucesos. La
geolocalización de los impactos negativos y la información precisa de las áreas afectadas es
una de las prioridades de la Organización Mundial del Turismo en el ámbito de la gestión de
crisis (WTO, 2011).
Figura 10. Decisión de viaje en el corto y largo plazo

En un análisis general se observa que, salvo México, la mayoría de los encuestados no


escogerían ninguno de los destinos para viajar ese mismo verano. En el caso de Japón, un
58,8% no lo elegiría como próximo destino turístico, un 68,8% tampoco escogería Egipto, un
63,8% rechaza viajar a Marruecos ese verano y sólo México con un valor más igualado,
presenta un 45% de rechazo y un 41,2% de aceptación.

Egipto es el destino turístico en el que se dan mayores diferencias entre la decisión de viajar
en los próximos meses y dentro de un año. Del 25% que no le importaría viajar ese verano se
pasa al 46,3% que no le importaría viajar al cabo de un año. Las expectativas de recuperación
son positivas: se espera que la situación que lleva, en el momento de realizar las entrevistas, al
rechazo mayoritario en viajar a Egipto revierta al cabo de un año.

También se espera que los problemas y conflictos que afectan a Marruecos mejoren al cabo de
un año, del 27,5% de los encuestados que escogerían viajar a Marruecos durante el verano se
pasa al 45% que no le importaría viajar pasado un año. Para este destino hay diferencias
sensibles por sexos, para todos los segmentos de edad de las mujeres la mayoría nunca
escogería Marruecos como destino turístico para sus próximas vacaciones de verano, en
cambio los hombres de entre 25 y 39 años, sí escogerían viajar a ese destino en un corto
plazo, y a los hombres de 60 y más años les es indiferente. Este hecho puede deberse a la
mayor percepción e influencia en la toma de decisiones de los riesgos relacionados con el
terrorismo por parte de las mujeres que se ha señalado anteriormente.

En el caso de México no varía la percepción a corto plazo con la visión dentro de un año, es
de suponer que el principal problema y riesgo percibido para México que veíamos con
13
anterioridad era la delincuencia, es una amenaza a la que no se ve pronta resolución sino más
bien un incremento gradual de las condiciones negativas.

La distinción entre zonas afectadas y no afectadas en la decisión de viaje es más visible en los
destinos de México y Japón. El 13,8% de los encuestados está dispuesto a viajar a las zonas
no afectadas de México o de Japón ese mismo verano. En el caso de Marruecos y Egipto la
posible elección de viaje a zonas no afectadas es sensiblemente menor, un 8,6% en el caso de
Marruecos y el 6,3% en el caso de Egipto. Se entiende este comportamiento ya que los riesgos
asociados a los destinos de México y Japón, delincuencia y catástrofes, están concentrados en
algunos estados y zonas de estos dos países, mientras que el riesgo asociado a Marruecos y
Egipto, principalmente conflictividad política, afecta a los dos países en todo su territorio.

Conclusiones
Amenazas, desastres y sucesos de todo signo pueden impactar negativamente en la imagen del
país y consecuentemente en el sector turístico. La percepción de riesgo es un elemento clave
en la toma de decisión del turista en la elección del destino al que viajar, y esta percepción
tiene diferentes dimensiones según la amenaza de que se trate. En el estudio de caso realizado
en este trabajo se ha observado que las amenazas con mayor influencia en la toma de decisión
de viajes a destinos turísticos son las epidemias y los ataques terroristas.

Entre los cuatro destinos seleccionados –Japón, Egipto, Marruecos y México- el destino con
mayor percepción de riesgo en el momento de las entrevistas es Egipto, seguido de Japón. La
influencia de los medios de comunicación parece ser un elemento potenciador; con gran
probabilidad la extensa e intensa cobertura informativa realizada por los medios de
comunicación sobre los acontecimientos ocurridos en estos países han influido en la
percepción de los encuestados. Y esto a pesar de que, según lo observado en este estudio, el
riesgo de catástrofe, que se asocia a Japón, es el que menos afecta a la decisión de viajar a un
destino turístico.

Con el fin de atraer visitantes y fortalecer su confianza a viajar los planes turísticos de los
diferentes destinos deberían poner en marcha medidas relacionadas con el tipo de riesgo con
el que más se relaciona su zona. Egipto y Marruecos son destinos turísticos a los que se asocia
una imagen de conflictividad política principalmente, y algo menos de amenaza terrorista.
México asocia su imagen con la delincuencia y el crimen, sin embargo el riesgo de huracanes
de las temporada estival apenas parece tomarse en consideración y no se tiene presente.

Un tipo de riesgo con incremento gradual como puede ser la delincuencia tiene una influencia
mayor en la percepción de los turistas que los riesgos que concentran el impacto y las
consecuencias en un corto periodo de tiempo, como podría ser un desastre natural. Al mismo
tiempo, se observan diferencias en la percepción de riesgo según las categorías de sexo y
edad: en el segmento de edad mayor de los 60 años para los dos sexos se aprecia una mayor
influencia de la delincuencia y la conflictividad política, y en las mujeres en todos los
segmentos de edad se observa mayor influencia del terrorismo a la hora de rechazar viajar a
un destino turístico.

En general, se advierte una recuperación de la confianza en el futuro, las expectativas de viaje


a los países afectados mejoran en todos los casos en el plazo de un año, salvo México cuyo
problema de delincuencia inmoviliza la mejora en las expectativas de viaje. Sin embargo, se
aprecia en México una mayor conciencia de los encuestados sobre la localización de los
riesgos de delincuencia en zonas concretas del país, distinguiendo zonas afectadas y no

14
afectadas. Por parte de las autoridades del país la geolocalización de los riesgos sería un punto
importante a gestionar y comunicar con el fin de mejorar los datos de viajeros a este país.

En este trabajo, siguiendo la metodología del estudio de caso, se ha seleccionado una muestra
teórica de una población, sin embargo sería conveniente que añadir nuevos casos hasta la
saturación de la teoría con el fin de extender las hipótesis resultantes para más adelante
plantear un estudio cuantitativo. En investigaciones posteriores se aconseja explorar las
relaciones existentes entre la intensidad informativa de los medios de comunicación y la
percepción de los turistas, así como analizar las fuentes de información empleadas por los
viajeros en el proceso de toma de decisión de su viaje, segmentando los resultados por sexo y
edades.

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16
Anexo

ENCUESTA: PERCEPCIÓN DE RIESGO EN LA ELECCIÓN DE DESTINOS TURÍSTICOS


Le estamos muy agradecidos por contestar a este cuestionario, son sólo 6 preguntas

1. Califique de 1 a 5 su valoración personal del riesgo a viajar en la actualidad a alguna de estas


zonas (Riesgo bajo: 1 - Riesgo alto: 5)
Japón 1 2 3 4 5
Egipto 1 2 3 4 5
Marruecos 1 2 3 4 5
México 1 2 3 4 5

2. ¿Qué tipo de riesgo piensa que afecta más a cada zona? (Riesgo más bajo: 1; Riesgo más alto: 5)
Japón Egipto Marruecos México
delincuencia
salud (epidemias)
catástrofe
conflictividad política
terrorismo

3. ¿Qué tipo de riesgo opina que le afecta más a usted a la hora de elegir un destino turístico? (ordene
de 1 a 5, 1: le afecta menos, 5 le afecta más)
delincuencia
salud (epidemias)
catástrofe
conflictividad política
terrorismo

4. ¿Escogería viajar a estos sitios este verano si tuviera oportunidad? Marque con una cruz
sí no sólo a zonas no afectadas
Japón
Egipto
Marruecos
México

5. ¿Escogería viajar a estos destinos dentro de un año si tuviera oportunidad? Marque con una cruz
sí no sólo a zonas no afectadas
Japón
Egipto
Marruecos
México

Edad: Estudios: Sexo: Lugar:

17
The Protection of Religious Monuments in the Event of Armed Conflict within the
framework of International Law

Dr. Dimitrios Mylonopoulos


Associate Professor
Technological Education Institute of Piraeus/Greece
Department of Tourism Industry Management
dimilon@teipir.gr

Dr. Polyxeni Moira


Professor
Head of the Department of Tourism Industry Management
Technological Education Institute of Piraeus/Greece
xeniamoira@yahoo.gr

Aikaterini Kontoudaki -MA


Greek Ministry of Culture and Tourism
kontoudaki_catherine@yahoo.gr

Blas Esteban Barranco


Director de la Cátedra de Turismo de Madrid -Universidad Rey Juan Carlos
Director America en España : los lazos comunes www.americainspain.com
blasesteban@wanadoo.es

Abstract

During World War II, the destruction of the cultural property of the people of Europe gave
rise to wide mobilization on the part of the international community in order to stipulate an
adequate legal framework to protect cultural heritage in times of war. Among others, cultural
heritage comprises religious monuments and artifacts; indeed, it is widely admitted that
religious art has exerted major impact on different parts of the world and in all historical
periods, having influencing developments in architecture, monuments art and urban planning.
Religious monuments and complexes reflect important phases of the history of mankind and
are very closely linked to ideas, convictions, living traditions, etc.
Even if nowadays there is an international legal framework which protects the cultural
environment, in reality, the observation of legal rules is very difficult in periods of severe
hostility.
The essay at hand reviews the international framework of legal protection of religious
monuments and explores its effectiveness through contemporary case studies.

Keywords: cultural heritage, religious heritage, religious monuments, armed conflict,


protection, international law

1. Introduction
During the last few decades, protection of cultural heritage constitutes a basic pillar of cultural
policy for most countries of the world. Since cultural heritage is deeply linked with the
identity of peoples, the necessity to maintain the testimonies of humanity’s older as well as
recent past, as a source of collective memory and a component of the collective identity, is
apparent (Voudouri & Strati, 1999:ΧΧΙ).
The term cultural heritage includes not only the tangible heritage, which comprises two
categories of goods, namely immoveable and moveable goods of particular archeological,

1
historical, ethnological, artistic and scientific interest, but also the intangible heritage, namely
the language, habits and customs, traditions, music, poetry, dance, etc.
Religious heritage is also included to the content of the term, the interconnection of which is
not directly detected, since the former contains various cultural values. Very often the
religious heritage is promoted as a cultural element, independently of the relationship between
religion and believer. Thus, an historical church or a mosque which is registered as a cultural
monument, which primordially highlights its “secular” importance, in parallel can possess an
additional value as a holy place of worship. Spiritual or religious values attributed to a
monument or to a pilgrimage route are simultaneously determined as historical values (e.g.
the history of believers who participated in the congregation and played an important role for
the development of the community), as artistic values (e.g. the particular design of a building
and its moveable objects) or as social values (e.g. the use of a temple not for religious
assemblies, but for a concert) (de la Torre, 2002:11).
The protection of the cultural heritage has mobilized interest both at the domestic and at the
international level. At the domestic level of states, multiple public agents have proceeded to
the stipulation of special regulations while private initiatives and the social sector have taken
collective actions. At the international level, important activities are linked to major
international organizations, such as the UNESCO, the Council of Europe, the International
Council of Museums, the International Council of Monuments and Sites, the European Union,
etc. The activity of the international organizations has resulted in the protection to be
integrated into international law. The “internationalization” attributed to the issue emanates
from the general consent that monuments, artistic products, etc. do not only belong to a
people but also constitute a collective heritage of all of mankind. This consensus as well as
the recognition of the obligation to assure cultural goods’ preservation in favor of the
generations to come, has facilitated the communication among peoples and the cooperation of
states in order to exchange information and best practices concerning techniques of
conservation and rehabilitation of monuments, of complexes of monuments as well as of other
artistic creations, which all compose the “identity” of people. International efforts are not
limited to the rehabilitation and protection of the cultural goods in peaceful times; special
importance has been given to the protection of those goods in times of war too, when dangers
of attrition, destruction or loss are diffuse.
Since Antiquity, the destruction of monuments and works of art, their depredation or sale1 as
well as their transferring out of the country of origin were commonplace. The “right of victors
to the spoils of war” is part of the ideology of war. Result of the exertion of this “right” is the
tactic of “looting” and the destruction of the adversary’s monuments, all the more when these
monuments constitute national or cultural symbols (Konsola, 1995:39). Through the
destruction of cultural treasuries, which was impossible to detract, the winners wreaked their
martial mania while, in parallel, they punished the losers (Grammatikaki-Alexiou, 2002:41).
Since tangible heritage contributes to the creation of national identity as well as to the
maintenance of the social memory, historical monuments and in particular the religious-
cultural monuments become important targets. Bevan has recorded destruction of cultural
heritage during armed conflicts worldwide, and he claims that this sort of destruction not only
deteriorates the culture of a nation but it also extinguishes its historical memory, and finally
its very existence. Furthermore, he argues that the destruction of cultural heritage is
equivalent to cultural genocide and it should be penalized by the international law as national
genocide (Bevan, 2006:240).

1
Indicative example of this, was the grab of the marbles of Parthenon by Lord Elgin, who claimed that Turks
allowed him to detract parts of the Greek monuments in order to protect them (“How Elgin Took the Marbles”,
ElEFTHEROTYPIA journal, 8/5/00).

2
Examples are ample and we can find them in all periods of history and in all continents. The
first worth noting is that of Athens’ depredation by the Persians in 480 B.C. (Herodotus, Book
VIII, 52-3), and later on the depredation of Greek cities and their monuments’ destruction as a
result of Greece being conquered by the Romans, in the second century B.C. The same tactic
is also adopted by Alexander the Great in Thebes in 335 B.C. and later in the countries which
he has conquered. The depredation and destruction of Persepolis is referred as one of great
historical significance (History of the Hellenic Nation, 1973:131-132). As said, a very popular
tactic of conquerors was the unmitigated destruction of cities and its divestment of sculptures
and of other works of art, which then adorned the winners’ houses. In 201 B.C., when
Philippe invaded Asia Minor, he took the city of Pergamos whose king was Attalus Α΄, and he
furiously destructed its monuments and works of art. The arson and fall of temples, altars and
sculptures weren’t, however, enough for Philippe; he also shattered and pulverized the stones
to make it impossible to rebuild deteriorated sanctums, destructing even the holy boscages
(Polyvios, Histories ΚΑ΄:1).
In addition, during the fourth crusade, the same tactic was adopted by the Romans, in 1204
A.C., after the Fall of Constantinople.
During World War II, the historical centers of Warsaw (Poland), London (Great Britain),
Saint Petersburg (Russia), Dresden (Germany), etc. were changed after bombardments over
ruins. Thousands of artifacts, rare books, manuscripts, paintings, sculptures, religious pieces,
and other precious objects were extracted from museums, libraries, houses and private
collections from France, countries of the Soviet Union, Belgium and Poland and were
transferred to Germany (UNESCO, 2006a:2).

2. Cultural Heritage
The World Cultural Heritage List of UNESCO
The International Community noting that the Cultural Heritage and the Natural Heritage2 are
increasingly threatened with destruction not only by the traditional causes of decay, but also by
changing social and economic conditions, and considering that deterioration or disappearance of
any item of the cultural or natural heritage constitutes a “harmful impoverishment of the heritage
of all the nations of the world”, signed in Paris in 16 November 1972 the Convention Concerning
the Protection of the World Cultural and National Heritage. According to the Convention, the
following are considered as Cultural Heritage)3:
a) Monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements
or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of
features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science
(ex: Taj Mahal in India),
b) Groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their
architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value
from the point of view of history, art or science (ex: the City of Petra in Jordan, the Acropolis,
Florence, Venetia, etc.),

2
The following are considered as Natural Heritage:
a) natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of
outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view (ex: the coral reef in Australia),
b) geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of
threatened species of animals and plants of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or
conservation (ex: Galapagos islands in the pacific Ocean),
c) natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of
science, conservation or natural beauty (ex: Iguassu falls in the frontier of Argentina-Brazil).
3
The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and National Heritage is ratified by Greece
with the L. 1126 of 3-10/2/1981 “About the Ratification of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the
World Cultural and National Heritage, signed in Paris in 23 November 1972” (Gov. Gazette 32/Α).

3
c) Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including
archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic,
ethnological or anthropological point of view (ex: Mont Saint Michel and bay of Saint Malo in
France, Meteora in Greece, etc.).
The Convention has also established the World Heritage Committee, composed by experts –
representatives of 21 member-states4 –, who are elected by the General Assembly of countries
that have ratified it. The mission of this Committee is, inter alia, to define the cultural and
natural sites of universal values to be inscribed on the World Cultural Heritage List, in
conformity with the criteria which it has set.
Until 2004, the criteria on the basis of which candidates were evaluated, were divided in two
categories, comprising six parameters for cultural heritage and four for natural heritage. By
2005, when new policy guidelines were adopted, all parameters were integrated; thus, each
monument and site is evaluated according to ten integrated criteria (Μylonopoulos, 2006:568-
569).
Monuments entered on the World Cultural Heritage List are selected according to their value
as the most significant and indicative exemplars of humans’ creative spirit. They are the
evidence of an important exchange of human values as well as unique or at least exceptional
testimonials of a cultural tradition or of a civilization still alive or extinct. These monuments
are directly linked with important phases of the history of mankind and in this respect they
have a paramount universal value, being part of humanity’s common heritage.
It is apparent that religious monuments satisfy the “cultural criteria” (i-vi), since religious art
has exerted a major impact on different places all over the world and in all historical periods,
having influencing developments in architecture, monument art and urban planning. Religious
monuments and complexes reflect important phases of the history of mankind and are very
closely linked to ideas, convictions, living traditions, etc. (Μoira, 2009:130).
In addition, religious monuments may also satisfy the “natural criteria” (vii-x), which refer to
the natural heritage, either uncut or in tune with the cultural criteria, since those two are often
very closely interconnected. Ordinary examples of this case are the rocks at the Monasteries
of Meteora as well as the Holy Mountain, both found in Greece, and the national park of
Jeremy as well as the underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey, where the cultural
component and the unique natural environment are indivisible (Μoira, 2009:130).

TABLE 1. Criteria for the Integration to the World Heritage List of UNESCO

Cultural Criteria Natural criteria


Guidelines 2002 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
Guidelines 2005 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (viii) (ix) (vii) (x)
SOURCE: UNESCO/World Heritage List (2011),

By June 2011, 936 sites were included on the World Cultural and Natural Heritage List of
UNESCO (725 of cultural heritage, 183 of natural heritage and 28 mixed, encompassing 153
countries; see Table 2). More than 130 from these are cultural-religious monuments and sites.

TABLE 2. Per year inscription of monuments and sites on the World Heritage List of
UNESCO
Α/Α YEAR NUMBER Α/Α YEAR NUMBER
1. 1978 12 18. 1995 29
4
The following are the member-states whose delegates participate in the World Heritage Committee: Australia,
Bahrain, Barbados, Brazil, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, France, Iraq, Jordan, Mali, Mexico,
Nigeria, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Suisse, Thailand, Arab Emirates (assessed 25/5/2011 in
http://whc.unesco.org/en/comittee/).

4
2. 1979 44 19. 1996 37
3. 1980 26 20. 1997 46
4. 1981 28 21. 1998 30
5. 1982 24 22. 1999 48
6. 1983 28 23. 2000 61
7. 1984 22 24. 2001 31
8. 1985 31 25. 2002 9
9. 1986 18 26. 2003 24
10. 1987 42 27. 2004 34
11. 1988 36 28. 2005 24
12. 1989 7 29. 2006 22
13. 1990 17 30. 2007 21
14. 1991 23 31. 2008 27
15. 1992 21 32 2009 7
16. 1993 32 33 2010 21
17. 1994 29 34. 2011 25
SOURCE: UNESCO / World Heritage List (2011).
Elaboration: Polyxeni Moira

It is worth noting that Greece has inscribed on the List 17 sites, from which those that have
direct cultural-religious interest are Meteora (1988), the Holy Mountain/Athos (1988), the
Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika (1988), the Archeological Site of
Mystras (1989/2008), the Monasteries of Dafni and Hosios Loukas in Delphi, the New
Monastery in Chios (1990) and the Monastery of Saint John the Theologos as well as the
Apocalypses’ cave in the island of Patmos (1999). Of indirect cultural-religious interest are
the archeological site of Delphi with the sanctuary of Apollo (1987), the archeological site of
Olympia, where the temple of Zeus was also located (1989), the archeological site of Delos,
which was a panhellenic religious centre (1990), the Heraion of Samos (1992), the Acropolis
of Athens with the temple of Athena Nike (1987), the Temple of Epicurius Apollo at Bassae
(1986), the Sanctuary of Asclepius in Epidaurus (1988/2007), and the archeological site of ο
Aigai in Vergina (1996/2008).

World Cultural Heritage at Risk


In parallel with the World Heritage List of UNESCO, there is another List – the List of
Cultural Heritage in danger (UNESCO, 2011). Since cultural goods are exposed to a series of
risks either of man-made origin, such as armed conflicts and wars, or of natural origin, such as
earthquakes, floods, etc., UNESCO inscribes the most susceptible to damages areas/sites on
the “List of Cultural Heritage in Danger”. This kind of inscription entails that particular
measures are taken in order to protect those areas against “eventual” or “certain” risks
(UNESCO, 2011). In case monuments have already undergone damages, UNESCO in
cooperation with the country in whose terrain the site is located, takes the necessary measures
for their protection or rehabilitation.
Since armed conflicts and wars constitute the most severe dangers for many areas worldwide,
the organization runs international campaigns for the restoration of damaged monuments in
such cases. An ordinary example is that of Bamiyan Valley in Afghanistan. The valley has
Buddhist monasteries and refuges, and is valued as the most significant expression of western
Buddhism. Along the centuries, it was an important pilgrimage centre. In 2001, due to this
symbolic value, the valley was targeted by fundamentalist Taliban members, who purposely
proceeded to the destruction of the giant statues of Buddha. In 2003, the cultural landscape

5
and archaeological remains of the Bamiyan Valley was inscribed on UNESCO's World
Heritage List and in parallel on the List of Cultural Heritage in Danger. Within this
framework, UNESCO offered to the managing agent of the area (Ministry of Information and
Culture, provincial governor) administrative, scientific and technical assistance in order to
repair damages, save works of art and remove landmines. The project has been successfully
implemented. During the 9th Expert Meeting organized by the UNESCO concerning the
valley, forecasts referred that the area will soon be removed from the List of Cultural Heritage
in Danger (UNESCO/Afghanistan, 2011).

3. The international institutional framework of protection


Places of worship have been legally protected since ancient times. In ancient Greece, special
regulations of protection were stipulated in favor of holy places, such as Delphi, Delos,
Dodoni, Olympia, etc., where any form of violence was prohibited. All the more, in those
places no one who found refuge could be executed (primarily asylum seekers). Relevant
provisions could be detected in Indian civilization and in particular in the Upanishads, where
places of worship are protected and distinguished as strictly civilian targets and not military
ones (Gabriel, 2009). Furthermore, during medieval times, the protection of places of worship
constituted a basic element of the chivalry code.
In Islamic civilization too, we find multiple provisions in favor of the protection of places of
worship of Christians and Jews. An indicative example is the decree issued by imam Abu
Bakr Essedik (632-634 A.C.), after having conquered Syria and Iraq, according to which he
ordered its army not to kill believers who live in monasteries and generally not to destroy
monasteries (Bugnion, 2004:315).

International Conventions
The Hague Convention (1899/1907) first provided for the Protection of Cultural Property in
the Event of Armed Conflict, and in particular article 27 concerning Laws and Customs of
War on Land as well as the annexed Protocol. According to this article, during investment and
bombardments, all necessary measures should be taken in order for the buildings which are
dedicated to places of worships, art, sciences or charitable purposes, historical monuments,
hospitals and places where the sick and wounded are collected, to remain as intact as possible
– provided that they are not used for military operations (Perrakis & Marouda, 2001:342).
The grabbing and destruction of cultural goods, which took place during World War II,
resulting not only in losses of human lives but also in “loss of memory” and “loss of history”
provided the incentive which mobilized the international community to address the issue of
the protection of cultural properties in danger both in peaceful times and especially in times of
war. The international community realized that the preservation of cultural heritage is of great
importance to all peoples worldwide so it decided for this protection to take the form of an
international convention.
In this respect, the elaboration of such a plan was trusted to an international organization,
namely the UNESCO. The result of this initiative was the Convention for the Protection of
Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. Said convention was signed in Hague, on
the 14th of May 1954 - thus it is widely known as the Hague Convention5. The Convention
consists of 7 chapters and 40 articles. The body is accompanied by its Regulation of
Execution, consisting of 21 articles, a Protocol according to which, each signatory State
undertakes to prevent the exportation of cultural property from a territory under its occupation

5
Said Convention was ratified by Greece with the L. 1114/7-8/1/1981 “About the Ratification of the Hague
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, signed on the 14th of May
1954, and accompanied by its Regulation of Execution and its Protocol, and the Resolutions Ι, ΙΙ and ΙΙΙ of the
Convention” (Gov. Gazette 6/Α).

6
during an armed conflict, and a second Protocol with provisions aiming at further protecting
the cultural properties in the event of armed conflict (UNESCO, 1999). The Convention was
signed by 50 countries while the first Protocol by only 40. It entered into force in 7 August
1956. By March 2009, the Convention was ratified by 123 countries, last one being the US
(ICBS, 2006:2). It is worth noting that this Convention is particularly important both in
scientific and political terms, since it constitutes the first systematic effort, recorded in the
postwar period, in favor of protecting the cultural heritage on a legal basis (Konsola,
1994:21).
According to the Hague Convention, eventual damages induced against the cultural property
of the people to which they belong, are considered as damages to the cultural heritage of
humanity as a whole, given the fact that each people contributes in its own manner to global
civilization. Throughout the convention, several basic notions/terms are used, such as
“cultural good” or the notion of “protection”, which need further clarification.
By the term cultural goods, we mean “the moveable and immoveable goods which are of
great importance for the cultural heritage of each people”. Among those, the architectural
monuments, monuments of art or history, ecclesiastical or secular monuments, archeological
sites, building complexes, manuscripts, books, etc. are included, as well as buildings
(museums, libraries, etc.) which permanently or temporarily host moveable goods, and city
centers, where important moveable and immoveable goods are located.
The “protection” provided through the Convention is divided in two categories, namely
general and special protection. The general protection covers all moveable goods and includes
both their “preservation” and their “respect”. Preservation refers to measures that should be
taken in peaceful times, which fall under the discretionary power of states. Respect refers to
obligatory abstention from actions which could threaten the existence or the integrity (damage
or destruction) of cultural goods in times of war. Special protection refers to a limited number
of goods, such as refuges which host moveable cultural goods and city centers where
monuments of paramount significance are located, provided that a) they are situated in a fair
enough distance from big industrial centers or other military targets (airports, radio stations,
ports, railway stations, arterial rods, buildings linked to the national defense) and b) they are
not used for military purposes. Special protection is accorded after inscribing those goods on
the “International List of Cultural Properties under Special Protection”.
The range of the Convention’s implementation is ample and its provisions apply to all armed
conflicts having or not an international character. Its execution at the international level is
secured by a) the Protectresses Powers (article 21) which are neutral countries that offer
“good services” in case of war, b) the UNESCO and c) the General Commissioner for
Cultural Properties.
Additionally, in 1970, UNESCO signed in Paris the International Convention on the Means of
Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural
Property. According to article 11 of said Convention, “the export and transfer of ownership of
cultural property under compulsion arising directly or indirectly from the occupation of a
country by a foreign power shall be regarded as illicit”. According to article 1 of the
Convention, it is explicitly stated that the term ‘cultural property’ means also religious
property which is specifically designated by each State as being of importance for
archaeology, prehistory, history, literature, art or science. Thus, there is an international legal
framework which provides for the protection of religious property risking of being taken out
from the territory of an occupied state.
Moreover, Protocols Ι and ΙΙ of 1977, additional to the Geneva Conventions (1949), include
provisions for the protection of cultural property’s targets, too. In particular, the Protocol I
relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts, in article 53 entitled
“Protection of cultural objects and of places of worship” refers that without prejudice to the

7
provisions of the Hague Convention of 1954, it is prohibited “a) to commit any acts of
hostility directed against the historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which
constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples, b) to use such objects in support of the
military effort and c) to make such objects the object of reprisals”. The Protocol ΙΙ relating to
the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts, in article 16 entitled Protection
of cultural objects and of places of worship refers that, without prejudice to the provisions of
the Hague Convention of 1954, it is prohibited “to commit any acts of hostility directed against
historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual
heritage of peoples, and to use them in support of the military effort”.
Furthermore, in 1996, the International Committee of the Blue Shield (ICBS) was founded
with the aim of protecting the world cultural heritage threatened by war and natural disasters.
The network of the “Blue Shield” is the “cultural equivalent”6 of the Red Cross, with which it
cooperates with a view to strengthening international efforts to protect cultural property at risk
of destruction in armed conflicts or natural disasters. The Protocol II of 1999 has recognised
ICBS for its advisory role in favor of the preservation of cultural heritage in the event of
armed conflict.
The Committee of the “Blue Shield” comprises representatives of the five Non-Governmental
Organisations working in this field, namely the International Council on Archives (ICA), the
International Council of Museums (ICOM), the International Council on Monuments and
Sites (ICOMOS), the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
(IFLA), and the Co-ordinating Council of Audiovisual Archives Associations (CCAAA).

International criminal jurisdiction


The article 2 of the UN Charter explicitly states that all its member-states shall refrain in
their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or
political independence of any state (UN Charter, 1945). In conformity with the statutory
principle of the abstention from war, States, which are the main subjects of international
law, at least under conventional theory, shall settle their international disputes by peaceful
means in such a manner that international peace is not endangered. However, Humanity
continues to suffer from the consequences of wars, independently of their international or
civil character. Apart from states’ responsibility, the individual criminal responsibility is
also established related to war crimes, crimes against peace and crimes against humanity.
The individual criminal responsibility started to take form after the end of World War II,
during the trials of Nuremberg and Tokyo, being confirmed through the ad hoc
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and completed with the
establishment of the International Criminal Court.

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. The International Criminal
Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia was founded by the Resolution no. 827/1993 of the
Security Council of the UN with the aim of dispensing justice for the war crimes committed
during the war in former Yugoslavia from 1991 onwards.
The Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in article 3,
entitled “Violations of the laws or customs of war”, states that the International Tribunal is
competent to prosecute persons violating the laws or customs of war. Such violations are inter
alia referred to seizure of, destruction or willful damage done to institutions dedicated to
religion, charity and education, the arts and sciences, historic monuments and works of art

6
Blue Shield Preparedness and Emergency Response. A program for Cultural Heritage at Risk as a result of
Natural or Manmade Disaster. in http://www.icomos.org/blue_shield/
ICBS / International Committee of the Blue Shield (2006), Statement by the International Committee of the Blue
Shield on Threatened Cultural Property in the Middle East Conflict, 21 July.

8
and science. Furthermore, according to article 24 of the Statute, in case of such violations, the
penalties imposed involve imprisonment.

The International Criminal Court. In article 8 of the Statute of the International Criminal
Court7, entitled “War Crimes”, war crimes are enumerated. As such are inter alia
characterized “the intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to religion,
education, art, science or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals and places where
the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not military objectives”8. Moreover,
according to article 77 of the Statute, entitled “Applicable penalties”, the Court may impose
penalties of imprisonment to a maximum of 30 years and even of life imprisonment. In
addition to imprisonment, the Court may order a fine as well as a forfeiture of proceeds,
property and assets derived directly or indirectly from that crime9.

4. UNESCO’s activation
The international mechanism for the protection of world cultural heritage was activated the
same year when the Hague Convention entered into force, namely 1956. These days, during
the Suez crisis, the UNESCO sent a delegate to the Monastery of Saint Catherine in the
peninsula of Sinai, occupied by Israel. His mission was to estimate the estate of the
Monastery’s buildings and to proceed to recommendations toward Israelis.
Said mechanism was activated in many cases, with scarce results, however. In 1967, after the
Six Days War involving Israel, Egypt, Jordan and Syria, UNESCO’s activity involved the
protection of cultural properties during excavations in the territories occupied by Israel,
belonging to Jordan, Syria and Egypt (Konsola, 1995:53). UNESCO’s mobilization prevented
the continuance of the excavations in the territories occupied by the Israelis.
UNESCO’s activity was also important in the case of Lebanon, in 1978, during Israel’s
invasion in the south of the country which set in danger the archeological site of Tyros. The
UNESCO’s intervention ensured respect for the site that later was inscribed on the World
Cultural Heritage List (1984).
In turn, as far as armed conflicts in India-Pakistan, Iraq-Iran, in the Gulf War are concerned,
UNESCO’s intervention on behalf of its General Director was limited to not more than
appeals towards the involved parties urging them to respect the provisions of the Conventions.
Failure of the parties to comply with these provisions has often resulted in the destruction,
damage and loss of many cultural properties (monuments, works of art, etc.). Such kinds of
destruction are purposive actions with a view to entirely obliterating evidence of the national
cultural identity of the adversaries which consequently are not caused solely by negligence or
indifference10. As said, the destruction or depredation of cultural properties is used with an
aim to obliterating the substantial evidence of a culture, wiping the national memory of
peoples.

5. Cases Studies: Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Cyprus


Yugoslavia. Examples taken by the armed conflicts among the democracies of former
Yugoslavia are various (Μoira, 1999: 45-60). Bombardments which took place during 1991
and 1992 in Dubrovnik, Croatia, targeted the monuments of the old city (Prott, 1992:43, 11).

7
The International Criminal Court was founded by the International Treaty of Rome, signed on 17 July 1998.
8
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, article 8, p. 10-11, Text of the Rome Statute document
A/CONF.183/9 of 17 July 1998. Public Information and Documentation Section Of the ICC Maanweg 174, 2516
AB The Hague, The Netherlands in http://www.icc-cpi.int
9
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, article 77, p. 53.
10
Baumel Report presented in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly,
Doc. 6756/2-2-93.

9
Many instances of purposeful destruction of monuments,11 museums, libraries, monasteries,
etc. (UNESCO, 2006c:3, Mose, 1996:180, Vatopoulos, 1999:Α53, ICOMOS, 1999) have
been recorded by the military forces of Serbians, Croatians and Muslims in the areas of
Bukovar, Mostar, Sarajevo, etc. It is worth noting at this point that the former Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia was one of the first countries which signed and ratified the Hague
Convention (26/05/75), having taken all the necessary measures in order to protect its cultural
properties in peaceful times. However, when the war started, all good intentions were
forgotten and none of the combatants respected the Convention.
Even an international organization failed to comply with the Convention – and its members
that have ratified it. NATO’s missiles bombarded not only military targets but also the
historical memory, damaging many monuments diffuse throughout all of former Yugoslavia’s
territory. Bombardments in the area have caused, apart from human losses, far reaching
ecological destruction as well as significant damages to cultural monuments and other cultural
properties, which constitute a part of not only the local population’s past, but also of Europe
and of the whole of mankind.
In 1995, Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic were executed for the destruction and
depredation of cultural property of former Yugoslavia. In particular, they were accused for
systematic and purposeful destruction of Muslim and Romeo Catholic places of worship in
Bosnia-Herzegovina, during the period from April 1992 until May 1995 (IT-95-5). According
to the bill of indictment, Muslim and Romeo Catholic places of worship were systematically
destructed by the Bosnian-Serbian troops.
In 2000, Tihimir Blaskic was convicted in multiannual imprisonment since he had ordered the
depredation and destruction of Muslim institutions dedicated to religion and education, in the
period from August 1992 until June 1993 (Fiori, 2008:25, Marouda, 2001:163-165).

Afghanistan. By March 2001, an unprecedented destruction of cultural properties started in


Afghanistan. Fundamentalist Taliban muslims, who control over 90% of the country’s
territory since 1996, started to destruct all the monuments, works of art, and other artifacts
that were not of Muslim origin. Initially, the target of the destructive mania of Taliban
warriors was the great rock sculptures of the Buddhas of Bamiyan (UNESCO, 2003). The
colossal Buddhas of Bamiyan stood 53 and 38 meters high and were the world's second and
third largest standing Buddhas carved in rock. Taliban tried to demolish the sculptures with
explosives, withdrawing their assurances that they would protect the cultural heritage of their
country. The international community was taken by surprise when the Taliban announced that
they would destruct every non Islamic symbol as idololatric. “The purpose of the destruction
was not linked in any way to a military objective, but was inspired by the sheer will to
eradicate any cultural manifestations or religious or spiritual creativity that did not correspond
to the Taliban view of religion and culture” (Francioni and Lenzerini, 2003:620).
Furthermore, the UNESCO denounced the Taliban regime’s vandalism of the Afghan
National Museum’s collections, in which findings were displayed from the famous
excavations that took place during the 1930s in Bagram, the estival capital of Koushan
dynasty. Finally, after intensive international pressure, two sites were inscribed on the
UNESCO World Heritage List, namely the Minaret of Jam and the Cultural Landscape and
Archaeological Remains of Bamiyan Valley.

11
The UNESCO points out that in the case of former Yugoslavia, even though the cultural heritage wasn’t
characterized as a part of a military target, it had been an attack object on behalf of the adversary group, since the
latter sought to destruct the marks and symbols of the enemy’s national culture. To provide an example,
UNESCO refers to the bombardment of the old city of Dubrovnik in Croatia as well as to the destruction of the
bridge in Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina Βοσνία (UNESCO, 2006c:3).

10
Cyprus. The Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the subsequent occupation of one third
of the island had disastrous results for its rich religious-cultural heritage. The fact that Turkey
had signed the Hague Convention didn’t prevent the failure to observe its conventional
obligations, arising from international law in favor of the protection of cultural properties.
According to an expert’s report based on field research, encompassing 505 churches and
monasteries in the Turkish occupied territory and 115 mosques located in the free area of the
island, even though the mosques are generally well preserved, many churches are not. In
particular, their murals have been removed, 16,000 icons and mosaics have been stolen an
another 60,000 heirlooms have been sold by illicit antique sellers to private collections and
museums (Hadjisavvas, 2000, Bistis, 2007).
From 1974 until now, the number of churches celebrating Mass in the northern part of the
island has fallen to 4 or 5; 77 of them have been transformed into mosques, after being
stripped of their icons and other decorations. Other churches have been looted or destroyed or
are being used as stables, warehouses, garages, armories, morgues, hotels, art galleries, and
clubs or are simply abandoned. This number does not include 50 places of worship which are
located in zones under military control; their fate is obscure, and many of them may be
leveled.
Most striking evidence is that of the Panagia Kanakaria Church, where an invaluable mosaic
icon was located, dated back to 525-530 A.C. Said mosaic was the only one surviving the
iconoclast campaign. The church was totally ravaged by the Turks in 1979. From the mosaic
depicting the Virgin enthroned holding the white dressed Jesus in her arms, while on the left
and right stood the Archangel Michael and Gabriel surrounded by the Apostles, not even a
small piece has been left; the icon was removed of its place, cut into pieces and all holy parts
were sold. The affair came to light when a Turkish antique seller, Aydin Dikmen sold parts of
the mosaic to an American art seller, Peggy Goldberg, who then attempted to resell it to the
Paul Getty Museum for $20 million. The Church of Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus
brought a lawsuit against the buyer, suing for the return of the mosaics of great cultural-
religious value. In 3 August 1989, the case was tried in Indianapolis, US; in 28 October 1990,
the federal court decided to return the mosaics to their rightful owner. Today, they are
displayed in the Byzantine Museum of Nicosia.
The decision created “res judicata” (case law) in the US, recognizing to the State or to the
Church the right to demand the illegally exported cultural-religious properties12. Furthermore,
the Court laid the blame on the art seller, who hadn’t dully searched for the legal or not origin
of the goods. Additionally, after said decision, the US and Cyprus signed an agreement in
1999, according to which it prohibited the import of byzantine antiquities from Cyprus to the
US, unless the latter has previously been granted permission by the Cypriot government.
A similar example is the illegal removal of mosaics and murals of the 13th century church of
Agios Elefterios in the village Lysi, which then were purchased by the Menil Foundation in
Texas, US. The Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus and the Menil Foundation have agreed
that the Hagiographies of the Pantocrator and of the Virgin Mary will be returned to Cyprus in
2012. Besides this, it is true that from the 20.000 holy icons which have been illegally
removed from the Churches of the northern part of the island by Turkish occupiers, a small
part have been returned to their rightful owner.
The Republic of Cyprus launched its protest by a series of demarches to the UNESCO;
however, its expectations didn’t materialize. The organization claimed legal and practical

12
Council Directive 93/7/EEC of 15 March 1993 on the return of cultural objects unlawfully removed from the
territory of a Member State. However, is important to emphasize that bringing an action to secure the return of a
cultural good is an exclusive right of the member-states of the EU.

11
impediments, as for example that it is an issue that falls under the category of an “intra-
community dispute” which is not covered by Protocol Ι. In addition, invoking the danger of
even negotiating with the Turkish-Cypriot side is considered de facto or de jure recognition of
the self-proclaimed “Turkish Republic of the Northern Cyprus” has led discussion to a
complete impasse.
After the facts delineated above, one can clearly reach the conclusion that the international
system, as it stands today cannot efficiently settle similar disputes.

6. Adaptation to the new realities


Atrocities and vandalism taking place against the cultural heritage during multiple conflicts in
the late 1980s and in the early 1990s, challenged the international community to take into
account new realities that weren’t taken into consideration during the negotiations of the 1954
Convention.
The contemporary disputes are often “internal” or of “civil nature”, so that they do not fall
within the framework of international law that covers the conventional international
hostilities. Moreover, this type of conflict is particularly destructive to the cultural property,
since each side directly and purposely targets it in order to humiliate the adversary and
deprive it of evidence of its cultural past and heritage (UNESCO, 2006b:8).
The serious breach of the articles of the Convention, mainly in the case of the former
Yugoslavia’s monuments, made the UN and the UNESCO conscious of the need to improve
the protection of cultural property. In particular, the organization decided that the Convention
should be adapted to the new reality, reflected in the international social and political
developments. In this respect, a Second Protocol was drawn up in Hague, composed of 47
articles, which stipulates provisions in order to establish an enhanced system of protection of
the cultural heritage during armed conflicts. A declared aim of the Protocol is to provide the
UNESCO and non-governmental organizations with the competence to more efficiently
intervene to settle issues of cultural property’ protection in the event of armed conflict, even if
that refers to a dispute of a non international character (UNESCO, 1999a).
The Protocol was signed in Hague on 26 March 1999 and entered into force on 9 March 2004.
Greece ratified the Second Protocol by L. 3317/200513. The Second Protocol provides for the
member-states that have signed it to be ready, in cases of emergency, for the removal of
movable cultural property or the provision for adequate in situ protection of such property,
and the designation of competent authorities responsible for the safeguarding of cultural
property (UNESCO, 1999b). The provisions concerning the responsibilities ensuring the
immunity of cultural property under enhanced protection refer to both parties, either the
aggressor or the defended, and are explicit: Parties to the conflict shall, to the maximum
extent feasible, refraining from making such property the object of attack or from any use of
the property or its immediate surroundings in support of military action (article 12).
Other articles of the Protocol provide for a series of sanctions to be imposed on the offenders
who destruct or damage monuments under enhanced protection. Prosecution will be ensured
by the member-states, through proceedings in accordance with the general guidelines of
domestic law of the Party in whose territory the alleged offender of an offence found to be
present or with the relevant rules of international law14.
In addition, States that have co-signed the new Protocol shall afford one another the greatest
measure of assistance in case of war in order to mutually safeguard the cultural heritage.
For the purpose of assuring the implementation of the reformed Convention, the Committee
for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict was also established.

13
L. 3317/2005 “Ratification of the Second Protocol of the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of
Cultural Properties in the Event of Armed Conflict” (Gov. Gazette 45/Α).
14
Chapter 4, “Criminal Responsibility and Jurisdiction”, L. 3317/2005

12
The special purpose Committee is composed of twelve Parties, representatives of 12 member-
states, and shall meet once a year in ordinary session and in extra-ordinary sessions whenever
it deems necessary (UNESCO, 1999).

7. Conclusion
The international community tries to shield the World Cultural Heritage against vandalism in
case of war through rules of law. As delineated above, the relevant legislation is updated in
order to adapt to the international social, economic and political developments. However, the
objective reality is hard. Goethe’s statement that “artifacts and creations of science of
mankind belong to all people and subsequently we all have a duty to protect them” remains
radical but, 200 years later, still unattained as a goal (Seamon & Zajonic, 1998).
In times of severe hostilities, the protection of religious heritage, an integral part of cultural
heritage, should be a first class priority, since their loss entails the loss of a nations’ memory.
A nation without memory of its past dies faster than naturally do its people.

13
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ΙΙΙ of the Convention” (Gov. Gazette 6/Α).

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43. L. 1126 of 3-10/2/1981 ‘About the Ratification of the Convention for the Protection of
the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, signed in Paris, in the 23rd of November 1972”
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WEBSITES:
1. http://portal.unesco.org/en/
2. http://www.icc-cpi.int
3. http://www.icomos.org
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7. http://www.unesco.org/whc/kit-dangerlist.htm

16
 

AS CAMINHADAS COMO FATOR DE VALORIZAÇÃO DO PATRIMÔNIO


CULTURAL E NATURAL DE UMA DESTINAÇÃO

Djenanne Karine Ferreira Rezende and Kerley dos Santos Alves

Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto 
 
nannerezende@gmail.com

INTRODUÇÃO

O turismo vem passando por um grande crescimento no Brasil e com ele, surgem
novos segmentos do turismo praticados em áreas rurais. Conforme dados do Ministério do
Turismo1, “o número de desembarques nacionais cresceu em setembro 22,7 % em relação ao
mesmo período do ano de 2009 e a previsão é que nos próximos anos o crescimento salte dos
56 milhões, registrados em 2009, para 73 milhões, em 2014, ano em que será realizada a Copa
do Mundo.”
Nota-se que potencial brasileiro para atrair turistas vem sendo evidenciado
principalmente devido a eventos tais como: Copa do Mundo e Olimpíadas respectivamente no
ano de 2014 e 2016. “Com um território de oito milhões de quilômetros quadrados, fazendo
divisa com dez países, o Brasil é possuidor de uma natureza exuberante que associada a uma
cultura singular são motivos suficientes para atrair turistas diversos”.( ROQUE, VIVAN,
2010. 10 p.)
Dentre os segmentos de turismo praticados no ambiente rural destacam-se o turismo
de aventura, ecoturismo ou turismo natural, agroturismo, turismo verde e turismo cultural.
Recentemente o turismo no espaço rural associado ao patrimônio cultural e natural
vem obtendo destaque. Segundo Barretto (1998) viagens com cunho educacional/ cultural tem
se mostrado em ascensão , contrastando com um tipo de turismo mais descompromissado e
ligado ao lazer – tradicionalmente identificado ao turismo de sol e praia.
Para Pereiro (2002, p.1) “está sobretudo em curso uma mudança do gosto e da
motivação dos turistas, que procuram cada vez em maior número formas de turismo cultural.”
Uma das evidências empíricas para isso, seria o grande número de passeios, roteiros com
enfoque cultural propostos por entes públicos e privados nas pequenas e grandes cidades.
Assim, esta integração de segmentos turísticos torna-se um importante foco para ser
trabalhado de forma inteligente, visando o desenvolvimento dessas áreas com atividades
organizadas voltadas para o bem estar do turista e da população local.

O turismo no espaço rural vem com uma peculiaridade que é a sua capacidade de
associar as atividades no campo sua cultura e tradições locais em toda a sua essência, com a
vontade de usufruir momentaneamente deste estilo de vida coligada a uma atividade que
proporciona contato com a natureza, busca por emoções e superação dos limites, busca de
conhecimento e cuidados com sua saúde manifestada pelo turista. É neste contexto que o
aproveitamento de eventos de caminhadas que agregam outros atrativos próprios do dia a dia
do campo podem ser estratégias para valorizar um destino, atrair turistas e contribuir para o
desenvolvimento dessas áreas ressaltando a identidade do local. Aliado a isto, é possível

                                                            
1
  http://www.dadosefatos.turismo.gov.br/dadosefatos/geral_interna/noticias/detalhe/20101027.html 
oferecer ao turista vivências por meio de bens materiais e imateriais que podem ser
trabalhados para oferecer experiências que agregam valores às caminhadas e trazem os
benefícios da atividade turística quando bem planejada.
Em Itabirito, o turismo rural com foco nas caminhadas associadas ao ambiente natural
e cultural vem crescendo e ganhando espaço a cada ano que se passa. No ano de 2010 a
Associação Itabiritense do Turismo Rural – ASSITUR, registrou cerca de seis Caminhadas
com interesses variados. Daí a relevância do estudo sobre as Caminhadas na Natureza –
ANDA BRASIL com enfoque na importância das mesmas como produto turístico no
município de Itabirito – Brasil, ponderando, para tanto, a existência de uma Associação de
Turismo Rural que incentiva e executa tal prática em ambientes da zona rural do município e
busca agregar atrativos da vida no campo para enriquecer o evento e promover a troca de
conhecimento entre as pessoas. Outra importância do evento é que ele se tornou mais uma
alternativa de renda para os moradores e empreendedores deste espaço, bem como diversifica
a oferta turística e valoriza este ambiente natural e cultural.
Assim, outro aspecto relevante da pesquisa sobre as caminhadas se constitui na
sistematização do conhecimento sobre produtos turísticos, considerando-se que no nível do
senso comum, a prática de atividades no meio rural por si só, já se caracteriza como tal. No
entanto, a produção de conhecimento sobre esta temática poderá contribuir na elaboração de
um planejamento adequado, visando promoção do bem estar da comunidade itabiritense, além
do desenvolvimento responsável de uma forma mais ampla.
Para tanto, optou-se por estudar o projeto Caminhadas na Natureza – ANDA BRASIL
cujo objetivo deste trabalho é conhecer a importância de tais caminhadas como produto
turístico no município de Itabirito, diante da existência de uma associação de turismo rural. O
presente trabalho tem como objetivos específicos:
• Investigar o incentivo às práticas do turismo de aventura e cultural em Itabirito por parte
da iniciativa privada e também do poder público;
• Avaliar a situação atual do turismo rural em Itabirito, com a finalidade de conhecer
quais perspectivas referentes a este segmento;
• Analisar a concepção dos caminhantes, produtores rurais e gestores públicos sobre a
prática da caminhada na perspectiva do turismo rural.

PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS

Através de pesquisa bibliográfica embasada em autores, jornais da região, sites


institucionais e informativos buscou-se subsídios para o entendimento das caminhadas como
produto turístico. Posteriormente, a fim de obter um embasamento teórico a respeito das
caminhadas como produto turístico, foi realizada uma busca por autores e guias do Ministério
do Turismo que contribuíram para o estudo e elaboração planejada desta atividade.
Na pesquisa de campo realizada, houve a aplicação de dois questionários: um dos
questionários foi destinado aos caminhantes do evento realizado pela ASSITUR. Este, contem
perguntas fechadas e foi elaborado a partir de informações retiradas da própria organização do
evento e de relatórios de outras caminhadas nos padrões da ANDA BRASIL. Cumprida as
etapas anteriores, aplicou-se dois questionários elaborados para identificar os principais
pontos fortes e pontos fracos dos eventos de caminhadas que foram realizadas em Itabirito no
ano de 2010. A principal intenção desta ação, foi entender o que as pessoas esperam das
caminhadas na natureza e como é sua expectativa com relação aos atrativos agregados aos
eventos. O questionário (aberto) foi aplicado para os gestores de outras caminhadas
realizadas no município como o objetivo de verificar o motivo que os levaram a escolher as
caminhadas como atividade principal e se seus objetivos principais foram atingidos. Em
seguida, utilizaram-se das informações obtidas em ambos os questionários como forma de
identificar os principais pontos fortes e fracos dos eventos, bem como, os principais
empecilhos para tentar torná-lo um produto turístico sustentável. Sendo o próximo passo a
verificação das principais forças e fraquezas e construção da análise SWOT,que identificou os
principais pontos fortes e pontos fracos dos eventos de caminhadas que foram realizadas em
Itabirito no ano de 2010. Cruzadas algumas informações dos autores com as obtidas nos
questionários e nos estudos de caso, foram traçadas sugestões de estratégias para o
desenvolvimento do espaço rural por meio das caminhadas na natureza, sendo a principal
gestora desta atividade, a ASSITUR.
Enfim, as considerações finais apresentam uma síntese do estudo concretizado sobre
as Caminhadas na Natureza realizadas no espaço rural e menciona os entraves e
oportunidades da atividade para o município.
Espera-se com presente trabalho, propor alternativas de usos reais das caminhadas da
natureza como uma opção de desenvolvimento de áreas rurais de Itabirito e do bem estar da
comunidade dessas áreas bem como, valorização da cultura local, do patrimônio cultural e
natural, da fauna e flora e consolidá-las como produto turístico.

1. Turismo no Espaço Rural: as Caminhadas na Perspectiva de Patrimônio Natural e


Cultural

O potencial brasileiro para implantação de variados segmentos de turismo é inegável.


Aqui buscou-se entender os principais conceitos relacionados ao turismo rural, turismo
natural , turismo cultural e turismo de aventura uma vez que estes segmentos, de acordo com
pesquisa do Ministério do Turismo2, vêm sofrendo um aumento significativo, em termos de
demanda, nos últimos anos; e englobam os eventos de caminhadas estudados mais adiante.
Este aumento tem como uma das evidências detectadas na pesquisa do Ministério do
Turismo, o interesse dos turistas que saem das áreas urbanas e procuram o interior do Estado
para fugir do caos urbano na busca de vivências e contato com a natureza surgindo assim, a
necessidade de diversificação dos produtos turísticos oferecidos no espaço rural.
Conforme o Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE (2005), apud Tulik
(2004, p.21), “Zona Rural é a área externa ao perímetro urbano e inclui aglomerados rurais”.
Segue ainda a seguinte definição do IBGE (1997), “na situação urbana consideram-se
as pessoas e os domicílios recenseados nas áreas urbanizadas ou não, correspondentes às
cidades (sedes municipais) , às vilas (sedes distritais) ou às áreas urbanas isoladas. É possível
ressaltar também, que o espaço rural pode abrigar além de atividades turísticas, atividades de
lazer principalmente que poderão ser praticadas também, em áreas urbanizadas.
Entende-se o espaço rural como um recorte geográfico no qual o Turismo Rural está
inserido. Assim, muitas práticas turísticas que ocorrem nesse meio não são,
necessariamente, Turismo Rural, e sim práticas de lazer e outras atividades que
ocorrem alheias ao meio em que estão inseridas. (MINISTÉRIO DO TURISMO,
2008, p.18)

Embora as definições citadas acima tentem delimitar o espaço rural, Silva (2002)
afirma:
Está cada vez mais difícil delimitar o que é rural e o que é urbano. Mas o tema que
aparentemente poderia ser relevante, não o é: a diferença entre o rural e urbano está
cada vez menos importante. Pode se dizer que o rural hoje só pode ser entendido
como uma continuação do urbano, do ponto de vista da organização da atividade

                                                            
2
 http://www.dadosefatos.turismo.gov.br/dadosefatos/geral_interna/noticias/detalhe/20101027.html 
 
econômica, as cidades não podem mais ser identificadas apenas com a atividade
industrial, nem os campos com a agricultura e pecuária. (SILVA, 2002, p. 1)

Para Araújo3, o turismo que se realiza no espaço rural é a soma do ecoturismo ou


turismo verde, turismo cultural, esportivo, agroturismo e turismo de aventura. Sendo então,
atividades de lazer que se identificam com o turismo rural e que são exploradas neste espaço
respeitando a identidade local com o objetivo de trazer benefícios sociais e econômicos para
os agricultores e para a região.
Sendo assim, o turismo no espaço rural são atividades que envolvem deslocamento de
pessoas para essas áreas, não urbanas, buscando serviços e produtos adaptados para serem
consumidos de forma a trazerem benefícios sociais e econômicos para a comunidade local e
para a região. Por fim, turismo no espaço rural, em seu sentido mais amplo, consiste no
aproveitamento turístico do conjunto de componentes existentes no espaço rural, incluindo
itens basicamente rurais e culturais em toda a sua essência, construções históricas preservadas
e fauna e flora típicos da região trabalhados de forma a oferecer conhecimento por meio de
uma atividade prazerosa.

O Ministério do Turismo (2003) visando seguir a valorização das particularidades deste


segmento de turismo com características econômicas, naturais, culturais e sociais define o
turismo rural como: “o conjunto de atividades turísticas desenvolvidas no meio rural,
comprometidas com a produção agropecuária, agregando valor a produtos e serviços,
resgatando e promovendo o patrimônio cultural e natural da comunidade.”
Segundo o Instituto Brasileiro de Turismo – EMBRATUR apud Salles (2006) conceitua
o turismo rural de maneira informal como:

Atividade multidisciplinar que se realiza no meio ambiente, fora de áreas


intensamente urbanizadas. Caracteriza-se por empresas turísticas de pequeno porte,
que têm no uso da terra a atividade econômica predominante, voltada para práticas
agrícolas e pecuárias ( Silva, Vilarinho e Dale, 2000, p. 18 -19).

Baseado na importância da identidade de cada região de acordo com os atrativos


culturais, naturais e vivência no campo com características baseadas no “atendimento
domiciliar” : Zimmerman (2000) conceitua o turismo rural como:

...A identidade de uma outra atividade vai ocorrer pelo grau de atratividade que ela
detenha no produto final. A junção de recursos naturais, diversificação cultural das
atividades produtivas rurais dá ao turismo rural brasileiro características ímpares.
Assim, podemos defini-lo como um produto que atende a demanda de uma clientela
turística atraída pela produção e pelo consumo de bens e serviços no ambiente rural
produtivo. (Zimmermann 2000, pp.129-130)

Percebe-se então, que o ambiente rural deixou de ter como principal rendimento
atividades voltadas apenas para a agricultura e pecuária encontrando no turismo, mais uma
fonte de renda para o homem do campo que passa a oferecer ao turista uma infraestrutura para
estada naquele local usufruindo assim, da rotina do campo.
Sendo assim, o desenvolvimento do turismo rural está diretamente envolvido com a
exploração sustentável do ambiente (natural e cultural) seja de forma a evitar o êxodo rural, a
gerar mais uma fonte de renda para pequenos agricultores e suas propriedades, ou mesmo para
aproximar para diversificar os serviços prestados aos turistas por meio de vivências suprindo
suas necessidades e vontades.
                                                            
3
 http://www.portaldoagronegocio.com.br/entrevista
 
Constituem-se atividades do turismo rural a oferta de serviços, equipamentos e
produtos como transporte, alimentação, eventos agenciamento ou qualquer outra atividade
que envolva deslocamento de pessoas.
Nesse sentido, é preciso entender a heterogeneidade regional e o estágio de
desenvolvimento das diversas iniciativas voltadas para o turismo empreendidas no ambiente
rural brasileiro.

1.2 Características Básicas do Turismo rural e Sua Interface Com a Preservação Local

As características básicas do Turismo Rural relacionam-se a elementos que constituem


na paisagem rural e configuram sua ruralidade. Com relação à escala refere-se à dimensão dos
equipamentos turísticos, em função de uma pequena quantidade de turistas, de modo que
permita atendimento personalizado e minimize os impactos sobre o meio. Quanto à
localização, geralmente estão situadas em propriedades tipicamente rurais contrastante com a
paisagem urbana.
No que diz respeito às atividades agropecuárias, envolve as práticas econômicas
tradicionais relacionadas a essas atividades, não perdendo sua característica em razão da
atividade turística.
Além das características anteriormente destacadas, o Ministério do Turismo ( 2008, p.
23-24) nota-se também a classificação quanto a qualidade da paisagem que foca na
conservação dos recursos naturais inclusive de aspectos estéticos; na conservação das
características arquitetônicas e também, nos materiais construtivos típicos da região
harmoniosamente combinados com o meio rural; no cuidado com as instalações e lidas
agropecuárias que permite ao turista vivenciar a rotina das atividades tradicionais da fazenda.
Quanto aos aspectos culturais , estão a forma de viver e pensar da comunidade rural e a
manutenção de festas folclóricas e de todo elemento que resgata a história da região.
É importante mencionar além das características citadas, anteriormente a diversificação
dos serviços e produtos oferecidos, a distribuição dos benefícios oriundos da prática turística
de modo a proporcionar bem-estar das famílias rurais. E também, quanto a sustentabilidade
que engloba elementos econômicos, sociais, culturais, ambientais e políticos que combinados,
devem cooperar para a manutenção e qualidade dos ambientes rurais.
Pode-se entender que a associação das características gera uma identidade própria de
cada região e cabe aos gestores locais trabalhar essa potencialidade da melhor maneira
possível de forma a satisfazer os desejos e as necessidades dos turistas beneficiando também,
a comunidade local.

2. As Caminhadas: Sentidos e Significados Turísticos, Históricos e Culturais

As caminhadas, para que sejam reconhecidas como produto turístico ou como atrativo
turístico organizado, necessitam de estruturação baseada em normas técnicas como premissa,
que possibilitará valorar as dimensões que a integram e o seu papel na satisfação dos
caminhantes. Também pela via da contemplação de imagens da natureza homem como
espectador e ao mesmo tempo transformador do mundo, vemos que é na combinação da
percepção das imagens reais com fragmentos da memória, onde a corporeidade reflete as
relações físicas e perceptivas do indivíduo com o meio ambiente.

Conforme Lage e Milone (2001), explicita:


Constata-se a partir de pesquisa bibliográfica que é complexo delimitar quando a
caminhada se iniciou como atividade turística visto que sempre foi praticada com finalidades
distintas. No entanto, nos últimos duzentos anos com o crescente hábito de viajar por razões
cênicas, recreativas e culturais, as caminhadas também se tornaram uma forma muito popular
de sair para conhecer o mundo.
De fato, é a atividade praticada pelos adeptos do turismo de natureza, inclusive como
complementação a outras modalidades, como escalada, canionismo e espeleoturismo. Pode-
se destacar no âmbito dos produtos turísticos ofertados no mercado das agências de viagem,
caminhadas relativamente famosas tais como: a peregrinação a Santiago de Compostela, na
Espanha; a Trilha Inca a Machu Pichu, no Peru; trilhas nos parques nacionais da Patagônia
argentina e chilena; a grande travessia ao longo dos Apalaches, nos EUA; bem como outras
trilhas cruzando os Andes e os Pirineus, na Europa; e até mesmo entre as grandes montanhas
do Himalaia, no Nepal.
No Brasil, conforme dados do Guia - Turismo de Aventura existem registros de
caminhadas guiadas na Chapada Diamantina, em 1975, com guias locais, de forma bem
informal. Foi a partir da década de 80, nas redondezas da Serra dos Órgãos, que o Turismo de
Aventura começou a se profissionalizar e apareceram as primeiras agências de viagens e
operadoras de turismo especializadas. Em meados de 85, as primeiras empresas paulistas
iniciaram suas operações nas mais diversas áreas do sudeste brasileiro.
Hoje em dia existem patrimônios naturais consagrados para a prática de caminhadas
tais como:
A Floresta da Tijuca; a travessia Petrópolis/Teresópolis; a subida ao Pico da
Bandeira; as trilhas ao Vale do Pati, à cachoeira da Fumaça e outras na Chapada
Diamantina; a caminhada ao cânion do Bandeirinhas e travessias maiores pela Serra
do Cipó e outros pontos da Serra do Espinhaço; a grande travessia por cima da Serra
Geral, até o cânion do Itaimbezinho, entre Santa Catarina e o Rio Grande do Sul; a
travessia dos Lençóis Maranhenses; e caminhadas igualmente incríveis na Serra da
Bocaina, em Itatiaia, Serra Fina e outros pontos entre Minas Gerais e Rio de Janeiro
ou São Paulo. (GUIA - TURISMO DE AVENTURA, 2009, p.20)

Ao longo dos anos, as caminhadas se tomaram um segmento muito importante para o


turismo brasileiro por isso, o Ministério do Turismo e a Associação Brasileira das Empresas
de Ecoturismo e Turismo de Aventura - ABETA criaram um Manual de Boas Práticas voltado
para essa atividade, tendo como tema: “ Caminhada e Caminhada de Longo Curso” em que é
possível orientar o caminhante e as pessoas diretamente envolvidas com essa atividade e
suas normas Técnicas de acordo com a Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas – ABNT
NBR .
Conforme a Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas – ABNT (ABNT/CB-54
PROJETO 54:003.10.001/2 ABRIL:2007) os percursos destinados a caminhadas que são
ofertadas como produto turístico são classificados como:

A) Percurso - trajeto que se percorre do início da atividade turística até o seu término. Em
alguns casos o início o término podem ser o mesmo, sendo classificado como circuito;
B) Trilhas são vias estreitas, usualmente não-pavimentadas se intransitáveis para veículos
de passeio;
C) Trilha de passagem individual (single track) são trilhas por onde só é possível passar
uma pessoa ou bicicleta por vez;
D) Variação Altimétrica variam conforme a altitude entre dois pontos do percurso.

Conforme sua função, as trilhas podem ser distribuídas como Trilhas de Curta
Distância ou Trilhas Interpretativas (Nature Trails ) em que seu foco principal está no caráter
recreativo e educativo, com programação voltada para apreciação do ambiente.
Nas Trilhas de Longa Distância (Wilderness Trails) valoriza a vivência do visitante
com os locais por onde se desloca. Como muitas destas caminhadas são realizadas em espaços
rurais, é possível desfrutar dos produtos e serviços típicos e ao mesmo tempo, da cultura local.
As caminhadas na natureza, num primeiro momento, utilizam as trilhas curtas apenas
durante um mês do ano, mas cabe ao proprietário de seus empreendimentos, manter a sua
trilha limpa e com sinalização própria disponibilizando também, um guia para acompanhar
seus hóspedes durante os outros meses. Esta é uma forma de integrar mais uma opção de lazer
para o visitante e gerar mais uma alternativa de ganho.
O próximo capítulo tratará das principais informações em relação à operação das
caminhadas no que diz respeito ao seu planejamento e execução com bem como as principais
informações sobre a atuação da ANDA BRASIL e sua organização.

2.2 Caminhadas da ANDA BRASIL: roteiros diferenciados, que valorizam a história e a


cultura de locais até agora pouco explorados por moradores e turistas.

A Confederação Brasileira de Caminhadas, esportes não competitivos e de inclusão


social , ANDA BRASIL, é uma ONG com atuação a nível nacional que tem como principal
objetivo promover o turismo rural através de esportes não competitivos e a inclusão do
homem do campo no contexto turístico regional.
A ONG surgiu no ano de 20064 com a primeira caminhada na cidade do Rio de
Janeiro, denominada Walking Rio e contou com o apoio da Federação Internacional de
Esportes Populares - IVV, da Federação Francesa de Esportes Populares – FFSP, Instituto
regional de Cooperação e desenvolvimento - IRCOD e da Associação Brasileira de Turismo
Rural no Rio de Janeiro - ABRATURR.RJ.
A ANDA Brasil atua nacionalmente e seu calendário é divulgado no Brasil, na França
e outros países europeus.
De acordo com informações obtidas no site da ANDA BRASIL5, alguns de seus
objetivos são:
Difundir e Estimular a prática dos Esportes Populares no Brasil; Coordenar as atividades
esportivas nos circuitos credenciados; Exercer o poder desportivo Nacional e Internacional;
Dirigir todas as modalidades desportivas não-competitivas e desenvolver as atividades do
turismo, nos moldes regulamentados internacionalmente pelo IVV; Promover, autorizar e
fiscalizar a realização de Eventos, Torneios, Olimpíadas e Encontros desportivos nacionais e
internacionais; Julgar os responsáveis por inobservância da legislação disciplinar vigente;
Representar e defender, perante os poderes constituídos, os interesses legítimos dos desportos
populares; Promover a integração do homem com a natureza, estimulando o desenvolvimento
territorial sustentável. Orientar a formatação dos Circuitos para pratica dos Esportes
Populares.
O primeiro evento de caminhada realizado em Itabirito, contando com a parceria da
ANDA BRASIL, foi realizado no ano de 2008 com o Circuito Acuruí. Atualmente Itabirito
possui doze circuitos cadastrados na ANDA BRASIL que são divulgados em seu calendário.
O principal objetivo das caminhadas no município é desenvolver o turismo rural através dos
pequenos produtores, empreendedores criando assim, mais um produto turístico solidificado
na Região do Circuito do Ouro.
De acordo com a Federação Internacional de Esportes Populares- IVV, Caminhadas na
Natureza acontecem em trilhas e estradas vicinais onde normalmente a comunidade local já
utiliza para se deslocar diariamente. É necessário que a trilha seja circular com
aproximadamente 10 quilômetros de extensão. Sugere-se que cada circuito tenha pelo menos
dois postos de controle, preferencialmente instalados em equipamentos existentes ao longo do
caminho onde os caminhantes receberão um carimbo no crachá certificando que ele passou
naquele no local.
                                                            
4
  http:// andabrasil.com.br/?q=panels/organization 
5
Idem ao anterior  
Toda a trilha é sinalizada com um cartão contendo o símbolo da IVV sendo este, o
principal meio de informação para os caminhantes percorrerem o circuito de forma correta.
Ao procurá-la em meio a vegetação, o caminhante acaba percebendo mais detalhes da fauna e
flora locais.
Os circuitos cadastrados recebem cadernetas com direito a dez participações. As
cadernetas são distribuídas aos caminhantes gratuitamente para que estes, quando
participarem das caminhadas, recebam um carimbo personalizado referente ao circuito
executado e assim que esta for totalmente preenchida, ela será enviada a ANDA BRASIL para
que a ONG possa providenciar o registro das informações e emitir o certificado de
participação personalizado com bonificações progressivas. A próxima caderneta terá espaço
para a participação em vinte circuitos.
Estas caminhadas surgem como uma ferramenta capaz de promover a qualidade de
vida por meio do lazer e de atividades físicas em ambientes rurais com grande diversidade
paisagísticas e elementos culturais, o que proporciona aos caminhantes a interação com as
comunidades e sua cultura em um espaço autêntico e diferenciado contribui para a
preservação do ambiente natural ( fauna, flora, montanhas, paisagens, praias, lagos, rios,
cachoeiras) e cultural( material e imaterial), proporciona momentos de harmonia e
interiorização para o caminhante, proporciona a interação com o homem do campo e serve de
“laboratório” para vários tipos de cursos. Enfim, é uma forma de valorização de cada destino.
Com a prática das caminhadas é possível aprender um pouco mais sobre o meio rural,
espaço este, que apresenta ao mundo um Brasil a partir da visão multifuncional onde se
estabelecem outras atividades econômicas que suportarão o crescimento de um modelo
sustentável, o qual não se detém apenas nos processos produtivos e são consideradas
alternativas de desenvolvimento, como por exemplo, com a atividade turística.

3. Itabirito: Patrimônio, Cultura e Turismo

No contexto das caminhadas primeiramente podemos destacar que Itabirito faz parte
da rota Estrada Real, sendo a primeira cidade no Estado de Minas Gerais a abrigar a primeira
trilha de longo percurso.
A cidade de Itabirito vem ganhando destaque no panorama turístico do Estado de
Minas Gerais. Reconhecida pela sua Gestão Qualificada no ano de 2009 voltado para o
turismo, principalmente no segmento de Turismo Rural, o município é um importante destino
para os próximos anos já que entra como apoio para a cidade sede, Belo Horizonte, na Copa
de 2014. Partindo desta oportunidade de crescimento do turismo nesta região e do
aproveitamento de um evento já realizado desde 2008 no município faz-se, necessário reaver
as Caminhadas na Natureza - ANDA BRASIL com o objetivo de torná-las mais lucrativas e
mais aproveitadas como produto turístico.
Dentre as muitas vantagens no aproveitamento das Caminhadas da ANDA BRASIL é
que elas são realizadas em ambientes rurais e proporcionam um melhor aproveitamento da
região, podendo ser mais uma fonte de renda para o produtor rural, possibilitando inclusive, a
agregação de valor aos produtos ali produzidos. Ocorre também um aumento na
diversificação da renda familiar, em alguns casos ociosos e com poucas oportunidades de
lazer nessas áreas. Dentre as desvantagens pode-se citar a degradação ambiental, poluição de
algumas áreas, desaculturação, incômodo causado às pessoas que não gostam de visitantes,
participação de pessoas que não estão interessadas em participar do evento de forma saudável
e acabam desrespeitando a comunidade local e sua forma de vida.
No caso dos empreendedores que cedem o espaço de sua propriedade para a realização
da Caminhada, destaca-se a divulgação de seu empreendimento e aproveitamento das aptidões
de cada propriedade e dos serviços oferecidos aos seus clientes, mesmo que de forma breve,
tornando um local potencial para um retorno do caminhante em outra ocasião que não seja a
da caminhada e este, torna-se o principal meio de divulgação do local recomendado - o assim,
a outras pessoas.
É importante que a Associação de Turismo Rural seja a principal organizadora do
evento e que os turistas reconheçam nela, a principal gestora das atividades voltadas para o
turismo no Espaço Rural isso traria benefícios para a associação e para os associados a ela,
fortalecendo então, as suas atividades.
A capacitação e cursos para as pessoas e empreendimentos envolvidos com o turismo
(principalmente os envolvidos com as caminhadas) são importantes recursos para contribuir
para um turismo sustentável.
A utilização das caminhadas de forma sustentável, é possível gerar renda e
desenvolvimento para as áreas rurais e incentivar a prática do turismo nestas áreas que ainda
não vêem no turismo uma atividade rentável.
A cidades está situada no Quadrilátero ferrífero,6 Itabirito é uma cidade que tem como
principal atividade econômica, a extração de minério de ferro. Outra atividade que vem
crescendo continuamente é o turismo tendo como o segmento que mais se destaca, o turismo
rural que possui também, grande potencial para a exploração de caminhadas como forma de
contribuir com fomento do turismo na região. A cidade de Itabirito é constituída de três
distritos: Acuruí, São Gonçalo do Monte e São Gonçalo do Bação porém, as principais
atividades relacionadas ao Turismo Rural e Turismo de Aventura são realizadas basicamente
no Distrito de São Gonçalo do Bação e o de Acuruí.

3.2 O valor de Seus Distritos: Acuruí e São Gonçalo do Bação

A palavra Acuruí quer dizer em tupi-guarani “rio de pedras”. Este distrito data dos
primeiros anos do século XVIII, época da grande “corrida do ouro” brasileira.
Entre os atrativos do distrito estão a Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Conceição datada de 1789,
Igreja Nossa Senhora do Rosário, da primeira metade do século XVIII.
Dos atrativos naturais tem-se a Cachoeira Chicadona com duas quedas: uma de quarenta
metros e outra, na parte de baixo da estrada, com 70 metros de altura, formando um grande
lago.
Outras cachoeiras embelezam ainda mais a região, mas encontram-se em propriedades
particulares. São elas: Cachoeira das Carrancas, Cachoeira do Cascalho, Cachoeira do
Cruzado e Cachoeirinha as quais fazem parte da Caminhada na Natureza do Circuito das
Cachoeiras realizada geralmente no mês de agosto.
São realizadas duas caminhadas no distrito de Acuruí que proporcionam ao visitante
belas paisagens, a oportunidade de conhecer um atrativo construído: Balneário Rio de Pedras ,
saborear a gastronomia local e participar um pouco da vida no meio rural.
São Gonçalo do Bação é um distrito do município de Itabirito , em Minas Gerais,
localizado a 14 quilômetros do centro urbano. É situado no alto de uma colina com uma vista
privilegiada tendo ao norte o Pico de Itabirito, a leste a Serra do Capanema, a oeste, a Serra da
Moeda e ao sudeste o Pico do Itacolomy em Ouro Preto. Dos atrativos turísticos destacam-se
A Cachoeira do Rasgão que é um atrativo natural formada no leito do Córrego do
Saboeiro, região do Macedo. Cachoeira Cocho de Pedra que forma com um lago em forma de
cocho e a mais conhecida e visitada, Cachoeira da Benvinda com três quedas em forma de
degraus, localizada em uma propriedade particular.
Os atrativos históricos culturais que se destacam é a Matriz de São Gonçalo do Bação,
localizada na Praça Central do distrito, é composta por três tipologias intercaladas que

                                                            
6
 http://www.itabirito.mg.gov.br/index.php?exibir=secoes&ID=34 
evidenciam as três etapas construtivas. A deste século, estilo neo-romântico, é composta por
torre central e altar-mor neogótico; a do século XVIII, com pináculos na empena posterior e o
portal das escadas têm as datas do início da primeira construção: 1740 e 1870, e as datas da
segunda construção: 1921 e 1924; e a Capela Nossa Senhora do Rosário que construída por
iniciativa de Antônio Manoel dos Santos em 1881, a Capela de Nossa Senhora do Rosário era
de madeira e coberta de sapê. Em 1902 foi construído o cemitério e, em 1905, a capela foi
demolida para se construir outra com tijolos.
O artesanato vendido na Casa do Artesão que funciona também como posto de
Informações Turísticas fornece artesanatos em pedra, madeira, palha de milho, crochês,
tecido, materiais recicláveis e cipó, produzidos pelos moradores do distrito. No local
encontram-se também, produtos da agroindústria artesanal como: geléias, doces, licores,
cachaças e conservas.
O Grupo de Teatro de São Gonçalo do Bação é um atrativo cultural interessante no
distrito. O grupo foi fundado em 1997, pelo ator, dramaturgo Mauro Antônio de Souza. O
grupo conta com um elenco de quarenta participantes de todas as idades moradores da região.
Outros atrativos culturais de grande importância para o distrito são as Festa do
Padroeiro, a Semana Santa, o Festival de Inverno de São Gonçalo do Bação que é realizado
pelo grupo de teatro citado acima. Somam-se aos eventos culturais a Festa Junina, Auto de
Natal e Festa de Santo Expedito, pois são as mais tradicionais do distrito.
O Distrito de São Gonçalo do Bação possui diversos atrativos potencias que podem ser
planejados de forma inteligente para melhorar a atratividade desta localidade
As caminhadas realizadas neste distrito acontecem no mês de julho encerrando o
Festival de Inverno que acontece todos os anos. É importante lembrar que não é utilizado um
empreendimento como apoio ao evento, mas a Loja de Artesanato situada na área principal do
distrito.
A cidade tem como vetor do desenvolvimento do patrimônio rural e incentivadora das
caminhadas a Associação Itabiritense do Turismo Rural – ASSITUR. A Associação
Itabiritense do Turismo Rural – ASSITUR é uma entidade de direito privado com fundação
aos dezesseis dias do mês de setembro do ano de 1999, sediada no município de Itabirito,
Minas Gerais.
A ASSITUR foi criada a partir de uma parceria entre a Prefeitura Municipal de
Itabirito e do Sebrae - MG visando como principais ações voltadas para a promoção,
valorização da tradição e cultura locais, contribuição para a preservação do patrimônio
cultural e natural,orientação e incentivo às práticas de turismo rural sustentáveis no
Município.
A ASSITUR conta com quarenta e quatro sócios até o presente ano e abrange diversos
serviços e produtos, entre eles: meios de hospedagem, artesanato, produtos da agricultura
familiar, agência de viagens, culinaristas, restaurantes, pesque e pague,mercearia, cavalgadas,
cachaçaria e muitos outros.
Ao longo de seus doze anos de funcionamento, a associação a buscou formas de
melhorar as condições de vida nessas áreas, realizou capacitação para empresários, ofereceu
oficinas em que houve valorização de produtos da agricultura familiar com materiais
próximos da realidade da região, incentivou e apoiou eventos nestas áreas e colaborou para a
preservação do meio ambiente e de atrativos culturais e naturais.

4. As Caminhadas Como Produto Turístico em Itabirito

O interesse das pessoas pelo cuidado com a saúde, pela busca do contato com a natureza
e conhecimento de novas culturas e lugares contribuem para o deslocamento de cerca de sete
milhões de caminhantes em todo mundo, de acordo com dados da Federação Internacional de
Esportes Populares – IVV.
Apenas neste ano de 2010, a cidade de Itabirito foi cenário de aproximadamente
dezesseis eventos de caminhadas incluindo as da ANDA BRASIL que utilizaram áreas
urbanas ou rurais bem busca de uma atividade de lazer para a população ou atração de novos
visitantes. É possível perceber que as caminhadas ainda são eventos que em potencial para
serem aproveitados turisticamente.
De acordo com os questionários aplicados pela autora aos planejadores de alguns destes
eventos, suas temáticas e objetivos foram diversos. Dois eventos realizados tinham como
principal objetivo o lucro e usufruíram do ambiente rural e urbano já que os caminhantes
utilizaram um transporte que os levou até a área rural e eles caminharam até o centro urbano
deste município com cerca de cinco quilômetros de distância.
Outros dois eventos de caminhadas foram organizados por empresas privadas e/ou seus
funcionários. Na empresa Farid, alguns de seus funcionários, sob coordenação de dois de seus
funcionários (Sr. Salustiano e do Sr. Rogério) organizam caminhadas em áreas rurais de
Itabirito aproveitando a flora e fauna locais para apreciação e descanso físico e mental.
Outra empresa que também realizou um evento de caminhada neste ano foi a Semil
Serviços, sob coordenação da diretoria da empresa. Neste caso, a caminhada foi escolhida
como forma de integração e de conscientização do papel de cada pessoa no que diz respeito às
agressões ao meio ambiente ocasionada pelas empresas e sociedade como forma de amenizar
o impacto negativo. Além da caminhada foram realizadas palestras, seminários e um “bate
papo” de conscientização. O espaço utilizado foi um atrativo construído denominado Parque
Ecológico que também funciona como o marco inicial para o caminhante que deseja percorrer
a Trilha Real.
A caminhada da União Ambientalista de Itabirito – UAI foi realizada com foco em
ações que visam a preservação do Pico de Itabirito, principal símbolo da cidade e do seu
potencial em recursos minerais já que ao seu redor encontra-se a Empresa Vale , principal
mineradora da região. A caminhada utilizou o Complexo Turístico da Estação, algumas das
principais Igrejas barrocas do município e parte da região rural percorrendo um total de vinte
quilômetros.
As caminhadas realizadas pela Academia Saúde e Vida são caminhadas ecológicas
promovidas pelo seu proprietário, tendo como objetivos valorizar a natureza e levar qualidade
de vida aos seus alunos.
Percebeu-se ao realizar as entrevistas que conceitos relacionados ao turismo, são em
grande parte dos casos, desconhecidos pelos gestores, sendo que a maioria das caminhadas
realizadas na cidade são utilizadas como uma alternativa de lazer para a população e não, uma
atividade turística que envolve deslocamento de pessoas de seu local de origem com uma
finalidade específica o que torna os eventos um foco interessante para planejá-los de forma
que se tornem um produto turístico solidificado e inteligente no município.
Para análise preliminar das caminhadas organizadas em Itabirito, foi utilizada a matriz
SWOT - Análise de ameaças e oportunidades, fraquezas e fortalezas, para diagnosticar
desenvolvimento estratégico das caminhadas como produto turístico do município de
Itabirito. Tal instrumento atrelado a análise dos questionários aplicados aos caminhantes e
gestores, será um primeiro norteador para traçar estratégias eficientes, uma vez que permite a
análise conjunta dos seguintes elementos: oportunidades e ameaças da implementação da
atividade; potencialidades e vulnerabilidades diante da efetivação da atividade na cidade;
valores dos responsáveis pelo planejamento e organização das atividades, conforme
demonstrado no quadro 1:
Principais pontos fortes e fracos das caminhadas na natureza – ANDA BRASIL
BUSCA DOS OBJETIVOS
AJUDA ATRAPALHA
FORÇA FRAQUEZAS

9 Credenciada à ANDA BRASIL; 9 Dificuldade de fidelização dos caminhantes,


9 Grande variabilidade nos principalmente devido a dificuldade de
frequentadores, sempre gerando novos deslocamento e falta de informação sofre o
adeptos; evento;
9 Divulgação estendida através dos 9 Período curto de permanecia do turista na
INTERNAS

frequentadores “boca a boca”; região.


9 Produto turístico com grande potencial 9 Falta de investimento público no setor, o que
de desenvolvimento e bem visto pela dificulta o desenvolvimento.
ASSITUR; 9 Falta de mão de obra.
9 Divulgação dos serviços e 9
ORIGEM DO FATOR

equipamentos locais, contribuindo para


a geração de renda.
9 Comercialização de produtos regionais.
9 Valorização do patrimônio cultural e
natural e da identidade local no evento.

OPORTUNIDADES AMEAÇAS
EXTERNAS (AMBIENTE)

9 Itabirito é destaque em Minas Gerais,


possuindo atualmente 12 circuitos. 9 O turismo é mal interpretado pelo órgão
9 Esse tipo de esporte vem ganhando público, sendo visto como uma atividade de
novos adeptos ao longo dos anos. lazer para a população local.
9 Grande influencia da mídia para os 9 Desmotivação dos empreendedores e
efeitos benéficos para a saúde. moradores para com o turismo.
9 Divulgação no Calendário internacional 9 Falta de interesse dos empresários envolvidos
da Federação Internacional de Esportes com a atividade turística.
Populares – IVV. 9 Falta de preservação do patrimônio material e
cultura locais por parte da comunidade local
e dos órgãos públicos.

Fonte: elaborado pela autora

4.1 As Caminhadas na Natureza: Avaliações e Análise dos Questionários Aplicados

Com o objetivo de conhecer melhor as Caminhadas na Natureza – ANDA BRASIL


em Itabirito foram aplicados questionários fechados para sessenta caminhantes que participam
ou já participaram do evento promovido pela ASSITUR. Os dados coletados foram utilizados
para detectar principalmente os pontos fortes e fracos na realização do evento. A seguir,
encontram-se as perguntas utilizadas nos questionários aplicados e a análise das mesmas:

Pergunta 1 – Como você ficou sabendo do Projeto Caminhadas na Natureza?


Quando indagados sobre a forma de divulgação que os atingiu a grande maioria dos
caminhantes conheceram o evento por meio de algum amigo correspondendo a mais de
cinqüenta por cento dos participantes, ficando o e-mail como o segundo modo de divulgação
mais eficiente.

Pergunta 2 – O que você acha que poderia melhorar no evento?

Com relação aos atrativos agregados às caminhadas que podem ser melhorados a grande
maioria dos entrevistados achou interessante acrescentar alguma atividade pós evento, seja ela
poder usufruir gratuitamente das áreas de lazer dos empreendimentos, ações de
conscientização com relação a preservação do meio ambiente ou mesmo gerar informações no
que diz respeito ao conhecimento da fauna e flora locais.
No item que diz respeito a falta de atrativo, quando questionados algumas pessoas acharam
interessante acrescentar alguma atração musical ou artística.

Pergunta 3 – Você tem o costume de participar de outras caminhadas realizadas em


Itabirito?

A terceira pergunta teve como propósito saber se os caminhantes tinham o costume de


participar de outros eventos de caminhadas no município de Itabirito percebendo-se então,
que a grande maioria é adepta deste tipo de evento.

Pergunta 4 - O que você achou mais interessante neste evento?

O gráfico quatro ressalta que grande parte das pessoas achou interessante conhecer novos
lugares no município de Itabirito aliado com a oportunidade de cuidar da saúde.

Pergunta 5 – Você viajaria para outra cidade apenas para praticar este esporte?

Na quinta questão, a intensão foi saber se os caminhantes viajariam apenas para participar de
uma caminhada em outro município tendo como interessados mais de 90% das pessoas.

Pergunta 6 – Caso seja turista ou visitante, você voltaria para caminhar em Itabirito?

Esta questão buscou verificar se o evento motivou as pessoas a retornarem para Itabirito em
busca de novas caminhadas
Nos questionários aplicados aos caminhantes que participaram das Caminhadas na Natureza,
constatou-se que a grande maioria das pessoas é do próprio município, mas nota-se seu grande
potencial para atrair visitantes de outros locais já que possui uma divulgação a nível
internacional, tem padrões internacionais para acontecer.

4.2 Propostas de ações – Melhoria continuada em prol da valorização local

A fim de promover a melhoria contínua das caminhadas executadas no município de


Itabirito, a ASSITUR vem buscando alternativas viáveis para proporcionar aos caminhantes
toda a infraestrutura necessária para a boa prática da atividade turística, bem como, incentivar
a participação da comunidade local gerando desenvolvimento sócio-econômico para a região.
Como forma de melhoria para as caminhadas realizadas pode-se listar algumas alternativas
importantes para a evolução do processo em Itabirito: Cadastramento, Estratégias de
Marketing e Capacitação e Sensibilização da Comunidade para a percepçãp, conservação e
preservação do seu patrimônio.
A utilização do controle e gestão da informação como softwares de controle e cadastro
tornam-se cada vez mais comuns nos tempo atuais, a utilização dos mesmos para o registro
dos participantes, geram dados essenciais para a gestão dos processos de caminhada, tais
como: relação de participantes por caminhada, gráficos comparativos denotando a evolução
processos de ao longo do ano (índice de freqüência), sistema de comunicação com os
participantes a fim de promover a divulgação de eventos via correio eletrônico (mala direta).
O objetivo aqui, é trabalhar dados com relação ao planejamento do evento da melhor
maneira possível e detectar ao avanço ou retrocesso deste de forma mais fácil e eficiente. O
planejamento e a organização das caminhadas são elementos fundamentais no que tange à
cultura, esporte, preservação ambiental e história dos lugares.
A catalogação de serviços e produtos da cidade é outra ação importante que deve ser
realizada pela ASSITUR. A associação deve realizar um cadastro de pequenos produtores,
tipos de artesanatos produzidos, artistas locais, patrimônios materiais e imateriais, locais para
a visitação e horários de funcionamento, alambiques, enfim, todos serviços oferecidos na
região que podem ser trabalhados turisticamente. Todos estes dados devem ser fornecidos aos
caminhantes materiais impressos para os que desejam voltar para usufruir dos serviços
turísticos oferecidos na região.
Ter acesso a esses dados facilita o trabalho de planejamento do turismo na região rural de
Itabirito e promove uma divulgação mais eficiente.
A principal intenção, é tornar a ASSITUR a principal consultora e gestora no que diz
respeito às caminhadas que serão realizadas em Itabirito e até mesmo na região.
Após constatar que um dos maiores problemas enfrentados com a queda no número de
participantes nas Caminhadas realizadas pela ASSITUR é a divulgação ineficiente, propõe-se
a utilização de outros canais de distribuição da informação como sites relacionados com o
turismo na região, melhoria e expansão do mailing de caminhantes e de uma demanda
potencial (como academias de cidades vizinhas , por exemplo), confecção de material
impresso e anúncios em jornais e rádios da região.
A divulgação das Caminhadas na Natureza – ANDA Brasil é essencial, visto que
fornece aos caminhantes dados sobre mais um produto turístico de grande importância para
município de Itabirito além de contribuir para a divulgação indireta de outros atrativos.
Em relação à Capacitação e Sensibilização da Comunidade, ações em parceria entre a
ASSITUR a EMATER-MG – Empresa de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural do Estado de
Minas Gerais e o SEBRAE – Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio às Micro e Pequenas Empresas são
formas eficientes de capacitar a comunidade local para receber bem o turista / visitante e
colaborar para que eles tenham uma visão positiva da atividade turística em sua região.
Pretende-se com a capacitação oferecer produtos com qualidade melhorada, trabalhar
para a inserção das pessoas que ainda não se envolveram no contexto turístico, bem como,
comercializar produtos da agricultura familiar, dos pequenos produtores, valorizar a cultura e
tradição local.
Outro tipo de sensibilização que precisa ser realizada é em relação à preservação do
meio ambiente, o aproveitamento dos recursos naturais de forma sustentável assim como,
campanhas de plantio de árvores, e informações básicas sobre plantas e animais peculiares na
região. O bom proveito dessas informações agrega valor e desperta a curiosidade do turista
em relação a esses locais. A preservação do patrimônio cultural material e imaterial também
deve ser motivado por meio visitas guiadas a Igrejas, ruínas históricas, construções antigas, ou
mesmo a exposição do folclore e das tradições do modo de vida do campo.
Para os visitantes, podem ser ministradas breves palestras com temáticas voltadas para a
região, pois isso despertará nele uma noção melhor de preservação do ambiente e maior
conhecimento sobre a região. É preciso também, que a associação realize palestras com
convidados que estão diretamente envolvidos com as caminhadas como forma de motivar o
empresário a participar de forma efetiva do planejamento e execução dos eventos da ANDA
BRASIL.
É necessário que a ASSITUR juntamente com todo o trade turístico contribua para o
trabalho de sensibilização da comunidade local. Este, deverá ser um trabalho em que se busca
novas parcerias, principalmente de lideranças locais, visando uma harmonia entre a
comunidade , seus dirigentes e a prática do turismo.
É importante frisar, que todas as ações de capacitação devem estar relacionadas com a
melhoria da prática do turismo na região produzindo-o de forma sustentável visando a
qualidade de vida da comunidade.

CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS

O turismo praticado no espaço rural apresenta uma gama de atrativos interessantes que
podem se tornar produtos turísticos com características bem próprias de acordo com a região
em que é explorado. No entanto, todas as estratégias devem ser bem definidas tendo como
condição básica para sua sustentação o estudo e melhoria das potencialidades do meio no qual
a atividade está inserida.
O turismo é visto como uma importante fonte de recursos para a região onde é
praticado de forma inteligente, e cada produto e serviço agregado às Caminhadas na Natureza
realizadas no município, deve ser oferecido ao turista da melhor maneira possível, com
benefícios voltados para a comunidade e satisfação das expectativas dos caminhantes. Avalia-
se a experiência das caminhadas turísticas como um espaço de produção de sentidos e
significados sobre a cidade, seu patrimônio, sua história, seu valor turístico. As caminhadas
são, uma oportunidade para sensibilizar a população e os visitantes sobre a importância destes
espaços e de sua preservação
Através do presente trabalho, foi possível compreender a importância das caminhadas
na natureza como um produto turístico em potencial para Itabirito e estímulo a percepção e
valorização do patrimônio natural e cultural da cidade. É notório citar, além disso, que grande
parte dos empresários e pessoas que lidam diretamente com o turismo enxergam a atividade
turística apenas como mais uma alternativa de lazer para a população local, não explorando -
a de forma consciente e planejada a longo prazo.
Em relação ao foco principal deste estudo, pode-se concluir que muitas ações são
necessárias para que as caminhadas na natureza se tornem um produto turístico solidificado
em Itabirito vetor para a conservação e preservação local e que a ASSITUR é um meio
importante no que diz respeito a mudança atitude das pessoas e do setor público já que é uma
associação de turismo rural com atuação a doze anos.
Dito isto, afirma-se que diversas são as estratégias para melhorar o evento de
caminhadas da ANDA BRASIL, e desta forma, é preciso que a Associação Itabiritense do
Turismo Rural, realize algumas melhorias na gestão das caminhadas vislumbrando novas
oportunidades de desenvolver o turismo no espaço rural do município por meio deste evento,
como uma oportunidade para promoção da história, dos valores, dos signos, sentidos e
significados encrustados na cidade. Torna-se necessário então, realizar o planejamento de
forma mais eficiente, com levantamento de dados de forma criteriosa e cuidadosa, observando
os pontos fortes e fracos da execução das Caminhadas na Natureza maximizando os
resultados positivos e minimizando os negativos.
Percebe-se que dentre ações necessárias, diagnosticadas, a partir da aplicação dos
questionários e já elencadas no decorrer do trabalho, uma mais imediata, é um estudo sobre as
possíveis características locais que podem ser inseridas no produto caminhadas,
transformando o mesmo em produto turístico representativo do município, para atender a
demanda turística. Posteriormente faz necessário também conhecer as percepções da demanda
sobre este produto.
Contudo, acredita-se que a sustentabilidade de uma atividade se dá através do
incentivo ao planejamento que visa não só definir as ações para se alcançar os objetivos, mas
um processo contínuo que ao longo dos anos que será avaliado e reavaliado, priorizando ou
não estratégias de atuação.
Não se pode esquecer que uma das principais limitações para se trabalhar o turismo
em Itabirito é a falta de visão tanto dos empresários, mas também dos gestores públicos, que
ainda não enxergam o turismo como uma indústria geradora de emprego e renda , não
investindo na atividade turística como deveriam. A população local por sua vez, não participa
ativamente desta cadeia produtiva.
Finalmente, afirma-se que a cultura e exuberantes flora e fauna local, são atrativos
motivadores para prática do turismo de aventura e do turismo rural cujas caminhadas podem
ser vistas como principal atrativo potencial de Itabirito, entretanto necessita de ações que no
futuro, através de planejamento participativo, poderão transformar tal potencial em produto
turístico representativo não só do município, como também da região. A experiência turística
por meio das caminhadas, deve ser compreendida como um espaço de produção de sentidos e
significados sobre a cidade, de valorização de seu patrimônio, sua memória, seu valor
turístico; contribuindo para a sensibilização da importância destes espaços e de sua
preservação.

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DESTINATION BRANDING: A NEW PERSPECTIVE FOR
BRAND CAPE VERDE

Edson Redy Moreira dos Santos


Mestrando em Turismo e Desevolvimento de Negocios
Instituto Superior de Ciencias Empresarias e do Turismo
+351 969 534 199
edson.redy@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: The present paper attempts to identify the procedures adopted by the Ministry
of Tourism of Cape Verde to create Brand Cape Verde in 2010. Baring in mind that Cape
Verde is an emerging tourist destination with great potentials and the capability to compete in
the international market, Brand Cape Verde resulted in the implementation of a strategy base
approach as an attempt to position the country as a competitive tourist destination. This study
seeks to evaluate this process by analyzing the key stages during its implementation,
thereafter, propose the adaptation of a re-branding strategy encompassing the county’s
history, cultural identity, and heritage. Using secondary data, this research attempts to
provide a new perspective to destination branding by proposing the new artistic, dynamic,
innovative, and interactive concept of Mutant Brands, suggesting its application, and
highlighting the advantages, it can bring to Brand Cape Verde.
Key word: Cape Verde, Brand Cape Verde, brand identity, cultural identity, destination
branding, Mutant Brands.

Resumo: Cabo Verde é um destino turístico emergente com grande potencialidade para
competir no mercado internacional. Tendo em consideração que a Marca Cabo Verde surgiu
da procura de implementação de uma abordagem estratégica como tentativa de posicionar o
país como destino turístico competitivo, o presente trabalho parte da identificação dos
procedimentos adotados pelo Ministério do Turismo de Cabo Verde (MTIE), na sua criação,
em 2010, e nesse contexto, este estudo visa avaliar aquele processo e analisar as principais
etapas da sua execução, propondo uma nova estratégia de re-branding, que incluirá a história,
a identidade cultural e os patrimónios. Partindo de fontes secundárias, esta pesquisa busca
oferecer, igualmente, uma nova perspetiva de abordagem de Marca Destino, ao propor a
aplicação do inovador, artístico, dinâmico e interativo conceito de Marcas Mutantes na
Marca Cabo Verde, destacando as vantagens que essa aplicação poderá trazer para a quela.
Palavra-chave: Cabo Verde, Marca Cabo Verde, brand identity, identidade
cultural, marca destino, Marcas Mutantes.

INTRODUCTION:

Branding is perhaps the most powerful marketing weapon available to contemporary


destination marketers confronted by tourists who are increasingly seeking lifestyle fulfillment
and experience rather than recognizing differentiation in the more tangible elements of the
destination product such as accommodation and attraction, (Morgan & Prichard, 2009). To

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differentiate its products and services, the Ministry of Tourism of Cape Verde (MTIE)
embarked on a mission to create Brand Cape Verde in 2010. Based on the fact that Cape
Verde continues to be an emerging destination with great potentials and the capability to
position itself in the international market, Brand Cape Verde resulted in the implementation
of a strategy base approach as an attempt to position the country as a competitive and
attractive tourist destination. Integrated policies aligned with a coherent Marketing Plan for
Tourism in Cape Verde elaborated in a conjoint effort with the Portuguese Institute of
Tourism Development (IPDT), was developed to explore all natural resources, and strategize
a new approach for the tourism industry in Cape Verde. By implementing a brand strategy,
the government believed that creating Brand Cape Verde to represent the country’s tourism
identity, the archipelago will attract more investors, maximize growth, and increase tourism
revenues. To this end, its implementation was based on the realization of a profound analysis
of the opinions and contributions of major stakeholders involved, followed by a national
contest for the logo-design for Brand Cape Verde.
The adaptation of branding techniques and strategies adapted by Destination
Management Organizations (DMO) are growing in frequency given to the increasingly global
competition, which countries now face, in both their domestic and external markets. Used as
a communication tool to divulge the destination’s core personality and identity, Dias &
Marques, (2011) argue that, for a destination brand to be consistent and solid, it should be
built from bottom up, encompassing the place’s [cultural identity, history, and tangible and
intangible cultural heritage], and never from top down, where the decision are controlled
exclusively from the marketing department. With the increased level of competition in the
marketplace today, DMOs are more likely to rely on marketing accommodations and
attractions when building a destination brand, rather than concentrating on the destination’s
distinctive identity, core values, heritage, culture, and authenticity. However, by
amalgamating the two approaches and incorporate the newly acclaimed concept of Mutant
Brands, proposed by, Kreutz (2001), destinations brands of all kinds can benefit from the
enrichment of its culture, heritage, and, identity; foster its recognition; and always, in the
most literal form, “stay fresh” in the minds of consumers, all while maintaining a
contemporary and innovative image.
The concept of Mutant Brands is a new approach to branding which can easily be
adapted to destination branding by materializing the spirit, sensitivity, and emotions of the
place; capture the public’s expectations; motive the desire to participant; represent a common
vision; acquire a flexible structure; have notable traces that allow the viewers to identify their
values in the observed object; and most important “break away” from the traditional and
sometimes stagnated graphic design. According to the author, this concept is the emotional
nature of brands that serves as a contemporary communication tool with an open, innovative,
artistic, indeterminate, subjective characteristic, encompassing a game of eclecticism that
brings the brand to life and allows it to interact with its audience, (Kreutz, 2010).
To this end, this study is aimed to evaluate the brand development strategies adopted
by the Ministry of Tourism of Cape Verde (MTIE) to create Brand Cape Verde. By analyzing
the key stages in the process of branding Cape Verde, (market research; SWOT analysis;
brand development; and segmenting and positioning), the author seeks to identify the
uniqueness of Brand Cape Verde, and if in turn, it induces an emotional connection between
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the destination and visitor, as well as reduces search costs. Thereafter, propose a re-branding
strategy encompassing the country’s history, cultural identity, and tangible and intangible
cultural heritage. Using secondary data, this research attempts to provide a new perspective to
destination branding by proposing the new artistic, dynamic, innovative, and interactive
concept of Mutant Brands, suggesting its application, and highlighting the advantages, it can
bring to Brand Cape Verde.

Brand Concept

Brands have been around ever since ancient times when pot makers imprinted their
pottery with a seal to differentiate them from competitors. During this time, the same practice
was applied to cultivator’s livestock, as farmers marked their cattle with a hot iron rod to
assure the quality of their product, hence, building a trust bound between seller and buyer,
e.g., customer and brand. In fact, in the years before the 1980’s, the definition of brand was
as follow: “brand (noun): a trade mark, goods of a particular make: a mark of identification
made with a hot iron, the iron used for this: a piece of burning or charred wood (verb): to
mark with a hot iron, or to label with a trade mark” (Blackett, 2003: 13). However, with a
more commercial application, a widely accepted definition has been extensively used in the
academics and marketing fields to define brand as – a distinguishing name and/or symbol
(such as a logo, trademark, or package design) intended to identify the goods and services of
either one seller or group of sellers, and to differentiate those goods from those of
competitors, (Aaker, 1991; Keller 2003; Kotler & Gertner, 2004; AMA, 2007). Furthermore,
it is a cluster of functional and emotional values that promise a unique and welcome
experience between a buyer and a seller, (Dinnie, 2008; Lynch & de Chernatony, 2004).
With the development of marketing research and the boom of mass production, brands
have become powerful assets of a corporation. Official data from the Best Global Brands
2011 report reveal the top one-hundred international brands. Topping the charts are the three
multinational mega brands: Coca Cola ($71,861ml) IBM ($68,905ml), and Microsoft
($59,084ml). These brands are highly value because of the occupied space they have in the
minds of consumers as well as their perceived value and tradition of quality with continual
consumer communication. The price tag on brands has skyrocketed due to the projected
revenue they may generate in the future. In today’s market driven society, a solid brand
serves two main purposes, on one hand, as a strategic mechanism used to maneuver through
the cluttered marketplace and capture the attention of potential customers, it differentiates
products in order to reach a certain market segment, and on the other hand, as a Trademark, it
protects the owner’s rights to market and sell the brand, e.g., it gives the its creator or entitled
person exclusive rights (Dias & Marques, 2011) to the brand. Moreover, Aaker, (1996)
asserted that the development of a strong brand involves four key factors: the brand identity,
its architecture, organization (structure, process, and planning), and a communication
program.

Brand Identity

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Penetrating all spheres of life in what has become a materialized world, brands have
become intrinsically connected to our daily lives. Whether social or cultural, they serve as
indicators of our lifestyle and protagonist of our social status. These societal positions are
usually proclaimed in the form of a brand’s name, logo, symbol, package design, or a
combination of the element (e.g. IKEA name, Nike swoosh, McDonald archers, or BMW
name inside the emblem). Kapferer (2008) affirmed that, the brand’s deepest values are
reflected in the external signs of recognition, which must be apparent at first glance. These
visual identities are elements used to communicate the brand’s essence and core value. A
brand’s core values help consumers understand its culture and personality, which in turn,
contributes to the recognition of the brand’s identity: e.g., what the brand stands for and what
it promises to customers. A brand’s identity is built based on the firm’s vision, mission,
principles, heritage, and culture, aligned with its functional and emotional values. Kotler &
Pfoertsch, (2006) claimed that a brand identity is a long-lasting strategic asset that represents
the timeless values of the brand tied to the brand’s roots and fixed parameters. This identity
draws upon the brand’s roots and heritage, thus everything that gives it its unique authority
and legitimacy within a realm of precise value and benefits (Kapferer, 2008: 178). With
physical and formal identity, just as human beings, a brand has character and a personality
that is connected to its history along with its fundamental values.
Elucidating this perspective, Kotler, et al., (2010) stated that, for brands to connect
with Homosapiens, they must develop an authentic DNA that is the core of their true
differentiation. This DNA reflects the brand’s core essence and represents its identity by
emphasizing the uniqueness of its characteristic that differentiates it and makes it stand out
from the crowd; hence, no two brands are the same. To this end, in suggesting ways of
defining brand identity, and the evolution of its representation as a communication tool,
Kapferer, (2008) proposed the Brand Identity Prism model, which are the six facet of a
brand’s identity. The six facets encompass – brand physique, the brand’s backbone and
tangible added values; brand personality, the way a brand communicates its characteristics;
brand culture, the set of values feeding the brand’s inspiration; brand relationship, the
connection a brand builds with consumers; brand customer reflection, how a consumer
wishes to be seen as a result of using a particular brand; and brand self-image, the developed
inner relationship formulated by one’s self over-time when consuming a particular brand. In
the perspective, these six brand facets are the communication tool the disseminates the visual
identity of the brand.

Visual Identity

The evolution of visual identity can be traced back to the 1950’s and 1960’s when
firms invested heavily on the visual design of their company’s powerful logotypes and brand
ownership symbols. During this era, we began to observe the associations between
corporations and the colors they used to identify their products and services (e.g., red to Coca
Cola, green to BP, brown to UPS, and blue to IBM), (Allen & Simmons, 2003). This
approach was based on creating a visual symbol that had an artistic quality while representing
a clear commercial articulation of a business strategy. This inward mirror, the brand’s soul, is
the mechanism tool marketeers use to foster recognition, induce affection, and provoke
4
emotions towards the brand, hence, creating a relationship between brand and buyer. On the
other side of the coin, the outward mirror, the visual representation of a brand’s identity, is
responsible for communicating its intangible characteristics and tangible attributes to the
audience by revealing its uniqueness and attractiveness. Seen as a behavior mechanism
(process of interacting with consumers), culture, and communication tool, these visual
identity encompass the total experience offered by a company to its staff, customers and
others, as well as, a heady and distinctive concoction of intangible promises and tangible
benefits, (Allen & Simmons, 2003).
Linked to the socio-history and the co-existence of “different worlds”, values,
behaviors, and cultures, visual identity is a process that represents the identity blocks
(Conventional and Non-Conventional) which follows the evolution of communication of the
corporate brand identity, (Kreutz, 2001). According to Kreutz (2005), within the conventional
block of visual identity, we have the manifestation of the positivists’ model, which is divided
into the traditional model of Stereotyped Visual Identity, and the modern model of Arbitrary
Visual Identity. A Stereotypical Visual Identity is based on the notion of the phenomenon
known as “sensation transfer” (proposed by Naples, 1988, cited in Kreutz, 2010) .e.g., when a
name or a symbol of an organization is perceived unconsciously in the minds of consumers
due to a previous encounter with a graphic design. Further, this occurs when a firm decides to
appropriate a symbol whose meaning already belongs to a collective imagery as a
representation of its own brand.
In contrast, an Arbitrary Visual Identity imposes a particular symbol that does not
belong to a collective imagery to synthesize a new form. A study on the needs and desire,
communication strategies, and technical and legal issues is conducted by the organization to
determine the creation of this new symbol. However, following the precepts of modernists,
rational planning, and centralized control, this model is characterized as being imposed,
resistant to change, subjectively determined, and inflexible. Further, the two above models
are characterized for their rigidness form of identification by standardization, the belief in
linear progress, and the cultivation of the eternal and immutable, (Kreutz, 2010).

Mutant Visual Identity

In the previous section we discussed the two types of visual identity (Stereotyped and
Arbitrary) used as a communication device to represent its symbolic meanings. However, in
spite of their symbolic visual representation, they lack the characteristics of the contemporary
communication strategy that the non-conventional post-modern model of Mutant Visual
Identity possesses. Deriving from the Latin word mutȃre – to change – mutation emanates
from the natural forces of nature and the need to transform as a survival tactic, which has
always been part of the human evolution. Kreutz, (2001) defined this aesthetic form of
transformation as the emotional nature of brands that is characterized as being open,
innovative, artistic, indeterminate, subjective, and a game of eclecticism. Linked to the post-
modernist precepts, this contemporary communication strategy is embedded in the current
social-historical development, and is used to explain the evolution of communication.
The advent of mass communication, and especially the rise of mass circulation of
newspapers in the nineteenth century and the emergence of broadcasting in the twentieth
5
century, has had a profound impact on the modes of experiences and patterns of interaction in
post-modern societies. Today we live in a world in which the extended circulation of
symbolic forms plays a fundamental and ever-increasing role. In all societies the production
and exchange and/or transformation of symbolic forms – of linguistic expression, gestures,
action, works of art, and so on – is, has always been a persuasive feature of social life
(Thompson, 1990).
Driven by the new era of Information Technology, in today’s globalized world
mutation is at the base of this transformation. The emergence of information highway has
accelerated the process of transformation, replacing the act of receiving information and
reflecting on it for later actions, with primitive instinctive reflection, (Pinho, 2001 in Kreutz,
2010). As a result, these changes have prompted organizations to adapt innovative marketing
strategy in order to survive in the competitive marketplace. Further, communication
strategies, which are focused on the visual identities of a brand, were strategically marketed
to create an emotional connecting between brand and buyer. Henceforth, when implementing
these strategies, organization’s managers discover the complexity of this relationship, for
brands were no longer seen as being rigid or cold (without a soul), rather having human like
characteristics with complex features – Mutant Brands, (Kreutz, 2010).

Mutant Brands

Based on the Depth Hermeneutic theory proposed by Thompson (1990), the


revolutionary concept of Mutant Visual Identity, which gave light to the theory of Mutant
Brands, was developed by PhD Elizete Kreutz (2005) in Brazil who specializes in Social
Communication. In this context, this new concept is recent and still in need of theoretical
insights to understand the issues involved in its design and dissemination. To this end, as an
attempt to exemplify this contemporary communication strategy, Kreutz (2005) analyzes a
compilation of representative examples, which allow us to understand the dimension of this
strategic approach of communication at various level of development, and how it reflects new
forms of interaction between the brand and its audience. Although some professionals,
marketeers, and managers believe that Mutant Brands run the risk of not having the ability to
position in the minds of consumers, Kreutz (2005) argues that this post-modern branding
strategy presents the following advantages: easy adaptation to new situations; maintains the
public’s attention; interact with its audience; innovative; flexible; and dynamic. Further,
dividing the concept into two strategy component: Poetic Mutant Brands (as being
spontaneous and intuitive) and Programmed Mutant Brands (as being fragmentation of the
visual identity of a brand), the author emphasizes that this concept is a new form of
interaction between brand and buyer, in which the former communications and identifies with
the latter, and vise versa. By using two practical examples (MTV, and Melbourne), we will
attempt to answer the question proposed by Kapferer, (2008) – How can the brand change its
communication style, yet remain true to itself?
With a sense of permanence and the need to be dynamic, impactful, flexible,
innovative, and indeterminate, as well as being a product (music, and video-clips) of fast
consumption, brand MTV is an example on the post-modern visual identity, (Pinho, 2001, in
Kreutz, 2010). To fulfill the needs of its young audience who are always open to new life
6
experiences, the brand is continuously in the process of mutating and transforming its
appealing characteristics in order to “stay fresh,” and up-to-date, (see figure 1). As cited
earlier, mutation has always been part of the human evolution and the need to change. Having
said that, the visual identity of MTV and its brand strategy is based on the fact that, it is a
television station dedicated to music targeted at the younger generation, therefore is always in
need of constant change and reinventing its image. This widely-known television station
which is broadcasted across continents, in more than 140 countries, has been part of the youth
culture, and has established a very strong brand with massive TV audience. Launched on

Augusto 1981 in New York City, MTV inaugurated a new form of watching television by
diversifying its programs with less duration and more dynamic. As observed in figure 1, the
MTV logo can be utilized in various forms with a range of colors, however, the basic

Figure 1: MTV Mutant Brands

Source: www.google.com/mtv

structure of the brand remains the same, e.g., its core essence remains in tacked, while the
visual identity of the brand diversifies its communication style and mutates its “outer shell”.
Furthermore, in describing the brand’s “Magic Box,” Kreutz, (2010), emphasizes that
there are three items of the MTV logo that is at the base of its core visual identity: the bold
outline letter “M,” including its outlined shadow; the diagonal scribble of the letters “TV,”
positioned on the top half of the letter “M;” and finally, the proportionally spaced words
Music Television below the “M.” Thus, the concept branding MTV is based on the element
of surprise credited to the infinite numbers of designers, producers, animators, and artist who

7
are constantly making sure that the MTV brand “never goes out of style.” By changing its
colors, patterns, textures and design to adapt and/or mutant to any type of situation, the brand
is therefore characterized by Kreutz, (2010) as Poetic Mutant Visual Identity.
The visual identity system used in commerce for economic purposes has also captured
the attention of Destination Management Organizations (DMO), in the tourism industry. In
2009, as an attempt to diversify its tourism products and services, the city of Melbourne –
Australia contracted a brand consultant agency to replace the old and outdated brand, that
was implemented in the 1990. Landor Associates, a brand design consultant agency, created

Figure 2: Melbourne Mutant Brands

the new flexible and future-focused corporate visual identity for the city of Melbourne, (see
figure 2). Melbourne is a dynamic, progressive city, internationally known for its diversity,
innovation, sustainability, and livability, (Landor, 2010). Therefore, the city needed a brand
to reflect its many identities and long-term sustainability as well as its strategic plans for the
future.

Source: Landor Associates, (2010)

Melbourne’s new brand strategy and visual identity system was create to ensure that
the city remains a permanent Australian center for culture, arts, dining, entertainment,
education, and shopping. Following evaluation of the city’s audit, and analysis of public
opinion, and stakeholder’s viewpoints, the challenge then became to, reflect Melbourne’s
cool sophistication on the world stage, capture the passion of its people, and provide the city

8
with a unified, future-focused image. As observed in figure 2, the mutant brands of the City
of Melbourne has a diversified communication style in which different pattern, textures, and
color are used in different context. Whether for purposes such as cultural, entertainment,
business, gastronomy, history, art, music, heritage, and so on, the bold “M” presents a full
expression of the identity system – immediately recognized and as multifaceted as the city
itself, providing a surface for endless visual expression, (Landor, 2010). In the next section
the multifaceted cultural dimension of Cape Verde will be presented, and later analyzed to
determined how these elements can be incorporated to create a Mutant Brand for Brand Cape
Verde.

Building a Cultural Identity

The archipelago of Cape Verde was deserted at the time of its discovery in 1460. It is
commonly accepted that, at the service of the Crown of Portugal, navigators Antonio de Noli
and Diogo Afonso discovered the first five islands of the archipelago. With the discovery of
the remaining islands in 1462 by explorer Diogo Afonso, the archipelago began to be
populated by European settlers and native Africans. With limited natural resources and
unfavorable climatic conditions, the first settlers faced many difficulties in adapting to the
new environment. Nevertheless, in spite of the harsh conditions, the population of Cape
Verde began to grow when the Portuguese recognized its strategic geographic position
between Africa, Europe, and America.
Cape Verde is located in the Atlantic Ocean, 500 kilometers from the coast of West
Africa, neighboring Senegal, Gambia, and Mauritania, and belongs to the region, which also
includes the Macaronesia archipelagos of the Canary Islands, Madeira, and the Azores. The
country is a horseshoe-shape cluster of ten islands, (from north to south: Santo Antão, Sao
Vicente, Santa Luzia, São Nicolau, Sal, Boa Vista, Maio, Santiago, Fogo, and Brava) and
eight islets that constitute an area of 4300 square kilometers. Once used by the Portuguese as
a gateway for the Slave Trade, today its geographical location plays a fundamental role in the
social-economic development of the country.
The affirmation of the Cape Verdean Nation happened on the 5th of July 1975, when
the political party African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC)
(present African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde, PAICV), led by Amilcar Cabar
gained independence from the Portuguese. Today with a stable democratic system and a
Representative Parliamentary, the population of Cape Verde is about 491,683 (INE, 2011)
and a Diaspora community of more than 600, 000 worldwide.
Occupying a multicultural environment, mostly in the Americas and Europe, the Cape
Verdean Diaspora community can be found throughout the five continents of the world,
taking with them their culture, customs, and identity. The identity of the Cape Verdean
people is a result of the mixture between the Caucasian and the Negro that arrived in the
islands. Coexisting in the same limited space, the two ethic groups experienced a double
process of disintegration, in which, as a result, a new cultural identity was formed. With the
amalgamation of the two progenitors cultures – the European father and the African mother –
the creation of this new cultural identity was inevitable: Cultura Crioula, (Brito-Semedo,

9
2006). Consequently, different cultural practices and experiences merged, hence, forming a
“new type of Man,” with a new mentality, and new language: Creole, (Amaral, 1964).

  

Figure 3: Batuque Figure 4: Ferrinho Figure 5: Ouri

Source: www.google.pt/imagemsdecaboverde

Evidence of the traces of the different cultures and the crossing of identities can be
seen throughout the islands: the African pestle used to process corn; the Portuguese
grindstone; the traditional dance of batuque, (figure 3) of African origins, often accompanied
by the beating of goat skin wrapped clothing, the Portuguese ferrinhos (a musical instrument
made of copper-clad steel in figure 4). The board of ouri (figure 5) of African origins is a
tradition that can be found in almost all of the islands. At the base of the Cape Verdean
cuisine, is the introduction of the various dishes made out of corn from the American,
processed and cooked with African methods. Creole, the mother tongue of Cape Verde

Figure 7: Tabanka

Figure 4: Festa das Bandeiras Figure 8: Colá São João

        
formed
Source: www.google.pt/imagemsdecaboverde

from the fusion of the Portuguese and African vernacular, is one of the most important
cultural element, for with it, a long gestation of restructuring and empowerment in the context
of slavery was accomplished, (Amaral, 1964).
Along with the imported European costumes and habits, traits of the reminiscent of
the African social culture are amalgamated purely with Portuguese tradition. Thus, cuisine;
art-crafts; traditional culture, which encompasses oral literature, music, novelistic, proverbs,

10
riddles, childhood games, popular music and its instruments, folk festival (Santa Cruz, Santo
Antão, St. Pedro, St. John, St. Andrew, Nossa Senhora da Lapa e da Luz, and the sacrifice of
the rooster on the Pascoela) are all customs that have been practiced for centuries in the
islands. The flag festival (Festa das Bandeiras, in figure 6) celebrated on the island of Fogo
has especial characteristics of the medieval African cavalry festivities. Similarly, Tabanka
(figure 7) on the island of Santiago and Colá São João (figure 8) on the island of Santo
Antão, are syncretistic festivities identified in the same holy festival in Portugal and African
dances. These traditional and cultural traits have all contributed to the formation of the
identity and culture of the “Cape Verdean Man,” e.g., its Crioulidade.

Tangible and Intangible Cultural Heritage

In the process of constructing a cultural identity, tangible and intangible cultural


heritage transpired in order to give emphases to the many different facets of the Cape
Verdean identity. Cape Verde’s tangible cultural heritage encompasses: archeological sites
(Ribeira Grande de Santiago [Cidade Velha]); buildings (Concentration Camp of Tarrafal -
Santiago); historic sites (Ribeirão Manuel, site of the “Uprising of Ribeirão Manuel”: when
farms fought for their social justice and equality in the island of Santiago); and monuments
(the Church of Nossa Senhora da Graca - Santiago, and Fortaleza Real de São Filipe -
Santiago, Replica of Torre de Belém – São Vicente, Salinas da Ilha do Sal - Sal,). In addition
to these tangible heritage, other architectural heritage such as: churches, government builds,
houses of old slave-masters, as well as those of family that had a high position in the colonial
society, can be seen throughout the villages and towns.
One of the towns that inhabited families of high social status was Ribeira Grande of
Santiago, which, in 2009 was inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List, making Cape
Verde’s entry to the international community inventory of properties of outstanding universal
value. Baring testimony to the history of Europe’s colonial presence in Africa and to the
history of Slavery, Ribeira Grande of Santiago was the first European colonial outpost in the
tropics, as well as the first intercontinental gateway for the maritime trade (UNESCO, 2009).
Located in the southern region of the island of Santiago, the town feature some of the original
street layout impressive remains, including two churches (Nossa Senhora do Rosário and Sé
Velha), a Royal Fortress and Pillory Square with its ornate 16th century marble pillar. Once
used as a place of concentration of enslaved persons and the inhuman practices of the trade of
enslaved persons, Ribeira Grande of Santiago was also exceptional in terms of the
intercultural encounters from which stemmed the first developed Creole society. In addition,
recognized as the first European colonial town to be built in the tropics, Cidade Velha was
the cradle of the first fully-fledged mixed-race of the Creole society, which later spread
across the Atlantic and adapted in different colonial context in the Caribbean and the
Americas.
At the center of the maritime traffic and trade between continents, the history,
suffering, and struggles of Cape Verde, which began in Cidade Velha, gave birth to one of
the most valuable and preserved cultural aspects of the Cape Verdean people: Morna. This
intangible cultural heritage is believed to have a connection with the Fado of Portugal,
Modinha of Brazil, and Lumdum of Angola, (Filho Lopes, 2003). Commonly accepted
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amongst the national and international community, emanating in the late nineteenth century
from the heart of the island of Boa Vista, Morna is a music genre that was sang in social
event to depict the stories of everyday lives of the local community, relationships, stories of
shipwrecks, and consequent depredations (Filho Lopes, 1983). In the early twentieth century,
native poet Eugenio Tavares gave a new characteristic to the music genre – writing about
sentiments, romance, love, pain of departure, emigration, nostalgia (Saudade), the world
made of flowers and the beautiful women that lived there (his hometown: the island of
Brava), which later were composited into songs of Morna.
Upon reaching the island of São Vicente, Morna underwent a new phase. Musicians
such as Luis Rendall, Jotamont, Sergio Frusoni (Italian origin), and B-Léza, influenced by
Brazilian music, introduced a new harmony and a semitone rhythm to Morna. Addressing
issues related to politics and important political characters, to either enhance their moral
qualities, or make them the target of ridicule, these artists manifested their frustrations and
opinions through music. Inherited from previous generations, today this slow-tempo hybrid
between melodic song genre and poetic lyrics that evokes themes such as nostalgia
(Saudade), romanticism, and equality, has expanded beyond the geographical limits of the
archipelago. Artists such as Cesaria Évora, Bana, Norberto Tavares, Luis Morias, Celina
Pereira, Paulina Viera, and Ildo Lobo, are some of the main protagonists of the contemporary
Morna, divulging the country’s cultural identity. Reflecting the reality and spirit of the Cape
Verdean people, the composition of Morna has contributed greatly to the dissemination of
Cape Verde’s cultural identity.
Other intangible cultural heritage encompass: language (Creole); oral histories and
literature (e.g., Eugenio Tavares, Baltazar Lopes, George Barbosa, Pedro Cardoso, and The
Movement of Claridade); beliefs, rituals, ceremonies, customs, tradition (cited above); dance
(e.g., batuque, funana, finason, and coladeira); craft; and other forms of art, (Brito-Semedo,
2006). Intimately linked to the citizens of the archipelago, and at the base-structure of the
cultural identity of Cape Verde, these cultural aspects play a fundamental role in
disseminating Cape Verde’s multifaceted and rich culture: it’s Criolidade.

The Role of Tourism in Cape Verde

Over the years, millions of curious tourists, attracted by the pristine coastlines, warm
tropical climate, and extraordinary landscapes, have visited the archipelago to experience, at
first hand, the “Cape Verdean way of life” and its many cultural aspects. Undoubtedly, the
tourism industry provides significant economic development opportunities for Cape Verde,
generating employment and contributing to the national GDP growth. Table 1 reveals that
during the 2010 season, Cape Verde experienced a substantial growth of +17% of tourist
arrivals, (UNWTO, 2011). Facts from the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) show
that, the direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP for Cape Verde was CVE 24.6bn
(about €2.8 million) in 2011, an equivalent of 16.2% of the national GDP, and expected to
grow by 5.8% (18.6%) by 2022. Travel & Tourism generated 28,500 jobs directly in 2011
(14.4%). By 2022, Travel & Tourism will account for 43,000 jobs directly see figure 10,
(WTTC, 2012).

12
Figure 9: International arrival and tourism receipts in Cape Verde
Destination International Tourist Arrival International Tourism Receipts
Change (%) Share (US$ million) Share
(1000) (%) (%)
Cape Verde 2008 2009 2010 09/08 10/09 2010 2008 2009 2010 2010
285 287 336 0.7 17.7 0.7 350 292 289 0.9
Source: UNWTO, 2011

The last decade has been a remarkable period for Cape Verde. This nation has made
tremendous progress that often times is cited as a success story among developing countries,
and a reference on issues such as – democracy, financial management, piece, and absence of
corruption. As a nation, Cape Verde has been able to consolidate gains and embark on a new
national agenda for economic transformation and societal modernization, (Government
Program for VIII Legislatures 2011/2016).

Figure 10: Tourism contribution to GDP and employment in Cape Verde

 
Source: World Travel and Tourism Council, 2012

Evaluating the current situation in the tourism sector and figures present by UNWTO
and WTTC, the government emphasized that, according to its present contributions and
futures projections, tourism will continue to be recognized as the country’s main economic
contributor, (DGT, 2010a). By identifying its competitive advantage and implement-
integrated policies, authorities believe that the industry will be better prepared to respond to
problems and new challenges posed by the international market. To this end, according to the
National Strategic Plan for Tourism Development of Cape Verde (PEDT) implemented in
2010, covering the 2010 through 2013 seasons, the government seeks to accomplish the
following objectives:

• identify the country’s tourism potentials and arising opportunities in the


international tourism sector;

13
• identify areas of improvement and locking points for sustainable growth of
tourism in the country;
• define and communicate a clear vision of the type of tourism intended for
Cape Verde, aligned with the country’s development strategies drafted by the
Government;
• establish policies and guideline that guide strategic action programs aimed at
achieving previous set goals in the tourism sector, and identify the resources
needed for its realization and;
• establish effective mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating results of its
implementation (DGT, 2010a).

Indeed, in spite of the clear vision of the potentials that the tourism industry presents
and a comprehensive approach with guidelines to exploit all of the available resources, as of
2009, Cape Verde lacked a meaningful tourism identity. There was a need for Cape Verde to
develop a strong identity that encapsulate the country’s unique attributes and personality that
could be marketed in the international arena. Furthermore, a panoramic vision was needed to
produce a clear identity encompassing identified brand values, which in turn, serve to drive
all marketing and development strategies. This approach would pervade all forms of
communication and stimulate the core of the travel consumer’s behavior and decision-making
process to position Cape Verde competitively in the global market. In this sense, a strategy
base approach was elaborated and guidelines were set for the creation of a tourism identity
for Cape Verde. As a result, in 2010, together with Portuguese Institute of Tourism
Development (IPDT), the Ministry of Tourism of Cape Verde (MTIE) and General Directory
of Tourism of Cape Verde (DGT) launched a campaign to create and implement Brand Cape
Verde.

Branding Cape Verde

Recently, destination managers have recognized that by creating a destination brand,


places of all kinds can benefit from implementing coherent strategies with regards to
managing their resources, reputation, and image, (Pike, 2004), provide an umbrella of trust
and a guarantee of quality, (Anholt, 2003; 2004), and fulfill three major objectives: attract
tourists, stimulate inward investment and boost exports, (Dinnie, 2008; 2011). Furthermore,
Blain et al. (2005) defined destination branding as a set of marketing activities that: support
the creation of a name, symbol, logo, word, mark or other graphic that readily identify and
differentiates a destination; consistently convey the expectation of a memorable travel
experience that is uniquely associated with the destination; serve to consolidate and reinforce
the emotional connection between the visitor and the destination and; reduce consumer search
costs and perceived risk.
In the beginning of 2010, Cape Verde’s tourism industry lacked the comparative and
competitive advantage that enabled the country to compete in the global market as an
attractive tourist destination. The destination needed to strategize an approach that would

14
position its unique experience, whether cultural, or adventurous, in the minds of visitors
differently from the rest of the world. It needed an appealing brand with the ability to
emotionally-connect with current and potential consumers, and communicate its cultural
identity and tangible and intangible cultural heritages. The brand mission, therefore, was
considered necessary to capture the very essence of the Cape Verdean experience and its
effect on the many tourists that visit its exquisite islands every year.
To execute this strategy, it required that the Ministry of Tourism and the General
Directory of Tourism compile a comprehensive approach that would combine the public and
private sector to present a positive image of Cape Verde to the international community,
encompassing research and analysis such as – destination awareness, product awareness,
consumer desire, tourism product, infrastructure and industry professional development. To
this end, the MTIE/DGT and IPDT developed a Marketing Plan (covering the 2011 through
2013 seasons) underlying the core essence of the Cape Verde experience, and established a
brand development strategy to differentiate its products and services and depict the core
personality of the archipelago. Hence, this approach focused on marketing campaigns in the
international arena as a strategy to stimulate inward investment and attract tourists in order to
gain the comparative and competitive advantage needed to compete in the marketplace.
Working in the first phase as a pilot campaign, the Marketing Plan for Tourism in
Cape Verde: 2011-2013 was the first official document to promote the country as a tourist
destination. This marked a milestone in the history of tourism in the archipelago, not only for
the implemented strategies, but also for the creation of Brand Cape Verde. Merging share
views and collective inputs from all of the stakeholders involved, the Marketing Plan was
developed mainly to, identify the current resources in the country and what potentials and
limitations it presented, exploit the differentiated attributes, and define a strategy base
approach to segment and position Brand Cape Verde, (DGT, 2010b). This suggested that a
profound research of the current and potential markets in the region, as well as the current
situation of the tourism industry, be conducted. By analyzing the key stages in the process of
branding Cape Verde, (market research; SWOT and competitors analysis; brand
development; and segmenting and positioning), the author seeks to identify the uniqueness of
Brand Cape Verde, and if in turn, it induces an emotional connection between the destination
and visitor, as well as reduces search costs. Thereafter, propose a re-branding strategy
encompassing the country’s history, cultural identity, and tangible and intangible cultural
heritage, and suggest how these applications can contribute to create a Mutant Brand for
Brand Cape Verde.

Market Research

The brand mission for Brand Cape Verde initiated by identifying the core markets and
analyzed the inflow of domestic and foreign tourist arrivals. Official data from the National
Statistics Institute of Cape Verde, (INE, 2011) showed that, according to the analysis of
tourist’s profile, countries such as United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Portugal, France and the
domestic markets, are the main markets for the destination. To determine market boundaries,
the tourist categorized by age group, average overnight stays, months of travel, and islands
visited, (DGT, 2010b). This research also revealed that the islands of Sal, and Boa Vista,
15
which offer an abundance of leisure and water activities in five star resorts surrounded by
miles of sandy white beaches, were the most sought out islands.
Being the backbone of the country’s tourism industry, the crystal clear seawaters and
warm tropical climate attracts a significant number of the tourists to the archipelago year-
round. By identifying the key markets and strategizing methods to increment tourist inflow,
the MTIE and DGT believe that they will be better equipped to compete with other
destinations. To this end, the overriding objective to create Brand Cape Verde was aimed to
develop long-term campaigns designed to more build awareness of the country as an
attractive destination in the core markets cited above.
However, the anchor products – Sea and Sun – the country’s lifeline tourism
economy, have the tendency to eclipse the true essence of the destination’s diverse culture
and history, unique identity, and the hospitable and free-spirited people: Morabeza.
Moreover, to compete effectively in the global tourism market, the above characteristics of
Cape Verde’s cultural identity must be exploited at an extreme length. Furthermore, in
today’s competitive markets, marketeers challenged by tourists who are increasingly seeking
lifestyle fulfillment, often times rely on lavish accommodation and attractions to promote the
destination as a commodity product.

SWOT and Competitors Analysis

Following the market research, data from the World Tourism Organization, the
National Strategic Plan for Tourism Development of Cape Verde (PEDT), national economic
articles, documentaries, and other national and international entities connected to the tourism
sector, were collected to conduct a SWOT analysis in order to identify the strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities, and threats regarding Cape Verde’s tourism and professional
development. Results revealed that Cape Verde is an emerging tourist destination with a trend
of high tourism growth and potentials, rich natural resources with a strategic geographical
position. However, limited financial resources, lack of skilled labor, and the need for
infrastructural, social, and organizational development, (DGT, 2010b), may at times, hinder
the development of the country. The main differentiating element in Cape Verde, which
constitute its strengths were identified as – security (safe destination), approximation to the
emerging markets, temperate climate with sun and mild temperature throughout the year,
unique and unusual landscapes, (DGT, 2010b).
The SWOT analysis realized by the General Directory of Tourism of Cape Verde
identified key areas of improvement, the destination’s competitive advantage, and obstacles
to overcome. To this end, competitors’ analysis conducted by the DGT and IPDT revealed
that, after a thorough analysis of the destinations that compete directly with Cape Verde for
the same tourism products (Sun and Sea), a list of competing destinations along with a brief
analysis of the comparative position of Cape Verde, regarding the proximity to the five core
markets as well as prices of holiday package, was compiled. According to the study
conducted by the Observatory of Tourism in Cape Verde, (an entity of the Ministry of
Tourism created to monitor the development of tourism), and contributions of key
stakeholders’ inputs, this list comprised the following destinations: Senegal, Seychelles,
Maldives, Canary Islands, Angola, Brazil, Greece, and Latin America. In essence, the desired
16
position in the minds of potential consumers of the destination brands of the identified
competitors was also analyzed to measure market share and brand recognition.
Nevertheless, according to some of the countries (Angola, Brazil, Greece, and Canary
Islands) included in the competitors analysis, the market size and economic development
does not correspond with that of Cape Verde. In this context, this analysis relied mostly on
the perspectives of tour operators, issues such as the lifecycle of the products, and the
constant change of tour operators’ offers in the archipelago as well as other limitations such
as financial capabilities, were not included in this study. Furthermore, failure to identify the
country’s multifaceted cultural dimensions and identity as strength, this analysis failed to
recognize the archipelago’s main competitive advantage.

The Development of Brand Cape Verde

Following an analysis of the current situation of the tourism industry in Cape Verde,
and identifying the target markets, the campaign to bring Brand Cape Verde to life began.
The development of Brand Cape Verde commenced with an analysis of key stakeholders,
comprised by national and international industry representatives, who provided advice and
recommendations on all major marketing and industry development activities. The
composition of this coordinated effort also encompassed the participation of the local citizens
in the creation of the logotype for Brand Cape Verde. To this end, the process of branding
Cape Verde was based on a national contest of the creation of a logo design for the tourism
identity brand, where 151 proposals were validated, between March 25th through May 7th of
2010, (DGT, 2010b). The criterion governing the proposal were established under the

Figure 11: Brand Cape Verde and Island Groups

Source: General Directory of Tourism of Cape Verde

following conditions: the logo design must serve as a representation of the Cape Verdean
people; the diversity of the ten islands; tranquility and relaxation (a safe destination with

17
wealthy natural landscaped); the sun which shines throughout the year (warm tropical
whether); the natural beauty and exotic beaches; and the approximation to Europe and other
emerging markets.
Of the 151-logo design submitted in the contest, a penal of jury constituted by
international representatives and members from the Ministry of Tourism of Cape Verde
(MTIE) and the General Directory of Tourism of Cape Verde (DGT), chose a representative
umbrella brand, as seen in figure 11, to represent Cape Verde’s tourism identity. According
to the descriptive logotype selected to represent the identity of Brand Cape Verde, the strong
and colorful visual graphics reflects an attractive cosmopolitan modern country with the
ability to respond to future demands. This approach marked new dynamic era for tourism in
Cape Verde – e.g., a destination considered emerging, at a global economic scale, with
considerable indices of growth and development.

Figure 12: Brands that Resemble Brand Cape Verde

   

Source: www.google.com/image

Nevertheless, in spite of this remarkable accomplishment, by excluding the country’s


cultural aspects and historical context, the selected logotype lacks authenticity and
innovation. Further, in order to encapsulate to core essence of the Cape Verdean experience,
the logo brand needed to include the greatness and wealth of the meaning and values of the
archipelago: its characteristic, diversity, core personality, energy, magic, distinctiveness, and
excitement. Therefore, on the grounds that a brand is used as a communication tool, cultural
relations should play a critical role in divulging the richness, (Anholt, 2003), and
distinctiveness of the country. As an attempt to create a visual representation and an attractive
image of the archipelago – a game of colors and the shapes of the ten islands that make up the
archipelago – the selected design failed to capture the unique elements which differentiate the
destination from competitors. Research has revealed that the similarities between the logo
and the destination are an important determinant factor of enhancing brand recognition, (Hem
& Iversen, 2004).
The often times interpreted as being discriminatory, the colors used in the design of
each island, was meant to describe the people that inhabit these territory, hence people from
the island of Santiago have darker skin tone than those of São Vicente: a false assumption. In
addition, the sequence of the colors resembles the logos of Algarve, Caribbean, Andalucía,
and Taiwan, and the overlapping position of the font (lettering) used, similar to that of TAP,
clearly shows the lack of creativity and differentiation in the creation and selection of Brand
Cape Verde, (see figure 12). Hence, proper selection is critical because logos are one of the

18
main vehicles for communicating image, cutting through clutter to gain attention, and
speeding recognition, (Henderson & Cote, 1998) of the destination.

Segmenting and Positioning Brand Cape Verde

The segmentation process carried out for Brand Cape Verde was based on the analysis
of the core markets, and consumer behavior. In this perspective, the main motivation of
travel, according to the particularities of each island, were associated with Sun and Sea,
culture, business, and nature. To this end, for the lack of individual economic autonomy of
each island, and different level of development, the MTIE/DGT and IPDT, felt it was
necessary to group the islands in three promotional groups, as seen in figure 11 above.
Moreover, the islands were grouped according with their product – Sal, Boa Vista and Maio,
(Sunny Islands) were grouped taking into account the anchor product of the destination, Sun
and Sea; Santiago and São Vicente, (Essence Islands) were grouped to promote business and
culture tourism; Santo Antão, Santa Luzia, São Nicolau, Fogo, and Brava, (Nature Islands)
were grouped to promote nature. This analytical division of the market into discrete groups of
customers that share common attributes was aimed to represent the destination’s tourist
product offering. Nonetheless, when attempting to identify these subset consumers, the
diversity of product and service offerings differentiated by the characteristic and personally
of the destination should be incorporated in this process.
In this context, the message associated with the segmentation and positioning of the
islands needed to be designed based on the image that Brand Cape Verde intends to instill in
the minds of current and potential visitors: a diverse destination with ten main ingredients
that offer a unique and unforgettable experience. Because of the lack of financial recourses, a
holistic approach to promote the cultural aspects of the destination, an integrated strategy is
needed to promote individually, characteristics and personally of each island. With diversity
being the generic message, these cultural aspects can be used to communicate Brand Cape
Verde to differentiate its products and services from competitors by motivating and allowing
the visitors to choose from a variety of distinct products that the destination has to offer.

Re-Branding Cape Verde

In an increasingly competitive global tourism marketplace, destinations are under


pressure to construct and promote distinct identities in order to position themselves
competitively in the global context, (Dredge & Jenkins, 2010). As a consequence,
promotional activities are geared towards the production of a distinctive and competitive
destination brand identity. From this stand point, in a tourism destination brand identity
development, special consideration should be given to investigating the specific
characteristics of the brand as an organization, which should address to topics of destination
culture, its local people, history, and heritage, (Konecnik & Go, 2008). Moreover, cultural
identity, history, and heritage of a destination should be incorporated in the brand strategy as
a means to strengthen local culture in the pursuit to achieving tourism growth.

19
Hitherto, the development of Brand Cape Verde as the country’s tourism identity has
been viewed for the most part in graphic design and slogan-led marketing strategy, as oppose
to an approach which recognizes the brand as a summation of the archipelago’s multifaceted
cultural dimension. In turn, the main characteristic of Brand Cape Verde should be presented
as a combination of the country’s attributes to form the archipelago’s heterogeneous offers
(sun, sea, climate, and nature) with its active component: cultural identity, history, and
tangible and intangible cultural heritage. Further, cultural entrepreneur should offer Cape
Verde’s local culture, a mixture of African and European culture that was also highly
influenced by Brazilian and Indian culture, to foreign tourists in a way that will strengthen its
authenticity.
Underlying this authenticity is the construction of the cultural identity of the Cape
Verdean people, encompassing the amalgamation of the Caucasian and African background,
the traditional dances of batuque, and Tabanka, the rich cuisine, the Creole language, and the
different religious festivities practiced throughout the islands. Hence, the archipelago’s
heritage also played a fundamental role during this construction. These heritages are divided
in two sub-cultural dimensions – tangible and intangible. In addition, the birthplace of
Criolidade and the cradle of the Creole society – Ribeira Grande de Santiago – is considered
a highly valuable tangible heritage of the Cape Verdean people. With its ingression in the list
of UNESCO World Heritage in 2009, Ribeira Grande de Santiago has contributed greatly to
the preservation and divulgation of the history and culture of Cape Verde. Further, Dias and
Marques, (2011) stated that the labeling of the heritage is intimately related to tourism –
raising public awareness and confers credibility and prestige to certain place and monuments.
Another form of broadening and raising awareness of the cultural and historical
aspects of Cape Verde is found in its musical manifestations. A distinct and unique musical
genre which originated from the romance, love, nostalgia, equality, pain, and suffering of the
people – Morna – is recognized as the reflection of the reality of the people:
Caboverdianidade. Expanding beyond the physical dimension of the islands, Morna is
characterized as the spirit of the inhabitants of the archipelago. This intangible heritage is of
great significance to the Cape Verdean way of life, and is deeply rooted in the people’s
cultural identity, and preservation of their heritage.
Henceforth, by incorporating the archeological assets (tangible heritage) and the
cultural manifestations (intangible heritage), in a strategic and comprehensive approach,
which enables the brand strategy to serve as a signifier of the image and cultural identity of
the people, Brand Cape Verde can act as a catalyst in the dissemination of the multicultural
dimension of the archipelago. Furthermore, the unique and distinct characteristics of the
islands can help to induce an emotional connection between Cape Verde and its visitors; all
while reducing the time-consuming process of search costs and perceived risks. Therefore, a
re-branding strategy for Brand Cape Verde is imperatively required to convey a memorable
experiences, reinforce emotional connection, and unlocks the treasure of the archipelago by
revealing the core essence of the destination to travelers. Equally important, stakeholder’s
perception research is vital during the process of re-branding Cape Verde, which in turn, their
inputs and opinions at key stages may serve to create a unique and authentic visual identity
for Brand Cape Verde.

20
Building a Mutant Destination Brand for Cape Verde

Being the first element that a consumer encounters, the visual identity of Brand Cape
Verde will play a fundamental role in the process of re-branding Cape Verde. If marketed
properly to articulate its intangible characteristics and tangible benefits, this visual identity
can transform its communication style without losing its true essence. Its colors, texture,
patterns, structure, and design must be marketed as a symbolic representation of the residents
that inhabit the archipelago. Hence, arriving to the question – How can the distinct and
unique characteristic (cultural identity, history, and heritage) of the islands of Cape Verde be
utilized to create a Mutant Brand for Brand Cape Verde? – The author seeks to elaborate on
the concept proposed by Kreutz (2010), and the strategy measures of the creation of the new
brand for the City of Melbourne implemented in 2009 by Landor Associates, (2010).
As previously cited, Cape Verde is a fast developing country with the ability to
compete in the global market. In order to keep up with new demands, its tourism industry is
under constant transformation and modernization. One of these transformation occurred in
2010 when the Ministry of Tourism of Cape Verde embarked on a mission to create Brand
Cape Verde as an attempt to differentiate its products and services from competitors.
However, the present research has concluded that this approach neglected to incorporate the
multi-dimensional (national and regional) cultural aspects that are inherently rooted in the
Cape Verdean way of life: Criolidade.
To reinforce Cape Verde’s image as a significant cultural tourism destination, this
research suggests that the new re-branding strategy for Brand Cape Verde be aligned with the
newly innovative, dynamic, impactful, and interactive concept of Mutant Brands. Although
the proposed re-branding strategy is focused on the cultural identity and the tangible and
intangible cultural heritage of the archipelago – batuque, Tabanka, UNESCO World Heritage
Ribeira Grande de Santiago and Morna – as being the active components, this contemporary
approach can be utilized in different context (the International Surf contest held yearly in the
island of Sal, Cape Verde Music Awards, Expo Tourism, International Business Convention,
and so on) to demonstrate the country’s vibrant, energetic, and modernized society.
By rupturing the inflexible and dogmatic structure design of the current brand, Mutant
Brand Cape Verde can be used to communicate its visual identity at a more broader and
strategic level. Further, rooting from the core essence of the destination, this post-modern
communication strategy can also serve as a mechanism to create emotional bonds between
brand and buyer, by articulating its personality and transforming its communication style.
Hence, as a result of changing and extending the circulation of its symbolic forms, the new
proposed brand will allow its audience to participate in the process of creating a surface for
an endless visual expression for Brand Cape Verde. This visual expression is the
communication device that serves the purpose of capturing the passion of the Cape Verdean
people.
Just as the new corporate identity of the City of Melbourne was built to reinvent the
city’s image, the proposed model for Brand Cape Verde can also serve as a strategic approach
with a future-focused image that encapsulates the country’s core essence and ability to meet
future demands. As an attempt to ensure that the destination remains a preeminent Australian
center for culture, arts, education, dinning, entertainment, and shopping, the new logotype for
21
the City of Melbourne was created to celebrate city’s creativity, culture, sustainability, and
tourism, (Landor, 2010). This celebration is interpreted as being both future-proof and an
iconic symbol of the modern city. Blocky, colorful, and suggestively intricate, this strong
visual impression expresses the sense of the city graphically.
In order to visually express the uniqueness, magic, and excitement of the islands, as
well as present to the world a modernized image, the new proposed visual identity for Brand
Cape Verde should encompass: a story of its cultural identity, history, and the tangible and
intangible cultural heritage of the archipelago. With a diversified communication style, this
contemporary branding strategy can bring the following advantages to Brand Cape Verde:
easy adaptation to any situation, maintain the public’s attention, interact with the audience,
and contain a flexible dynamic and innovative structure, (Kreutz, 2010).

CONCLUSION

Tourism in Cape Verde is considered the main contributor to the economic and social
development in the country. The contribution of tourism to the national GDP growth and
employment has prompted the government to prioritize all activities related to the sector.
Although still its infancy, the destination is rapidly transforming into an industry of high
quality, with great potential of growth and the ability to compete in the global market. To this
end, the MTIE has taken measure to exploit all of the opportunities that the industry presents,
as well as setting short and long-term goals in order to maximize growth, and increase
tourism revenues.
This research has presented a synthesis of the multicultural dimension – the
construction of the cultural identity, history, and tangible and intangible cultural heritage – of
Cape Verde. The analyzed procedures carried out by Ministry of Tourism of Cape Verde
(MTIE) to create a tourism identity for Cape Verde in order to position and promote the
destination in the global market. However, result of the present study concluded that this
approach lacked the innovative mechanism to create an authentic visual identity for Brand
Cape Verde. Therefore, a re-branding strategy was proposed in order to capture the true
essence of the Cape Verdean people. With a rich history, diverse culture, and unique heritage,
the archipelago is an oasis of cultural diversification and distinct characteristic. To this end,
by incorporating these differentiated attributes in a comprehensive branding strategy to serve
as active components in promoting the destination, the dissemination of the country’s
historical and cultural aspects can reach a wider audience, hence, contributing to the
awareness and recognition of Brand Cape Verde. The UNESCO World Heritage site Ribeira
Grande de Santiago and the unique melody of Morna and as well as other unique tradition
and customs, are a great example of this divulgation of Cape Verde’s culture and history.
The proposed re-branding strategy for Brand Cape Verde was aligned with the newly
innovative, interactive, flexible, and dynamic concept of Mutant Brands. This integrated
approach unified the multidimensional cultural aspects of the islands in order to create a
vibrant, creative, and energetic visual identity for Brand Cape Verde. Reinforcing the
country’s image as a significant cultural tourism destination, this new communication
strategy can be easily adapted to any situation, capture and maintain the public’s attention by
reveal its appealing personalities, all while maintaining its base structure and core brand
22
philosophy. However, adapting this new approach of branding can be challenging for a
developing country such as Cape Verde. With limited financial recourses, the archipelago
often times depends on external contribution to finance projects of this dimension. Therefore,
a systematic methodology of qualitative and quantitative research with new criterion for Re-
branding Strategy for Cape Verde, and a reevaluation of the Marketing Plan underlying this
strategy, is proposed to create a dynamic, innovative flexible brand for Cape Verde.
With the creation of the new visual identity, this ambitions and innovative vision for
Brand Cape Verde is a holistic approach to reinvent and recreate a new form of
communicating its active components (culture, history, and heritage) as well as its anchor and
complementary products (Sun and Sea, leisure, and nature). The new image and visual
identity for Cape Verde’s tourism will serve as a tool to create awareness of the destination
and, introduce to the world, its diverse culture, rich history, distinct heritage, exquisite
islands, secure (safe) locations, and open-spirited-welcoming people – its Morabeza.

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