Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 
Published by SUT, 

(English Edition, Vol.7, No.l, Jan. 
1986) 
Shanghai, China 

APPROXIMATE 
SOLUTION 
FOR 
BENDING 
OF 
RECTANGULAR 
PLATES 
KantorovichGalerkin's
Method
WangLei(ZE
i~)
LiJiabao(~)
(Hunan University,
Changsha)
(Received Jan. 3, 1981
Communicated by Chien Weizang)
Abstract
This paper derives the cubic spline beam function from the generalized beam differential equation and obtains the solution of the discontinuous polynomial under concentrated loads, concentrated moment and uniform distributed by using deltafunction.
By means of Kantorovich method of the partial differential equation of elastic plates which is transformed by the generalized function ( 6 function and ~r function), whether
Ioadcan
concentrated load, concentratedmoment, uniform distributed load or smailsquare
be shown as the discontinuous polynomial deformed curve in the xdirection and the y direction. We change the partial differential equation into the ordinary equation by using Kantorovich method and then obtain a good approximate solution by using Glerkin's
method. In this paper there 'are more calculation examples involving elastic plates with
I.
various boundaryconditions,
differential problems such as cantilever plates are shown.
various loads and various section plates, and the classical
Introduction
Kantorovich. Kralove presented Kantorovich approximate variational approach to deal with the functional variation of multivariable functions. In our country Chien, W. Z. has noticed very much Kantorovichmethod. In his work~ the theory is described in detail and rich calculation examples are contained. The calculation examples of elastic plates include such boundary conditions as four clamped edges, three clamped edges and one edge free, or three edges free and another clamped. But the loads are limited to uniform distributed load and the beam function simply satisfies such conditions as two clamped ends or one end clamped and the other free. Hence, the application range is smaller. This paper derives the cubic spline function starting with the generalized beam differential equation and it is possible to obtain the solution of the discontinuous polynomial under uniform distributed load, abrupt load, concentrated load and concentrated bending moment by using 6 function and ~ function. This spline function is used as the beam function in the directions of x and y to deal with the functional variation problems of two varibles functions, which changes a partial differential equation into an ordinary differential equation, next, the approximate solution can be obtained by using Galerkin's method. In order to deal with the term of load of a partial differential equation, this paper derives the intergral formulas of product of ~ function and ~ function times any continuous functionJ(x), therefore, the
87
Wang Lei and Li Jiabao
approximate solution of bending of rectangular plates with any boundary condition under uniform distributed load, smallsquare load, concentrated load, concentrated moment and line load can be obtained. Hu Halchartt21 has introduced Kantorovich method and defined the ordinary differential equation system of the finite strip to solve the planestress problems by means of Kantorovich method. His work is new as compared with the solution of Y. K. Cheung's finite strip method. Because of the importance of Kantorovich method in mechanics, scholars of the world have been paying attention to it's development and various practice applications. So it is significant for this paper to make further development. The relatively rich calculation examples in this paper can be taken as the supplement to Kantorovich method.
88
II.
Derivation
of
Spline
Function
Let us start with the generalized beam differential equation.
El
~dx d4w
NI
~
iI
P,6(xx,)
(2.1)
the difference of this statement from ordinary beams lies in the term of righthand side. Where P~ is
the concentrated load exerted on the beam (for i= 1, 2
Integrating (2.1) once gives:
Nl),
6(xx~)
is delta function.
E I
d3w dx 3
=c3+
N

1
5~ ~ P,cs(xx,)
iI
(2.2)
statement (2.2) has a definite mechanical meaning, that is, the shear chart has sudden change.
cr(:cx~)
is sigma function or step function. Integrating (2.1) twice gives:
F.I
d2w.l_ c:~+cj +
NI
V' p,(xx~) t
Integrating (2.1) three times gives:
EI~
=c t 4c~.x +c3x ~
Integrating (2.1) four times gives:
x~
Llw.=Co+C~X+C~+c3
"
"
2!
x~
~
3!
.
9 N
\,
~
iI
1
i~
(xx~)
3T
(2
(9
3)
t)
(2.5)
For the integral of the fight hand side of eq. (2.1), we introduce the concept of "discontinuous polynomial." For any positive integral number k defines.
j 
(xx,)' 
( 
for xL~O) 

(xx,) 
~_ 

0 
( 
for x<0) 
For k = O, we define:
Approximate Solution for Bending of Rectangular Plates
(XXl)O=cr(xxl) =
0
f
l
t
(
(
(
for
for
for
x<.v,)
x=x,)
x'>.'.~ )
89
For simplisity we only give the figure for xi = xl shown as Fig. 1
(xxO~_
i
[~/2
Fig.
I
]tO
_{X}_{l}
Y. (xx,);
_{"}
_{I}
Fig. 2
tx,_
4
Fig. 3
obviously the discontinuous polynomial is a step function. For k = I define
shown as Fig. 2 For k = 2 define
For
shown as Fig. k = 3 define
3
.f 
0 

^{(}^{x}^{}^{x}^{~}^{)}^{l}^{+} 

(xxt) 1 

(.vx~)' 
= 
{ 
0 
(xxl) ~ 

_{(} 
0 

^{(}^{x}^{}^{x}^{l}^{)}^{~} 
^{=} 
^{k} (xx,)S 
( 
for x~xt) 

( 
for x~>xl) 

( 
for 
x<~xl) 

( 
for 
x~>xl) 

( 
for x~xl) 

( 
for 
x>xl) 
Where, "+" is called discontinuous sign and above four statements are known as half
discontinuous polynomial or interrupt polynomial. The figures of
shown as Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4. This kind of discontinuous polynomial is the important component of the
spline function, which can be represented by the unit step function, namely
(for k = 0, 1, 2, 3) are
(x x~ ) h.
^{t}^{O}
(xx,)?
~r
9 .{
Fig. 4

(xxO;
=
~
x~(xxl)~
:/e
~
Fig. 5
t/e
4
For concentrated moment, the generalized differential equation is to be written:
90
Wang Lei and Li Jiabao
the first integration gives:
EIm d'w
dx
4

EI
daw
d3U =c~+
N1
\~
z ,.a _{i}_{}_{I}
M~d'(xx~)
N

I
X_~
iI
M,c3(xx,)
the second integration gives:
d:"w
t2I~=c:+cj+
N
\,
iI
1
~
M,a(xx,)
where
it has definite mechanical meaning, that is, the moment chart has a sudden change. the third integration of eq. (2.6) gives:
a(xx~)
is just
(xx~) ~
El
=c~+c~x+c3~+
~
INI
M,(xa',)'
and the fourth integration of eq. (2.6) gives:
x 2
lilW=Co +q X+C2~c3
,r
~C+
9
'
\
~
"
'
,t
M,
(xx,):
21
(2.6)
(2.7)
(2.8)
(2.9)
(2.10)
Compare (2.6) with (2.7), we observe that the right term in statement (2.7) decreases one power. Let us take an example to illustrate the generalized beam differential equation. Try to derive the deform curve of beam. Suppose a simply supported beam (Fig. 5) is supported by a concentrated bending moment M at the central point. From statement (2.5), using the boundary conditions
x=0
w=O
dZw
dx z
=0;
x=l
w=0
dZw
dx z
=0
We can find four integral constants as follows
co=O
cz=O
c1=
•4
Mol
thus obtain the deflection curve:
E Iw~( lZx4x 3)
e3
Mo
I
( O~ x~ l)
It is the same as the result given in ~Strench of Materials ~ (P. 640) by Timoshenko.
Here is another case. A beam with the left end simply supported and the right end clamped beam a concentrated bending moment M and a concentrated load P. The generalized beam differential equation is
written as
~
Approximate Solution for Bending of Rectangular Plates
91
% 
1 

t/3 
f 
t/3 _ 
_f 
Fig. 6
t/
~ d
~L~UT'TT~~
 ~
Fig. 7
ff=l
_
J
A  relative displacement
~g.
8
El
After integration yields:
d'Wdx, =M(
~?
x
x~
+
3/)
~(
+P3.
(
(
x2
I
=
I )
P
(2.11)
.3
For beam with two free ends the statement of deflection is to be derived by means of fifth power spline function as well as by ordinary means:
Coasidering the following polynomial: x6/l 0 3xS/l~+ 5x'/214 which has satisfied the conditions that both the bending moment and the shear are equal to zero at two ends. In the calculation of elastic plates, the beam function must satisfy the condition that the vertical relative displacement is one i.e. A = 1 and the rotating angle is zero at the central point shown as Fig. 7. Hence, the beam function is written in this case:
X
e
~=F

3V+~F+ A
X
5
5 ~4
~+B
with
alto
1
I
X s
X 4
~3
d~ = Tt6~ 
15F 
+ 1o~ +//) 
x= 1]2, w = 1 (relative displacement at central 
point) 
x = i/2,
dw/dx = 0, A =
i/2, B = 75/64.
For
 For such condition as one end simply supported and the other free, shown as Fig. 8 the beam
function is written as:
For
x 
s 
10 
x' 
10 
~:~ 
x 

w= 
l~ 
3 
I' 
+ 3 
13 
+ 
l 
which satisfies the conditions that both the deflection and the bending moment at the left end are zero and the bending moment and shear at the right end are zero. In addition the condition that the displacement at the right end is two is satisfied. Above two sorts of staticbeam are unequilibrum. Hence, it is impossible to find the absolute displacement. Thus, we have to call the displacement to equal any constant which is called the relative displacement. However, the concept of relative displaoement is different from that in the structure mechanics. In the calculation of bending plates, we need only to learn the beam function (which is relative displac~aent) in the xdirection and the ydirection, and then we can obtain the absolute displacement by means of the variational approach.
Integrals of generalized function
$(xx,)
and integrating by Parts.
92
Integrating
(3(x.r~)
Wang Lei and Li Jiabao
once we obtain:
[a(xx,)dx= (xx,)
0
Integrating once again and not considering the integral constant we obtain:
thus,
following equations
integrating
5( .~
i~(xx,)dxdx=(xx,)}
, )
k + 1
times
and
ignoring
all integral
constants,
If
0~.r~,(a
, we can prove:
[~
,~(v.':l)dx=~r(:,xl)
9
0
The formula of integral by parts is
(~
f(x)g'(x)dx=f(x)
g(x)
o
0
b
=cr(a)a(0)
=1

(b
g(x)f'(.v)dx
we obtain the
(2
13)
Suppose fix) to be a smooth enough continuous function and g(x) a generalized function, above equation becomes:
bf(x)~V(xx,)dx=fc~(xx,)
a
a

cr(xxz)f'(.v)dx
According to the properties of
cr
function, above equation becomes:
r
f(x)a'(xx,)dx=/(b)a(bx,)
Xl
/'(x)dx=/(b)/(x)
=f(b)
~f(b) f(Xl) ]=f(x,)
X
1
Hence, we can define the generalized derivative which satisfies the following integral.
$(xx I)
of
a (xx
t)
as such a function
(o<.,<b)
(,
i,)
where, fix) is continuous at place x = xlThis statement has definite mechanical meaning. Ordinary use of Concentrated Load. The fight hand side of equation (2.14) can be understood as the work done by unit concentrated
load.
The generalized function 8(xx1) can be taken derivative again and function
~'(xxt )
is also a generatized function.
From statement (2.14) we obtain:
~bS' (xx,) f (xld.,:=  f' (x)
tl
(2.15)
Approximate Solution for Bending of
similarly proved if then
,.Cx~<~b
,
Rectangular Plates
.
a
(3 ~ (xx~)f(x)dx=(1)"
?~(x.v~)f " (x)dx=(1)~f
.
a
'~ (x,)
93
(2.16)
where f"(x)
meaning. Thus, we can define the function ~, "'(xx~ ) by means of ~quation (2.16). In this way
is continuous at x=x~, otherwise, the right hand side of statement (2.16) has no
8<"(xxL)
is also the generalized function.
What follows is a theorem.
Assume J(xx,)
to be the step function defined in the interval [a, b] with discontinuity
points
continuous function in [a, b], the derivative of which f'(x) can be integrated, then, the following
n) with (z=xo~x,.Cx.:~ In addition, assumeflx) to be any
x~ (i=
1, 2
~x,=b,
formula 

Iba(xx~)f'(x)da=crf 
\' 
[cr(x~)]f(x) 
(2 

~ 

Cl 
tI 

is true. 
o
17)
Where
Proof: Since in [a, b]
function i.e.
Ecr(x~)]=cy(x,+ 0),r(x,0)
or(xx~ )
is jumpmg value offlx,) at place x=x,
can be represented as the linear combination of the unit step
n 

,:~(xx,)= 
~ 
Er 
Taking derivative to
~7(xx~)
and noting that
,T' (x
x, ) =,~( ,: x, )=
n
\:~ Ef(.v,) !,~(_v.v, )
Thus, using integrating by parts we obtain:
Since
9
r
E cc(xx,)f'(x)dx=crf
.v) ,t.v=
=
"
~
n
E
iI
)" f
,a )

a
[,~(.x', ) ]
~T'(xx,)f(x
Ib
J(_,.)<'~Ix v
[c~(:<,)~/(x,)
tx
d .v
(2.18)
(2.19)
(2.2o)
Substitution of above statement into equation (2.19) yields formula (2.17). The theorem is proved. Formula (2. l 5) has definite mechanical meaning, that is, the right hand side of formula (2. I 5) is
the integral of concentrated
bending moment times the generalized function <'5'( x x, } timesflx)
and the righthand side of formula (2.17) can be understood as the work done by unit bending
moment. The integral of the step function times the continuous functionflx) in formula (2.17) is often
used in where the section of plates varies suddenly.
94
III.
Wang Lei and Li Jiabao
KantorovichGalerkin's
Approximate Solution
KantorovichKralove presented Kantorovich approximate variational approach to deal with the variational problems of multiple variables function.
m)
which satisfies the boundary conditions and write the approximate solution of variation problems as follows:
Themethodistochoosethefunctionsequence ,/'~ ( x~ x
x,
)(fork=l,2
,
II(x~.x:,.
.x,)=
tr~
'> ' iI.,(x,),/.(x,
I
x.,
x,
,)
where 
Ak(x,) 
is 
undetermined functions of 
the 
x,. 
Substituting 
II(x,.x: 
x,) 
into 
the 

functional, the 
origional functional II(tt) 
of 
11 (~,.L:, 
x,) 
becomes 
the 

functional 
of 
functions d~ (x,,) st:.(x,) 
function , ~t,, (x,) 
which 
is 
written 
~s 

Now, the question becomes to choose such 
t, 
4 ,Am(x,) 
that 
let 

I[*( 
I, 
4 
1,,~ reach the extreme value. 
The procedure of finding
the extreme value of
17 ~ (A ~
A,,) is to find Euler equations of
and the concerned boundary conditions by means of variation.
These Euler equations are generally ordinary differential equations. In this way, the origional partial differential equation containing multiple variables becomes the ordinary equation containing single variable, which is the essentiality of Kantorovich method. Setting m~r and taking lira?t, we can obtain the exact solution under certain conditions. Let m be a limited number, then we obtain the approximate solution by such method. The functional of rectangul',r elastic plates with clamped or simply supported edges is:
.t~ ( x,, ).
.t: ( x,, )
4
~,C.v, )
[1=~~["
JO.O
{1]~(x.!,)(\:~,o)':qw
~ ,/,'dT./
(?.1)
The functional of rectangular plates with free edges is:
1/=
9 ,, . .t, 1
Io
oT
l~(~"
"
,
,/~"
OZ~L)
t
0 ~~
,.,. ,,.~ ox
+~.71 O~0] ::
a

2(I
b
,
I O"~'
~_di,.~
O:zc
,~,#  
where D(x. y) is variable bending stiffness which is the function of x and y and q is a uniform
distributed load. Concentrated load, concentrated bending moment or small square lead is represented by the
generalized function. I) Concentrated load (Fig. 9).
I
"j"l'~,,~(x,,),~(,~71)d.~d,/
o
d
2) Small square load (Fig.
10):

ix:i~z
qwd.\'d.,
n
~71
3)
Uniform distributed load on strip region (Fig. II):
(:~ .;")
(3.4)
(3.5)
t
^{1}^{2}
4)
Approximate Solution for Bending of Rectangular Plates
95

~9
Fig. 9
Line load (Fig.
i
I
12):
.
i
,1
I

Ia
,,
I
o'~x
]
Fig. 10
b
e l~Zd~3(:/'rl)d'"d/:
Lx"
i 
T i 
i 

r 
I/, 
L,. 
' 
I 
i 
Fig. I1
(3.6)
Example 1 Rectangular plate with three simply supported edges and one clamped edge under
uniform distributed load. Try to find the deflection of the middle point. (See Fig.
,/x
Fig. 12
1~
Fig. 13
L
/"
Fig.
I~
14
13)
Solution: Suggest using approximate beam function
Substituting (3.7) into (3.8) yields
/7=
"1.2
0.1/3015bu":(.'c)2:0.:',12:~,;71
7
"91
"b:' u (.r):
1
0.
15bqu(.r)~ d.r
,~l")~"(:)
'
.
Y
After variation calculus substituting simply supported boundary condition w = 0 and ~' = 0 as x = 0
and x = a into Euler equation
d]'" 
d 
.:91" 
d" 
dI'" 

:h~ 
d.v 
0~' 
da'" 
du" 
 
f} 
yields:
96
Simplified gives:
O.03015buW2•
Wang Lei and Li Jiabao
uv2274314~=u"+2;tS.,~0597~,ul.97512
/~
=0
(3.9)
Now we solve the ordinary differential equation by Galerkin's method. Suppose
where ct, c,
X4
V:~
X
is undetermined coefficient.
Taking the first term cl and substituting u(x) into Galerkin's equation gives:
I[
(u'22"74344"~zu"+238"80597b'u4
97512~)(~~4
9
"xs
zC
After integration arranging yields:
cl
4.8
(~1'~ +11.0t59.1
_ +11.75059
=0.995024"
+
~)dx=
D
If a = b, then cl = 0.0360561qadD
Thus the deflection equation of square plates is:
At pla~ x = a/2,
w=cl
~
a:~
a l\
a
5
y = a]2. the deflection of middle point is
w=0.0360361
aq~
•
5
i
1~•
a3
+3
qa4
D
0
The error of the result is very small compared with the classical solution. As we choose the beem function with one clamped end and the other simply supported or two simply supported ends, we will encounter the follo~ving types of integrals.
which need not calculating and can be found out in the attached Table 1 at the end of this paper.
l The conditions are the same as above example but uniform distributed load is
changed into line uniform distributed load. (See Fig. 14) Solution: The functional equation is the same as (3.8) but the term of load should be changed as
Ex*mple
flI2
PS(.x2).VYdxd~,=P
IIYdyX
~
(
10)
Still using equation (3.8) but must changing the beam function so that it satisfies the load and boundary conditions i.e.
_{1}_{,}_{>}
_{.}_{(}
_{,}_{~}_{3}
_{\}
,,(.~) = toT
47)(c,
+c,.x+ c;x~ 4
)
(3.11)
consider the following ~ni,::~ra1~:
Approximate Solution for Bending of Rectangular Plates
and
.
Q
use the value of the
term of load
at
(x_
Px.3u
Il
"0
place x = 1/2
1
.,d
aS )x=
u:'18 ,
2
2
=Px
(
2[T.V ".\'dx

1
0
Thus integrating after variation calculus yields:
I).030156•
b
a~
;
2:
(~.:',12857I•
1.8
@
+7.2•
~
u
I ,8
a
P
t).1?;6~
97
For square plate, a = b. et0.01706p,t '/D. The deflection of the middle point is
I)a :~
~1.f)176673
• 1 x ~=0.00,1415~
l
1 ~ a :~
]Example II A rectangular plate with two adjacent edges simply supported and another two adjacent edges clamped bears of uniform distributed load. Try to find the deflection of the middle point. (See Fig. 15) Solution"
Suppose
_
!/a
,/z
.~
Similarly to Example I we obtain Euler equation, then solve the ordinary differ~,ntial equation by means of Galerkin equation. Suppose
u(x)=
(
2
x' u'
5~;+3~ x:'
"~" )(c,+c.,.<+c~.~+
)
(3.13)
Taking the first term cj and substituting the above statement into Galerkin's equation gives:
i a
(1 '~/
N4
Looking up the attached Table 1 we obtain the values of integrals, the above statement becomes
c~
[
o
4.8x0.15~22.7134.I•
(d.3428~,7.~)
+!
~
+238.80597 • 0.030i~,~~a _{I} 4.975}.~fi•o _{q}
0.15.
= 0
For square plate, a= b. then cs =O.033619qa'/D
The deflection of the middle point i.,
c0=0.0,~,,01~D
,~,~ ,
qu 4
•
1

:.: i=
()
t)ll.)l~,L2
.

Z} q~
]Example 4 An elastic plate whh two opposite edges simply supported ~.nd one ,:,~gc ~,an.~
and another free. (See Fig. 16)Given Poisso~ r~tio
Solution
Suppose
!~=f~. "
The
end
condition
of
u
is
Assume
two
Substituting
opposite
1 ,''>
/,
edges
.
~
l:';[',~t
.7
~/~
simply
supported,
~(.v)=
(ZY '
2

:~
+
at
place
then
.c =
0 and
(c:+c.:x+
)
x :.:,.z
tL0. :;
c
, we obtain
Sl~l',~()
9
"
O
(l lqoo56~~ 60 "
'

x X6 t
,)
t
.
b
I
,,,I=}=21
(,.
.
fl
Z 9'..((I
"
9
9~
qab
1)
183676) 1
"
(l
b
i ^{.}
@
f
(z
(,3.11)
0
(3.15)
For square plate, a ~ b, then ci = O.O126285qa'/D
The displacement of the middle point of the free edge is
:,,
~L,
o12628;,

i)
""
16
x'3~0
011g?,!)
o

_{J}_{)}
Approximate
Solution
for Bending of Rectangular
Plates
99
Example 5 Calculation of plates of variable section 9
Since D(x,y) is variable in the case of variable section, D(x. y) must be integrated along with the
displacement
function.
An elastic plate with four edges simply supported. Suppose that its thickness varies in straight
line with
y and
the
load close so. (See Fig.
The displacement
function
is written
as
~o=u(x)
(
'P

2
'/'
17)
+%)"'
In substitution
then
the following integrals are needed.
}~"

[
,ttl4
.tOr
,I/:~
2 ~
Assume"
.U
+T)
f7 (,+,r),.,,,,=
u
J'i
I j
~ ".\d~/=':
1So62
l
l
Substituting
Calling
il
_{(}_{'}_{f}_{)}
1+7
i,l,,t= ().!)/1
each value of integrals and performing
variation
yields.
I
0"2'992067>bu~o~'18562;u"'>10 ; ~
.b~u' =!1.'.11), ?b
I
X 4
X
'
_~_)
_{(}_{3}_{.}_{1}_{6}_{)}
u t .v) = 
(Tz  
~'~ 
~:< 
k 
( c, + 
c 
.',"= c, x 
I 

and 
taking 
the undetermined 
constant 
c/, we obtain 
c~
0
2992003x
1
b
8 '~
18562x
Ill
+21.6•
t~
1
0.0,192056~tf).
For square plate, a = b, then c/= O.0505542qaqD.
The displacement of the middle point is
R
t~c~0
0D055.12x
16
I,,
1X
q:~:
/J
qab
Do
18.,~;T 6 !
/
t',
i
1t30
Wang Lei and
Li Jiabao
If the load is an uniform distributed load, then
The term of load is O.04qab/Do. For square plate, a = h, then c~ = 0.0112343qa'/D,~
The displacement of the middle point is
q,a"~ 
5 
3 
(la 4 

:", 
=tJ.Ol12:;l:;. 
l~,, 
""16 
x 
16 
0.0010971 
Do 
Example 6 A cantilever plate with one clamped edge and three free edges under uniform
distributed load. Given Poisson radio /z= O. ;* . Try to find the deflcction of the middle point.
This is a difficult problem. It is convenient for us to use the minimum potential energy principle
to solve it. Since the displacement boundary' condition simply needs satisfying and the stress
boundary condition is not necessary to be satisfied 9 The functional can be written as: w= CXY
.2r
'
:.
,',!
r
_{[}
,lc.\'~,,e.xJ.,,=,
The beam function of beams with two frcc cp,!s can be chosen as
with:
.\ 
r 

. 
0 

9 

t 
.\J/ 
t 

. 
n 
9
.,(f'
r
';
9
1:',65a,
"
c,~] I'
.'" i,~
,,,L
*.
~l
i
,:
.
[
[ \'Jx=o
.

J.
"
_
d!
1285~
t2'
, 177., •
L/
3.17)
Substituting these values of integrals into the tc~wtional equation and performing variation
resp,:ct to c vie!e~:
'
~
~
,.
'
<
9
For scm.,:e,<~
.,t=/.tl
i!
.
.
.:=.'
,
::
2
t,

'
i
,
:
.
I,Jt):)i
'
,',.~,1I
]
ab
.,

thenc~=0.032649qa*/D
[
1
.
I
l')~!i
06!7;21
,
~
~
[
o

k.
1
'j:'.
'
j~
f)
ti:~53
with
~ !,. di,pb~.cc~ acr~t of the middle point of the free edge of the square pla:c b;
:>
:,act
:,,
=~.i;:;'~,~[.q'<
!
solution 0.11~C.,,
,.
::;
q,:J ~
]}
=
0.()~t703
qd
]TT
L,. the error
it
17 8% . By m,zar: " ,,~ Kantorovich
Approximate Solution for Bending of Rectangular Plates
~ 
,~ 
~ 
t~ 

o 

[ 

~ 
m 

t. 

~ 
~ 
~ 

'~ 
o 
~ 
c~ 
~ 

! 
c~ 
I 
~ 

t 
J"~, 

9 
~ 
~ 
~:~ 
~ 
~ 

, 
. 
o 
~ 
~, 

0 
~ 
~ 
c.o 

o.I 

E 

0 

I 
E# 
~. 
s 
^{U} 
^{~} 
~
 
0 

O4 

~ 

, 
I 

" 

c,.o 

oo. 

oo 

.J. 

,=, 

LO 
"~ 
4 ~l~.
I
^{~}^{,}
o0
o
i
U
I
~1 ~
V/
:"t
I
4
I
4
?
101
co
0
2.,
oo
4
4
Wang Lei and Li Jiabao'
Galerkin's
Example 7 An elastic plate with three simply supproted edges and one free edge.Under uniform distributed load q. Poisson ratio u = (1.3 . Try to find the deflection of the middle point. The beam function of beams with one simple supported end and the other free can be taken as:
102
method, the error is dropped under 5.0%.
,\
.\"
tl"
I 0
,)')
_v ~
d
4
+
I
(l
,),,
_v :
tl
'
.v
+
(I
The concerned five types of integrals can be all looked up in the attached Table 1. Substituting each value of integrals and performing variation we obtain:
tl 

c O.Olf12056"<:;.80.q6 
b'  
i 
'~' 
,ql~ 
:;'.'(I/ 
185676)>,'0.9811321a 
l 
t,v 

+ 
I 
8,< 1 0503I"aO~7>=1.I>~ 0 
185711:< 
1:3 
'2~6 l~a b =o.8333:o3xO.2i~~b 
For square plates, a= b, c=O.0210976qa*/D.
The deflection of the middle point of the free edge of the square plates is:
qd ~ rt,,. = O. 021097677 •
Compared with the exact solution O.O1286qa'/D.
References
7)
;< '2= O. 013186
qd ~
[~
the error is only 2.47%.
[ 
1 ] 
Chien, W. Z., 
Variational Methods and Finite Elements, Science Press (1980). (in Chinese) 
[ 
2 ] 
Hu, H. C., Variational Principles in Elasticity and Their Applications, Science Press ( 1981 ). (in 
Chinese) 

[3] 
Beijing Mechanics 
Institute, 
The 
Science Academy 
of China: 
The Buckling Stability of 
Sandwich and its Vibration, Science Press (1977). (in Chinese)
[ 
4 ] 
Timoshenko, 
S. P., Theory of Plates and Shells, McGrawHill Book Company, New York 
(1960). 

[ 
5 ] 
Timoshen 
k o. S. P., Strength of Materials, Science Press (1978. 3). (in Chinese) 
[6] 
Cheung Y. K., Finite Strip Method of Structure Analysis (1976). 

[ 7 ] 
Xu, Z. L., Elastic Theory, People's Education Press (1979.8) (in Chinese) 

[ 8 ] 
Hu HaiChang, Suggestions on the application of finite element method with examples of plane stress problems in elasticity, Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica (1981. 1). 
[ 9 ] Wang. Lei, Trial function and weighted residuals method, Journal ofHunan UniversiO' (1981.
1). 

[10] 
Wang. 
Lei, On middlethick plates and tryfunctions, Engineering Mechanics, (1984. 1). 
[11] 
Wang. 
Lei. Analysis of boundary integrate method for middle tliick plates, Computational 
Structural
~Iechanics and Applications (1985. 2).
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