Você está na página 1de 98
Big Book of Dragons, Monsters, Big ran 1) r Find Other Si Find gous, Moust . Creatures Creatures Ernst and Johanna Lehner s 3 ey.95 IN use ACE, S220 IN Gitlin AR DOVER PICTORIAL ARCHIVE SERIES Veroaus Parris 190 Desire te FOU. Coun, GA and MA. Audley (251568) Puts 190 Lows: 1.761 unseen rox Arts Axo Desowas, Alan Wesbtte and Willan Chapman (eas) 23°97) Comamrn. Deum ron ARCHTESTOWL Sheer MEAL: Tw Counere Tomo & Buu Cao, cA 1900, Jacob Boschart & Win. A Braun. 270894), ‘aap Sten Des, Robert, Bush, 257040) Lavy Awe Cs HE TENTS 20 THES: 1.102 uss Of ‘Ananis, Fooo 20 Dove, Cau, ec, Lele Cabarga and Marcle Mekinnon (eds). outs) “wean o Ce Dest Mos Joseph DAddetta, (24167) (Goes Lar Dest, Daniel Sheets Dye- 230961) Deses mou Prs-Counius Medco, Jorge Enso. 227244) (uefa es Cis A Pavoni. Ace, Cares Pip Fox (ed). 236536) Dicoearve Plus Bowers, Edmund V. Gillon Je (ed). 29289) ‘Aer Rowen frau sco Bors, Cara Belanger Graton, 45130) Bewes Ris 20 Sms Carl Belanger Grafton, 44531) 400 ow Ms rox Desises, Nemizworsns 0 Curses, Wilam Brgy and Co. Lc. Caol Belanger Gratton fe). 516240 Huson Vewoust Sor Muster, Carol Belanger Grafton. 248968) {W001 loka: Mones ax Onsaarers tor Ass 4) CHAU, Carl Belanger Gratton. (253525) Suurrms A'Pesol ACHE OF Va Isao, Carol Belanger Graton (ed). 37818) “east oF ANGI usTATONS row Bame-Chxry Sous, Caro Telnger Gratton (6d). 258053) ‘Trek oF Mnkur Boo FAL Coun, Carol Belanger Graton (256005. “Thess OF ows Des a> Mores ok Aes AND CRAFTSMEN, Caro Belanger Gratton (64). 2405.0) ‘Veron Coo Vises LRAT oR ARTS 3 CRA: “hemoie Crmemouriootans, Panto One Soe Ont Carol Belanger Galton (ed). @447F) Scorn Turse Fi Coe James Grant, 270467) 19 Corvars-Pshuseoons oF MANAUS, BROS, FS, SCT, iter (od) C766 Paperbound unless othervise indicated, Avalable at your book dear ‘online at wwradoverpublications.com. or by writing to Dept 23, Dover Publications, Ine, 31 East 2nd Street, Mineola, NY. 11501. For current price inlormation or fr fee catalogs (please indicate field of interest), file Wy Duver Publications on loon to wwmaloverpubleations.com “and see every Dover book in print. Each year Dover publishes over 300 Books on fine at, music, cralts and needlework, antiques languages, It- ‘erature, children's books, chess, cookery, nature, anthropology science, tmathematics, and other areas Manufoctaed in the USA. Monica Pub TISMP 00 1421042 L ‘TELEPHONE RENEWALS: Main Liar. 45-1866 (sean Park Brinch 392-38 Frew Banh. S000, DATE DUE BiG BOOK OF DRAGONS, MONSTERS, AND OTHER My THICAL CREATURES Ernst and Johanna Lehner DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. Mineola, New York idingphiel Nate Tide iti bya Pdi cover PifforialeArchive serves “his ak egw he Dr Pal che Ses So may we he eee Paap eae ee ee ee eres Department, Dever Publications, Inc. 31 in Toon piesa sopra pod InrmationlSondard Desk Nude O46A3E12 Menai ia tn Ua CONTENTS Foreword Tntrodetion List of Mlustrations Chapter 1 DRAGONS The Lindwurm The Tatalwurm Chapter 2 ORIENTAL DRAGONS Chapter 3 SERPENT MONSTERS ‘The Ouroboros Chapter 4 ‘TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS ‘The Manticora ‘The Basilisk Chapter 5 AQUATIC MONSTERS ‘The Sea Serpent Chapter 6 DENIZENS OF THE DEEP Chapter 7 AERIAL MONSTERS The Grifin Bex a aL 10 bee Chapter 8 MALIGNED ANIMALS The Whale “The Octopus ‘The Hedgehog “Hie Salamander ‘The Sea Lion “The Rosmarin “The Narwhale ‘The Ostrich ‘The Manatee: ‘The Armadillo ‘The Su & the Haut Chapter 9 BENIGN MONSTERS “The Dolphin ‘The Centaur ‘The Pegasus ‘The Phoenix The Uneorn ‘The Sphinx Chapter 10 Chapter 11 MEDIEVAL MARTIANS MONSTROUS MUTANTS Bibliography Clossary Index 19 120 104 1 138 130 131 135 136 131 Ml M4 M48 153, 161 164 170 184 187 190 FOREWORD Artiste freedom is a fairly modem inmo- vation. The arts of antiquity and the Mid- ‘le Ages, indeed those of the Renaissance, were bound by dictated conventions of imagery and style. They were artists none- theless, and, despite these obstacles, found suitable avenues for the expression of fancy, wit and imagination, One such area, which seems perennially to have fascinated them, ‘was the creation of imaginary animals, based ‘on superstition, legend, myth, or simply the free play of their own invention. ‘The Greek and Roman artist drow from the rich storehouse of classic myth to represent such ereatures as the Gorgon, the Harpy, the Spl, the Peyasus, In Islamic times, the Musulman craftsman, prevented by Mahomet’s strictures from making natural representations, skirted Koranic law, and risked eternal damnation, by turning to the ‘innatural — weaving into his designs strange forms that were part human, part animal, part vegetable. His counterpart in Medieval Europe, actlag on shnilar impulses, worked the {mage of Cargonille, the popular folk Tegend dragon, into the decorations of the ‘church of the Tle de France. Scriptures, received texts, epies provided the artist witha staggering array of demons, ‘monsters and anthropomorphie terrors. The Chinese tale of the battle of Gautama with the bisarre monster army of Mara was trans- lated nearly image for image on the walls of the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas at Tua- Ihuang (Tang Dynasty). In the West, the ‘Temptations of St. Anthony and the dismal «eschatological passages from the Apocalypse ‘(Book of Revelations), with their numerous monsters and amearthly creatures, became standard themes for artistic composition, ‘hore were still other sources. Assembled fn the tenth century and much read in the Middle Ages was the Picatrx, iterally a treatise on magie practices employing atrol- ‘ogy. The formulas for magical control called for the making of likenesses of gods and ‘demons and fifty are described forthe use of the simulator pitifully small number when compared to the 16th-century demonog- rapher Feyerabend, who in is Theatrum Dia- Dol lists over two-and-a-half trillion devils FFor the more scholarly artist there was much to be leamed from Boccacci's Genealogia Deorum, a compendium of mythological gods and beasts. Adding to the fabulous terrors that abounded were the grosly distorted, yet highly imaginative tales of travelers Schedet's Chronicle of the World, published {in Nimberg in 1495, cites, as a few of the ‘witnessed marvels of the East, eynophali or dog-faced, barking. men and sciopedes, hu ‘mans with but one leg ending in « monstrous foot. The Unicom itself, of Indian ancestry, came to Europe via Pliny’s Nature History tnd is undoubtedly a somewhat inaccurate account ofthe rhinoceros. Since the close of the Middle Ages, any number of artists have heeded the pro- ‘ouncement of Dire tht, “fa person wants to roato the stuff that dreams are made of, Jet him feoely mix ll sorts of creatures.” Dur- ‘ng the Renaissance, such strange forms were =e 8s FOREWORD designated “grottesch.” whence our word “grotesque,” referring to an omamental style suggested by some relics from antiquity found in a groto ike structure in Rome-sin- ister, playful and unfamiliar. Bosch and Breughel are the most well-known members of this stylistic company, but it s well to re= ‘member that Raphael mado omamental gro ‘eaques for the pillars of the papal lozeas Leonardo da Vinei, Signoreli, Grimewald and a host of others were also known for their Indulgence in sioustersmaking Nor did the interest cease with the begin 14 of modern ait aud the ouset of the age science: Odilon Redon, James Ensor, John Graham and, more recently, Robert Beauchamp are among the artists who have eontinued the fascination for demonic aud fantastic form. The enone manifestations of dreams and of the subliminal mental life, ‘with all their attendant oddities of substance and contradictory justapositions, ae still of singular concem to artists, The Surrealist and Dada movements deliberately attempted to {nvastigate nich phenomens, and elements of contemporary Pop and Funk art still bear ‘witness to that search, Direr’s observation is echoed in our time by Joseph Campbell's: ‘The unconscious sen all sort of vapors, 9d beng, trons and deli eages wp {ito the mind — whether in dear, broad aylght, oF insu; forthe humen ing eons Ne oi etoeer lite dwelling that we ell our eon ciousnest, goes down into unsuspected ‘Aladam's caves. (The Hero With @ Thow- sand Faces) (Charan, Divison of At Slate Calvert College ‘New Flt, New Yr Nowhere else has the human fantasy, triggered by fear of the unknown or inexplic- able in nature, shown a wider scope than in the invention of fanciful or grotesque mon sters. In his imagination, pre-scentifie man saw monsters everywhere ~ on land, in the waters and in the air~ embodying all facets of his anxitics. The basic idea ofthe exist- fence of monsters is actually nots far-fetched as it might appear from our fist look at the nasty creatures that haunted the thoughts and fantasies of our forcbours. There was 2 time, in the beginning of human history. hen animals, against whose power and cun- ‘ing man had litle defense, were considered ‘gels, Theis behavior Inspired sau to assign to them appropriate powers, names. and spivits. Man also feared that the souls of slain animals, unless propitated, might take NTRODUCTION revenge, or that a man's soul after hie death ‘would sometimes enter the body of an ani- ral. Animals were thus worshipped betore sods were created. Later, they became as- sociated with the newer deities and were ‘mummified after death as their sacred repre sentatives, In the earlier religions we find deities represented with the bodies of men and the heads of animals, or vice versa, ot as fabulous, fantastic creatures who com- bined different parts of different kinds of bots, The ancient Assyrian-Babylonian and Egyptian mythologies abound with such composite monster-gods, Many theories as to the origin and cause of monsters were advanced in bygoue tines: in austen syth- ologies they were the offpring of the union of bumans with gods in animal disguise; a ‘comamon beliet i folklore attributed them ‘The Meal monter: Bhemoth and Leathe Jobs 40.15), snes red by Wilin Rk,La,2 10 ©¢ INTRODUCTION to the unnatural intercourse of diferent species of animals; while according to me- dieval theology such creatures were believed to be the outcome of copulation by infernal creatures with witches. In earliest times and, ‘in primitive beliofe, animal cacrifcas wero related to the deep-seated ancient tendency in man to identify himeelf with the power and spirt of the slain animal. Prehistoric rman coveted the mysterious personality of beasts whose skins, tails, horns and feathers were not only worn as eothing and decora ‘ton, but also for their magical virtues, Many of the beasts encountered! by man in these times were awe-inspiring in their strength, feroeity, or gruesome appearance, and so ‘man adopted their characteristics for him- elf, He not only used the adoraments of the animals but also used thoir names and replicas later on in cognomina, titles and heraldte devices, as in the eseutcheons of ‘medieval knights; the family totem poles of the Indians of Alaska and British Columbia; the hal-human, half-animal family gods of Polynesia; or the religious animal dance St Jabm a Futnor ad the sven ‘tom Pal loys Com ‘masks of Afrioa, North and South America ond the Far Rast. AIL this use of animal and monster images was primarily to endow the tuser with the heroic features of the beast represented, aud to way evil spits tnd demons Lonking at the most ontetand: ing characteristies of monsters of bygone days, we find that even today there are an- features: for siza we sill have the pachy- dorms: elephant, shinoveros and hippopot- famus; for ferocity, the carnivorous beasts: lion, tiger, wolf aad others; for diagoorlike ugliness, the reptiles: crocodile, cayman, sgavial, alligator, chameleon, iguana, Gila ‘monster and others; for grotesqueness: the romedary, giraffe, hyena, and gorilla; for ‘eadlinees: the boa constrictor, cobra rattle. snake and other poisonous serpents; for hideous looking insects: the scorpion, black- ‘widow spider, praylog mantis, and mole srieket; for sea-monsters: the hammerhead shark, manta-ray, moray, and man-of-war; fand for fying monsters: the vampire bat, vulture, condor and other birds of prey ron Hevlation 13:0, bere, Pa, 110 INTRODUCTION ¥¢ LL ‘he Whore of aban ing the seventeen fom Dos Nowe signed by Has Berti pated by Svan Ota, Aur, Tesamest, i 12-s© INTRODUCTION LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Ack nd ede, Matec ES, ope The two eggdeng wor of an Seo Witter ‘ounce et Brosnan Hutooe, Balen mes lie Came bent “The hrs drag of Hel, Par, 10h cet even ie samc Be Feed eee aeheeean wi The Bal mont wt hand La saan Fn i atrs ‘add ed drag, lynn Mens Pars 110 0 Tine of Dag he revended ‘ae tapos. ” soy poe i me reme che inchs 4, tplommgng tears Michal yg edge ih enty. 18 yy anny “The cates of he wor, 18h etry 6 ve and he erent ofa, Ans 0 te Theda of bl Angag, MIS ” ‘The lar af the oxheaded dey, Moloch, om the ‘Sedu seeypona, Rosey 1632 Fy Dragon ling on shan, fom 4 120hemtuny ‘Botany manera eegeBuEe eee @ “The Wyvem of Me, ane, 15th etry lp Colin Tamnerotomachi ai, Venio, 1808 agate aca (Hopes an Leys, Hata ‘Qaot 585) Motber degen Seog for tte youn, fom & Senate Ben ah oor ocala hn dng des foes twa "Srl Herr, Saber 590 Dagon a Young dagon, by lee Bean, 1555, Seq fon Bai’ He yodiee, Ths dere Sor, fom See The Isla eles col) lake Pisegirecmibpree Neyracrop ‘pn et Droste Hr meen meee a ete een ed oy rm eer on ort aap TNT may a hn aoe ve ihn Soren. a aye ng oe een 2.9, w13 14-se ILLUSTRATIONS “The alcemie Sky Dragon, from Bail Valet Thats panes Pe 1008 ‘he hemetio nar ncn, “cr Som: Hendin, Ma ‘he Drogo ashen, Earp, $781 The deen Dil, Lode, 1082 “hese Sy Dre inking he sen od the son eon fob ‘he DragonFly, Suited, 181 ‘hg nm foe Nye tana ‘Type des «Goer Ina “ep had hi dng en, ton» ‘Penvian clay pitcher, fai ae [ALT ban be conten Do, oman ncn ‘ine ene masacrt ithe ite fe en fe Chortng Chinen ening Chine dg, om a i ute out ‘The Drag of Loney, Coton, China cL set fae lien eo Gils soo “Th Dra lh Clo nd oh Se, fbn ‘eld Chinese engraving Pe eaves dewatering word, Mukamo. ‘rs ety Mash Fe oe eel eer ‘The dmcendng d werig dreeR- dab, pers lepers ian ‘a th Penne of rete noton Champs eBot, Exes mbaiey ately goes facet Eee oro hey Bt hg of As “The sent onion ran Larne ‘on Ge ibang “The sepreteted int Rowns wl evi ‘rcs Tl ling Hrd he meg ered ert frase lng -Abrcs, fom an te Gant alt Ths ade Serpent of ee de Sereno Ft fe atie Ophiactasy te Sepeanes, fon st AIC ‘storie manip “he oat rm wad Topas A Hur of Four evted Sears, Londo, 658 The to-headed Ampbibsea, from a 12thcentry tay manu ‘he Anish 5 tried Rar fon o Pont et Dnt Historic, Boog 40 Malus eres fom Mtr De atrcae recone Srmbolerepseattion of the Serpent of Ino ty from Rasacan Bosk cy gee eee twin’ sept, rom French ble, 1550 ‘The Great Spent Mound, Adams Coty, Ohio rent ed «pics mend a coer "ate tart, os Coony, Ot "ying serpents, ancient Missipp Indias ‘rho bell gore, « mound eles Sake charm, Serial, Teoma Father serpent, ancet Mess Inns (Geta he phn serpent rd en an Aor ‘allcving alone, Meise. Kutulos, the pled sempec, Tacha, Mexico aps se ic, Ontos Cs mncucon nan serpent mower, om the Quedsas Tine secpent, enytologal symbal of the deat Mama, Nemes Goya, erst monte of the Hse I ae ea 4 ‘The ane momoter of the Ga Pub nam esto te tnd erect Sa Catv: Arce" Aan Yu, te eet of hn vol, Poco Tn, Sn Tlf, New Wesco “The lenin nak monte, Nootka dans ‘he ple vet ae, dao Se dkny New Me Unktede, Be ‘eat homed seent gol of he fee tle s ‘he Paralsuk Eskimo bone caring The rosa sept of cat (Chime Teo bade wet fe mash (Cine ‘Arata of ihn, fom an ld Wk ogee Sesh the ever ead magrserpent, fom Hind ‘Aol, on scl Hind coe “The cet extant reproertaton of Ourbor, "oun Cer Mets, Vo it any ‘he hae orn fxm a ol mnie ne Sin La Mec note, France “The Basha Outre, Rome, 1527 The cowned damp, Osrbirt fom Ure “Cigmiches Wark pag 1960 “The veel docle-cngen at Ouebm rm ‘eal Chymuches Wer, Leip 100 ‘Alege ote of he ‘ted Fore ll oe oni Wereal, from Constr’ tr Schtn, ‘cman ary mance ‘angles bee ag Cy ae ‘an andor Grek var pang Neral citinng the teebeaded Cerbera Srchog ofthe Cates of Hades. Dogue donletere (Ena wero fo Hoa Men toe Mewar Fae 0? ese 8b 998 S eR R AEE ae Be Be 38862 88 88 2 BB ‘The Morte Dog, Loon, 1658 ‘he Lamia, Linn, 109 “The Cont, Cable. London, 1858 ‘The Matra mont of Tatar, 10h entry ‘The mandragyn Mastic, fom a 1theesty Th eile stor ster, cut 1580 2 "je Hauer taro Saonn, as 008 em) “The mdi Manto, Tess 1551 “The mandagon Manto, Londo, 1658 Figg Ma, fon ening Mie Saat; afer an Ens bestay, 12 eatuy ‘The Cicatr, 0: Bas, after an ld English vanaf bra Basis, Base, 1500 Gale Conia Spent he Ba, aes Basti or Coca, Nuremberg, 1330 Mortars of ho Deep, fom Sebastian Miaste’s ‘Gemeernha Unieal, Bal, 1544 Neptune ig on Hippcampes, fom an enous ‘reek vs ttn ee eee, eee "Claas eras dima, Er, 155. se, he sea onser “The sm moray Comin he called Tab ‘thyorTour (Greco Roman thay) ‘he Seu Devt om a Freeh sews, pestoa "St Caoee, Senet Oe 168 cent “The Argue sou wont, from the net Mow sess a i " ILLUSTRATIONS <© 15, ‘he Captor Pe 7h fn eed of tn sn om «Foren ot bon Ue of he 0, fo a cet dan “ents Strat, San Suse Tevet fh fom en tow re “The Hore eet he Mikrto adas The Hem Wate Senta ete ater he fed on wont of Weg, fom Hada i ae Bash Ce “Th Sea Gy Mam a decors dawg ye Tae fsa, Wrage Seu et om a, cat dng by the “gh au aca apt Torio oy (Span te) he Gig Cat Fak ng of he ttm of ho tune oun anno) ota he Chien i dagen ome “The oy seer Mok ~ Spit of he Sea, he Melee a var (Vous anu) 1 agen set seet nd pin Yee, 8 fey pape Oo Pty, oon He 4 Ce Snetinaib, Booa, 18, Seat natn see ee “Emer, Leas Seq meen, fom Bop i Eris The New SET cond nt: » ee e889 8 8a RE FE Se 8 BE ‘The apr the uncon (nedieral Chat legend) "fom a medleval mannan ie, 1th Century 16S ILLUSTRATIONS Mermaid wd mannan of the Nie Det fom ‘Tbe Aldsovando Hsia Moors Melis fom the Publishers poste for Mel, ‘nel by Cera Lae. Ante 451 Dosbloaled Span en, Valencia, 1590, Mermd, ented i Germany, 1558 ron Pract, 1670 “The Suen of the Pabsopbrs, fom Valais ‘Tain des phe, Pa, 158 ‘ico, alter Batt, fae Algemene Hutre der "dons Wan wed ts Ltd Corey, AT Metis, cm ADrabao tlessars Uri Chy- ccs Wer, Letpat. 1700 Morgi of the Blak Rock, mar Liverpool fom an ‘Eiht, 18 entry Ning the enna of Japan ‘fake mera exited in London i 1622 pm thn Piet do wat al zeae, bal asd al a Tron, ster of he waves, Creek mythology “The Mone iy es mater cult 1572, fee "Supers Omni ee geton 1972 “The Bishop,» wa monte een fa 153, fom 3 She mos fo gan, “The Sealing, humanrbeaded rater fb, fom "Wr Scwcts Para 107 “The Noh, from Canad yearn! Prd "onm se oentoram croncon, Bai 1557 [Noch the eakeheaded god (ancient Asean ‘mybae)| Murda ewig wo tn (det Bale iin ck) | iypoerp sl hone, bl gli, rom 2 Te ety en ene ippelecyo, the coskbnae, fom an aniqve ‘hee an rane Am, mecha (nan Palen my ‘lon amass, Ayn Babylonian winged Yen ary, bom 6th Centry Coma boty Sheds, Aayrian Babylonian winged bl with & ha toe hed, ancient Babyboi “he Winer Hon of St Mar, Wiener, 1908 The Gorgon snes, Grek ae patie ‘The Eagle Men, lowsh Mound, Georgia “The str fom a presen rek drag in th Pa Cesk Rie, ie The yng Rage Man, war i of he Zn Indice The Eagle Man monte of the ancient Mineo ‘nae Tie bid Tengu, he ritchie sci mone of Topaese tre aol of Nave a 3 mo 1 102 tor al Rio, the acinat apaene dase ‘esduna, he Chines god of hander, fom an old “Carts pen dren Coma ng of heb whi of Vidhan, Vc ‘ibe ok Lae seated oof he Hater las erate ego Bl Ee «eden lr Does ‘Theale own eresetton of Cmbsba the ili, Wasem fn, 3000 RG alin, rom a anti Foman gold armlet "he Nimrud Palace iia sed a en atave Grek air (apex ‘sana iin ing oar, fom #10 centrybetry (lle seal ef Ct Fried von eee, 1308 (Gris sea ef race Barwin on Rose, 127 Gi, ater pen dain fm a model Corman at iin, deed by the Master of he Haasbch, Cena id | he ik dawns diy Hane Cin rom Si Jon Manevib' nerar, Ange tas no m ua ns us ILLUSTRATIONS © 17 Sherman claw of a Grell, fm Coase ‘Whenberger Hetighuaniuch, Winders 1509 Crayh, ded by Aleit Die, rom Emperor ‘Matin’ Trump Arch, 1518 uo Geifiom an Talan hele aoa 18h ceoty 17 ir tifa fom «Preach Healc eaal, ited ‘out 1581 a Corp fom a French sent Lee, 1533... 8 iii, frm Bal Vale's Vom Groen Sein, ‘ete in Lepi 100, 8 lelmeumon, a sets Asean sake, fom an eras, the maga Crack whale motte sas “The wha slowing Jone, fom adi Bs moans Jonah 1) a Plystr, or Whips, the Blower Wha, fom Mireur Open Gosia Bog eiched where, Rom, 1532 122 The whalemoniter and ite young, from Koon "Senet Miacac Aeelim, Bas IR 188 Killer Wala, Tat Tins 123 Kies Whale Haida tdiang, Beth Comba. 123 ‘Gant ceo atcha Sberman after an gray. ing by Hokaa (17601809) van he serpent sm fe Spore homes seein ite by Chater Zane apo 1470 py Tacos de Tera Augsburg, AT 18-<© ILLUSTRATIONS “The want cto atackng vee, rom an old French earn us Th gatos staking aknaine Not, Hedaron Seti fer’ ep, fom Ceram ‘ie, pid 140 12 “Te bee Ln, 1658 at Slamandey aot ne, ram Mad Seer torom Chyoncin, Pankey 1087 18 ‘Theale Gn FA Mails Comments, Tyan 1578 18 Selon, ler Rodeos, 1554 129 The ser ler Kolbe, Gen AT 89 ‘The Romar, ovals, from Canes Hetrae “tec 138 150 ‘Tha nora, fm Hebert Sma Yee Tro too Nr ond faa Londen 157 11 ols emsenttion a th: t,o a i eal sonal ry leet eel ce “Kalle, Lyons, 10 1 Mate, a prehistoric mound bales copper plate ‘lack Hae Ct Obs ae aaa “The manag, Zach, 1551 139 ‘Symbian, from as ancient artfact, Meso 134 “Tae ch (arth), aller Nice Mad, “twee, 1507 1 Fpeifal mprotatin ofthe Samant (opp. ‘al Ane. 1585 135 Fania reprsrtaton of he Housman (ue ied a, Antwerp, 1550 1s “The Jace te, Baka 138 Deed paying with « dpi, after an antique ‘Sent ate pasting 1 DNegne oe on & daohi ta the harbor of "Veni, pete in Vener, 1500 138 “The wor sd the ps he peter vor Nir Manat a9 ‘he crtltion Aut, oe Delis, fm "ai Arai nrbonomia! ari 129 ‘The dilphin reaming Ae, frm th pres d= Sc Joe Open Bs 1548 10 Dolphin amulet. fom The Cla! Ais. 1780. Gg he gig pe, nace ae harm oo) wo ‘Te ctor Chiron. Roman wal iting ut eee ee oe as ‘Thus btiethe centr, Fo, 16 Ma ong cents paying, London, 1520 rs he consti Sugita, fom an old Frac "caving ofthe Zodue us ‘he Babin Pees fom a wall carving, in Sade Noe “ SBeleroplon and Pegs, oA Tl engraving M5 equi ad th Cos of et rn ld French ‘soning We ‘The clot hose, Kul the Chins venion of "he Deze, fom an eld Chins pe swing 7 Rin, the putea venion of the Fes, fom ‘nance Cowie a “he Beoms hed, Farin ll ating 18 ‘The Fenian Freed, fom Conest’s Hare “Seiten 13k sy 10 “he heme with, the mami emf \Gustaar Eeangecs, Blase 1582 10 “Te phe Asbars, 1702 10 The ube LoveFest the post Chioere Nisei ml Chime Swag as aa, ha alfa Jenn pis 181 evtfang th al femle Chin poe, fm ‘oe Choe pen drawing 1 The Babylonian sno fom an ate wal are ‘oe omar, Ea a we evo bres aK Sy bay 18 ‘The vgn and the capt of the wks, om & ath se meng 155 “Th nlrn wth St Jann ond Aire T of Foun Ass The ope wih he omc, 170 188 “hn ler, fey Caner’ Rte Anil, Posed 1 ng, i Conse engi gy tom a2 ‘antique Chinese pen drawing mc} 1T St Sword Ot or Mayan ir, is 15 curred hi 18 1 the Cline fae kone 19 Ks he combed malo and fale Chien ‘Te lames eo etion tone 10 ‘in Babylonian pi, Nie Pla, Naw — 181 {he woman aed apn ne = ‘he Gmcen shit Tbe, nti caving 108 ‘mee tin Gin fom ol ‘rachagaae 169 ‘The Cheese mb fom sd rah drawing 08 Mateo, Sciopa, foe Date e- ond Conan ae DE 10 Moweooatpeugein fay aml, from Mog eng Puch dr Nat Ags 78 15, Onesned Caco of Sty 16. Elephant-headed Trl of Beinn 160 ‘The Canali of South Ameri, fm 2 Geman se ned i 188 or Monte a the Garman Zeaberald fo Peers ‘Ber Cickbuc, hosibore 1509 17 ‘Aeephaly the bas pel of Libya, fom Kore “PondricheBeschyerge alana 1900 198 Coane of Abo ented at Bologna 1642. 108 Hairy Wild Man Monster, fom J. Ships Ome, ‘tegument 16 A Mn natty, fom Rn Ren so 1 ‘wd Woman nd gy, ae 197 Fe Halas monte en Ate Ps Lies de thee ere Frat 19 Dea mom fom + Loomer ‘reach oor Once 1 Monte nf, cad he ons Cal, dd ‘Laveas Cranach the Elder, Nuremberg Man Motes tks fd Tier at Rome 108, Sty is ike ane 72 Monitr pe brat Land in Bev, dxined by ‘Kisect Dare, peed at Nusoig, M6 179 Mana rk, fon Wire He Lay Hews ‘mane de tomps ps, Pr 1519. m8 Mead fe etn of «man swt, enpuncementsoat the ith of iter Stmunien toms tee woman st Augineg Sah 1% ‘inde sonnncenent sont‘ thf to ba ‘mun oases, Narenber, 378 16 ILLUSTRATIONS == 19 andide sonowsoenmt shou th bth f+ seep “ithe boi, Clear, Henary, 120 hae ld he Se fos fom {re urge, Fas, 1. seo aay ele ieee Bee ier de Ghwaon Pass, 173 Montrby with oar ra 8 fous 1 Monster cpl with wo bead 19 Dor boy sont, hl by, hal dog 10 onal tan yan ae ba i oe wr th rs hd 180 Woman marth ct, half woman 181 (Gel monter wth fou eps nd me 181 ih-y born 1964s Best Ky, ums a ‘abies bal pened England Py aga mei sepa fed in fo “he womb, Panes tT 12 “The load Barbara Uren, om Alvan "Spore Omnia Ment Mtr, ology 1S 12 ahh bey mas or 1853 se gl moter boy, on fn 1554 1 owe monsoxt man, to Lyin Po Sioa bal 1857 ass ‘woreaded gid maact fom, Arie Pars “ws de Charge, Pa, 1313 13 ‘The tr fhe oad ey, Moloch, st Gino (Amos 5:6), “int Atha ltrs pe Agypare me 182 Chapter 1 DRAGONS “The dragon is one of the oldest, most wide- spread and persistent monsters in occidental mythology, religion and folklore. It isa four- elemental beast: there were subterranean dragons, aquatic dragons, dragons of the air, and Bre-breathing dragons. All dragons in Western myths were sinister, terrifying creatures, emblematic of destructive, evil and anarchical principles. The dragon-slay~ {ng mythological and religious foll-hero or saint was also strictly a feature of the West- ‘ern world, from the Euphrates in the east to the Iberian peninsula in the west, and from the Nile valley in the south to the ‘Teutonic forests in the north. In antiquity there was the Greek sun-god Apollo, who slew the rayon-serpent Python, guardian of ‘the chasms of darkness on Mownt Parnasene; and the legendary Phoenician prince Cad- ‘mus who killed a dragon sacred to Mars. From the teeth of this dragon, which he sowed in the earth, armed men sprang up and proceeded to fight each other until only five were loft alive. These five helped Cad ‘mus found and build the city of Thebes. In medieval times there were dragon-slaying folk-heroes such as Siegiried, hero of the Teutonic Nibelungentied, who Killed the dragon Fafnir, guardian of the Nibelungen. Hoard; or Beowulf, hero of the Anglo-Saxon ‘epic, who slew the treasure-guarding dragon. ravaging his kingdom, Geates. Christian lore {5 full of saints who have fought, killed or transfixed many an evil dragon: St. George, St. Margaret, St. Murtha, St. Romain, St Samson, St Philip of Reshsaida and many ‘more, The dragon image was widely used in medieval times in the Western world to symbolize vil — in eligious works, in mystic and magie philosophies, in Gnostic and Rosi- ‘erucian emblem books, and in demonology, astrology and alchemy, as the representation of the devil, ell, sin, heresy, darkness, super- stitio, and other evil capacities. Draonbling on legs, roma 12tbcentry bear manuscript weal 22-<© DRAGONS: DRAGONS © 23 ate m SS SS ‘oth sy he dean, to Francs: Colum’ Hypneretomace ‘Mother dracon hing fr ht young. om reach lil rnod by Aus Mantas, Vice, 600 ‘alas mania ar 16h centr 24-“© DRAGONS: DRAGONS = 35 Dragonl a yung dagen, by Fee Belen, 1553 26 © DRAGONS DRAGONS ~©27 ‘The dasonsaver St. Geoee, inte by itm Ponsonby, Lon Spent: The Fri Ques Seven ended enon tom tee! Fran we re en os len Spin “enor con, pred ery Pa, S37 ‘et Daconiom Hiern, Bologna, 1600 28s DRAGONS DRAGONS © 29 “The demon homed deat fl om pen den ‘8a Frenchmen Lege sh Fa ee ee AIS Se 4 mae a) ‘he dragon of he deepsea alter Ambros, 1648 30-© DRAGONS ‘The Lindioirm wens not actually a dragon, but a winged monster serpent, without legs ‘or claws, whose scaly armor glowed in bri Tiant gretnegold or gicensilver. In Germanic: ‘THE LINDWURM Nordic folk-sagas and Middle High German eepie poems of knightly love and heroic deeds, it was the guardian of hidden treasures and ‘of beautiful matdene in distros, ‘THE TATZLWURM DRAGONS ~S«-31 ‘The Tatzluurm was another of the dragon- eaves of the Alpine mountains of Austria, Ba- of Germanie folklore; a gi varia and Switzerland, and was the terror of Alpine peasantry, preying on their cattle ed Tetaherm Serge ‘erent of Aine Cen alere The Tater of rch om Atanas Tinie Monde oborooa 32-S© DRAGONS DRAGONS 42 33, ve te hemi Dn of Chaos, 34-2 DRAGONS (Tele hy Dam ehh and he ove al Vato ach des pps Pari 1056 ‘he bert dragsnonse, hong the Mana Cf (Chas) gether, {tom Hemaphredahes Sonn nd Mendalnd, Maing, 1752 DRAGONS ©« 35 ‘The Denton of Dash ma ah cava A Tiny Worn Ta fah and Disbaion Cldes, edinburgh TAL “eragon Dit, rom Joo ‘upon Dice, printed by De DRAGONS 37 96 + DRAGONS Chapter 2 ORIENTAL DRAGONS Dragons ure ulsy important beasts In Fur Eastern mythologies, ht there ie a deeply marked difference in their symbolic mean- ‘ng: they are not the vieious monsters of the medieval Western world, but fiiendly, lov= able and benevolent creatures. They are the ‘genii of strength, the emblems of vigilance tnd protection, the guardians of treasures, tnd wisdom. Among the Chinese and the Japanese, dragons are the most potent sym- bols ofthe beneficent, rain-giving powers af the gods of water and clouds, and of power, royalty, and sovereignty. In Japan the dragon, is the emblem of the Mikado, and in China ‘of the Emperor. China alone has four impor- tant groups of protective dragons: the Tien: Lung, celestial guardions of the mansions of the gods; the creator dragons of wind, clouds ‘and rain for the benefit of mankind; the Le-Lang, beuevoleat eaith, sky aud water Aragone which ascend to the sky as water- spouts or typhoons; and the guardian dragons ‘of wealth and wisdom. In Chinese mythology the dragon is one ofthe four important types of intelligent and protective beasts, the chief of tho scaly roptile. (The other throo are the Unicom — king of the hairy beasts; the Phoenix lord of the feathered creatures; land the Tortoise ~ master ofthe shelled ant mals.) In Persian mythology the dragon ‘Azhdaha is the guardian of all ganj the Subterranean treasures of the earth. One of the most important and ewbaful Oriental festival the Chinese Dragon Boat Festival, uring which dragon-shaped boats are raced ‘on all waterways in China, and special rice ‘cakes dedicated to His Majesty the Dragon are eaten by a memrymaking crowd. This festival isin reality a nation-wide prayer for a good harvest resulting from the fecund Talns of which Lung —the Dragon is the celestial guardian, 383 ORIENTAL DRAGONS © 29 (Chentang,the gran drag, fom an ld Chior eneavng 40 © ORIENTAL DRAGONS ORIENTAL DRAGONS “© 41 ‘The deson emblem af the Chines emper symbol ol eave powes, Tom 2 Chneslanter owt (Chinese dragon, from nod laser sihowete ‘The Dagon of Longevity, roma moa table in th Temple of Tonge, Cantos, Chine ‘The Dragos ofthe Cloud and fhe Se frm anol Chines engraving 42 © ORIENTAL DRAGONS ORIENTAL DRAGONS = 43, Heaven's lud-athering sword, Murotumpandnra on of he hee Japanese ‘The descending and ascending dragons Ryo dad raonead and Tapa eanre uc inthe tao sdeens denen by Hh sake rom tnd Japon enero Chapter 3 SERPENT MONSTERS Since time immemorial, man has feared the serpents, Their subtle and rapid move- iments, the swiftness of their attack, their ‘venom, theie seeret hiding places make them the most dangerous and potent monsters in the imagination of mankind. Their ability to shed their skins caused them to be regarded ‘as possessing perpetual youth and everlasting life. They were considered az incomprchensi bile as destiny, able to conceal themselves even where there were only sina stones and short grass. Their ability to live for long periods without food made them seem like ‘mysterious gods. In ancient days there was Virtually no religion or philosophy, no native Tore or body of legend, no magic or mystic system of belief, that did not assign impor tant functions to serpents. In many myth ologies, the monster serpent is not only the beast of chaos and destruction, but also of ereation, In the Assyrian-Rabylonian reli gion, Marduc, the ereator, slew the serpent monster of chaos, Tiamat, splitting iti two and oreating from one half the earth, and from the other the sky. The demonic three hheaded serpent Azhi Dahaka, of ancient Persian mythology, was the symbol of the destructive and the generative powers of the ‘earths the Nordie serpent monster Nidhoger, living in Hel, the primordial abyss, repre- sented the vuleanic powers of the earth Cecrops, the half man, half serpent of Greek mythology, fist king of Attica, was the ta tional founder of civilization, and of Athens, the eitadel of which was eulled Cecropia, Chinese mythology the woman-headed s pent Ni-kua-shi was the world creator. The Imonster serpent symbol was prominent in the beliefs of the Gnostics, the Rosierucians, the Ophites and other mystic or Satanist societies, and was used by the astrologers and alchemists. We also find serpent mon sters in the myths and lore of almost every tribe in Africa, Asia and America, where they appear mostly inthe role of villain, symboliz- ing everything that is disruptive or evil, ‘Azo th ancient Pesan gd ol restive matin, wit the ‘panne woe ofthe Spit Lie Mee SERPENT MONSTERS <= 45 ‘eae lary nes th nin Tyton Neth ‘SERPENT MONSTERS © 47 46 we SERPENT MONSTERS 48 “© SERPENT MONSTERS SERPENT MONSTERS © 49 Abraxas the serpent eed gd of masa inuces roe an “igue Condtc amet ward weber 50-<© SERPENT MONSTERS Tietwohexded Anphitsns, tr bey acu from act SERPENT MONSTERS © 51 ‘kart ase ntwined eget symbol of ‘tom's enh ember, Lem 1880 52 S© SERPENT MONSTERS SERPENT MONSTERS <2 55 56 © SERPENT MONSTERS SERPENT MONSTERS “#57 '58-w© SERPENT MONSTERS SERPENT MONSTERS ~« 59) "Glace mites ee Ga ania) titre expt Platt, om slain a SERPENT MONSTERS “© 61 THE OUROBOROS The serpent biting its own tail, the the elements, and had to be killed before an roboras, is an ancient sign of et alchemic experiment could be successfully symbolizing the endless succession of ‘concluded. In its alchemical representation, ‘tions which form the wheel of eteral Ife. ‘The Gnostier,an early Christian sect, pop. gated a system of mystical religious and philosophical doctrines that combined Chis- gether in matter, ke day and night, because tianity with Greek and Oriental philosophies. alchemical matter is one and allmbracing. ‘They wansformed the evil serpent of Para In ancient astrology the sign ofthe serpent dies Into the bonalcent Ourabores, which devouring ts own tail was considered the they worshipped because it was the spent symbole roprsontaion af edn, Tn many ‘who ad planted in man’s heart the yearning, ancient belies, th tall-biting serpent isthe for mote knowledge, The medieval akkhe- world serpent, like Midgard in Tentonie mists adopted the Gnostic Ourobores,chang- mythology; or Asootee, the world-encreling fag it he Hermetic Dragon, wna biting its own til, provented the tanemetation of he wr pn ith ale enh ecting ‘Tago net ptt Oar tte wen alent ict lta ant ace ‘Spas cape Coe Mona Voki ay (62-<.¢ SERPENT MONSTERS ‘THE OUROBOROS ‘THE OUROBOROS SERPENT MONSTERS =© 63, tice Re Tr 64-6 MONSTERS OF THE HOLY LAND Chapter 4 TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS Desdes dragons and serpents many com- the Buropein hinds st night. The latter ex- posite monsters infetted the mountains and ited in many forme in many ator lands as plains, forests and jungles of every continent werewolves to the North American Indians ofthe globe, Among them were the classical as jaguarsmen in South America; as were Watchdog of Hades, the thee-headed Cer- tigers in India, Borneo, Wester Asia, China Deru with a dragon's tal and a neck bes- and Japan; as werelions in Aric, and in stil tling with serpent heads, who lived on the difovnt guises clewhere, Many other shore of the Slyx and prevented the shades endaty carnivorous monsters sore reported of the dead from leaving the underworld: in medieval natural histories: the Lara, wh the fire-breathing monster Chimera, with the fed ou lost children; the ferocious Manticora; the terfying Balak oe Cockatrice; and the Gorgon, or Catoblepas, as well as oqualy plhine inane frightful creatures who wore probably fan or wolfmen, known to the ancient Greeks ful, imaginary representations of real but and Romans, who were human beings trans- litte Anown beasts, such as the tiger, the formed by witcheralt and blick magic ito hyena, the lion, wild dogs and eats of all ‘catniverous bea, like the Prewch Lowp- Mud ws they fist appeared to wondering ‘Como, tat roomed the plains and forests of and fearful eyes, dom Bernards de reyes Werner Coons Mir lain, aed Punch Sper Tota bei acl ‘TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS © 67 6 © TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS ‘The Mantcorais believed to bea vampire, ‘mauling monster of ancient Taare origin, ‘whose name derives from the Fersian martya man, and svar — wo eat. TL yas Bist men: tioned lathe writings of the Creek physician and natural historian Keesias, who lived and worked atthe ancient Persian court in the fith century nc. The existence of the Man \ieure was abo accepted by the infuential Greek philosopher Aristotle (984 $22 nc). From that time on, the Mantcora hansted ancient bestiares and, later on, medieval natural histories. The monster was variously described by different scholars, and hs trated in bestares acco tv Ue Lautan imagination of the mprodcing arti Tt wae always represented, however, as a fearful composite monster the size of uhorse, usually wih the bod and elaws ofa Hon, oF with ‘TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS = 69 THE MANTICORA the sealed rump of 2 oness and the talons ofa gif; sometimes with amar’ head with three sows of teeth in each jw, or with the face of a horned man, or a man's head with ‘mane fa the form of a Phrygian exp and usually with the tl of 4 baslisk or & soor- pion, tipped with a poisoned arrow-head, or ‘covered with bristly spikes which could be Uhrown great distances with deadly accuracy. Sometimes the Manticona was euipped with Aragon's wings or with four duge like a cow; and its voice was said to resemble the united tones ofa lote and a trumpet, parodying the Thuan voice. In other words, ths terble ‘unter uf medioval mes was endowed with very fantatio oF monstrns Feature known, Later works suggest it derived from elcortd memories of the rarely seen man-eating tger or the earrionfeeding laughing hyena, 0 s© TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS ‘THE MANTICORA ‘THE MANTICORA ‘TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS “71 ‘Thee Mantras cu the ar 100 he Har Fert, Seen maton a pr ae cesta ‘72-0 TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS ‘THE MANTICORA ‘TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS “73 THE BASILISK ‘The Resilak or Cockatrice, was a nolsome found guilty, was put to death by the offal Lost which dould stro or hiss 4 man to hangman, The Raslisk was derribed by the death, It was an unsavory, winged reptile Roman writer and naturalist Pliny (23-79 bom of a yolklss egg lad by a cock and a2.) as living inthe warm climate of Cyre- Iatched by’ toad in Ue warmth ofa dung- slew and the Libyan desert, Fearing ony the heap. So deadly was its breath that it wilted rowing ofa cock and the sight of a weasel, al vegetation and shattered any stone it the only animal immune to Rs breath and touched: its face was so horrible that the sight, Travellers crossing the desert in the very sight of it would Kil any living thing, fist century of Christan time took along a Te was considered to be the king of all ser. cack and & weasel to keep Basilks away pnts and reptiles, and its name was derived from their camps. Ia preSt. Patrick times, from the Greek basildos —Wtle king. The the Isles of Britania (Tin Isles) were s0 CCockatrice is mentioned inthe Bible (Isaiah infested with Cockatries that nobody dared B:11:8), and isrefered to many times ether leave his home without a silver minor in ‘ts Cockatrice or Basllsk, in English itera- his pocket, ecaue its own image would kill ture: by Shakespeare; by John Gay in his the monster. The lst recorded appearance Beggar's Opera; by Shelley in his Ode to ofa Baslsk was in Warsaw in tho year 1537, Naples. nthe 15th century, decrepit nine. when to girl, playing i the cela of theit year-old cock was tried in the public court hows, were allegedly illed by one's breath fat Basel onthe charge of having id an ogg In heraldry the Basilisk, and ie cousin, the ‘during the days of the Dog Star; the cork, Wivern, symbolized the “deathealing” eye. ihe Mains om on ge yume mater, 14-<© TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS ‘THE BASILISK THE BASILISK TERRESTRIAL MONSTERS ~© 75 Chapter 5 AQUATIC MONSTERS ‘The moet superstitions group on earth are the members of the brotherhood of seafaring ‘men, no matter what thelr nationality, reli fon, belief, creed or colo. And with jst. fation, since theirs isthe only profession in which men pit their lives and Lins against {ll four earthly elements that endanger man kind: the churning waters ofthe oceans, fogs and rainstorms; the turbulent ar of typhoons, Inuvicanes and tornados; the terrestrial dan- gers of refs and cif in coastal waters; and the constant dreaded menace of re on theit vessels. Not to mention the possiblities of tecident, hunger and hint. No wonder that ‘mariners ofall times in all four comers of the globe, inspired no doubt by such dan- serous real creatures ofthe deep as sharks, stingrays, moray, electric eels and Por fuse men-of- war which are bud enough — populated the enormous stretches of treach- fous and unsafe waters with countless ferms ‘of fictitious monsters, whose single purpose was to punish human intrders into thelr Teal, And 30 they invented. sea-erpents and seadragons, mermaids and. mermen, flgantic Bsh and octopl, and mailed and frmoced sea-monsers ofall kinds. And who fen say with authority that somewhere in the deep crags onthe ocean foe, unseen by Inuman eyes, there do not still exst weird aquatic monsters from an antdiluvian past, ‘which might have been sept to the ocean surface ina vast upheaval, tobe glimpsed by frightened sailors fighting for their ives? ‘cmophaUncoraiy Te AQUATIC MONSTERS © 77 78 -<© AQUATIC MONSTERS AQUATIC MONSTERS “79 reget i en naentan mie oak Se Rome 1597 156 © AQUATIC MONSTERS Be aeaes ‘Theres mont Malet ofthe Sth il Vor AQUATIC MONSTERS S87 THE SEA SERPENT Sea serpents are the most widely-publi ciaed monsters ofthe deep. From the time of the Biles sea monster Naat (Amos 9:3), tho Arabian sea seepent Tani, the serpents oF Neha en ere Coes mythology, and the Midgard serpent of Nor- wegian legend, this creature has cropped up Hime and again throughout the centuries here are Sea serpents in Hindu mythology. id Fijian legend; they have been seen off the Libyan Coast, as recorded by Aristotle, in the Swedish Sea (Baltic); in the Sea of Darkness (Atlantic); off th Isle of Skye; in the Norwegian fjords; and, according to Lapland sagas, in the Sea of Finland. Sea serpents are reported in the works of Olaus Magnus, Aldrovendus, Pontoppidan, the Bishop Hane Egede, and many others. Re. cords of encounters ith se serpents are found in the log books of numerous ships, such as HMS. Daedalus (South Atlantic, 1885 HMS.Pouline (of Cape San Rogue, 1875) the barge Georgina (1877); HM. Yacht Osborne (off Sicily, 1877); the American ship Sacramento (1877); Hho Samatra (Rad Sea, 1877) and the Britsh ship Prcateer (off Breit, 1879), Sea serpents were reported seen from the pier off Llandudno (1582) from the steamer Sultan (1909,) by the Preach ‘mail steamer Pacifique (near the Loyalty Islands, 1928), and so on. There were also landlocked set monsters, lke the Ready sea serpent of Provincetown (seen 1886), and the star performer of them al, allegedly seen by thousands of visitors, Nest, the sea serpent of Loch Ness in Scotland's West Highlands, Notwithstanding the manifold appearances of this monster species, how ver cents have never been able to exp ture a single specimen Tr etarmmeig1th 88 <© AQUATIC MONSTERS ‘THE SEA SERPENT. "THE SEA SERPENT AQUATIC MONSTERS = 59 SERPENT MARIN. Sexe mk He Fah he ee Saye nd ‘THE MERMATD DENIZENS OF THE DEEP = 91 Chapter 6 DENIZENS OF THE DEEP In the folklore of seafering people there lore; the Ningyos ~ mermaids of Japanese ‘ests a semichuman population ofthe deep mythology, and all their manifold counter SS widespread and fartlong as the travel partyin olber Western or Oriental fables ‘ange ofthe ships which ply the Seven Seas. Since the time of the ship Argo of Greck “There has never been a time in nautical his- mythology, there seem always to have been tory, never a comtry by the sea, never @ mermaids and mermen around to lure un- Iharbor on the globe, in which mariner have suspecting sailors and thee ships to destruc. sot told of merraide and mermen they have ton anda eatery grave. Even in ove highly Uhemselves encountered or heard bout from technical and selentife age, no mimber of reliable mates. Among these watery creates negative statements by scientists and netoral ‘were the sea and fsh gods of antiquity, with histarians, ased on no mater what amount {heir entourage of Tritons, Nereids and of research in submarines and bathyspheres, Noiads; the Sirens of Greco-Roman myth- will ever be able to destoy the belief of ‘logy the Superstitions mariner i the exten of Melusines these semi-human denizens of the deep. (rom the High German lur—to lurk, and Mermaids and mermen will no doubt be rid- lai—the rock) of Hhenish folksaga; the ing the waves and sitting on reefs and rocks aoe Morgane (from the Welsh Mari Morgan— concocting their mischief for as long as there seafolk of Brittany) of Welsh-Bretonie flk- are men who go down tothe sea in ships. en ot oom Upon Aldevandar Minors Meets ‘ouble aed Spas sien pines iota Tea eat ee 92<© DENIZENS OF THE DEEP ‘THE MERMAID ‘THE MERMAID DENIZENS OF THE DEEP © 93 94 <¢ DENIZENS OF THE DEEP ‘THE MERMAID ‘THE MERMAID. DENIZENS OF THE DEEP <= 95 aR 35 SES y> s DENIZENS OF THE DEEP <« 97 ‘THE MERMAID. ‘THE MERMAID {96 ve DENIZENS OF THE DEEP Chapter 7 AERIAL MONSTERS In addition to dragons and fying serpents, ping ts wings, and lightning by opening nd many othor binds of compotte serial mon loving ie apes the onglo mon ofthe Amar ‘ters filed the skies of ancient mythology indians; the Tengw of Japanese folklore, « fying demon, half man, half bird; and the the winged gods of Assyrian-Dabylonian winged thunder god Lat Kung of Chinese ova and ‘other Puifie islands. In der, technal ‘we have no Moh he nahn 100 se AERIAL MONSTERS AERIAL MONSTERS © 101 102-s© AERIAL MONSTERS, AERIAL MONSTERS <= 103, AERIAL MONSTERS *© 105, 104 © AERIAL MONSTERS AERIAL MONSTERS + 107 106-<© AERIAL MONSTERS < \Y Nant oF 108 = AERIAL MONSTERS AERIAL MONSTERS <© 109 10-S© THE GRIFFIN ‘THE GRIFFIN AERIAL MONSTERS “© 111 THE GRIFFIN One of theoldestleyendary serial monsters Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Myce: {5 the Gruphus. Gryphon. or Gryps. whose neans, Indo-Iranian, Syrians, Seythians and fame derives in overy language from the Greek, Tt was mentioned in the writings of Greek grypos — hooked —beeauseoftslarge the Greek philosopher, naturalit and hit beak, Tei called Grifin fa English, Grifon trian Ktesas, who lived at the Persian Court fn Freneh, Grifoin Italian, and Grey in Ger- from 416% S898. The monster was a sworn rman, It was beloved to be aferocoas mon- enemy of horses and constantly at war with ster of enormous height who fed vel the Arfmaspians, who tried wo eaptare the to its young, Half lion, half eagle, it was so gold hoard guarded by the grins n ancient large that one could mako drinking vessels astrology, the chariot of the sun was drawn from its claws. It dwell ia the country be- by apa of gins. Wherever they appeared tween the Hyperboreans, the North-wind in legend, they were always sgardians of people of Mongolia, and tho Arimsspians, treasure, asin Iranian, Scythian and Tndkan the one-eyed tribe of Seythin Tt was known mythology. Since the day of the Crusades tothe Sumeriansin 3000 under thename (1th to 13th centuries) we can find the of Chumbaba,andwo ind italointhemyth- —grifin in the heraldry of every nation in lies a mts Pr ‘logical artifacts ofthe Sumerian, Assyrians, the Wes, asa symbol of etoral vigilance found mth bana ft Dar il lt, etn ia USK) ‘The old nn erating Chaba — th iin fe nae fn a fund Sen Worn SO AERIAL MONSTERS ©© 113, ‘THE GRIFFIN ‘THE GRIFFIN 112-s AERIAL MONSTERS. tar mace eta ag ot, os en 114-S© AERIAL MONSTERS ‘THE GRIFFIN ‘THE GRIFFIN, AERIAL MONSTERS == 115 Cro — einen, dined by "ies Bena 116 © AERIAL MONSTERS ‘THE GRIFFIN, ‘THE GRIFFIN, AERIAL MONSTERS © 117 ” ein Greifdawe : at ders “Witenes Weber 13 118 © AERIAL MONSTERS ‘THE GRIFFIN Chapter 8 MALIGNED ANIMALS ‘There are many harmless animals wh were: maligned in bygone tines at hel ‘monsters, such as the Ichnewmon, a mem: ber of the weasel family, native to Africa, believed to be a superspolinous monster beease it feeds on such tidbits as x rats and crocodile ogg the Bat and the Ort ‘ovo nocturnal ereatures who were considered the steady companions of witches and war locks; the Toad, symbole death amt dey and the Boue Notr (black he-goat), alleged tobe the incarnation ofthe devil and the v: hielo of witches for thet rp to the Waites Sabbath, Nearly every animal on land, in the Seu or inthe alr, of great size or grotesque form, of noctumal or unas behavior, un pleasant sound or smell, has been maligned is creature fom hell a man-kling, cop and catledestroying ot ship-wrecking mon ‘tera symbol of mischief; a demonic emblem of death, the devil or hell; an instrument of black magic; or an omen of all hinds of catastrophic or otherrise unplessant oocur fences. There were abo the harmless Sala ‘mander, supposed to live in Sie; the equally hharmless tedgehog, accused of eating the crops stored by farmers and of milking their Sleeping cows dry on nocturnal forays; the sroneating Ostrich, who robbed horses of their iron shoes; the large sea mammals of ‘he whale and seal fais, accused of man- killing and ship-wrecking, ad infinitum. DER EGYPTISCH *ICHNEVMON- tied by Nisin Wal Sar eeu 120-S¢ MALIGNED ANIMALS THE WHALE Whale is the largost living sea: ‘mammal, feeding on microscopic plankron, the amllest onganisns in the ocean. Because ofits enormons sie, this cormpletely barn less animal has been slndered throughout hhuman history a8 a vicious, man-eating sea ‘monster — fom the Bibel whale who swal- Towed the Hebrew prophet Jonah in panish- ment for disobeying God, tothe white whale monster Moby Dick in Herman Melville's ‘American flk saga (1851). The Killer Whale ‘vas believed to a man killing sea monster by the Nordest Asovicus Tans and the Siberian Eskimos al along the Alaskan Coast, fn the Fox and Aleutian Islands, around the Bering Se, and in the Hudson Bay rea. The Jhunt and eaptnre ofa Killer whale amounted f= among there Indian and Eskimo tribes, from the Nootka Indians of Washington to the Chuckchoe Eskimos of Siberia. They depicted the killer whale in ‘many monstrous forms in Ueir ceremonial art works, Whale hunting was closely inter- ‘woven with shamanistic rituals during the whaling. sas oh was in the early Sommer months, The capture and killing fof a whale was celebrated with ceremonial dances, music and songs of rejoicing, tag ond wltory w diay mourning period to placate the evil spr of the slain monster. Today the whale is ‘considered symbol of maghitude. MALIGNED ANIMALS © 121 ‘The wtalarealleneg oa rape dmg a ‘msc bs naan oc) ens mrtg Ce haemo Si ‘roma Fston an °°" Gpers Omnia pisted ot Belogn (15001665) 182-0 MALIGNED ANIMALS ‘THE WHALE ‘THE WHALE MALIGNED ANIMALS © 133, iin eae 12406 MALIGNED ANIMALS vs ‘THE OCTOPUS MALIGNED ANIMALS ©© 135 THE OCTOPUS ‘one ofthe most grotesque creatures inthe the Kroken, a fabolous composite monster scatsthe Octopus,or Eightfoot whose name of Norwegian sa Tore, imagined as a giantic thas derived from the Greek orto —cight, —_octopus-rab rising inthe Oceanus German Gnd pous foot. Tt was considered by the cum (North Sea). [tad an enormous, fat snciemtmarinersto be one ofthe most fright- shape, said to bea mile and half in ercum- thing terors of He sea. in realty, sts «ference, and when it submerged, its many Smatktolarge, harmless molask, @ member arms created a whirlpool that sucked down ‘Fake cate family witha soft sack-like even the largest ships. To the sune group of tbody, a large head with a mouth on the sea yarns belongs the Spansh-Portuguese vmdbtenface: and eight arms covered with fable of the phantom island Man Satanaxio ackesr Tt largest specimen isthe Octopus (Satan Hand), which rose every day from Dunctote, which lives on the ocean bottom the waters ofthe Sea of Darkness (Atlantic), Pi the Pacife Const of North Ameria and Uke a gigantic Black hand, to scoop up pas ‘aches a span of about 1 feet from arm tip ing ships and drave them down tothe depths Teamm tip Many a tale was told in bygone of the ooean. To the South, Central, and tims about glant octopi that infested the North American Indians the octopus and its farflng 2ea lanes. They were thought to relatives, the squid and the cuttlefish, were tavebecn able to pull whole ships with their benevolent monsters, and were considered crews to a watery grave asin the nga of ols of fecundity tt ot lat top sang herman ter gus carving, ‘yakual rasa MALIGNED ANIMALS © 197 THE HEDGEHOG 136 + MALIGNED ANIMALS ‘THE ocTOPUS sight, Actually it isa valuable animal, since it devours cockroaches and other insect Nowadays, European purveyors and mani facturers of foodstuls use hedgchogs to help oop their premises clean, ‘The Hedgehog was secused in medieval ‘crops or auck sleeping cows dry of milk. The pedsants of the Middle Ages klled it on cont imman ahem peal ote Thelen Tp tay of Fea ty, “Theat tp attain the rb veneer es Yer’ “iy omen Lager nr he Ser Pai 5 128 -©© MALIGNED ANIMALS ‘THE SALAMANDER ‘THE SEA LION MALIGNED ANIMALS ©2139 According to the Roman naturalist and could lve in fie. Asbestos was thought to ‘The Sea Lion isa maligned member f the in modleval i waiter Gaius Pliny the Elder (23-79 4..), be, not a mineral, but the hide shed by a seal family, actully a harmless, big-eared, Depicted witha the Salamander was created from the spinal Salamander. Thi animal en reality harm- heating mammal: Likeso many otherlarge claws, it was bel cord ofa dead man. It as beloved tht this less member ofthe cold-blooded lizard fam- marine animals, however, i was held to be, sailors who fell overboard Ielish creature was 29 doudly cold that it iy, useful in destroying insects, Sstamande cueing i resin hp "emit Maes eet hymen, a SF “hentai ar dren Wane ed Lande, 130-6¢ MALIGNED ANIMALS ‘The Rosmarin was a seu monster of evil repute living in the waters ofthe northern seas, It was belived that when i saw a man ‘on shor, it pulled itself up tothe top ofthe rocks with its enormous teeth, fell upon the Ful ron ie Rein wn, ‘THE ROSMARIN hapless victim and ate him. In reality it was the Walrus, « massive, Gercelooking, Ssh tating member of the veal family, which attacks only If disturbed in its Breeding grounds. ‘THE NARWHALE, ‘The Narwhale, o Sea Unicors, was be Nieved to be « dangerous sea monster who dled holes in the bottom planks of ships with ts ong, spiral ts, so that the vessels ‘Would drat water and sink. Its actually « MALIGNED ANIMALS © 131 harmless sea marumal ofthe dolphin family, living tn the fey waters of the Avetic. Ts tusk was sold as unicorn hor, the wondrous ccureall held in such high esteem throughout medieval Europe ona zac St ° ‘oom Agneta Hr er ta os Wen end or ade, 147 132 &¢ MALIGNED ANIMALS ‘THE OSTRICH because it was believed that this bird had itil stomach juices to digest all the odd things tewallowed. In heraldry the Ostrich was always represented at holding in is claw, or chewing, an ion horseshoe, In medieval times the Ostrich was con sidered a monstrous bird which plucked the fron shoes olf horses, and swallowed every thing it laid eyes on. In medieval alchemy the name for vitriol was Ostrich Stomach, lesen ich rain a aon tenn tac nc ‘ablation nl bing rani, io Cala Goes Le Bow aes Ope ened by Arai yes 158 ‘THE MANATEE, MALIGNED ANIMALS © 153 The Sea Gow, or Manate, from its Carib» tropical waters off the South American and bein name mena, i a large, peaceful, West African coasts, It was believed in me ‘aquatic mammal. 2 member of the whale dieval tines to bea vicious, human headed, family, living on'sea plants in the shallow man-eating relative of the mermaid. 134-0 MALIGNED ANIMALS After the discovery of the New Word European naturalists published fanciful pc tures and reports ofa vicious new mailelad monster called by the Indians Alochtocht ‘THE ARMADILLO THE SU & THE HAUT MALIGNED ANIMALS <© 135 by the Spaniards Armatum, and by the Pr. tuguese Encuberato. I was actually the shy Armadilo of te Eilenteta (toothles) fan which feeds on ants Chapter 9 BENIGN MONSTERS Among the legendary monsters of the world were some who had no. snimosity toward human beings, but were, on the con trary, helpful, benevolent creatures. They appear sometimes in Wester legends, but more often in those of the Far East. One of the most lovable such Oriental beasts isthe Boku of Japanese folklore, a creature with ‘Tong, trnklike nose, patterned after a real noctimal animal of the pachyderm fly, the tapir, found in South America and the Malayan Pena Acog t Japeise Foleo ate iree os ees cee and if you have a bad dream, the Baku can be willed to eat it before it becomes a night. mare. There is alo the winged hore Pegawu Of Greek mythology, symbol of poetry and the arts; the Unicorn, religious symbol of parity inthe West, and inthe East, king of the animals; the Sphins, symbol of silence, ‘with sts on’ body and human esd ths Dolphin, talisman of silos and emblem of safe travel; the Arabian Phoons, which rises from its own ashes, symbolizing resurrection and anew life after death; and the Centaur ‘Chiron, a Greek: mythological monster, half ‘man half hors, the founding father of med. ‘cine and pharmacology. These are all mos- strous beings, yet friendly and belpfal to ‘or another. All that terible and fearsome. In every collection of children’s fairytales, in every land and every language, we can also find stores of dwarfs, gnomes and other friendly, man-like ‘monsters. ‘The epee, ot a hh ed ond doen “Senator BENIGN MONSTERS *- 137 THE DOLPHIN ‘The Dolphin, or Deiphinus, was con- dered a Kindly ata monster in antiquity, servant of the gods and helper to man. Ia Greek mythology it was sacred to Apello, and was the vehicle on which the ses gods rode the waves. The ancent Greek fisher ren called it Simoner the snubnosed — and according tothe Greck naturalist Pliny, the dolphin reacted tothe human voice: when fisherman called out “Simo,” the dolphin ‘ame to help them spread out thir nets. The best known of all dolphin legends is the Greek fable of the madetan Arion eho, on his rete from Sicily to Corinth, was threat: ‘ened with death by the erew of his ship who ‘wanted the treasures on bosrd, He promised to tnow himself overboard if he was allowed to play his tunes once more; the sailors agreed, and 4 sohool of dolphins cavorting around the ship were so charmed by his ‘musicthat when Arion leaped into the water, ‘onvaf them took lim on its back and brovght hhim safe and sound into’ the arbor of Corinth. For this benevolent deed the gods ‘put Delphinus into the sky a a constellation. It is still believed today that dolphins follow vessels to rescue passengers and crew in emergencies. Ts Japanese. flldore the dolphin Gregyo ~ the hanging fh — is con- ‘ered the best talcman againat es, ned its image is placed on th roofs of houses for protection. In the West, the dolphin is an emblem of sucess in the arts, a messenger of good fortune, and mascot for safe travel. Neri lering wagner an nie “Eck e pain 138 we BENIGN MONSTERS SS ‘THE DOLPHIN pte in on linn th ror a Venn Jog Se Baie edie ‘THE DOLPHIN BENIGN MONSTERS ~+ 139 Toe comtlati Alda ebhine, rom any Ale menal it M0 we BENIGN MONSTERS IGN MONSTERS “= 14 THE CENTAUR ‘The Centaur, or Centaurus, half man and and the Dioscuri Castor and Pollux. When he half horse, was in Greck mythology a mem- _accidetaly wounded himself with polsoned ‘erofa wild and lawless race ofmonstersthat arrow of Heracles, he was unable to die be- Inhabited the region of Thessaly. They were causn the gods had made him immortal. To destroyed by the powerful Greek folk hero redeem him from his acute pain, the Titan Heracles (the Roman Hercules). Only the Prometheus took upon himself Chiron'sim- Inore friendly and! ateligent mdvidvals of movalty, and the gods put the dying Choo the race survived like Pholus, an Arcadian into the sky a the constellation Sagittarius ‘centaur, son of Silenus, who became a friend As the teacher of Aesculapius, Chiron was Of Heracles, and the wisest ofall the con- considered the founding father of medicine taurs, Chiron, son of Cronus, whowastutored and pharmacology. When Francisco Pizarro by Apolo it music, and by Artemis in botani- landed in the New World, the natives, who falmedicine He became the friend and phy- had never before seen horse or rider, Het ician of the gods and the teacher of the from his mounted soldiers inthe belief that mythological hevoes Heracles, Aesculapius, they were a breed of unknown terrible mon- json, Achilles, Theseus, Nestor, Maleagar sters, half man, half beast (sou he Ca le ped i178 ‘ pe mA Ree 4 ear hanging phi ede cam pnt oe “a nti hing an Ach athe ogatak ms sooo” 142 8© BENIGN MONSTERS ‘THE CENTAUR ‘THE CENTAUR BENIGN MONSTERS =+ 143 144-<© BENIGN MONSTERS ‘THE PEGASUS BENIGN MONSTERS C6145 THE PEGASUS ‘The whit winged horse of ancient legend, _pre-Claseal times, the figure of the sky Pegasus, was the most gentle ofall fabled horse was used in astrology by the Assyrian ‘ereatures. According to Groek mythology, it Babylonians, the Etrusans, the Hittites, and ‘was believed t have been ereated by Posei- the early Aryans. Its name derives from the ‘don from the bloody bead of the slain gorgon Phoenician Pag Sus the bridled horse. Ia Medasa. Caught and tamed by Athena, it later tradition Pegasus became the symbolic became the stecd ofthe Corinthian folk hero mount of poets and artists Iecause of the Bellerophon in his fight with the monster Greek legend which sald that witha stamp of Chimera and in his other adventures. When is hoof he caused the Sow of Hippocrene, Bellerophon, riding Pegasus, tried to reach the fountain ofthe Muses, on Mount Helicon the dwelling ofthe godson Mount Olympus, Thus Pegasus became the symbol of poetic the was thrown by the fying horse; Pegasus inspiration and the emblem of the erative feached the summit alone and became the arts. The legend of the celestial horse also Thundering Horse of Jove, earier of the reached the Far East, where it became the divine lightning bolts. He was placed as a fabled Chinese Kylin, and the Japanese Permanent constellation among the stars. In. KE-Rin ‘eterna Fez, oma tain nig 4146s BENIGN MONSTERS eps and the Gono trom nod rec mein ‘THE PEGASUS ‘THE PEGASUS BENIGN MONSTERS *© 147 148 ce BENIGN MONSTERS THE PHOENIX ‘The Phoonis, Fenie or Fire Bird, i be- lieved to be of anclent Indian of Persian origin. Ie was called the Benn in Egyptian taythology and lived in the deserts of Arabia, from where i flow avery five hundred years to the holy clty of Heliopolis in Egypt, to build in the Temple of the Sun a nest of ‘ym, cassia and frankincense, This nest was ignited by Ro, the sun god, and con- sumed by fre. The cremated phoenix tose Fejuvenated from ie own ashes, symbolizing the nndying spiritual instinct of man and the promise of reincuration after death. ‘The phoenix was also emblematie of lf and in tmortaltyn ancient Greece nd Rome. Chri tianity horrowed it from the Ancients us the emblem ofthe spirit’ victory over death, the wba te Beatin “anaueEpean rymbol of the renirection of the soul (Job 39:18), In Far Eastern belie, the phoenix was ove of the Four Mythical Animals. Ia nese mythology it was the Feng-Huang ~ the male phoenix, and Huang — the king ofthe feathered race, and sym- bol of peace and prosperity. In Chinese po- try it was the silver-breasted love-pheasant, femblem of the Empress of China, and har binger of happiness, typfying fiendsip and affection. In the mythology of Japan the phoenix was the stored bid Ho-Oo (Ho — the mile phoenix, and Oo ~ the female), the femlem of wise and good government and a symbal of good fortune. Throughout the ‘worl, the phoenix has become an emblem of good luck, prosperity and immortality. i ‘THE PHOENIX BENIGN MONSTERS we 149, 150 “© BENIGN MONSTERS ‘THE PHOENIX ‘THE PHOENIX BENIGN MONSTERS <© 151 — 152 © BENIGN MONSTERS ‘THE PHOENIX seaiiee ees THE UNICORN ‘he Unicorn isthe most widely known of all wat believed that the horas would sweat at rythical animals, appearing i one form or the presence of poisoned food. There home, tnother in nearly all Western and Ors Which sold for @ King’s ransom in Europe, iythologies. According to Biblical etiology, were in reality the tusks ofthe narwhale. In the unicora became extinct because it was antiquity, Kterar and Herodotus reported thrown outof theark and drowned. Itsname the presence of unicoms in Libya and Ethi- Aerives from the Latin nus one, and coma opia. Far Easter folkire especially rch in hom, Te was the Biblical Reem, mentioned onehorned animals; unicorns are found in {im Deuteronomy 35:17: "hishorsarelke the the mythologies of Tibet, Tarary, Malaya, Fhoms of the unicorn” In the belief of the snd the Himalayan region. The ceatly Chistian Cheb, it was the symbol of nent ofall Oriental unieoms the Chi-Lin, Virghity and the emblem of the power of or Dragion-Horso, the king of all animals, one Inve: In the ssteenth and seventeenth een- of the four fabulous creatures of Chinese tories, ground unicorn hor was «popular la- mythology, and the symbol of good hock, ‘gredientin European medicine nd was wsed longest, 4.4 potent remedy against pestilence and istration. ‘olson. Unicom hors were put onthe tables Of rulers and church dignitaries because it enettang the midefense Chis phoma re lh eral, Secs aeer leery es “iat antique Anan owe eel BENIGN MONSTERS S© 155 ‘THE UNICORN ‘THE UNICORN 156s BENIGN MONSTERS ‘havi om Knead Ge eat Aina, ml an a5 ‘THE UNICORN ‘THE UNICORN BENIGN MONSTERS © 157 She Sword Ox Malay in rm ans Cine pen denn 158 c© BENIGN MONSTERS ‘THE UNICORN ‘THE UNICORN BENIGN MONSTERS © 159 1K, the Chinese ale unico fran antique Chinese pon drawing ‘om an aig Cte pe ening 100 “© BENIGN MONSTERS The epee ni, rm a Jpn pn dein ‘THE UNICORN BENIGN MONSTERS © 161 THE SPHINX ‘Toe Bene ers tw 96 Ue Etc tees ite beasts of Egyptian mythology, a creature with a woman's head, a bull's loins, «lion's i represented intelligence and knowledge; the lion's claws stood for daring and setion; the balls loins denoted stamina and persever: ‘ance; and the folded eagle's wings, silence. ‘The sphinx was the guardian of Egyptian magi an occult wisdom, endowed with the four virtuos ofthe Magi: knowledge, daring, willpower and silence. Sphinees were placed at the entrances of palaes and temples to their mysteries, and towarn those who penarated int thees ansthari te cnsosal ‘profane the knoslege they had ined. Variations of sphinzes are found in Tany parts ofthe ancient word, there are three types in Egypt alone: the human headed Andro-Sphine, the ram headed Cro Sphins, the hawk-headed Iieraco Sphins “There were also the mancheaded sphinxes of Aarpec Deby kites, toner wel palm, tnd the oracaler divinity sphinx of Thebes in Bavota. Some existed even in Far Eastern legends. With the exception of the Greck Sphint of Thebes (the ony talking sphinx of ancient mythology}, who killed passers-by ‘who were unable to answer its riddles, all sphinxes were friendly and benevolent erea tures, the guardians of religions, occult and magic secrets; and thelr image became the symbol of mystic wisdom and the emblem of silence in many parts of tho world. The legend of the sphine reached even faraway China, whose mythology abounded in mon- sters who guarded palaces of worship and protected believers at their devotions. 162 “¢ BENIGN MONSTERS ‘THE SPHINX ‘THE SPHINX BENIGN MONSTERS © 163 eee her enpe sone. ‘he romenbnded Fei phi oma Pech marin MEDIEVAL MARTIANS ~« 165 Chapter 10 MEDIEVAL MARTIANS of natural history were the sci writers oftheir tine. The iustrati ‘volumes, depicting all kinds of fanciful, won- ‘tous people on other continents, fom Ethi- observers of bygone days the benefit of the ‘opia to Cathay, beara stiking resemblance doubt: thelr headless people with faces on tothe Martians and Venusian of our modern eval geographic knowledge ewes better I the headless Mode l ropophagi and the Mus- ter om Libya tothe Far East, the Truian Scopedes, a people with hypertrophic feet, the bird headed tribes of Africa, and sctence-fction derived its ideas for of cuter space directly from tory volumes: It fnnd plasties for sonics for magic sang Metab Puch der Net, 166 we MEDIEVAL MARTIANS MEDIEVAL MARTIANS © 167 dha Oneeed Gln lis ‘Sina Sse End phn ned Trofi o aa From Carin rare J Aston fe Gs Pai Sect Chapter 11 MONSTROUS MUTANTS Our survey of monsters would be incomplete sf wedid not take into consideration the man. fold wold stories of monstrous human and snimal mutants found in the folklore and in weal history volames of have abounded, nee the days of the Greck philosopher Ktesias (5th century mc.) atthe court of the Per- slan ruler Artaxercs I, and especially since the works of the Roman naturalist Gaius Plinius Scoundus (25.79 a2), the founder ‘of modem natural history. Medieval piteh- ‘men collected real and faked monstrous freaks, which they soldat exorbitant prices to rulers for the entertainment of courtier and their ladies, or exhibited proStably in cities land towns and inside shows at country far. In those days the manufacture of real living freaks was an extensive and florihing bos ness and home industry. Primitive, unedu ‘ated women of the poorer classes used all Inds of known and long-forgotten tricks, and deliberately sufered severe injury, to beat Aisfgured children who could be’ sold for substantial sums to carnival exhibitors. Some ‘ofthe monstrons creatures shown in the home ‘and pubs of enterprising rorl trvembeepers and city merchants were embalmed fake monsters of simian origin, to which were sgafted parts of birds, fishes and reptiles, The ‘eal living freaks had their medieval make-up ‘men who exaggerated their monstrons fet- tures by all kinds of artificial means, Chest teupees are not an invention of Hollywood, but were worn by many a hairy wild man oF ‘woman in medieval side shows long ago. Every age had its Barna who exhibited such ‘monsters to gaping crowd, as long as they ‘were willing to pay a pfenning, centine, ko- peek or rupee for shuddering look at these lunfortunate creatures, with the innermost thought: There but for te grace of God gol hated De mont sey ew 110 en sca wana from pen dees 0s. "dea, Prac, 1h etry MONSTROUS MUTANTS © 171 Deurung oes NiinBealbs juSrerberg/ Doctors sRarci Sugars. Mente min Fri, Sana cle he Mona Cai fro ath pre esse by Laas react ie 172 “© MONSTROUS MUTANTS eeeeaides Rom tater pas deg ces Cm er MONSTROUS MUTANTS “© 173 Meese o Lads in Beri ined by lire Dies, ‘tous, pt a ure, tay Yon Fet dS ou at 1 174 <© MONSTROUS MUTANTS MONSTROUS MUTANTS © 175 Zinseygung wanderbarlicher Gefchichten pnd geburt-vifeoxxx1.Jars s0Sug{purg gefebeben-zc. uber idyaond vormals wnethérten/ noc! dex glicyen Soe ‘Dieertcesue ond cba fahren gen in inch menfen bans one icine itis obee Digg parma ge ts aller ond Siar epenaenarane action er | | wef aeeteeeccress rat ppald ficantagEomen/geftorben. Scat sum befien at. 176 ©© MONSTROUS MUTANTS MONSTROUS MUTANTS ©© 177 N6eeifunsetncovnge(falten Rinds/fo am Meus hemneratceereiencreimarnte ene stata Ran Sand M.D, 2 og ance we se rem wns Ogee eae ron tae te tt em tmeger ha tinea ebate parma 8 caidas tice atonieetapa pe mcnnc wt, apni meen Kae pete ahs oN a 7 TAMPELS MIT jen Leibern und eine! 0 it ver/ch- DV ainat hulf dees hse s0HP duc Coupiourg in Hungarn von einem Schaff allo gefialtet ger aoe: ibe wane e/ eee Worden & ‘one ncocennt st hth shay nth on had an ne bd 17§ we MONSTROUS MUTANTS MONSTROUS MUTANTS s© 179 180-c¢ MONSTROUS MUTANTS MONSTROUS MUTANTS <= 181 Went meas, alfa wma et mtr ith or oy ase om WS Fa, 1670 emai ned oth ck onal ont wih te bd From oats Hie Prodan, Pai 573 BIBLIOGRAPHY ALDROVANDUS, ULYSSES, Historia Mon- strorum (Bologna, c.1850, ‘Opera Onna (Bugs 190- Serpentum et Draconum His- ‘orie (Bologna, 1640), Allegemeine Historie der Relsen zu Wasser und 21 Lande (Germany, 1747). ARCHEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA, Mythology of AI Races (Bos- ton, 10951028). ASHMOLE, ELIAS, Theatrum Chymicum Britannicum (London, 1652). ASHTON, JOHN, Curtoue Creatures in Zool ‘ory (New York, na.) ATSUHARU, SAKAL, Jopan in a Nutshelt (Yokohama, 1949), BARBERI, JACPO DE, Pianta di Venesio (Venice, 1500) BELON, PIERRE, Historical naturelle (Pars, 154), BENWELL, GLENN & WAUGH, ARTHUR, Seo Enchantress (New York, 1965). RERRUPRIUS, JOSEPH, Restiariue (Sayons, 1524), BLAKE, WILLIAM, Book of Job (London, 1825), BOAISTUAU, PIERRE, Hstoires prodigiewe ses (Paris, 1597-98). BOSCHIUS, Ars Symbolice (Augsburg, 702), 1668). Ise BREYDENBACH, BERNHARD VON, Reise ‘ns Hellge Land (Petrus Drach, Speyer, 1405). BRODERICK, M. & MORTON, A. ANDER- SON, A Concie Dictionary'of Eguption “Archaeology (London, 1902), BRUNFELS, OTHMAR, Herborium (Jo- hhannes Schott, Strassburg, 1530), Das Buch Belal (Jacobus de Teramo, Augs- burg, 1473). BUDGE, E. A. WALLIS, Tho Nilo (Cairo, 1912), BUNYAN, JOHN, The Holy War made by Shoal apron Dials (Dennen Newasn, ‘and Benjanin Alsop, Landon, 1682) ‘The Celestial Atlas (1786) CHAMPOLLION-FIGEAG, L'Univors Pit ‘oresque (Frmin Didot Fries, Pris, 1848) CLEMENT, CLARA ERSKINE, A’Hend- book of Legendary and Mythological Art (Boston, 1873) Coder Marcianus (Venice, 1th century) COLUMNA, FRANCISCUS, Hypnerotoma- ‘hia Poliphli (Aldus Manutius, Vee, 1400), COMESTOR, PETRUS, Historia Scholastica (13th century) (CRANACH THE ELDER, LUCAS, Witter berger Helligthumbuch (Wittenberg, oo) Dialogues of Creatures Moralysed (London, 1590), DAT, GIULIANO DE, 1! socondo Gartare delf nda (Johann Besicken & Sigismund Mayer, Rome, 1494), EGEDE, Bishop HANS, The New Survey of ‘Old Greenland (Landon, 1734), ELEAZAR. ABRAHAM, Uraltes Chymischas Werk (Leipzig, 1760), FELL, ¥., Vogelin Praktk (Hans Singrener, ‘Vienna, 1534), FENTEN, E., Gertaine Seerete wonders of Nature (London, 1560), FERETTUS, NICOLAUS, De structuracom- peostionis (For, 1495). FLOURY, PHIL, Compendioss (Jean Mew- rausse, Pars, 1510). ; GESNER, KONRAD, De quadrupedobus tioipar (Basle, 16th century) KIRCHER, ATHANASIUS, Mundus Subter- raneus (37th century). (Geslipus Acgyptiocus (Rome, 1652). LAYARD, AUSTEN HENRY, Discovria in "Nineoeh and Babylon (New York, 1858). ‘Ninoveh and its Remains (London, 1848), LEACH, MARIA & FRIED, JEROME, Dic- tlonary of Folklore, Muthology and Legond (Nev York, 1949), LECLUSE, CHARLES DE, Sinplicium ‘medlicomentonums (Antwerp, 1597) LEEU, CERIARD, Meluayne (Antworp, 1s). LICETUS, FORTUNA, De Monstrorum No- tura (Pads, 1634), LYCOSTHENES, CONRAD, Prodigiorum fae ostentorum chronicon (Henet Petri, ale, 1557). ‘La Magie nol (Paris, 1th century) pa Historie Snimaliam (Cai, 1551) Fees nimaitum (Davie 1560). GODDARD, PLINY EARL, Indian of the Northwest Coast (New York, 1924). COULD, CHARLES, Mythical Mons (London, 1856), GUBERNATIS, ANGELO DE, Mythologie soologique,oulesgendes animales (Paris, 1874) BIBLIOGRAPHY <© 185 GUEROULT, GUILLAUME, Le Blason des Oyseau (Arnoullet, Lyons, 1580). GUISIUS, MATTHAEUS, Diclogy (Switzer and, 1521), HERBERT, THOMAS, Some Yeares Travels {nto Africa and Asta (Landon, 167) Hermaphrodisches Sonn- und Mondskind (Maing, 1752). HORAPOLLO, soi (Home, 1597). HOWEY, M. OLDFIELD, The Encicled Serpent (New York, 1955). HYGINUS, Poeticon Astronomicon (Exhard Ratdolt, Venice, 1482). JAMSTHALER, H1, Viatorium Spagyricum (Frankfort M,, 1835), MAGNUS, OLAUS, Monstrum tn Oceano Germaniea (Rome, 1573). —_", Historia de Centous ‘Soptentrionalibus (J. M. de Viotto, Bo: Togna, 1555) MAJER,M, Sccretorum Cuymicum (Frank- fort/M., 1687). MANDEVILLE, Sir JOHN, Itinererue (Jo. hhamn Schonsperger, Augsburg, M82). MATTIOLI, PIERRE ANDRE, Commen- toires (Callaume Rovile, Lyons, 1579), MEAD, CHARLES W., Old Cieizations of Inca Land (New York, 1924). MEGENBERG, CONRAD VON, Puch der ‘Natur Johann Baemlr, Augsburg, 1473) MULLER, NIKLAS, Clauben, Wissen und ‘Kunst der Alten Hindus (Florian Kupfer- berg, Mainz, 1622) MUNSTER, SEBASTIAN, Cosmogrophia Universalis (Basle, 1544), De Africae regionibur (Basle, 16 century. MURRAY, ALEXANDER §., Manual of ‘Mythology (New York, 1854). Das Neue Testament, designed by Hans Durghmalr (Silvan Othia:, Augsburg, 1533). PARE, AMBROISE, Des monstes tans fr- restes (Pats, 1573. PLINIUS SECUNDUS (MAJOR), GAIUS, Historia Naturlis(M, Sessa &P. Di Ravani, Venice, 1516) Herogryphion 186 “© BIBLIOGRAPHY The Natural History of (Translated into English by Philemon Hol. Jang, 1001 Reprinted. New York, 1964). Quttuor Eeangelica (Degrade, 1552), RENALDINI, PANFILO DI, Innamorata Ruggeretto (Comin de Tvino do Monfor- rato, Venice, 1555). ROBBINS, ROSELL HOPE, The Encyclo- ‘peas of Wicherajtand Denumology (New York, 1950). RODION, EUCHATRE, Dee diverse tracaue et enfantemens des femmes (Nicolas Bon- fons, Pais, 1577). ROLEWINCK, WERNER, Les flours et ‘manires de temps poss (Johan le Ptit et Michal le Nor, Paris, 1513). SCALIGER, PAULUS, Explanatio Tag ‘usm (Cologne, 1570) SCHENK, J. G, Monstronum Wunderbuch (Germany, 1610), SCHMUCK, J. W., Fascull (1679), SELIGMAN, KURT, Mirror of Magic (New ‘York, 198). SEYFERT, OSKAR, Lexicon der klass- ‘chen Alterthumskunde (Leipig, 1882). SLUPER, J, Omnium fere gention (1572). ‘Speculum humanae salcationis (Gunther ‘Zainer, Augsburg, 1473). SPENSER, EDMUND, The Feerie Queene (William Ponsonby, London, 1580), STABIUS, JOHANN, De Labyrintho (W. Huber, Nuremberg, 1610). ‘THEVET, ANDRE, Singulrtés de a France Antarcique autrement nommé Amérique r ‘lant, Antwerp, 1598). ‘THOMPSON, C.J.S, The Mystery and Lore ‘of Monsters (New York, 1981), A Timely Warning to Rash and Disobedient Children (Edinburgh, 1721), ‘TOFSELL, EDWARD, A History of Four- Footed Beasts (E. Cotes, London, 1958) VALENTIN, BASIL, L’Asoth des philoso- ‘hee (Pais, 1650). (Leipaig, 1601) YERNE, JULES, Twenty Thonwand Leagues tnder the Se (Paris, 1873) WILLIAMS, C. A. $, Outlines of Chinese Symbolism (Peiping, 1951). ‘The Wonder of Wonders, (England, 18th century). Vom Grossen Stein GLOSSARY ABRAXAS The et of magi ae serpot sgn |ANDRO-SPHINK The buman-headed spine of evoe AMEIUISDAENA A rep wth a ead at both ms Sich can wal meer ‘ection; ecnding to Fins, wearing Ue srphstaens feud in ‘repiancy dead one's emedy for nanan. ARGUS In Grek mythology the gat wth» Hun ‘ied eyes ater be wa led by Hes, his ees the al af the peacock; tay Arg et wate {000TH te ads mg te ment ib te ‘ie tr anu encecing th hee pare athe ALON In Persian mthaogy the sun gd of cetve ‘Baton ped by the merpentine bec! of the Spun ot le BAKU A nctucal deam-atig tpl of Jptooe fest ieeryotemton nf ng [BASILISK or COCKATRICE A fabulous serpent whch rsched ote BENNU The heontie sacred ied of Egyptian hig, een emmecon OAS An exer serpent vig onthe tan Slept shen of sce soe nd eon sa a Stas sonal tad en eal UC NOIR A Bik he gt gad Be he ‘pone thn ded Oa els of wa fr Siew tw th Wiha Saba CCATORLEPAS or CORGON An ro la bl men ‘tera ved on he ad of Conger and fo os ‘oudly sree and poeoaous herb, is orible ‘rat! was wept fl every athe tary CCHCHOFS Te fst hing of tic, all man, al ‘Serpent ho estaba sl on the ropa ‘ed the towel of Coco ‘CENTAUR In Gree myholgy a meenbr fw Sod wles pace of moter alan and tall ig hat iastd thereon of Thea CCERRERUS The the headed watchdog of Grok fd Roman mythology who guards the gates af (CETUS The Whale conten, cli eseare- Un of the Creek myth oncnonster mn By omiomt dovwur Andromeda Savas ect cane ce wee cae ai mia ‘CHIMERA A. mie of Cone "hoy, wth the hea and bens of bon, te ‘ff git andthe tal eran ‘COCKATIUCE (see BASILISK) se 18T 188-<© GLOSSARY DAGON The mats doy of the Phatine a eter the Phoeicas, monster, hall Bh, hall an -PAPNIR Cuadan of Uh Nibelungen Hour, FENCHUANG Th Chinese phos, azalefenale He the heal snd cob cw rs a FIRE BIRD (0e PHOENIX) GRIFFIN A frets mote, al, bl ap, ‘thc fod ements yung yo feral Saline LHARIIES Thee hides, winged monsters of Gres taythology, with heads and breasts of a woran, Prd ud cave oon LHERMAPHRODITUS In Grek mytaony, th se clitemes tnd Ape, rho, uted i Sac by ‘iehthenpmph Samet was bol mae nd fle $40.00 The Janae pol er of he eterad ‘exch pele ving the oa ae ark LLIN A milena fom of the wniir in Cae ‘bee myihlogy,tymbeltng the eign oa apr Seach GARUDA A monte bin f Vote mythology, and lng of he fener CORCON (wn CATORLEDAS) ERIN The Japanese Pass ving in Pads nd ‘ing tocar ony ate hc Sea ce we KRAKEN An enormous mover of Norwegian sou [Een the for of te cap. LLADON The dragon of Grock mythalogy that fgnd the OSLen Apples the Cardo of the Fispensee {vo en cas, hich odo the Bs en. ‘LAMUSS4 The nas ended, wingd Ion monster ‘tasty baby ag LLEVIATHAN A tibial water money, vations Ihe ofa whale rig oun LINDURM A winged moter saps On ‘mane ‘Sis, with scaly aor but de Ie oso iva LORELEL A sem-human watery oreatre of een fa sap HUNG A fetonthing. lad and homed dragon sf Chinese mytoloy ee MANTICORA A vampiic mani moaser of Sen arte wl MELUSINE A Eargpean mera that arid tho ‘ep of Couto Porter bee descendant Cay ‘fe Lagan vas King of Jerson se Cypresi (he ia cent. SMIDGAND The uitig oc won wpe of Tote MOLOCH A monstrosities! divinity ofthe a: See paar ne MORMOLICOE (one Lavan) MURAKUMO.NO-TAURUGL Te dragon award of Japanese opened [NEREID A ea goof antigay. NIDHOGGR ‘The Nordic serpentinite, see ‘eatng Ue stn pera he cath [NINGYO The xn Jape ne whine yr shen prtends mp omar NISROCH The euslesheaded god of Assyrian Bias ‘OPEIUCHUS The Serpeat blir constellation re (ered by te ancien Grok a natal as ‘oaton of Aesalapos, te her OUROBOROS ‘he spent Mtg town tal am teint eymbal of tery. PEGASUS The white winged hore of ancient legend PENG-NIAO A semi-dragon bid of Chinese ae gee em mf te ay se Coser LISA deity ofthe ses in Chinese myth, Inthe frm cf «dragartole monte UETZLAL The pal eet an Ase Serva OG, cr RUKIE A spate af poy of Pesta Arabi lege. Neuere Sia neers tnd on nd. aul Soro ei ermine Seer SENMURY, th Sed Sst A monster of So ‘sno Festa mytblgy, half sama half ad, fpmbolig the uso rth en sd hy SESHA The sevoshaded napesepent of Hd nya SHEDU A hunan beaded, winged monster bl of ‘Assyrian Balan mya. SIMUNGH The pat monte Bi of Prem my- thology 0 ol tat he has seen the weld ce Saud SIREN A sea nymph tn Cre Roman mytslogy, art wean pt hd hoy Sing hed {st thie death on ony shores SLT Sword Oso Malayan korn, LUAZIT ‘hw mytolesal rary god of th et Eaypisa Na UNICORN A mttaer at ening GLOssany = 189 a torn owing frm fr St Pen ad rc e SPHINN 4 eangito monster of yptian my rv. lckting te human headed nde Spin, {he fan Cro Spin, end the hawlsbaded eco Shi ZTATELWURM A wg re ang n e ‘eon of Gama fio, = ZTENGU A fabs winged ctr of Jaane ‘TIAMAT The spt onder of chen Asia abyonan rel ‘TRITON A sa god in Grck mythology, hal a, Tria wiser dls bale eee” ‘TOMAS The es ane of he Haida Yin, VAMPIRE In Slavic occult lore, the cenimated (Sra of Wh of srcerer which ener te eave {teats bed Sepey pean YU-LUNG A Chinen sve mats, by bal arg ‘THUNDERBIRD A supernatural eal in American [edn bre tat ete tnd by Beping regs tnd ight by Bing is ee. LUNDINE A lgundary fone water re WEREWOLF A man tanonnad by back mage Ina encom, caro wolenae e Eeasksi 48 Kayo te Tee Mey Eis, Adame 1s 19.31.75 tater 0.110185, ard 192 -<© INDEX ian alee ponte Sn oe 2 Sot Bk 3 Fn imi ear = Rw S oe tat Sauce oe & oa a Se & Retin tian = Sm 3 nigh so iiiciom ata pied @.eienFi ae ae Tor 's Rec gallate So mem, i. ne = a rapa em ‘s i ae 2 . bond oe oe Pet nao Poser 280 OE Sepang of the an the Sea, 136 i ai teret es B nthatiaien ae = iS eoeice i ener = fon 2 eg See - Tastiaamiagn So é ped serpent °$4,57 Sespenis of Poseidon © ven Physeter, oF Whikponte “ial Serpent of the underword = serge Rot Seen ne 10 5 Selb 3 me a0 tee 3 =. ag te 1B Sin Cette Wel ot pepo See oat aS pew Mee Se 1B a ig Meeoeberes Qoetaal ee wae Ne 190 ‘Sire of Ravensa sik ghetto aged ~ me is Sane ‘ngs Wome _ Meee siete tes Ta s Saaee 1 Sewiie me wee a luk oF Roo 8 Squkd 12 mee 2 = 2 win ia cen mode} Socaac Wil Wome Les SS te Wgutin a sctak=—8 = 1a Yates ghonich peel 18 Sheu eee aS reine © Yom 3 tote ne Te iS Witton cia es, igia8 Teh ‘ist Wometantchenettel masa = at on "2 sr mar aes Sn el ape 3 F: g a i