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1, JANUARY 2009

Without Reactive Components

Yongle Wu, Student Member, IEEE, Yuanan Liu, Member, IEEE, Yaxing Zhang, Jinchun Gao, and Hui Zhou

vider operating at arbitrary dual band without reactive compo-

nents (such as inductors and capacitors). To satisfy the unequal

characteristic, a novel structure is proposed with two groups of

transmission lines and two parallel stubs. Closed-form equations

containing all parameters of this structure are derived based on

circuit theory and transmission line theory. For verification, two

groups of experimental results including open and short stubs are

presented. It can be found that all the analytical features of this

unequal power divider can be fulfilled at arbitrary dual band si-

multaneously.

Index Terms—Dual band, unequal power divider, Wilkinson

power divider.

I. INTRODUCTION

crowave and millimeter-wave systems. With the prolifer-

ation of dual band requirement in wireless communication sys-

general, this structure has two main features, which are: 1) a

distributed structure is adopted without reactive components,

which means that the power divider can be fabricated easily and

tems, several dual band Wilkinson power dividers have been de-

characteristic distortion of reactive components can be avoided

veloped [1]–[5] based on Monzon’s analysis on dual-frequency

at high frequency and 2) two structures, i.e., an open stub and

transformer [6]. One structure was developed [1] by connecting

a short stub, can be chosen to satisfy the application flexibility.

a parallel RLC component to improve the isolation. Two struc-

Since power dividing ratio is unequal in this structure, the tradi-

tures were characterized by a shunt element connected to the

tional even-mode and odd-mode analysis is not available in this

input port [2] and a flexible output port location [3], respec-

case. Alternatively, this paper concentrates on circuit theory and

tively. Later on, another two structures for dual band power di-

conventional transmission line theory to provide the analytical

viders were proposed [4], [5]. Although many advances have

solutions. This paper can be considered as an extension of the

been made on the design of dual band power dividers, they do

equal Wilkinson power divider [4].

not involve the issue of unequal power dividing ratio, which

has been proposed in [7]–[10] for single-band operations. More

recently, as the research on dual-frequency unequal power di- II. THEORY AND DESIGN EQUATIONS

viders furthers, a new dual-frequency unequal power divider for

The circuit construction of the proposed dual band unequal

a certain frequency and its first harmonic has been proposed by

Wilkinson power divider is shown in Fig. 1. Several sections of

authors [11].

transmission lines are required to match all ports at two arbitrary

In this paper, a new structure of dual band unequal Wilkinson

frequencies. The characteristic impedances are different, which

power divider is proposed. Its isolation structure only contains

is consistent with the unequal power dividing ratio. Isolation is

a resistor and the impedance characteristics are asymmetric. In

improved by a single resistor R. In Sections II-A–C, mathemat-

ical discussions will be given.

Manuscript received June 25, 2008; revised September 27, 2008. First pub-

lished December 12, 2008; current version published January 08, 2009. This

work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of

A. Characteristic Impedances Design

China under Grant 60736002, under the National High Technology Research

and Development Program of China (863 Program, 2008AA01Z211), and under

The entire design process can be divided into two parts. One

the Project of Guangdong Province Education Ministry Demonstration Base of is to calculate the circuit parameters in block T, as illustrated in

Combining Production, Teaching and Research 2007B090200012. Fig. 1 and the other is to design the rest of components.

Y. Wu, Y. Liu, J. Gao, and H. Zhou are with the School of Electronic Engi-

neering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing,

Firstly, components outside of block T are considered. As-

China (e-mail: wuyongle138@gmail.com). suming the ratio of the output power at ports 3 and 2 is equal to

Y. Zhang is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, , the following resistance relationships must

University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 USA.

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

be satisfied [7]–[9], [11]:

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMTT.2008.2008981 (1)

0018-9480/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE

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WU et al.: DUAL BAND UNEQUAL WILKINSON POWER DIVIDER WITHOUT REACTIVE COMPONENTS 217

(2)

can be obtained as follows:

(3)

(4)

both frequencies and , where is the frequency

ratio, the corresponding characteristic impedances of transmis-

sion lines connected to ports 2 and 3 must satisfy

m

k = p2

Fig. 3. Impedances of (a) lines and (b) stubs against the frequency ratio

when .

(5)

(6)

where

(7)

Fig. 4. Fabricated unequal Wilkinson power divider I.

(8)

and is chosen in this paper to make a compact power port 2. According to Kirchhoff’s laws in circuit theory, the cur-

divider. rents and voltages in Fig. 2 satisfy the following expressions:

The next step is to ascertain the parameters in T, i.e.,

and two stubs. In this step, a combination of circuit

theory and transmission line theory [8], [9] is required.

As illustrated in Fig. 2, all ports are matched exactly. Ports

1 and 3 are grounded, while a voltage source is connected to (9)

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218 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009

Fig. 5. Simulation and measurement results of power divider I. (a) Magnitude of S and S . (b) Magnitude of S . (c) Magnitude of S . (d) Magnitude of

S . (e) Magnitude of S .

Furthermore, the relationship between currents and voltages can Apparently, to fulfill the ideal isolation, the following expres-

be expressed in terms of transmission matrices sion should also be satisfied

(10)

(11)

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WU et al.: DUAL BAND UNEQUAL WILKINSON POWER DIVIDER WITHOUT REACTIVE COMPONENTS 219

After some manipulations, the resistor across the two

branches can be obtained as follows [11]:

(12)

and other ports are grounded, the resistor can be determined

to assure as follows:

Fig. 6. Fabricated unequal Wilkinson power divider II.

(13)

After some manipulations, the following equations can be ob-

tained to design the characteristic impedances of transmission

Using transmission line theory, the transmission matrices illus- line sections in T:

trated in Figs. 1 and 2 can be expressed as (14) and (15), shown

at the bottom of this page. From (14) and (15), it is found that

and . Thus, (12) and (13) are equiva-

lent. Moreover, the input impedances can be expressed as

(19)

(16)

(20)

From (3), (4), (14), and (15), it can be easily found In practice, two susceptance, and , in (20), can be

that and are real, while translated to open or short stubs according to the following equa-

and are purely imaginary. It is inter- tions [4].

esting to mention that if For open stubs,

(17)

the resistor determined by (12) will be real and the (16) can (21)

be easily solved. This condition is very important in the design

process.

Rewrite (16) and (17) based on (1), (3), (14), and (15) as

For short stubs,

follows:

(18) (22)

(14)

(15)

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220 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009

Fig. 7. Simulation and measurement results of power divider II. (a) Magnitude of S and S . (b) Magnitude of S . (c) Magnitude of S . (d) Magnitude of

S . (e) Magnitude of S .

Obviously, to ensure that the impedance values are positive, resistor across the two branches, therefore, does not change

the condition for open stubs and for short with the frequency. Combining (12) and (18), the value of re-

stubs should be satisfied. Thus, the corresponding positive in- sistor can be simplified as

teger for different frequency ratio can be chosen flexibly

based on (8).

(23)

B. Resistor Design

In summary, parameters of the unequal Wilkinson power di-

From (8), (14), (15), and (18), it can be proven that vider can be calculated directly by (5)–(8), (19), and (21)–(23).

does not change with frequency when . The Especially when , parameters can be obtained as

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WU et al.: DUAL BAND UNEQUAL WILKINSON POWER DIVIDER WITHOUT REACTIVE COMPONENTS 221

, which exactly coincide with the in Fig. 5. From Fig. 5(a), the measured are 5 dB at

results given in the preceding report [4]. 1 GHz and 6.5 dB at 1.8 GHz, while are almost 2 dB

at both 1 and 1.8 GHz. Therefore, the power dividing ratio is

C. Analysis of the Impedance Values 3 dB at 1 GHz and 4.5 dB at 1.8 GHz. From Fig. 5(b), the isola-

In this section, the relationships between the available tion parameter values of are below 20 dB at both 1 and

impedance values and the corresponding scope of the fre- 1.8 GHz. From Fig. 5(c)–(e), the matching parameters values of

quency ratio are presented. The power dividing ratio is are better than 15 dB at both 1 and 1.8 GHz.

set as the analysis on the equal power dividing Neglecting some frequency offset, the operating bandwidth can

case, i.e., has been given [4]. Fig. 3(a) and (b) shows be up to 100 MHz when dB and

impedances of lines and stubs vary with the frequency ratio dB.

when , respectively. Assuming that the available

impedance values are in the range of , the B. Power Divider II

maximum frequency ratio range is for the Short stubs are adopted with parameters calculated from (22)

short stubs case and for the open stubs as . Other parameters

case. Like the unequal single band power divider [10], the are equal to power divider I. The fabricated power divider is

difference between impedance values (i.e., and ) at the shown in Fig. 6. The simulation and measurement results of

two branches will become greater as the power dividing ratio -parameters are presented in Fig. 7. Seen from Fig. 7(a),

increases. Therefore, the maximum frequency ratio range the measured are 5.2 dB at 1 GHz and 5.8 dB at

decreases as increases. For the proposed dual band unequal 1.8 GHz, while are 2 dB at both 1 and 1.8 GHz. The

power divider, it is necessary to employ special techniques to power dividing ratio is 3.2 dB at 1 GHz and 3.8 dB at 1.8 GHz.

implement high-impedance transmission lines when is large. From Fig. 7(b), the isolation parameter values of are

This subject is beyond the focus of this paper. below 20 dB at both 1 and 1.8 GHz. From Fig. 7(c)–(e), the

matching parameters values of are also better

III. SIMULATION AND MEASUREMENT than 15 dB at both 1 and 1.8 GHz. Neglecting some frequency

In this section, two dual band unequal power dividers have offset, this fabricated power divider offers an operating band-

been fabricated on an F4B substrate with 0.8-mm thickness and width of 140 MHz when dB and

2.65 relative permittivity to verify the proposed design method. dB.

The open and short stubs are both adopted. The simulation is

based on ideal lossless transmission line model (in closed-form C. Results Analysis

equations) and circuit model. The measurement results are col- It is found that the power dividing ratio is not the ideal

lected from HP8753D network analyzer. 3 dB and the working frequencies offset to some degree. The

disagreement is due to the negligence of substrate losses and

A. Power Divider I

the inaccurate nominal value of the resistor. Additionally, in

Initial conditions are as follows: power divider II, is a small stub impedance that

is difficult for microstrip implementation. The discontinuity

and adverse effects may enlarge the inconsistence. Ultimately,

GHz GHz the practical performance of the fabricated unequal Wilkinson

Parameters calculated from (5)–(8), (19), (21), and (23) are as power dividers fulfills the design goal.

follows:

IV. CONCLUSION

A theoretical design and practical implementation of arbitrary

dual band unequal Wilkinson power divider without reactive

components has been presented in this paper. It can be regarded

as an extension of the research on an equal Wilkinson power

divider [4]. In Section II, a comprehensive process is given via

several closed-form mathematical expressions. The analytical

results are then verified through experiments. In summary, the

design method of the proposed power divider can offer sufficient

flexibility in fabrication. It also avoids characteristic distortion

of reactive components.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank research scientist S.-T. He,

Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for testing

The fabricated power divider is shown in Fig. 4. The simu- power dividers and express their gratitude to the anonymous

lation and measurement results of -parameters are presented reviewers for their insightful comments.

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222 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009

REFERENCES with the Broadband Mobile Laboratory, Department of System and Computer

[1] L. Wu, Z. Sun, H. Yilmaz, and M. Berroth, “A dual-frequency Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Since July 1997,

Wilkinson power divider,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, he has been a Professor with the Wireless Communication Center, College

no. 1, pp. 278–284, Jan. 2006. of Telecommunication Engineering, BUPT, where he is involved in the de-

[2] K.-K. M. Cheng and F.-L. Wong, “A new Wilkinson power divider de- velopment of next-generation cellular system, wireless local area networks

sign for dual band application,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon Lett., (LANs), Bluetooth application for data transmission, EMC design strategies

vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 664–666, Sep. 2007. for high-speed digital systems, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) and

[3] K.-K. M. Cheng and C. Law, “A novel approach to the design and EMS measuring sites with low cost and high performance. He is interested

implementation of dual-band power divider,” IEEE Trans. Microw. in smart antennas for high-capacity mobile signal-processing techniques in

Theory Tech., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 487–492, Feb. 2008. fading environments, EMC for high-speed digital systems, ISI suppression, and

[4] M.-J. Park and B. Lee, “A dual-band Wilkinson power divider,” IEEE orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and multicarrier system

Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 85–87, Feb. 2008. design.

[5] T. Yang, J.-X. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, and Q. Xue, “A dual-band out-of- Dr. Liu is a senior member of the Electronic Institute of China.

phase power divider,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 18,

no. 3, pp. 188–190, Mar. 2008.

[6] C. Monzon, “A small dual-frequency transformer in two sections,”

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1157–1161,

Apr. 2003. Yaxing Zhang received the B.Eng. degree in com-

[7] E. Wilkinson, “An n-way hybrid power divider,” IRE Trans. Microw. munication engineering from the Beijing University

Theory Tech., vol. MTT-8, no. 1, pp. 116–118, Jan. 1960. of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China, in

[8] R. E. Collin, Foundations for Microwave Engineering, 2nd ed. New 2008, and is currently working toward the Master de-

York: Wiley, 2001, pp. 442–450. gree at the University of Florida, Gainesville.

[9] R. Q. Yan and Y. H. Li, The Foundation of Microwave Technology (in His research interests include the design of mi-

Chinese), 2nd ed. Beijing, China: BUIT Press, 1997, pp. 299–303. crowave components and computer-aided design

[10] J. X. Chen and Q. Xue, “Novel 5:1 unequal Wilkinson power divider (CAD) tools.

using offset double-sided parallel-strip lines,” IEEE Microw. Wireless

Compon. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 175–177, Mar. 2007.

[11] Y. L. Wu, H. Zhou, Y. X. Zhang, and Y. A. Liu, “An unequal Wilkinson

power divider for a frequency and its first harmonic,” IEEE Microw.

Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 737–739, Nov. 2008.

Jinchun Gao received the M.S. degree from the

Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing,

Yongle Wu (S’08) was born in Hunan, China, in China, in 1987, and the Ph.D. degree in electronic

1983. He received the B.Eng. degree in communica- circuits and systems from the Beijing University of

tion engineering from the Beijing University of Posts Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China, in

and Telecommunications, Beijing, China, in 2006, 2004.

and is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at She is currently a Professor with the Beijing Uni-

the Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunica- versity of Posts and Telecommunications. Her inter-

tions. ests include wireless communications and electrical

His research interests include generalized Smith contact reliability.

charts, generalized transmission lines, and dual-fre-

quency components design.

nication engineering from the Beijing University

Yuanan Liu (M’93) received the B.E., M.Eng., and of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China,

Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the in 2006, and is currently working toward the M.S.

University of Electronic Science and Technology of degree at the Beijing University of Posts and

China, Chengdu, China, in 1984, 1989 and 1992, Telecommunications.

respectively. His research interests include microwave systems

In 1984, he joined the 26th Institute of Electronic and components.

Ministry of China, where he was involved with the

development of the inertia navigating system. In

1992, he began his first postdoctoral position with the

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Laboratory,

Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications

(BUPT), Beijing, China. In 1995, he began his second postdoctoral position

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