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216 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO.

1, JANUARY 2009

A Dual Band Unequal Wilkinson Power Divider


Without Reactive Components
Yongle Wu, Student Member, IEEE, Yuanan Liu, Member, IEEE, Yaxing Zhang, Jinchun Gao, and Hui Zhou

Abstract—This paper presents an unequal Wilkinson power di-


vider operating at arbitrary dual band without reactive compo-
nents (such as inductors and capacitors). To satisfy the unequal
characteristic, a novel structure is proposed with two groups of
transmission lines and two parallel stubs. Closed-form equations
containing all parameters of this structure are derived based on
circuit theory and transmission line theory. For verification, two
groups of experimental results including open and short stubs are
presented. It can be found that all the analytical features of this
unequal power divider can be fulfilled at arbitrary dual band si-
multaneously.
Index Terms—Dual band, unequal power divider, Wilkinson
power divider.

Fig. 1. Proposed structure of dual band unequal power divider.


I. INTRODUCTION

P OWER dividers and combiners are key components in mi-


crowave and millimeter-wave systems. With the prolifer-
ation of dual band requirement in wireless communication sys-
general, this structure has two main features, which are: 1) a
distributed structure is adopted without reactive components,
which means that the power divider can be fabricated easily and
tems, several dual band Wilkinson power dividers have been de-
characteristic distortion of reactive components can be avoided
veloped [1]–[5] based on Monzon’s analysis on dual-frequency
at high frequency and 2) two structures, i.e., an open stub and
transformer [6]. One structure was developed [1] by connecting
a short stub, can be chosen to satisfy the application flexibility.
a parallel RLC component to improve the isolation. Two struc-
Since power dividing ratio is unequal in this structure, the tradi-
tures were characterized by a shunt element connected to the
tional even-mode and odd-mode analysis is not available in this
input port [2] and a flexible output port location [3], respec-
case. Alternatively, this paper concentrates on circuit theory and
tively. Later on, another two structures for dual band power di-
conventional transmission line theory to provide the analytical
viders were proposed [4], [5]. Although many advances have
solutions. This paper can be considered as an extension of the
been made on the design of dual band power dividers, they do
equal Wilkinson power divider [4].
not involve the issue of unequal power dividing ratio, which
has been proposed in [7]–[10] for single-band operations. More
recently, as the research on dual-frequency unequal power di- II. THEORY AND DESIGN EQUATIONS
viders furthers, a new dual-frequency unequal power divider for
The circuit construction of the proposed dual band unequal
a certain frequency and its first harmonic has been proposed by
Wilkinson power divider is shown in Fig. 1. Several sections of
authors [11].
transmission lines are required to match all ports at two arbitrary
In this paper, a new structure of dual band unequal Wilkinson
frequencies. The characteristic impedances are different, which
power divider is proposed. Its isolation structure only contains
is consistent with the unequal power dividing ratio. Isolation is
a resistor and the impedance characteristics are asymmetric. In
improved by a single resistor R. In Sections II-A–C, mathemat-
ical discussions will be given.
Manuscript received June 25, 2008; revised September 27, 2008. First pub-
lished December 12, 2008; current version published January 08, 2009. This
work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of
A. Characteristic Impedances Design
China under Grant 60736002, under the National High Technology Research
and Development Program of China (863 Program, 2008AA01Z211), and under
The entire design process can be divided into two parts. One
the Project of Guangdong Province Education Ministry Demonstration Base of is to calculate the circuit parameters in block T, as illustrated in
Combining Production, Teaching and Research 2007B090200012. Fig. 1 and the other is to design the rest of components.
Y. Wu, Y. Liu, J. Gao, and H. Zhou are with the School of Electronic Engi-
neering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing,
Firstly, components outside of block T are considered. As-
China (e-mail: wuyongle138@gmail.com). suming the ratio of the output power at ports 3 and 2 is equal to
Y. Zhang is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, , the following resistance relationships must
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 USA.
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
be satisfied [7]–[9], [11]:
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMTT.2008.2008981 (1)
0018-9480/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE

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WU et al.: DUAL BAND UNEQUAL WILKINSON POWER DIVIDER WITHOUT REACTIVE COMPONENTS 217

Fig. 2. Circuit of the power divider with voltage source at port 2.

To match port 1, the characteristic impedance must then be

(2)

Combining (1) and (2), the two input impedances and


can be obtained as follows:

(3)

For convenience, and are defined as

(4)

Based on Monzon’s theory [6], to match all the output ports at


both frequencies and , where is the frequency
ratio, the corresponding characteristic impedances of transmis-
sion lines connected to ports 2 and 3 must satisfy

m
k = p2
Fig. 3. Impedances of (a) lines and (b) stubs against the frequency ratio
when .

(5)

(6)

where

(7)

The electrical length at can be expressed as


Fig. 4. Fabricated unequal Wilkinson power divider I.
(8)

and is chosen in this paper to make a compact power port 2. According to Kirchhoff’s laws in circuit theory, the cur-
divider. rents and voltages in Fig. 2 satisfy the following expressions:
The next step is to ascertain the parameters in T, i.e.,
and two stubs. In this step, a combination of circuit
theory and transmission line theory [8], [9] is required.
As illustrated in Fig. 2, all ports are matched exactly. Ports
1 and 3 are grounded, while a voltage source is connected to (9)

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218 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009

Fig. 5. Simulation and measurement results of power divider I. (a) Magnitude of S and S . (b) Magnitude of S . (c) Magnitude of S . (d) Magnitude of
S . (e) Magnitude of S .

Furthermore, the relationship between currents and voltages can Apparently, to fulfill the ideal isolation, the following expres-
be expressed in terms of transmission matrices sion should also be satisfied

(10)
(11)

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WU et al.: DUAL BAND UNEQUAL WILKINSON POWER DIVIDER WITHOUT REACTIVE COMPONENTS 219

As shown in (9)–(11), there are 12 variables in 11 equations.


After some manipulations, the resistor across the two
branches can be obtained as follows [11]:

(12)

Likewise, in the case when the voltage source is linked to port 3


and other ports are grounded, the resistor can be determined
to assure as follows:
Fig. 6. Fabricated unequal Wilkinson power divider II.

(13)
After some manipulations, the following equations can be ob-
tained to design the characteristic impedances of transmission
Using transmission line theory, the transmission matrices illus- line sections in T:
trated in Figs. 1 and 2 can be expressed as (14) and (15), shown
at the bottom of this page. From (14) and (15), it is found that
and . Thus, (12) and (13) are equiva-
lent. Moreover, the input impedances can be expressed as
(19)

(16)
(20)

From (3), (4), (14), and (15), it can be easily found In practice, two susceptance, and , in (20), can be
that and are real, while translated to open or short stubs according to the following equa-
and are purely imaginary. It is inter- tions [4].
esting to mention that if For open stubs,

(17)

the resistor determined by (12) will be real and the (16) can (21)
be easily solved. This condition is very important in the design
process.
Rewrite (16) and (17) based on (1), (3), (14), and (15) as
For short stubs,
follows:

(18) (22)

(14)

(15)

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220 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009

Fig. 7. Simulation and measurement results of power divider II. (a) Magnitude of S and S . (b) Magnitude of S . (c) Magnitude of S . (d) Magnitude of
S . (e) Magnitude of S .

Obviously, to ensure that the impedance values are positive, resistor across the two branches, therefore, does not change
the condition for open stubs and for short with the frequency. Combining (12) and (18), the value of re-
stubs should be satisfied. Thus, the corresponding positive in- sistor can be simplified as
teger for different frequency ratio can be chosen flexibly
based on (8).
(23)
B. Resistor Design
In summary, parameters of the unequal Wilkinson power di-
From (8), (14), (15), and (18), it can be proven that vider can be calculated directly by (5)–(8), (19), and (21)–(23).
does not change with frequency when . The Especially when , parameters can be obtained as

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WU et al.: DUAL BAND UNEQUAL WILKINSON POWER DIVIDER WITHOUT REACTIVE COMPONENTS 221

, which exactly coincide with the in Fig. 5. From Fig. 5(a), the measured are 5 dB at
results given in the preceding report [4]. 1 GHz and 6.5 dB at 1.8 GHz, while are almost 2 dB
at both 1 and 1.8 GHz. Therefore, the power dividing ratio is
C. Analysis of the Impedance Values 3 dB at 1 GHz and 4.5 dB at 1.8 GHz. From Fig. 5(b), the isola-
In this section, the relationships between the available tion parameter values of are below 20 dB at both 1 and
impedance values and the corresponding scope of the fre- 1.8 GHz. From Fig. 5(c)–(e), the matching parameters values of
quency ratio are presented. The power dividing ratio is are better than 15 dB at both 1 and 1.8 GHz.
set as the analysis on the equal power dividing Neglecting some frequency offset, the operating bandwidth can
case, i.e., has been given [4]. Fig. 3(a) and (b) shows be up to 100 MHz when dB and
impedances of lines and stubs vary with the frequency ratio dB.
when , respectively. Assuming that the available
impedance values are in the range of , the B. Power Divider II
maximum frequency ratio range is for the Short stubs are adopted with parameters calculated from (22)
short stubs case and for the open stubs as . Other parameters
case. Like the unequal single band power divider [10], the are equal to power divider I. The fabricated power divider is
difference between impedance values (i.e., and ) at the shown in Fig. 6. The simulation and measurement results of
two branches will become greater as the power dividing ratio -parameters are presented in Fig. 7. Seen from Fig. 7(a),
increases. Therefore, the maximum frequency ratio range the measured are 5.2 dB at 1 GHz and 5.8 dB at
decreases as increases. For the proposed dual band unequal 1.8 GHz, while are 2 dB at both 1 and 1.8 GHz. The
power divider, it is necessary to employ special techniques to power dividing ratio is 3.2 dB at 1 GHz and 3.8 dB at 1.8 GHz.
implement high-impedance transmission lines when is large. From Fig. 7(b), the isolation parameter values of are
This subject is beyond the focus of this paper. below 20 dB at both 1 and 1.8 GHz. From Fig. 7(c)–(e), the
matching parameters values of are also better
III. SIMULATION AND MEASUREMENT than 15 dB at both 1 and 1.8 GHz. Neglecting some frequency
In this section, two dual band unequal power dividers have offset, this fabricated power divider offers an operating band-
been fabricated on an F4B substrate with 0.8-mm thickness and width of 140 MHz when dB and
2.65 relative permittivity to verify the proposed design method. dB.
The open and short stubs are both adopted. The simulation is
based on ideal lossless transmission line model (in closed-form C. Results Analysis
equations) and circuit model. The measurement results are col- It is found that the power dividing ratio is not the ideal
lected from HP8753D network analyzer. 3 dB and the working frequencies offset to some degree. The
disagreement is due to the negligence of substrate losses and
A. Power Divider I
the inaccurate nominal value of the resistor. Additionally, in
Initial conditions are as follows: power divider II, is a small stub impedance that
is difficult for microstrip implementation. The discontinuity
and adverse effects may enlarge the inconsistence. Ultimately,
GHz GHz the practical performance of the fabricated unequal Wilkinson
Parameters calculated from (5)–(8), (19), (21), and (23) are as power dividers fulfills the design goal.
follows:
IV. CONCLUSION
A theoretical design and practical implementation of arbitrary
dual band unequal Wilkinson power divider without reactive
components has been presented in this paper. It can be regarded
as an extension of the research on an equal Wilkinson power
divider [4]. In Section II, a comprehensive process is given via
several closed-form mathematical expressions. The analytical
results are then verified through experiments. In summary, the
design method of the proposed power divider can offer sufficient
flexibility in fabrication. It also avoids characteristic distortion
of reactive components.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank research scientist S.-T. He,
Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for testing
The fabricated power divider is shown in Fig. 4. The simu- power dividers and express their gratitude to the anonymous
lation and measurement results of -parameters are presented reviewers for their insightful comments.

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222 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009

REFERENCES with the Broadband Mobile Laboratory, Department of System and Computer
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Jinchun Gao received the M.S. degree from the
Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing,
Yongle Wu (S’08) was born in Hunan, China, in China, in 1987, and the Ph.D. degree in electronic
1983. He received the B.Eng. degree in communica- circuits and systems from the Beijing University of
tion engineering from the Beijing University of Posts Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China, in
and Telecommunications, Beijing, China, in 2006, 2004.
and is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at She is currently a Professor with the Beijing Uni-
the Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunica- versity of Posts and Telecommunications. Her inter-
tions. ests include wireless communications and electrical
His research interests include generalized Smith contact reliability.
charts, generalized transmission lines, and dual-fre-
quency components design.

Hui Zhou received the B.Eng. degree in commu-


nication engineering from the Beijing University
Yuanan Liu (M’93) received the B.E., M.Eng., and of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China,
Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the in 2006, and is currently working toward the M.S.
University of Electronic Science and Technology of degree at the Beijing University of Posts and
China, Chengdu, China, in 1984, 1989 and 1992, Telecommunications.
respectively. His research interests include microwave systems
In 1984, he joined the 26th Institute of Electronic and components.
Ministry of China, where he was involved with the
development of the inertia navigating system. In
1992, he began his first postdoctoral position with the
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Laboratory,
Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications
(BUPT), Beijing, China. In 1995, he began his second postdoctoral position

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