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# COMPARISON OF FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING

## WATER VAPOUR SATURATION PRESSURE

1 2
Valfrid Treier , Veli Palge
Estonian Agricultural University
Department of Agricultural Energy Engineering
Kreutzwaldi 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
2
E-mail: pvel@eau.ee

ABSTRACT
The paper includes comparison of formulas for calculating triple point’s parameters (p 0 = 611.2 Pa and t0 = 0.01 °C).
water vapour saturation pressure between temperatures –30 At lower than mentioned temperature and pressure, ice will
to +120 °C. Accuracy of formulas was estimated by evaporate if heat is transformed to ice, and vice versa,
calculating relative differences compared with tables of vapour will solidify when vapour loses heat energy. If the
humid air, e. g. Rivkin, Aleksandrov (1984). The paper process takes place fast, temporary existing of water at
offers some supplementary formulas in addition to temperature lower than –0.01 °C is possible. As a result,
formulas of ASAE. The analysis is useful for engineers formulas for calculating the pressure of saturating p s above
working in the field of technologies using moderate water as well as ice are needed (in practice between
temperatures such as drying of materials, air conditioning, temperatures from –18 °C to +0.01 °C).
food preserving, heating and ventilation.
Keywords : WATER VAPOUR, SATURATION Correct data for finding saturation pressure p s on the basis
PRESSURE, FORMULAS. of air temperature and vice versa – for finding saturation
temperature on the basis of air pressure are given in the
tables of thermodynamical properties of water vapour, for
1. INTRODUCTION
example by Rivkin & Aleksandrov (1984) and Guigo et al.
At lower critical point parameters of water (lower critical (1972).
pressure, p cr = 22.115 MPa, and lower critical temperature,
tcr = 374.12 °C), strong relationships exist between It is less time consuming to use calculation programs based
pressure and temperature of changing state of H2 O. The on formulas instead of using exact tables. Highly precise
pressure of changing state at steady temperature is called formulas, among them formulas of Keenan & Keyes
pressure of saturation, and the temperature of changing (ASAE standards 1989) look Table 1 formula (1), using
state at steady pressure is called temperature of saturation. programmable scientific calculators (TI–83 and more
Slow vaporising of water and condensation of vapour powerful/modern calculators) are too inconvenient due to a
(balanced or steady state) is taking place at higher than big number of variables needed to put into the program.

## Table 1. Equations for calculating pressure p s of vapour saturation as function of temperature

Validity range
Author/source Formulas
of t °C
1 2 3
Keenan & Keyes/ 0.01…260 A + BT + CT + DT + ET
2 3 4

## ASAE standards ln(p s /R) = , (1)

FT − GT 2
(1989)
where
R = 22105 649.25 D = 0.12558·10-3
A = -27405.526 E = -0.48502·10-7
B = 97.5413 F = 4.34903
C = -0.146244 G = 0.39381·10-2
and T – temperature, K (T=273,15+t)

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1 2 3
Filonenko/ 0…100 p s = exp(6.416 + 17.3·t / (238+t)), (2)
Ginzburg (1973)
and Filonenko et al.
(1971)
-30…+120 p s = exp((a+bt)/(236+t)), (3)
Filney/ Nesterenko
(1971) t °C a b Notes
(3b) and (3c) 0…120 1514 23.59 (above water) (3a)
modified by −30…0 1513 25.6 (above ice) (3b)
V.Treier −18…0 1514 23.6 (above water) (3c)
Brooker/
−18…0.01 ln(p s )=31.9602− (6270.3605/T) −46057·ln(T), (4)
ASAE standards
(above ice) where T = 273.15 + t, K
(1989)

For that reason, we looked for more simple formulas to use humid air (Rivkin, Aleksandrov, 1984 and Guigo et al.,
in everyday engineering work. Formulas chosen from 1972).
literature (ASAE standards, 1989; Ginzburg, 1973;
Filonenko et al., 1971; Nesterenko, 1971) including some 2. Formulas (2) and (3) are easy to divert for finding
modified by V. Treier are presented in Table 1. Formula saturation temperature based on pressure
(2) (Filonenko, 1971) and (3) (Filney’s formula by
238 ⋅ ln( p / 611 )
Nesterenko (1971)) valid for temperature range from 0to ts = (2’)
100 °C are temptingly easy to handle. For calculating 17. 3 − ln( p / 611)
saturating pressure of vapour above water and ice at and
temperatures below 0 °C, we advise using formula (3)
modified by V. Treier: (3b) for calculating saturating a − 236 ln p
ts = (3’)
pressure of vapour above ice in the temperature range from ln p − b
–30 to 0 °C and (3c) for calculating saturating pressure of
vapour above cooled down water in the temperature range 3. Brooker’s formula gives ca 1 Pa larger saturation
from –18 to 0 °C. pressure compared with the tables about humid air, e. g.
Rivkin, Aleksandrov (1984).
Notes to Table 1.
In figures 1, 2 and 3 are shown the relative differences of
1. The Filonenko’s formula (2) in the source (Ginzburg saturation pressure p s,cal calculated on the basis of formulas
(1973) and several others) is shown in the following (1) to (4) comparing to values p s,tab given in the tables
way: log(p s ) = 0.622 + 7.5 t/(238+t), where ps about humid air. The difference is calculated by formula:
calculated in mmHg.
( ps ,cal − ps ,tab )
There is obviously a misprint in all the sources – δp s = 100 , %. (5)
p s,tab
instead of 0.622 it should be 0.662, which gives a
compatible result with data given in the tables about

0,6
relative difference,%

0,4 (3a)
(2)
0,2 (1)

-0,2

-0,4
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120
0,01

temperature,°C

Figure 1. The relative difference by formulas Keenan & Keyes (1), Filonenko (2) and Filney (3a)

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1,5
relative difference, % (4)
1
(4' )
0,5

0 (3b)

-0,5
-30 -28 -26 -24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0
temperature,°C

Figure 2. Relative difference for formulas of Brooke (4), Filney (3b). The curve 4’
presents corrected Brooke’s curve

0,2
relative difference,%.

0,1
0
-0,1
-0,2
-0,3
-18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0
temperature,°C

Figure 3. Relative difference for Filney’s (3c) formula for temperature range
from –18 to 0 °C above cooled down open surface of water

4. CONCLUSIONS 5. REFERENCES
1. Recommended in standards of ASAE formula of Rivkin, S. L. and A. A. Aleksandrov. (1984). The Thermo-
Keenam and Keyes is very precise but includes the dynamical Properties of Water and Water’s Vapour,
high order polynom (look onto Fig 1). It may be used in Handbook. Moscow, (in Russian).
programmable environment of computers.
Guigo, E. I. and N. K. Zhuravskaya and
2. For calculation of saturation pressure of water vapour Y. I. Kauhcheshvili. (1972). The Sublimation Drying in
above open surface of water the simple Filonenko’s and Food Production. Moscow, (in Russian).
Filney’s formulas are accurate enough to use in
engineer work. Psychrometric Data, in: ASAE STANDARDS 1989, D271.2,
p. 4...5.
3. Formulas (2) and (3) are easy to divert for finding Ginzburg, A. S. (1973). Fundamentals of Drying Food
saturation temperature based on pressure. Products, Moscow. (in Russian).

4. We are drawing attention to the misprinting in the Filonenko, G.K. and M. A. Grishin and Y. M. Gol’den-
Filonenko’s formula. berg and V. K. Gossek. (1971). The Drying of
Vegetarian Food Materials, Moscow. (in Russian).
5. Brooker’s formula suggested in ASAE standard is
compatible with data in the tables about humid air if the Nesterenko, A.V. (1971). Fundamentals of Ventilation and
calculated result is diminished by 1 Pa. Conditioning of Air, Moscow. 3th ed. (in Russian).

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