Você está na página 1de 25

1.

Falando sobre o desenvolvimento e aplicação da tecnologia EPON


1 1. Introdução à tecnologia EPON
EPON (Rede Óptica Passiva Ethernet) é uma rede óptica passiva de fibra dupla e fibra
dupla caracterizada por ponto-a-multiponto (P2MP). O EPON inclui três componentes:
um OLT (Optical Line Terminal), uma ONU (Optical Network Unit) e uma (ODN) Optical
Distribution Network; e o divisor óptico passivo no ODN pode ser uma cascata de um
ou mais divisores ópticos.
A tecnologia EPON foi padronizada pelo IEEE em 2003. Baseado na tecnologia Gigabit
Ethernet, implementa a transmissão ponto-a-multiponto de PON através de MPCP na
camada MAC. A implementação do protocolo é simples, mas a capacidade do OAM é
fraca. A tecnologia EPON é uma tecnologia PON relativamente madura e escalonável.
Existem muitos chips e dispositivos comerciais. A maturidade do produto é alta e o
custo está diminuindo. A interoperabilidade entre OLT e ONU de diferentes
fornecedores é basicamente resolvida ao acessar serviços IP. É a principal tecnologia
das aplicações PON nesta fase.
2 2. O princípio básico do EPON
O EPON adota uma topologia ponto-a-multiponto e adota um modo de transmissão no
downlink e um modo TDMA no uplink para implementar a transmissão de dados
bidirecionais. A tecnologia EPON combina a tecnologia Ethernet com a tecnologia PON
e seu objetivo é obter acesso de fibra Ethernet de alta velocidade ponto-a-multiponto
de maneira simples. O EPON define uma nova especificação de camada física
(principalmente interface ótica), protocolo MPCP (Multipoint Control Protocol) e
mecanismo de Gerenciamento e Manutenção Operacional (OAM) aplicado ao sistema
EPON baseado na arquitetura Ethernet legada. Acesso múltiplo por divisão de tempo
de quadros Ethernet em uma rede óptica passiva ponto-a-multiponto.
3 3.Vantagens do EPON
(1) Confiável: Não há dispositivo eletrônico ativo na rede óptica passiva, o custo de
manutenção é baixo, os componentes da rede são poucos e o ponto de falha é baixo;
(2) Longa distância: EPON transmite distância 10-20KM sob a condição de garantir alta
largura de banda, superando a limitação da tecnologia Ethernet em distância e banda
larga;
(3) Multipropósito: a EPON adota a tecnologia de multiplexação de divisão de
comprimento de onda de fibra única, que pode sobrepor sinais de CATV em EPON no
fim da OLT e separá-los através do divisor no terminal do usuário, para que EPON
possa transmitir sinais de dados e sinais de TV a cabo;
(4) Salvando: economizando fibra e salvando o transceptor óptico, o custo relativo é
baixo.
4 4. Aplicação da tecnologia EPON
Com o desenvolvimento da tecnologia de acesso óptico, a necessidade de construção
econômica e transformação da rede de acesso do operador, o surgimento de serviços
de maior largura de banda, a construção do FTTx e a implementação da estratégia de
desenvolvimento “light into copper recreat” tornaram-se a escolha de operadores
tradicionais em todo o mundo. . Diante das diversas necessidades dos futuros
operadores, a tecnologia EPON tornou-se um forte suporte técnico do FTTx com seus
recursos técnicos exclusivos, e sua aplicação é cada vez mais extensa.
A Richerlink possui tecnologia avançada e mais de 10 anos de experiência em
tecnologia EPON.

O RicherLink RL8004EN OLT é um equipamento EPON OLT Compacto 1U de auto-


desenvolvimento, satisfazendo os requisitos de IEEE802.3ah e atende aos requisitos
de equipamentos EPON OLT do YD / T 1945-2006 Requisitos técnicos para rede de
acesso —— baseado em Rede Óptica Passiva Ethernet (EPON ) e os requisitos
técnicos da EPON de telecomunicações da China 3.0, que possuem capacidade de
acesso super EPON, confiabilidade de classe de operadora e a função de segurança
completa. Ele pode satisfazer o requisito de acesso de fibra óptica de longa distância
devido à sua excelente capacidade de gerenciamento, manutenção e monitoramento,
recursos de serviço abundantes e modo de rede flexível. O RL8004EN pode ser usado
com o sistema de gerenciamento de rede NMS3000 para fornecer aos usuários a
solução perfeita.
A RL8004EN OLT fornece 4 portas DownSeam EPON, 4 portas Uplink GE ETH e 2
portas UFP GE SFP. Proporção de divisão até 1:64 para até 256 usuários EPON. O
design 1U pizzabox é de fácil instalação, manutenção e economia de espaço.
RL8004EN é adequado para transmissão de três em um, rede de vigilância de vídeo,
LAN corporativa, Internet das coisas, etc.

http://www.richerlink.com/po/tecnologia-epon/ 17:50 16/02/20 20


GPON ODN Deployment

 OSP Deployment
 GPON ODN Deployment

GPON ODN deployment covering end to end network elements deployment like FDH, routes,
FATs, fiber counts , splicing plans and hand-holes placement plans.

5 Installation and Commissioning


Stargate responds to the network operator’s need for quality, flexibility, and rapid response time
in equipment installation, testing, and commissioning.

With a wide array of certifications by leading equipment vendors, Stargate provides a broad
service offering for most cellular, microwave, and terrestrial telecom network installations.

6 Equipment Installation
Equipment Installation starts after the radio site construction works are completed. Antenna
installation, feeder cables, cabinets and BTS equipments are installed and related cable/feeder
connections are done according to the Radio Site Engineering report.

7 Equipment Commissioning
After installation is finished, the equipment is powered up and tested in a standalone
environment including cable connections. Also the lasted software and settings are loaded into
the equipment configuration.

8 Equipment Integration
When the equipment is commissioned, the network element needs to be connected to the
network and integrated to become a functional part of this network.

9 Decommissioning
When network equipment’s lifecycle has come to an end, Stargate can decommission all or part
of the network system during or after an upgrade or replacement. Our team can handle necessary
lease negotiations and closures, construction management, A&E services, warehousing, and
hazmat removal and cleanup.
http://www.stargate.com.pk/gpon-odn-deployment/ 17:50 16/02/20 20
2. Fibra óptica
Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.
Saltar para a navegaçãoSaltar para a pesquisa
Fibra óptica

Tipo Fibra de vidro, guia de ondas óptico

Características
Composto de Guia de ondas óptico

editar - editar código-fonte - editar Wikidata


Fibra óptica (ou ótica) é um filamento flexível e transparente fabricado a partir
de vidro ou plástico extrudido e que é utilizado como condutor de elevado rendimento
de luz, imagens ou impulsos codificados. Têm diâmetro de alguns micrometros,
ligeiramente superior ao de um fio de cabelo humano.[1] Por ser um material que não
sofre interferências eletromagnéticas, a fibra óptica possui uma grande importância em
sistemas de comunicação de dados.
Inicialmente as fibras ópticas eram utilizadas como guias de transmissão de sinais
ópticos e operavam entre distâncias limitadas, pois apresentavam grande perda de luz
na transmissão, alto calor que os lasers produziam e tinham problemas com as
emendas. Contudo, em meados dos anos 70, ocorreu um aprimoramento significativo
das técnicas ópticas utilizadas e, devido a isso, tornou-se possível a monitoração de
grandezas e a troca de informações a longas distâncias. No Brasil a fibra óptica foi
introduzida apenas em 1977, após grandes pesquisas, realizadas na sua maioria pela
UNICAMP.[2]
Há dois tipos de denominação recorrentes às fibras ópticas, os quais possuem
características e finalidades próprias. Um deles é a fibra óptica monomodo. Esta
apresenta um único caminho possível de propagação e é a mais utilizada em
transmissão a longas distâncias (devido a baixas perdas de informação). Já a
fibra multimodo permite a propagação da luz em diversos modos e é a mais utilizada
em redes locais (LAN), devido ao seu custo moderado.[3]

9.1 Índice

 1Geometria

 2Funcionamento

o 2.1Reflexão total

o 2.2Transmissão

 3Aplicações

o 3.1Cabos submarinos

o 3.2Redes telefônicas

o 3.3Medicina

 4Vantagens

 5Ver também

 6Referências

 7Ligações externas

9.2 Geometria[editar | editar código-fonte]

Representação ilustrativa da fibra óptica


As fibras ópticas consistem, geralmente, de um núcleo central cilíndrico e transparente
de vidro puro, o qual é envolvido por uma camada de material com menor índice de
refração (fator que viabiliza a reflexão total). Ou seja, a fibra óptica é composta por um
material com maior índice de refração (núcleo) envolto por um material com menor
índice de refração (casca). Ao redor da casca ainda há uma capa feita de material
plástico necessária para proteger o interior contra danos mecânicos. [4]

9.3 Funcionamento[editar | editar código-fonte]


A transmissão da luz pela fibra segue um princípio único, independentemente do
material usado ou da aplicação: é lançado um feixe de luz numa extremidade da fibra
e, pelas características ópticas do meio (fibra), esse feixe percorre a fibra por meio de
reflexões sucessivas. A fibra possui no mínimo duas camadas: o núcleo (filamento de
vidro) e o revestimento (material eletricamente isolante). No núcleo, ocorre a
transmissão da luz propriamente dita. A transmissão da luz dentro da fibra é possível
graças a uma diferença de índice de refração entre o revestimento e o núcleo, sendo
que o núcleo possui sempre um índice de refração mais elevado, característica que
aliada ao ângulo de incidência do feixe de luz, possibilita o fenômeno da reflexão total.
Ou seja, a luz é mantida no núcleo através de reflexão interna total. Isto faz com que a
fibra funcione como guia de onda, transmitindo luz entre as duas extremidades.

Representação de dois raios de luz se propagando dentro de uma fibra ótica. Nessa
imagem percebe-se o fenômeno da reflexão total no feixe de luz "a".
Reflexão total[editar | editar código-fonte]
De modo que .
Para termos a reflexão total, o  tem de ser maior do que o , o qual ocorre quando o
ângulo de refração for de 90º.
, como seno de 90º é 1,

A reflexão interna total da fibra ótica segue o mesmo princípio da água com o ar.
 Índice de refração da casca
 Índice de refração do núcleo
 Ângulo de incidência (em relação à normal)
 Ângulo de refração (em relação à normal)
 Ângulo máximo em que ainda ocorre refração
Desse modo, a partir do  , ocorrerá o fenômeno da reflexão total dentro da fibra óptica,
de modo que apenas os raios com  permanecerão no núcleo.[5]
Transmissão[editar | editar código-fonte]
Mesmo confinada a um meio físico, a luz transmitida pela fibra óptica proporciona o
alcance de taxas de transmissão (velocidades) elevadíssimas, da ordem de 109 a
1010 bits por segundo (cerca de 40 Gbps), com baixa taxa de atenuação por quilômetro.
Mas a velocidade de transmissão total possível ainda não foi alcançada pelas
tecnologias existentes. Como a luz se propaga no interior de um meio físico, sofrendo
ainda o fenômeno de reflexão, ela não consegue alcançar a velocidade de propagação
no vácuo, que é de cerca de 300.000 km/s.
Para transmitir dados pela fibra ótica, são necessários equipamentos especiais, que
contêm um componente fotoemissor, que pode ser um diodo emissor de luz ou
um diodo laser. O fotoemissor converte sinais elétricos em pulsos de luz que
representam os valores digitais binários (0 e 1). Tecnologias como WDM fazem
a multiplexação de vários comprimentos de onda em um único pulso de luz, chegando
a taxas de transmissão de 1,6 terabits por segundo em um único par de fibras.

9.4 Aplicações[editar | editar código-fonte]


Cabos submarinos[editar | editar código-fonte]

Mapa de cabos submarinos


Os cabos de fibra ótica atravessam oceanos ligando os continentes através dos cabos
submarinos. A utilização desses cabos para conectar o mundo é um projeto incrível.
Existem milhares de quilômetros de extensão de cabos sob o mar, atravessando fossas
e montanhas submarinas. Nos anos 80, tornou-se disponível, o primeiro cabo fibra
óptica intercontinental desse tipo. Instalado em 1988, o cabo associado ao sistema
TAT-8, tinha capacidade para 40.000 conversas telefônicas simultâneas,
usando tecnologia digital. Desde então, a capacidade dos cabos aumentou. Alguns
cabos que atravessam o oceano Atlântico têm capacidade para 200 milhões de
circuitos telefônicos.
Os milhares de quilômetros de fibra ótica presentes nos cabos submarinos
representam aproximadamente 99% das conexões existentes em nosso planeta. Desse
modo, a internet coberta pelos satélites tem uma atuação secundária em comparação a
tais cabos. Existem cabos de tamanhos exorbitantes. Um grande exemplo disso é o
SeaMeWe 3, o qual conecta 32 países e possui em torno de 39 mil quilômetros de
extensão. Os cabos possuem uma estrutura composta de 8 camadas com um diâmetro
total de cerca de 7 centímetros.[6]
Redes telefônicas[editar | editar código-fonte]
As fibras óticas são amplamente utilizadas em redes telefônicas. Em comparação com
os cabos convencionais de metal, permitem a transmissão de dados a distâncias muito
superiores e com maior largura de banda, de modo que economizam custos em
relação aos demais cabos utilizados para os mesmos fins.
Medicina[editar | editar código-fonte]
As fibras óticas podem ainda ser utilizadas para diversas aplicações, como
iluminação, sensores, lasers ou em instrumentos médicos para examinar as cavidades
interiores do corpo.[1]

9.5 Vantagens[editar | editar código-fonte]

 Perda de transmissão muito baixa;


 Imunidade à interferência de outros sinais e ruídos;
 Isolamento elétrico.

https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibra_%C3%B3ptica 18:13 16/02/2020


9.6 Optical distribution network[edit]
A passive optical distribution network (PON) uses single-mode optical fiber in
the outside plant, optical splitters and optical distribution frames, duplexed so that both
upstream and downstream signals share the same fiber on separate wavelengths.
Faster PON standards generally support a higher split ratio of users per PON, but may
also use reach extenders/amplifiers where extra coverage is needed. Optical
splitters creating a point to multipoint topology are also the same technology regardless
of the type of PON system, making any PON network upgradable by changing the
optical network terminals (ONT) and optical line terminal (OLT) terminals at each end,
with minimal change to the physical network.[1]
Access networks usually also must support point-to-point technologies such
as Ethernet, which bypasses any outside plant splitter to achieve a dedicated link to
the telephone exchange. Some PON networks use a "home run" topology where
roadside cabinets only contain patch panels so that all splitters are located centrally.
While a 20% higher capital cost could be expected, home run networks may encourage
a more competitive wholesale market since providers' equipment can achieve higher
use.[2]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Access_network#Optical_distribution_network 18:18 16-02-2020
3. Distribution frame
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigationJump to search

This article relies too much on references to primary


sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary
sources. (July 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template
message)

Unshielded twisted pair (copper) and optical fiber distribution frame.

An optical fiber distribution frame.


In telecommunications, a distribution frame is a passive device which terminates
cables, allowing arbitrary interconnections to be made.
For example, the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) located at a telephone central
office terminates the cables leading to subscribers on the one hand, and cables leading
to active equipment (such as DSLAMs and telephone switches) on the other. Service is
provided to a subscriber by manually wiring a twisted pair (called a jumper wire)
between the telephone line and the relevant DSL or POTS line circuit.
In broadcast engineering, a distribution frame is a location within an apparatus room
through which all signals (audio, video, or data) pass, with the ability to arbitrarily route
and connect sources and destinations between studios and other internal and external
points. Connections can either be soldered, or made using terminal blocks. Because the
frame may carry live broadcast signals, it may be considered part of the airchain.
In data communication, a building distribution frame (BDF) houses data switches,
etc.

9.7 Contents

 1Types

 2Modernization

 3See also

 4References

9.8 Types[edit]
Distribution frames for specific types of signals often have specific acronyms:

 DDF - digital distribution frame


 IDF - Intermediate distribution frame
 MDF - Main distribution frame
 ODF or OFDF - optical fiber distribution frame[1]
 VDF - voice distribution frame

9.9 Modernization[edit]
Distribution frames may grow to extremely large sizes. In major installations, audio
distribution frames can have as many as 10,000 incoming and outgoing separate
copper wires (balanced audio signals require two wires plus earth ground for each
signal). Telephone signals do not use a separate earth ground wire, but some
urban exchanges have about 250,000 wires on their MDF. Installing and rewiring these
jumpers is a labour-intensive task, leading to attempts in the industry to devise so-called
active distribution frames or Automated Main Distribution Frames. The principal issues
which stand in the way of their widespread adoption are cost and reliability.
Newer digital mixing consoles can act as control points for a distribution frame or router,
which can handle audio from multiple studios (even for multiple co-
located radio or TV stations) at the same time. Multiple smaller frames, such as one for
each studio, can be linked together with fibre-optics (which also helps eliminate ground
loops), or with gigabit Ethernet. This has the advantage of not having to route dozens of
feeds through walls (and sometimes floors and ceilings) to a single point.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distribution_frame 18:20 16-02-2020
AON VS PON

Aon Vs. Pon

1. 1. White Paper AON vs. PON – A comparison of two optical access network
technolo- gies and the different impact on operations 2008-05-26 © KEYMILE
2008
2. 2. White Paper AON vs. PON Table of content 1. Basic facts 3 1.1. Passive
Optical Networks (PONs) 3 1.2. Active Optical Networks (AONs) 4 1.3. Network
topologies with PON and AON 5 2. Comparison of the technologies AON vs.
PON 6 2.1. Bandwidth 6 2.2. Security and quality of services 7 2.3. Business
case aspects 9 2.3.1 Investment costs (CAPEX) comparison 9 2.3.2 A
comparison of operating expenses (OPEX) 10 2.4. Flexibility and scope for
usage 11 3. Summary 12 4. Glossary 13 2008-05-26 © KEYMILE 2008 Page 2
3. 3. White Paper AON vs. PON AON vs. PON The telecommunications industry
has had more alleled success story. Today, considering all the than ten years of
experience with active and new services like high definition IPTV, online passive
optical networks and debates about gaming and remote surveillance, ICT service
their advantages and disadvantages have been providers are well advised to
seek access running for that long at the very least. Fibre network solutions with
even more bandwidth optic networks can be laid directly to house- for the post-
DSL era. However, due to the holds (Fibre-to-the-Home [FTTH]) by using
physical properties of copper wire in the last Passive Optical Networks (PONs)
and Active mile, VDSL2 has reached its limits, even if Optical Networks (AONs).
In the mid 1990s, technology called DSM (Dynamic Spectrum the first large-scale
PON installations were Management) is being developed to boost the
commissioned in Japan. In many other parts of transmission capacity on copper.
Communica- the world, FTTH concepts were a long way off. tion solutions like
WiMAX, or LTE in mobile The Internet was still in its infancy, attractive telephony,
reach the limits of their capabilities online offerings for private customers were
even more quickly because of poorer physical practically non-existent and the
technology was transmission properties (in comparison with much too expensive
in any case. As a result, copper). To date, the only solution for seem- most end
customers did not require more ingly infinite bandwidths has been the optical
bandwidth (i.e. more than ISDN was capable of wave guide, also called fibre
optics. at the time) till the beginning of the new millennium. The subsequent
escalation of bandwidth, fuelled by the availability of broadband DSL connections
via copper wire, has turned the Internet and associated services into an unpar- 1.
Basic facts The key technical difference between active close as possible, ideally
right into the sub- and passive access technology is that a passive scribers’
houses and apartments. This FTTH- splitter is used for passive optical networks.
solution is technically the best option with The splitter is basically a kind of multi-
mirror respect to the transmission quality and the that distributes the optical
signal for the bandwidth. subscriber line to fibre optic routes without any electrical
current (which is why it is called passive). 1.1. Passive Optical Networks (PONs)
The first active optical access networks used As regards the core network, the
first network TDM technology. The first passive optical element of a PON network
is the OLT (Optical networks on the other hand used ATM for voice Line
Termination Unit), that provides n x 1 Gbps and data traffic (APON, BPON, ITU-T
Standard and n x 10 Gbps Ethernet interfaces to the core G.983). Because early
PON systems could network and the PON interfaces to the sub- already transmit
a TV broadcast signal on a scriber. The PON types used here today are separate
wavelength in the optical spectrum, usually Ethernet-PON (EPON), Gigabit-PON
simultaneously to the voice-data signal, they (GPON) or Gigabit-Ethernet-PON
(GEPON). were popular in cable TV networks. The Ethernet technology is the
common denomina- topologies of PON and CATV networks are also tor in all
these technologies. Nowadays, very similar to one another, so existing cable
EPON installations tend to occur more in the lines, or ducts can be used and
costs saved in Far East and GPON more in the USA and the network rollout. The
objective of both Europe. Consequently, we will be looking at PON and AON is to
get the fibre optics as the GPON-type (ITU-Standard G.984) below. 2008-05-26
© KEYMILE 2008 Page 3
4. 4. White Paper AON vs. PON 1.2. Active Optical Networks (AONs) ket AON is a
point-to-point network structure Pac twork (PTP), i.e. each subscriber has their
own fibre Ne optic line that is terminated on an optical concentrator (Access
Node [AN]). ket Line OLT) Pac twork ical ( Ne Opt ination Te rm ical opt sive litter
Pas Sp rk two ica l Ne ation n Opt Termi NT) (O ode essN Acc Figure 1:
Subscriber line in a PON et ern GPON’s current standard can provide a maxi- al
Eth Optic wor k mum of 2.5 Gbps towards the subscriber Net n i cal inatio
(downlink) and 1.25 Gbps towards the core Opt Term NT) (O network (uplink) per
PON interface on the OLT. To the subscriber, a passive splitter, that is Figure 2:
Subscriber line in an AON either fitted to an outdoor cabinet in a colloca- tion
room, or in the end subscriber’s premises, This type of AN can be designed
differently, multiplies the signal on the fibre optics into n depending on
specifications. Usually Metro- optical subscriber branches. In other words,
Ethernet-Switches, IP-Edge routers or Multi- the network structure is a point-to-
multipoint Service Access Nodes (MSANs) with optical structure (PMP). The
structure is similar to a Ethernet interfaces are used in this case. The tree,
colloquially called a PON tree, or a twig or fibre optics can be terminated by an
ONT here branch is referred to in the subscriber access too, but also by any
Ethernet switch or IP router line (see figure 1). with an optical uplink interface. If
the last mile In an FTTH network architecture, subscriber to the subscriber is to
be bridged using copper access is implemented using optical network wire,
DSLAMs or other MSANs are used. When termination (ONT) that terminates the
optical MSANs are used, both copper and optical lines signal and converts it into
one or more electri- can be used for the last mile from the same cal interfaces,
such as for example 100BaseTx, access node. POTS, ISDN or Coax. If copper
wire is used for the last mile, an optical network unit (ONU) can be used instead
of the optical network termina- tion in the PON, which then provides interfaces
such as POTS, ISDN or DSL. In this case, the network architecture is a Fibre-to-
the-Curb (FTTC) connection. All PON subscribers receive the same optical signal
at the end of the fibre optics. The personal allocation of data is carried out via a
time multiplex procedure, i.e. each subscriber receives their own time slot to
transmit and receive. Synchronisation of the right user time slot is carried out in
the ONT. 2008-05-26 © KEYMILE 2008 Page 4
5. 5. White Paper AON vs. PON 1.3. Network topologies with PON and AON ket LT
Pac t O CO ne ket T tter ON U MDF Pac t OL Curb Spli ne MDU ket Pac twork
DN olds ne S/IS plus POTDSL2 useh OLT A tter e Ho k typ ket Spli Pac t OLT
wor ne U NT ON Net U ON ket E Pac twork ne lus L2p L2 NT FTT NT OLT DN
ADS VDS NT ase FX S/IS plus 00B POTDSL2 DSL2 B nx 10 r A V NT FTT tte
Spli tter Spli C bps ,5 G bps ON T FTT nk 2 25 G wnli nk 1, Do Upli H Copper
double pair ON T FTT Optical fibre H FTT Figure 3: Overview of network
topologies in PON networks As figure 3 and 4 show, PON and AON can be last
mile with copper wire. For PON this can used to implement all network
topologies, be implemented directly from the OLT, or in starting with Fibre-to-the-
Exchange (FTTE), to AON from the access node. Optical Network Fibre-to-the-
Curb (FTTC), Fibre-to-the-Building Units (ONUs), or DSL Access Multiplexers
(FTTB) and Fibre-to-the-Home (FTTH). (DSLAMs) can be integrated to provide
the POTS or ISDN interfaces for telephony and Both technologies have to take
the fibre optics various DSL types for High-Speed Internet (HSI). to the end
subscriber, but can also bridge the ket Pac work CO net ket et ern h AN MDF
Pac work Eth Switc net Curb MDU ket et AN Pac work ern h Eth Switc DN S/IS
plus olds net POTDSL2 useh A Ho type ket Pac work net NT w ork Net AN AM
ket et DSL Pac work ern h E net Eth Switc AN lus L2p L2 NT FTT NT AN DN
ADS VDS NT seF X S/IS plus 0Ba POTDSL2 DSL2 B nx 100 A V NT FTT C nk
wnli ps ON T FTT /Do Mb Up link ≥100 H Copper double pair ON T FTT Optical
fibre H FTT Figure 4: Overview of network topologies in AON networks Despite
the obvious aspects both technologies PON and AON technology is so
widespread have in common, there are variations inherent and changing from
one to the other is costly, in the systems that affect operations, costs and
operators should be aware of all the facts. The the value they provide differently.
Because main differences are shown below. 2008-05-26 © KEYMILE 2008 Page
5
6. 6. White Paper AON vs. PON 2. Comparison of the technologies AON vs. PON
2.1. Bandwidth The trend towards increasing bandwidth 1000 continues
unabated. Due to the launch of EFM Active 1 Gbps TV-over-IP (IPTV) there is no
sign of the increase 100 in bandwidth tailing off, in fact quite the EFM Active 100
Mbps opposite. Because of the recent launch of 75 (HDTV) and other technically
complex services 2.4 GPON (32-split) such as online gaming, network operators
are 45 Bonded being encourage to outdo one another by VDSL2 24 ADSL2plus
providing more and more bandwidth. [Mbps] ADSL2plus The following table
compares PON and AON [km] 1 2 3 4 5 6 transmission bandwidth. Source: DSL
Forum, FTTx Summit 2007, Munich Figure 5: Bandwidth downstream and range
AON PON Assessment Bandwidth allocation Good Average AON’s advantage
The amount allocated to the subscriber The GPON interface on the OLT AON
clearly has the edge because of is governed by the interface type, or nowadays
is 2.5/1.25 Gbps (downlink/ its flexibility. Due to the static splitting traffic shaping
on the access node and uplink). The bandwidth per subscriber is factor and the
interfaces on the OLT, is therefore adjustable in kilobit incre- determined by the
splitting factor (usu- PON is at a disadvantage. ments. ally 1:32 or 1:64). Modern
PON systems however permit bundling of several time slots and therefore an
increase in bandwidth per PON terminal point. Maximum bandwidth per
subscriber Good Satisfactory AON’s advantage As each subscriber is connected
with With regard to the PON standards AON technology is clearly better as their
own fibre optics, bandwidth can available today, the maximum feasible regards
the bandwidth per subscriber. today be implemented at between capacity of fibre
optics is the same The maximum bandwidth per sub- 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps per
household or as the total capacity of an OLT port, scriber is a lot higher. The
flexibility to company. i.e. 2.5 Gbps (PTP connection without allocate different
bandwidths to indi- a splitter). Therefore, realistically the vidual subscribers is
also greater (e.g. bandwidth with splitter and a separa- for corporate customers)
than when tion of usually 1:32 is 78 Mbps, or at PON systems are used.
Depending on 1:64 39 Mbps (all figures relate to the splitting factor, a PON
connection downstream). via fibre optics supplies less bandwidth than a VDSL2
connection via copper wire. Increasing bandwidth Simple Difficult AON’s
advantage As the active access node has a Depending on the systems
technology, In this case, the PTP architecture is modular structure, subscriber
interfaces it would be feasible in the future to superior to the PON’s PMP
architecture. can be upgraded to include more bundle several time slots and
therefore, Just by converting boards, subscribers bandwidth. It is often sufficient
to just at the cost of the maximum number can obtain an upgrade, without the
net- switch the fibre optic lead to be able to of subscribers per PON branch, to
work architecture or the service of other operate it again. increase individual
bandwidth by a fac- subscribers having to be changed. tor of n + 1. The
bandwidth of the PON port on the OLT is the absolute limit, i.e.. 2.5/1.25 Gbps
(down/up). 2008-05-26 © KEYMILE 2008 Page 6
7. 7. White Paper AON vs. PON To sum up, the PON network’s predefined
Nowadays, the Triple Play offerings, imple- topology makes individual changes
more mented via copper wire often consist of two difficult. By terminating all the
fibre optics at television channels with standard resolution the OLT, i.e. the same
fibre optic topology as in (SDTV), a high-speed Internet connection the AON
(point-to-point), this disadvantage can (>3 Mbps) and at least one POTS or ISDN
be overcome. Therefore, for future-proof telephone connection. The current state
of the infrastructure investment, reliable point-to- art is that network operators are
planning point fibre optics technology should always be approx. 15 Mbps
downlink capacity. considered. In the future the end customer will be demand-
ing high definition TV (HDTV). Two simultane- 2.2. Security and quality of
services ous TV channels will mean an unacceptable restriction for a family of
four in the long term. An aspect in public networks that is regaining Furthermore,
currently ADSL 16 Mbps Internet importance is Quality-of-Service (QoS), which
access is already being marketed to private considering today‘s financial
restraints is often customers and including n telephone lines. forced to take a
back seat. At the dawn of the Online gaming – in the Far East popular for ADSL
rollout, the majority of services offered years – is also looking promising in
Europe. In took a best effort approach, i.e. the data this case, top rates of 50
Mbps per subscriber channel guaranteed neither a minimum band- line could
easily be reached. Today, standard width, nor any other quality features worth
VDSL2 access would not be able to cope. mentioning. As today however, Triply
Play services (telephony, data and TV down one The scenario described above
indicates what single line) are already transmitted to the the private consumer will
look like in the near subscriber, QoS applies more than ever. When future. If
such a scenario appears exaggerated, surfing the Web, short delays of 1 – 2
seconds, we only have to recall the situation 10 years e.g. when clicking on a
link, do not really ago when modern end customers still used matter. During a
phone call, this level of delay 56 kbps dial-up modems to read e-mails, for is
however completely unacceptable. When sending faxes and for home banking.
In watching TV, it is also no fun if the picture comparison to today’s standard 3.5
Mbps ADSL freezes before a goal is scored. As a result, the connection, the
bandwidth has increased Triple Play services must be clearly separate 62-fold!
Special requirements from business and allocated priority. customers, or
demands for the backhaul of sub-networks, server connections or high Although
theoretically unlimited bandwidth is performance IT applications would easily
available in a fibre optic line, QoS not be exceed these quality specifications and
require forgotten. Not all QoS aspects can be even greater high quality
performance. responded to with bandwidth and neither PON nor AON can really
provide unlimited band- width. AON PON Assessment Temporary increase in
bandwidth (e.g. server back-up over night) Simple Difficult AON’s advantage In
an active access node, traffic shaping Due to the TDM procedure, a fixed
Compared with an AON, the structure can regulate the bandwidth from the time
slot is allocated to each customer. of the PON limits the flexibility to make NMS
control centre and for example The signal must also be separated any changes
in bandwidth. during constant operation be switched using a passive splitter, as
passive to 100 Mbps, or ad-hoc to 1 Gbps. splitters are not manageable. A
further allocation of another time slot must be carried out. Prioritising services
Simple Simple Undecided Standard mechanisms at Ethernet/IP Standard
mechanisms at Ethernet/IP In this case there are no significant dif- level can be
used. level can be used. ferences. 2008-05-26 © KEYMILE 2008 Page 7
8. 8. White Paper AON vs. PON AON PON Assessment Delay, jitter and other
effects on quality Low Low Undecided Mainly influenced by the design of the
Mainly influenced by the design of the In this case there are no significant dif-
core network. core network. ferences. Impact of faults in the access node Low
High AON’s advantage As n subscribes in an active access In an OLT, a passive
splitter separates Any faults in the AN affect fewer cus- node use n optical
interfaces and the the optical subscriber interfaces into tomers than in an OLT.
subscriber density of the interface 32 or 64 signals. A subscriber subrack card is
relatively low compared with a usually provides several subscriber PON-OLT,
relatively few subscribers are interfaces. In comparison with an AON affected if
there is a malfunction. AN, a lot of subscribers are affected if a port, or even a
card fails. Effect of malfunctions and manipulation Low High AON’s advantage
Thanks to the PTP architecture, each Within a PON tree, all the subscribers In
the worst case scenario, a single path can be assessed exactly right up are on
the same optical point. If a faulty ONT can bring an entire PON tree with to the
end customer’s ONT at the very ONT causes faulty synchronisation, up to 64
subscribers down if a technical least. In the worst case scenario, the or produces
an optically indefinable malfunction or deliberate manipulation laser on the AN for
each subscriber can signal, a remote localisation of the occurs. A faulty
subscriber line on the be deactivated by the control centre. malfunction in the
ONT involved is not AON can be very easily identified and possible. As the ONTs
are often in the eradicated. end customer’s home, it is impossible to estimate
how long it will take to exchange an ONT. Risk of eavesdropping (espionage)
Low High AON’s advantage Each customer has dedicated fibre A PON tree is
known as a shared medi- The data in the PON network is en- optics. In general,
eavesdropping is um, i.e. all subscriber signals are on one crypted in a similar
way to WLAN, nev- not possible. fibre optic terminal point. By allocating ertheless
it is technically still possible to the time slot, the data is separated. eavesdrop on
another subscriber on the The setup is in the customer’s network same PON
tree. However, in-depth termination. technical knowledge is required to do so.
Reliability of the subscriber line (between the customer and AN and passive
splitter) Good Poor AON’s advantage In an active network, a customer can To
date, there are no plans to connect Availability of the PON, compared with
basically be connected in a ring, or customers twice in one PON. the AON, is
much worse. using dual-homing. In other words, a customer can be connected
twice. Reliability of the subscriber line (between passive splitter and OLT, or AN
and edge switch) Poor Good PON’s advantage If the connection is cut here,
several In this case, only one fibre optic line has In reality cables are cut more
often hundred fibre optics are interrupted to be maintained. than is generally
thought. A PON link and have to be repaired. between the splitter and OLT
consists of a tiny fibre optic that can be repaired in a few hours. 2008-05-26 ©
KEYMILE 2008 Page 8
9. 9. White Paper AON vs. PON 2.3. Business case aspects ogy is used), it
sometimes takes more than 10 years. Using fibre optic cable promises virtually
unlimited bandwidths, however the network Nevertheless, depending on the
application operator only ever has just the copper wire line and conditions at the
time, business cases vary in the last mile. That means that if the DSL greatly,
depending on whether passive or technology is no longer adequate, new optical
active access technology is used for an FTTH cables must always be laid. rollout.
The main differences in investment costs (capital expenses, CAPEX) and
operating The high investment costs of this infrastructure, costs (operational
expenses, OPEX) are com- combined with telecommunications providers’ pared
with one another below. falling revenue at the same time, mean it is often difficult
to put a business case to inves- tors and network providers’ management
boards. Nowadays the ICT industry is spoilt with returns on investment of 1 – 3
years. But when expanding FTTH and FTTC networks, (regardless of whether
PON or AON technol- 2.3.1 Investment costs (CAPEX) comparison AON PON
Assessment Costs of the subscribers’ terminal equipment (CPE) Low High
AON’s advantage As standard Ethernet technology can As ONTs in the PON
environment are The CAPEX bonus of AON networks be used. Today, simple
ONTs (e.g. Eth- (despite standardisation) not inter- should not be
underestimated, because ernet media converters), with functions changeable
between different manu- the CPE share in the total costs is usu- similar to an
ADSL-NT, are available for facturers. Which means the selection ally the greatest
(often >50 %). under $30. of models is restricted and the savings provided,
because a larger number is produced, are negligible. Costs of the network
technology (active components) High Low PON’s advantage Because each
subscriber has a dedi- As a single port on the OLT can be Because optical paths
can be used by cated laser port on the AN. If a fibre shared by several
customers. If a several subscribers, PON is a bonus optic path is divided up into
several fibre optic has to be shared by several because of the price per
subscriber. customer connections, additional active customers, a simple passive
splitter can equipment is required. be used. Costs of the network technology
(passive components and infrastructure) High Low PON’s advantage Because of
the greater number of opti- As one laser on the OLT is shared by n In this case,
passive technology clearly cal subscriber interfaces in the access subscribers
because the passive splitter has the upper hand. node. is used. Network rollout
costs High Different PON’s advantage Each subscriber must be connected
Depends on the fibre optic topology. Depending on the fibre optic topol-
individually in a star shape. If the same topology is used as in an ogy, PON
network architecture can be AON, the costs are similar (fibre-rich cheaper in
large-scale rollouts. approach). If the fibre optic network is tree shaped, cost
savings are possible compared with an AON. A PON net- work architecture using
a small splitter with 2 or 4 branches allows costs to be shared efficiently (e.g. in
terraced houses). 2008-05-26 © KEYMILE 2008 Page 9
10. 10. White Paper AON vs. PON 2.3.2 A comparison of operating expenses
(OPEX) AON PON Assessment Space required for systems technology High
Low PON’s advantage Because of the port density of the ac- Because a single
optical port on the PON’s space-saving potential in the col- tive AN, the space
required is just as OLT for up to 64 customers is used, the location room is
greater compared with great as for a DSLAM. space required at the OLT for
systems AON. Due to the wide ranges of PON technology is very low. Over
8,000 paths, in comparison with copper wire, subscribers can be placed on a
single some MDF sites may not be necessary rack using today’s technology. at
all. Space required by cable Great Low PON’s advantage One fibre optic cable at
the AN per One fibre optic cable can supplied to The space PON saves in fibre
optic subscriber. up to 64 subscribers. cable is particularly critical in central OLT
locations. Energy consumption High Low PON’s advantage Because of the high
number of laser Because of the passive splitting. Because of the passive splitter
and interfaces. higher subscriber density on the OLT, the PON is much better in
this case. Level of maintenance High Low PON’s advantage Active access nodes
require an external In an outdoor cabinet, the passive In this case, the PON is
also at an ad- power supply, plus battery to supply splitter needs virtually no
maintenance. vantage because there are fewer active emergency electricity. This
is a disad- External power supply is not required. components in the network.
vantage, above all in FTTC networks, Malfunctions are very seldom. where the
AN is on the outdoor cabinet. Level of difficulty in identifying and eradicating
malfunctions Low High AON’s advantage Because in AON networks it is easy to
As in the worst case scenario, a faulty Identifying and eradicating faults in the
carry out an end-to-end diagnosis right ONT cannot be deactivated by the AON
is a lot easier than in the PON, into the subscriber's home, due to the NMS
centre. A local visit to the cus- due to the PTP topology. Nevertheless, PTP
topology and the possibility of as- tomer is required. Depending on the in the
PON the ability to analyse faults sessing the dedicated optical transmis-
accessibility of the ONT, this can take a by using monitoring systems can be sion
path via the NMS. long time. improved. Follow-up costs for upgrades Low High
AON’s advantage Because of the better granularity of the An entire PON tree is
affected by Because of the greater individual flex- ANs and the separation of the
custom- an upgrade. All ONTs have to be ibility, AON has an advantage where
ers (PTP), individual upgrades can be exchanged at the same time. As a
upgrades are concerned. carried out in the AON and for example result,
individual upgrades are virtually CPE can be exchanged. precluded. 2008-05-26
© KEYMILE 2008 Page 10
11. 11. White Paper AON vs. PON 2.4. Flexibility and scope for usage ences. Apart
from technological differences, there are further differences between the two
Previous findings in the comparison of AON optical access technologies,
depending on the and PON have already highlighted key differ- operator’s
business strategy. AON PON Assessment Suitability for connecting up housing
estates (green field) Satisfactory Good PON’s advantage The requirements for
rolling out active The fibre optic infrastructure is simpler. Because of the lower
requirements, a networks are higher. The requirements for passive splitters PON
network can be installed more in outdoor cabinets are low (no power quickly and
cheaply. needed, no problems with heat/cold). Level of suitability for connecting
large-scale/business customers Very good Poor AON’s advantage In this case
advantages on flexibility, se- The customers in a PON tree are all Requirements
from bulk customers are curity and performance really pay out. treated the same.
Individual features always special, PON network concepts A router or switch can
be used as an can only be implemented at protocol tend to be more static.
Therefore, in optical network termination to separate level above layer 3. this
case the active approach is a lot services. better. Level of suitability to provide
telephony and high-speed Internet (HIS) at the same time Good Good Undecided
No major restrictions. No major restrictions. From a technical point of view, both
PON and AON can be used here with- out any problems. Level of suitability to
provide telephony, HSI and television (Triple Play) at the same time Good
Satisfactory AON’s advantage For transmitting n HDTV channels, AON PON
does have the advantage that An optical network rollout is a long can also
mobilise enough bandwidth some systems are capable of transmit- term
investment. If we assume that reserves. ting analogue TV (similar to a CATV
HDTV will be the standard format in network), however the usual bandwidth the
future, active networks have the for broadcasting several HDTV channels upper
hand, due to their high levels of might not be sufficient. bandwidth reserves.
Suitability to provide additional services Good Poor AON’s advantage AON
technology can be adapted to The range of specialised terminal The
requirements for additional and suit individual requirements. equipment is very
limited because of possibly new services when designing dependency on
manufacturers. The a new network are often not specified rather inflexible
bandwidth manage- to the last detail. PON's limits could ment, based on TDM
procedures, is a significantly inhibit business cases in the disadvantage. future.
Flexibility of usages as regards optical network termination Good Poor AON’s
advantage As AON uses standardised Ethernet Today there is no real
interoperability In this case, the operator of an AON interfaces, a variety of
different devices between rival PON technologies, even network can act more
flexibly and make can be used for network termination. within the same PON
technology. use of real price savings. When using Operators are forced to
purchase the feature-rich IP equipment instead of ONTs and ONUs from the OLT
supplier an ONT, the provider can expand his (dependency). range of services
by leasing addi- tional features (additional VPNs, hosted PBX…) Ranges (max.
length of the subscriber access line) Very good Good AON’s advantage
Maximum of about 70 km without Up to 20 km depending on passive Optical
components can be selected repeaters. splitter. individually Backhaul of sub-
networks and network elements Good Poor AON’s advantage A normal AN
subscriber interface can A PON interface board can only be As an active access
node is similar to an also be used for backhaul jobs (e.g. of a used for
implementing PON trees. Ethernet switch in the way it works and DSLAM, radio
equipment etc). provides standard Ethernet interfaces, it can also be used for
various backhaul jobs. 2008-05-26 © KEYMILE 2008 Page 11
12. 12. White Paper AON vs. PON 3. Summary Finally we should not forget that a
generic customers, multi-dwellings, universities, local comparison of
technologies, such as this one, authorities etc…), as in these cases flexibility,
cannot always apply in all cases. The balance quality and security are
demanded. And can easily shift from one side or the other because of the way
they are structured, PON depending on statutory, commercial or struc- networks
struggle to fulfil these requirements. tural constraints. As standardised ONTs are
used, the commer- cial aspects of supplying households on a large Basically,
passive optical networks are a better scale should be weighed up too and can
choice for network operators who want to compete with PON systems. supply a
very large number of subscribers, like the (previous) network operators who had
a Nevertheless, as PON networks are on the monopoly. These operators tend to
aim more increase, it is likely that some of the disadvan- for the mass and private
customer market. In tages of PON listed here will gradually be this case, PON
can throw its commercial eliminated. However some of the inherent benefits into
the balance and at the end of the features of a PON will remain. But one thing is
day compensate for various operational almost certain, the fibre optic based
access disadvantages. network, and therefore end customer products too, will
constantly be upgraded to handle Active optical technology is more suitable for
more than 50 Mbps. The whole issue is set to private network operators, that
either lay their stay an exciting one own fibre optic infrastructure, or use debun-
dled fibre optic lines (Fibre Local Loops). AON is perfect for high-profit end
customer segments (such as for example business Requirement AON’s PON’s
Individual suitability suitability assessment Bandwidth Bandwidth allocation ☺
Maximum bandwidth per subscriber ☺ Bandwidth increase ☺ Security and
quality services Temporary increase in bandwidth e.g. Overnight server mirroring
☺ Prioritising services ☺ ☺ Delay, jitter and other effects on quality ☺ ☺ Impact
of malfunctions in the access node ☺ Effect of malfunctions and manipulation ☺
Risk of eavesdropping (espionage) ☺ Transmission reliability, I. ☺ Transmission
reliability, II. ☺ Operating costs (OPEX) Place required for systems technology
☺ Room required by cable ☺ Energy consumption ☺ Level of maintenance ☺
Level of difficulty in identifying and eradicating faults ☺ Follow-up costs for
upgrades ☺ Investment costs (CAPEX) Costs of the subscribers’ terminal
equipment (CPE) ☺ Costs of the network technology (active components) ☺
2008-05-26 © KEYMILE 2008 Page 12
13. 13. White Paper AON vs. PON Requirement AON’s PON’s Individual suitability
suitability assessment Costs of the network technology (infrastructure) ☺ Rollout
costs Flexibility and scope for usage Suitability for connecting up housing estates
(green field) ☺ Suitability for connecting bulk/business customers ☺ Suitability
for providing telephony and high-speed Internet (HSI) ☺ ☺ Suitability for
providing telephony, HIS and TV ☺ Suitability for providing additional services ☺
Flexibility of usage re optical network termination ☺ Ranges ☺ ☺ Backhaul of
sub-networks and network elements ☺ 4. Glossary Abbreviation Description
Abbreviation Description 100BaseTx 100Mbit/s Ethernet, copper interface ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network 3G Third generation of the mobile telephony
ITU-T International Telecommunication Union, standard Telecommunication
Standardisation Sector 4G Fourth generation of the mobile te- lephony standard
LTE Long Term Evolution ADSL Asymmetrical DSL MDF Main Distribution
Frame AN Access node MDU Multi Dwelling Unit AON Active Optical Network
MSAN Multi-Service Access Node APON ATM PON NMS Network Management
System ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode OLT Optical Line Termination BPON
Broadband PON ONT Optical Network Termination CaTV Cable television
P(A)BX Private (Automatic) Branch Exchange CO Central Office PMP Point-to-
Multipoint DSL Digital Subscriber Line PON Passive Optical Network DSLAM
DSL Access Multiplexer POTS Plain Old Telephony Service EFM Ethernet First
Mile PTP Point-to-Point EPON Ethernet PON QoS Quality of Service FTTC
Fiber-to-the-Curb SAL Subscriber access line FTTE Fiber-to-the-Exchange
SDTV Standard Definition TV FTTH Fiber-to-the-Home TDM Time Division
Multiplex GEPON Gigabit Ethernet PON VDSL Very high-speed Digital
Subscriber Line GPON Gigabit PON WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access HDTV High Definition TV ICT Information Communication
Technology IP Internet Protocol IPTV Television over IP 2008-05-26 © KEYMILE
2008 Page 13
14. 14. White Paper AON vs. PON Publisher KEYMILE International GmbH
Europaring F15 202 2345 Brunn am Gebirge, Austria Phone +43 22 36 32 045-
3231 Fax +43 22 36 32 045-3239 Internet www.keymile.com Mail
info@keymile.com 2008-05-26 © KEYMILE 2008 Page 14
https://pt.slideshare.net/m1chaelangelo/aon-vs-pon
4. What Is AON Active Optical Networks
July 17, 2015FOWIKI.comComments Offon What is AON Active optical networks

FacebookTwitterLinkedIn
An active optical network (AON) comprises an active Ethernet switch that acts as the
intermediate point between the central office and the end-user. Theoretically, this switch is
capable of delivering symmetrical speeds of 100Mbps to 32 users simultaneously.

This level of throughput could only be achieved, however, if the link between the remote
Ethernet switch and the central office supported 3.2Gbps (32 x 100Mbps). As this is expensive,
AON detractors say it is more likely that the AON operator will use similar assumptions about
bandwidth usage patterns as PON operators and oversubscribe the AON on similar lines. This
would negate the AON bandwidth advantage.

By contrast, AON supporters say that one of the key advantages they have over a PON
architecture is that it is much easier to remotely manage the network to guarantee bandwidth
throughput to individual customers. That’s because an AON is ‘intelligent’ and the PON is
‘dumb’.

The issue about bandwidth capability is part of the ongoing AON versus PON debate. The main
arguments for and against AONs – in comparison with PONs – are outlined below.

http://www.fowiki.com/b/what-is-aon-active-optical-networks/ 20:08
odn

Rede de distribuição óptica

Uma rede de distribuição óptica passiva (PON) usa fibra óptica de modo único na planta externa,

divisores ópticos e quadros de distribuição óptica duplexados para que os sinais a montante e a jusante

compartilhem a mesma fibra em comprimentos de onda separados. Os padrões mais rápidos de PON

geralmente oferecem suporte a uma taxa de divisão mais alta de usuários por PON, mas também podem

usar extensores / amplificadores de alcance onde é necessária uma cobertura extra. Os divisores ópticos

que criam uma topologia ponto a multiponto também são a mesma tecnologia, independentemente do tipo

de sistema PON, tornando qualquer rede PON atualizável alterando os terminais de rede óptica (ONT) e

os terminais de linha óptica (OLT) em cada extremidade, com alterações mínimas à rede física. [1]

As redes de acesso geralmente também devem suportar tecnologias ponto a ponto, como Ethernet, que

ignora qualquer divisor de planta externo para obter um link dedicado à central telefônica. Algumas redes

PON usam uma topologia "home run", onde os gabinetes na beira da estrada contêm apenas painéis de

conexão, para que todos os divisores estejam localizados centralmente. Embora se possa esperar um custo

de capital 20% maior, as redes domésticas podem incentivar um mercado atacadista mais competitivo,

uma vez que os equipamentos dos provedores podem obter maior uso. [2]

Você também pode gostar