Você está na página 1de 546

ISBN 978850262409-2

Celestino, Jefferson
Inglês/Jefferson Celestino. – São Paulo: Saraiva, 2016. – (Coleção diplomata/coordenador
Fabiano Távora)
1. Inglês 2. Inglês – Concursos I. Távora, Fabiano. II. Título. III. Série.
14-13037 CDD-420.76

Índices para catálogo sistemático:


1. Inglês : Concursos 420.76
Diretor editorial Luiz Roberto Curia
Gerente editorial Thaís de Camargo Rodrigues
Gerência de concursos Roberto Navarro
Editoria de conteúdo Iris Ferrão
Assistente editorial Thiago Fraga | Verônica Pivisan Reis
Coordenação geral Clarissa Boraschi Maria
Preparação de originais Maria Izabel Barreiros Bitencourt Bressan e Ana Cristina Garcia (coords.) |
Carolina Massanhi | Luciana Cordeiro Shirakawa
Projeto gráfico Isabela Teles Veras
Arte e diagramação Know-how editorial
Revisão de provas Amélia Kassis Ward e Ana Beatriz Fraga Moreira (coords.) | Luciene Ruzzi Brocchi
Conversão para E-pub Guilherme Henrique Martins Salvador
Serviços editoriais Elaine Cristina da Silva | Kelli Priscila Pinto | Marília Cordeiro
Capa Aero Comunicação / Danilo Zanott

Data de fechamento da edição: 1-10-2015


Dúvidas?
Acesse www.editorasaraiva.com.br/direito
Nenhuma parte desta publicação poderá ser reproduzida por qualquer meio ou forma sem a prévia
autorização da Editora Saraiva. A violação dos direitos autorais é crime estabelecido na Lei n. 9.610/98
e punido pelo artigo 184 do Código Penal.
SUMÁRIO

PREFÁCIO
APRESENTAÇÃO
1ST PART | READING SKILLS
* Read more 1
Military-Industrial Complex Speech, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961
* Read more 2
Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address
2ND PART | VOCABULARY SKILLS
Texts and Questions
Word Translation
3RD PART | GRAMMAR SKILLS
Articles
Definite Article: The (o, a, os, as)
The definite article is used
Indefinite Article: A/An (um, uma)
The indefinite article is used
Pronouns I
Subject Pronouns
Singular
Plural
Object Pronouns
Singular
Plural
Adjective Possessive Pronouns
Singular
Plural
Possessive Pronouns
Singular
Plural
Reflexive Pronouns
Singular
Plural
Reciprocal Pronouns
Verb Tenses
The Simple Tenses
Singular
Plural
The Simple Present Tense is used
Emphatic, Negative and Question Forms
Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
The Simple Past Tense is used
Emphatic, Negative and Question Forms
Singular
Plural
The Simple Future Tense is used
Negative and Question Forms
Singular
Plural
The Simple Conditional Tense is used
Negative and Question Forms
The Continuous/Progressive Tenses
Singular
Plural
The Present Continuous/Progressive Tense is used
Negative and Question Forms
Singular
Plural
The Past Continuous/Progressive Tense is used
The Perfect Tenses
The Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tenses
Main Irregular Verbs List
Pronouns II
Demonstrative Pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns
Relative Pronouns
Relative Pronouns Application
Indefinite Pronouns
Indefinite Relative Pronouns
Prepositions
Main Prepositions
About
Above
Across
After
Against
Along
Among/Amongst | Amid/Amidst
Around/Round
At
Because of/Due to/Owing to
Before
Behind
Below
Beneath
Beside
Besides
Between
Beyond
By
Despite/In spite of
During
For
From
In
Inside
Into
Of
Off
On
Out
Outside
Over
Since
Through
Throughout
To
Toward(s)
Under
Underneath
Until/Till
With
Within
Without
Conjunctions
Main Conjunctions
Although/Though
And
As
Because
Besides
But
Either ... or
Even though/Even if
For
However
If
Neither ... nor
Nor
Not only ... (but) also
Once
Or
Otherwise
Rather (than)
Since
So
Unless
Whereas
While
Yet
More Relevant Conjunctions
4TH PART | PRACTICE MORE
5TH PART | TRANSLATION SKILLS
AUTOR
Jefferson Celestino
Graduado em Letras pela Universidade da Amazônia, atuou como professor de Língua Inglesa, entre
1996 e 2004, em algumas das melhores instituições de Belém, com passagem, inclusive, pela Escola
de Formação de Oficiais da Marinha Mercante – Centro de Instrução Almirante Braz de Aguiar. Em
Fortaleza, entre 2005 e 2013, além de trabalhar com treinamento específico para o IME, o ITA e o
IRBr, foi autor de diversos materiais didáticos para editoras locais. Atualmente, é responsável pela
administração do conteúdo do website especializado em D-Learning aideea, na Alemanha.
Coordenador
Fabiano Távora
Graduado em Direito pela Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) – Turma do Centenário – 2003.
Especialista em Gestão Empresarial pela Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) – 2005. Mestre em Direito
dos Negócios pelo Ilustre Colégio de Advogados de Madri (ICAM) e pela Universidade Francisco de
Vitória (UFV) – 2008. Mestre em Direito Constitucional aplicado às Relações Econômicas pela
Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR) – 2012. Advogado. Diretor-geral do Curso Diplomata –
Fortaleza/CE. Foi Coordenador do único curso de graduação em Relações Internacionais do Estado do
Ceará, pertencente à Faculdade Stella Maris. Professor de Direito Internacional para o Concurso de
Admissão à Carreira Diplomática. Professor de Direito Internacional Público, Direito Internacional
Privado, Direito do Comércio Exterior e Direito Constitucional em cursos de graduação e pós-
graduação.
PREFÁCIO*

Dez anos atrás, recebi a notícia de que havia sido aprovado no concurso do Instituto Rio Branco para a
carreira diplomática. Era difícil acreditar que meu nome estava na lista de aprovados, que o meu antigo
sonho tornara-se realidade. Aquele momento deu-me a impressão de ser um divisor de águas, o primeiro
passo da carreira que por tantos anos me fascinara.
Hoje, percebo que o primeiro passo para a carreira diplomática havia sido dado em um momento
anterior, quando comecei meus estudos de preparação para o concurso. A preparação para a carreira
diplomática exige o desenvolvimento da capacidade de analisar politicamente a combinação de
diferentes fatores da sociedade. Essa capacidade pode ser adquirida pela leitura atenta de diferentes
pensadores e exposição a diferentes manifestações artísticas, o que requer uma caminhada de constantes
descobertas.
Essa caminhada é feita em direção às mais profundas e fundamentais características da sociedade
brasileira, percorrendo a longa estrada que lentamente mostra as cores que delineiam o multifacetado
cenário que é o Brasil. A preparação para a carreira diplomática requer este (re)encontro com o Brasil,
este momento em que o futuro diplomata reflete sobre seu país e sobre seu povo. Eu diria que o processo
de preparação é uma caminhada para dentro.
Ao caminhar em direção às profundezas do Brasil, o futuro diplomata se defrontará com perspectivas
históricas, geopolíticas, econômicas e jurídicas da realidade brasileira que lhe proporcionarão o
arcabouço intelectual para sua contínua defesa dos interesses do Brasil e do povo brasileiro no exterior.
Essa observação de quem somos como povo e como país é fundamental para o trabalho cotidiano dos
diplomatas brasileiros, principalmente porque também pressupõe as relações do Brasil com outros
países. Ao compreender a história política externa brasileira, o candidato poderá perceber
características do Brasil que explicam como o país percebe sua inserção no mundo.
É interessante notar que essa caminhada para dentro é o início de uma carreira feita para fora, em
contato com o mundo. Os diplomatas são os emissários que também contam para o mundo o que é o
Brasil e o que é ser brasileiro. A aprovação no concurso do Instituto Rio Branco não é, portanto, o
primeiro passo da carreira. É o momento em que a caminhada para dentro do Brasil se completou e passa
a ser uma viagem para fora, para relatar ao mundo o que nós somos e o que pensamos.
Devo confessar que a minha caminhada foi bem difícil. Quando comecei a me preparar para o
concurso, poucas cidades brasileiras tinham estruturas que guiassem os estudos dos candidatos para o
concurso. Apesar de ter certeza de que nunca nenhuma leitura é inútil, estou certo de que a imensidão de
pensadores e artistas que conformam o pensamento brasileiro é difícil de ser abordada no momento de
preparação para o concurso. Lembro-me de que sempre busquei obras que me guiassem os estudos, mas
não tive a sorte de naquele momento haver publicações neste sentido.
Foi com muita alegria que recebi o convite para escrever sobre minha experiência pessoal como
jovem diplomata brasileiro em uma coleção que ajudará na caminhada preparatória dos futuros
diplomatas. Esta coleção ajudará meus futuros colegas a seguir por caminhos mais rápidos e seguros para
encontrar o sentido da brasilidade e a essência do Brasil. Congratulo-me com a Editora Saraiva, com os
autores e com o organizador da coleção, Fabiano Távora, pela brilhante iniciativa e pelo excelente
trabalho.
Aos meus futuros colegas diplomatas, desejo boa sorte nessa caminhada. Espero que se aventurem a
descobrir cada sabor deste vasto banquete que é a brasilidade e que se permitam vivenciar cada nota da
sinfonia que é o Brasil. Espero também que possamos um dia sentar para tomar um café e conversar
sobre o que vimos e, juntos, contar aos nossos amigos de outros países o que é o Brasil.
Pequim, novembro de 2014.
Romero Maia
APRESENTAÇÃO**

Indubitavelmente, o concurso para o Instituto Rio Branco, uma das escolas de formação de Diplomatas
mais respeitadas do mundo, é o mais tradicional e difícil do Brasil. Todos os anos, milhares de
candidatos, muito bem preparados, disputam as poucas vagas que são disponibilizadas. Passar nessa
seleção não é só uma questão de quem estuda mais, envolve muitos outros fatores.
Depois de muito observar essa seleção, nasceu a ideia de desenvolver um projeto ímpar, pioneiro, que
possibilitasse aos candidatos o acesso a uma ferramenta que os ajudasse a entender melhor a banca
examinadora, o histórico dos exames, o contexto das provas, o grau de dificuldade e aprofundamento
teórico das disciplinas, de forma mais prática. Um grupo de professores com bastante experiência no
concurso do IRBr formataria uma coleção para atender a esse objetivo.
Os livros foram escritos com base nos editais e nas questões dos últimos 13 anos. Uma análise
quantitativa e qualitativa do que foi abordado em prova foi realizada detalhadamente. Cada autor tinha a
missão de construir uma obra que o aluno pudesse ler, estudar e ter como alicerce de sua preparação.
Sabemos, e somos claros, que nenhum livro consegue abordar todo o conteúdo programático do IRBr,
mas, nesta coleção, o candidato encontrará a melhor base disponível e pública para os seus estudos.
A Coleção Diplomata é composta dos seguintes volumes: Direito internacional público; Direito
interno I – Constituição, organização e responsabilidade do Estado brasileiro; Direito interno II –
Estado, poder e direitos e garantias fundamentais (no prelo); Economia internacional e brasileira (no
prelo); Espanhol (no prelo); Francês (no prelo); Geografia I – Epistemologia, política e meio ambiente;
Geografia II – Geografia econômica; História do Brasil I – O tempo das Monarquias; História do
Brasil II – O tempo das Repúblicas; História geral; Inglês; Macroeconomia; Microeconomia; Política
internacional I – A política externa brasileira e os novos padrões de inserção no sistema internacional
do século XXI; Política internacional II – Relações do Brasil com as economias emergentes e o diálogo
com os países desenvolvidos; Português.
Todos os livros, excetuando os de língua portuguesa e inglesa, são separados por capítulos de acordo
com o edital do concurso. Todos os itens do edital foram abordados, fundamentados numa doutrina ampla
e atualizada, de acordo com as indicações do IRBr. Os doutrinadores que mais influenciam a banca do
exame foram utilizados como base de cada obra. Juntem-se a isso a vivência e a sensibilidade de cada
autor, que acumula experiências em sala de aula de vários locais (Brasília, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro,
Fortaleza, Curitiba, Belo Horizonte, Recife, Salvador, Teresina...).
Portanto, apresentamos aos candidatos do IRBr, além de uma coleção que apresenta um conteúdo
teórico muito rico, bastante pesquisado, uma verdadeira e forte estratégia para enfrentar o concurso mais
difícil do Brasil. Seguindo esses passos, acreditamos, seguramente, que você poderá ser um
DIPLOMATA.
Fortaleza, 29 de julho de 2015.
Fabiano Távora
1ST PART | READING SKILLS

Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 1: ______________________________
Eastern and Southern Africa are suffering from a catastrophic drought and famine, with more than 30
million people facing hunger. Ethiopia is one of the worst affected countries. As it struggles to cope, it is
hosting an annual conference to discuss how Africa is affected by economic globalisation. For many
agencies seeking to alleviate famine and cope with Africa’s crippling level of poverty, globalisation is a
key and controversial issue. Those who favour the process, like the former head of the International
Monetary Fund, Michel Camdessus, argue that it will lead to the modernisation of economies, the removal
of trade barriers and to the elimination of want. He says the prospects are good for “achieving more rapid
poverty reduction and faster growth”. But critics, like the British charity ActionAid, argue that trade
liberalisation has harmed Africa. It says that the freer trade, especially in agricultural produce, has
worked to “threaten or destroy the livelihoods of millions of farmers” and to keep people poor. The
arguments are fierce and complex, but how does globalisation affect people’s lives?
Sugar’s bitter taste
Selpha Maende Okweno is an 87-year-old grandmother living in Kenya’s Busia district. For decades
her family has grown sugar cane and made a good living from it. But now it is threatened by trade policies
which enable foreign sugar exporters to sell sugar more cheaply in Kenya than local producers. Her
granddaughter, journalist Florence Machio, says that her “grandmother cannot afford to buy sugar, yet the
crop that produces it stretches as far as the eye can see” near her home. Cheap imports of processed sugar
undercut the prices Kenyan farmers need to survive and so sugar farmers are becoming poorer or are
having to grow other crops. Kenya’s Director of Internal Trade, Seth Otieno, says that liberalisation of
trade has been a disaster for many in Kenya. “Globalisation is a curse to many sectors, especially
agriculture, in this country,” he says. In Swaziland, the import of sugar products from the European Union
countries has undermined the local industry. The sugar industry has lost 16,000 jobs and a further 20,000
have gone in transport and packaging, according to ActionAid.
Reform
Those in favour of globalisation say Africa needs better economic management and more trade
liberalisation. These changes, argues Michel Camdessus, will enable it to be part of the new economic
partnership offered by globalisation and so increase economic growth. Many African leaders accept
globalisation as a long-term goal, but say it must be accompanied by reform by the developed countries to
make the terms of trade fairer to Africa. President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, an originator of the pro-
globalisation New Partnership for Africa’s Development (Nepad), says that Africa must embrace the
process but warns that it is leading to rising inequalities between and within countries. He says
governments must “re-shape and re-direct its impact”.
“Negative effects”
Some critics are harsher. The African director of the International Labour Organisation, Regina Amadi-
Njoku, says globalisation is responsible for the decline in Africa’s status in the global economy.
Pressures for economic liberalisation in Africa from the IMF, World Bank and Western governments
“have brought negative effects on the globalisation process,” she says. ActionAid and Oxfam say that
European Union and US financial support for their1 farmers gives them2 big advantages in trade and ruins
African farmers by subjecting them3 to unfair competition.
These countries protect their own farmers but demand that African countries cut subsidies to theirs, they
argue. In a submission to the UK Government, Oxfam calls for globalisation to “be underpinned by global
rules and institutions that place human development above the pursuit of corporate self-interest and
national advantage”. For ordinary African farmers the question of globalisation comes down to issues of
economic survival. Kenyan grandmother Selpha Maende Okweno’s view is simple: “Why should I plant
sugar cane if there is no market for it?”
Adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2538665.stm
1. According to the text, Michel Camdessus:
a) is the head of the International Monetary Fund.
b) is not the head of the International Monetary Fund anymore.
c) is against the process of globalisation in Africa.
d) does not know how globalisation affects people’s lives.
e) said globalisation is not the key to the modernisation of economies.
Answer: B
2. From the first paragraph, it can be inferred that:
a) there are different points of view about Africa’s process of globalisation.
b) globalisation will surely lead Africa to a faster economic growth and reduce poverty.
c) the effects of globalisation in Africa are not rather clear and well-known.
d) the process of globalisation does not affect the agricultural production in Africa.
e) the African farmers are sure that globalisation will bring progress to their crops.
Answer: A
3. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below about Selpha
Maende Okweno.
( ) Her family deals with sugar cane.
( ) She is in her eighties.
( ) Her daughter is a journalist.
( ) She lives near a sugar cane crop.
( ) She has at least one grandchild.
Answer: C, C, E, C, C
4. In accordance with the text:
a) Trade policies do not threaten sugar cane crops despite they favour foreign exporters.
b) Agriculture in Kenya is one of the sectors that have suffered the consequences of globalisation.
c) Kenyan sugar farmers are growing other crops in order to vie with foreign sugar entrepreneurs.
d) The effects of globalization in Kenya are a blessing for they removed trade barriers and caused
economical increase.
e) Kenyan industry has hired more than 36,000 new employees to fight against the EU countries.
Answer: B
5. Which is the most suitable title for this text?
a) The African Sugar Market
b) A Pro-globalisation Analysis
c) The Fight Against Famine Must Go On
d) Africa: Globalisation or Marginalisation?
e) Drought and Famine Attack Africa Again
Answer: D
6. After reading the text one can say that:
a) the process of globalisation must be embraced in short term by the Africans.
b) the African leaders are not against globalisation, but fear the long-term consequences.
c) it is necessary to establish fairer terms of trade in the developed countries.
d) the Nepad was created by President Thabo Mbeki and Michel Camdessus to make the terms of trade
fairer to Africa.
e) the process of globalisation is provoking the increase of inequalities in the African countries.
Answer: E
7. In the 1st paragraph of the text, the word WANT is a(n) __________ and can be
replaced by __________.
a) verb – need
b) verb – misery
c) noun – poverty
d) noun – desire
e) adjective – poverty
Answer: C
8. Which pair of words is formed only by false friends?
a) farmer – former
b) policies – demand
c) support – embrace
d) status – argument
e) ordinary – simple
Answer: B
9. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Africa’s status in the global economy has decreased due to the effects of globalisation.
( ) African farmers are ruining for the unfair competition against European and American farmers.
( ) IMF, World Bank and Western governments have pressured the African countries for economic
liberalisation.
( ) The question at the end of the text was made by an expert in globalisation and foreign trade.
Answer: C, C, C, E
10. The pronouns THEIR (ref. 1), THEM (ref. 2) and THEM (ref. 3) refer, respectively, to:
a) ActionAid and Oxfam – European and American farmers – European farmers
b) ActionAid and Oxfam – European and American farmers – American farmers
c) EU and USA – American farmers – African farmers
d) EU and USA – European farmers – African farmers
e) EU and USA – European and American farmers – African farmers
Answer: E
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 12.
TEXT 2: China’s development is costing the Himalayas
New Delhi, June 29 (Reuters) – China’s “irresponsible and reckless” development activities in Tibet
have had a devastating impact on the Himalayas – threatening glaciers, rivers and the lives of millions of
people, an activist said on Friday.
“Over the years, China has degraded forests, diverted rivers, built roads and numerous reservoirs and
hydropower projects,” Tenzin Tsultrim, head of the environment desk for the Tibetan government-in-exile,
told a conference in New Delhi.
“This has led to increased recession of glaciers, desertification and soil erosion, loss of flora and fauna,
displacement of hundreds of thousands of people, droughts and floods __________ landslides.”
The conference was organised by the Tibetan Parliamentary and Policy Research Centre, which aims to
promote the political agenda of the exiled Tibetan government, and brought together environmentalists
__________ supporters of the Tibetan cause.
India recognises Tibet as part of China but gives asylum to around 120,000 Tibetans including the exiled
Tibetan government and Tibet’s spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama.
The Tibetan plateau, which has an area of 2.5 million sq km (965,255 sq miles), is the highest plateau in
the world with over 46,000 glaciers.
Known as the “Roof of the World”, it is the source of several major rivers in Asia including the
Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Indus, Karnali and Mekong, and over one billion people rely on the water which
originates from glaciers.
Chinese troops marched into Tibet in 1950 and over the ensuing decades Beijing has sought to impose
its own stamp on traditional Tibetan society, closing monasteries and restricting religious life.
China’s recent announcement to improve the road to Mount Everest which __________ on the Tibet side
in time for the 2008 Olympics was also of concern, an environmentalist told the conference.
“This is a frightening prospect as it will bring more tourists, hotels and restaurants at the base camp,
litter, more vehicles which will have direct impacts on the fragile mountain ecology,” said Syed Iqbal
Hasnain, a glaciologist.
“Billions of people in so many countries rely on water from these glaciers and we must value the ‘Roof
of the World’ because if we don’t, we will all be homeless.”
China has started improving the road to Mount Everest on the Tibet side to make the trip to the world’s
highest mountain easier for bearers of the Olympic flame, Xinhua news agency reported earlier this
month.
The 150 million yuan ($19.66 million) project will involve blacktopping an existing 108-km (67-mile)
unpaved road up to the foot of the mountain, and will take four months to build.
The torch relay for the 2008 Beijing Games has been touted by organisers as the longest in Olympic
history.
The inclusion of Tibet has proved controversial. In April, China deported five American tourists after
they demonstrated for a free Tibet and protested against the Games at the base of Mount Everest.
By Nita Bhalla
Adapted from http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/DEL256082.htm
1. According to the activist speech, China’s actions on Himalayas are:
a) rash.
b) lackadaisical.
c) sparkling.
d) tantalizing.
e) hapless.
Answer: A
2. In accordance with Tenzin Tsultrim:
a) For years, China has degraded the nature resources for nothing.
b) China’s environmental policy is cost-effective.
c) China’s development is highly costly to the environment.
d) There is no other way to China’s development besides environmental degradation.
e) Despite the high cost to the environment, China has to keep devastating in order to improve its
economy.
Answer: C
3. Which consequence of China’s development is not mentioned by Tenzin Tsultrim?
a) Long periods without rainfalls.
b) Soil exhaustion.
c) Decadence of forests.
d) Large amounts of water covering dry areas.
e) Sudden violent movements of the Earth’s surface.
Answer: E
4. Which word taken from the text is not considered a false cognate?
a) Policy.
b) Agenda.
c) Supporters.
d) Major.
e) Improve.
Answer: E
5. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The Dalai Lama as soon as thousands of Tibetans are given asylum by the Chinese government.
( ) Restrictions are imposed in Tibet by China for almost sixties years.
( ) Many a river in Asia originates from the Tibetan plateau.
( ) A plethora of people depend on the water from the Chinese rivers to their livelihoods.
Answer: E, C, C, E
6. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Environmentalists are concerned about the improvements that will be made on the road to Mount
Everest.
( ) Syed Iqbal Hasnain has criticised China’s environmental policy in a harsh way.
( ) The number of visitors of Mount Everest will be boosted higher than expected after the
improvements the Chinese government is making in the region ends.
( ) Ecologists hope the production of litter will improve after the works on the new road.
Answer: C, E, C, E
7. The word foot in “to the foot of the mountain” (13th paragraph) can be replaced by:
a) boot
b) downhill
c) shallow
d) edge
e) bottom
Answer: E
8. Which of these verbs taken from the text is not in the Past Participle form?
a) led (3rd paragraph)
b) organised (4th paragraph)
c) marched (8th paragraph)
d) sought (8th paragraph)
e) touted (14th paragraph)
Answer: C
9. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Some US tourists were deported to China.
( ) Chinese government will spend up to 150 million dollars to build the new road to Mount Everest.
( ) Chinese government will asphalt 108 km of a road as far as the foot of Mount Everest.
( ) The Dalai Lama keeps ruling Tibet despite living in India.
Answer: E, E, C, E
10. In “The torch relay for the 2008 Beijing Games has been TOUTED by organisers as
the longest in Olympic history” (14th paragraph), the capital word has the same meaning
of:
a) heralded.
b) spared.
c) concealed.
d) bent.
e) struck.
Answer: A
11. The sentences below have been left with blank spaces. Choose the option below
that contains the correct expression to fill in these blanks, keeping the main ideas of the
text.
This has led to increased recession of glaciers, desertification and soil erosion, loss of flora
and fauna, displacement of hundreds of thousands of people, droughts and floods
__________ landslides. (3rd paragraph)
The conference was organised by the Tibetan Parliamentary and Policy Research Centre,
which aims to promote the political agenda of the exiled Tibetan government, and brought
together environmentalists __________ supporters of the Tibetan cause. (4th paragraph)
a) likely
b) henceforth
c) notwithstanding
d) albeit
e) as well as
Answer: E
12. Choose the option that contains the correct verb form to fill in the blank in the
sentence below.
China’s recent announcement to improve the road to Mount Everest which __________ on the
Tibet side in time for the 2008 Olympics was also of concern, an environmentalist told the
conference. (9th paragraph)
a) lays
b) lain
c) laid
d) lies
e) lying
Answer: D
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 3: Economists see no need for more stimulus
No more stimulus, please, we’re capitalists.
That’s the view, at least, of the majority of economists surveyed in msnbc.com’s year-end roundtable.
Though unemployment will remain stubbornly high, and the economic recovery sluggish in 2010, the
government doesn’t need to provide another round of stimulus spending to keep the economy afloat, they
say.
The House last week narrowly approved a $155 billion “jobs” bill that includes nearly $50 billion in
infrastructure spending and $79 billion for expanding benefits like unemployment insurance and
Medicaid. But most of the forecasters in our panel are against the idea of another government stimulus
package.
“The time to short-circuit the negative feedback from job losses is behind us,” said Ed Leamer, director
of the UCLA Anderson Forecast. “Let the private sector heal the economy.”
Many feel the $787 billion package of tax cuts and new spending enacted in February spurred the
rebound in the second half of this year. As the impact of that stimulus wears off, the expectation is that
private spending by consumers and businesses will create enough demand to take up the slack.
“You have a floor (on growth) that comes from the fact that there’s an awful lot of latent demand out
there that will slowly be tapped into,” said Joel Naroff at Naroff Economic Advisors.
The consensus of msnbc.com’s forecasters is that while growth will fade a bit next year, the economy
will continue to expand at a slow but steady pace. After a 3.3 percent increase for the second half of
2009, gross domestic product growth is expected to slow to 2.6 percent for all of 2010, picking up a bit to
2.8 percent in 2011.
“Although the risk of a double-dip* recession* is still significant, it is not the most likely scenario,”
said Diane Swonk, chief economist at Mesirow Financial. “Moreover, there are no silver bullets when it
comes to fueling employment. I think our efforts __________ better if __________ on improving the
health of the credit market, most notably banks, as they are now the only game in town for many
consumers and small businesses.”​
Two members of the panel, Goldman Sachs chief economist Jan Hatzius and Ethan Harris, head of North
American economics for Bank of America Merrill Lynch, support the idea of another round of government
stimulus. Harris thinks the package should be “targeted to the housing or the job market”.
Given the dismal job market and high levels of unemployment, there’s widespread support in Congress
for an extension of unemployment benefits through the first half of 2010. But there’s less agreement over
proposals to give the economy another shot in the arm with a new spending package aimed at creating
jobs.
The White House favors a targeted approach including a tax credit for small businesses that create new
jobs. The House bill, __________ has not been taken up by the Senate, includes a grab bag of measures
designed to keep the economy moving, including another $27.5 billion for highway construction projects
and $8.4 billion for transit systems. Though much of the original $787 billion in stimulus remains to be
spent, budget analysts estimate the positive economic impact of that measure will begin to fade by the
second half of 2010. (…)
Adapted from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34452363/ns/business-personal_finance/
* Double-Dip Recession: When gross domestic product (GDP) growth slides back to negative after a
quarter or two of positive growth. A double-dip recession refers to a recession followed by a short-lived
recovery, followed by another recession.
From http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/doublediprecession.asp
1. It can be inferred from the text that:
a) the world economy may have a quick recovery in 2010.
b) the unemployment rate will only fall after a $155 government help.
c) the application of a new government stimulus package is unnecessary for some predictors.
d) the msnbc.com’s economists agree that the government does not need to provide another stimulus
package.
e) the White House intends to approve a new bill to accelerate the job creation rate.
Answer: C
2. Read the following sentence taken from the text:
Many feel the $787 billion package of tax cuts and new spending enacted in February spurred
the rebound in the second half of this year.
The words in bold mean respectively:
a) sentem – taxas – promulgado – desacelerou – retomada
b) sentem – taxas – decretado – estimulou – reinício
c) acham – impostos – promulgado – provocou – recomeço
d) acham – impostos – decretado – estimulou – retomada
e) acreditam – impostos – promulgado – provocou – reinício
Answer: D
3. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) It is expected that the private sector help the economy to recover after the slump.
( ) The prediction for 2010 is that the economy will keep growing steadily while growth will shrink.
( ) In 2011, it is expected a higher GDP in comparison to 2009 and 2010.
( ) New jobs could be created if small businesses received a tax credit.
Answer: C, C, E, C
4. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) A double-dip recession scenario is still a possible event.
( ) It is necessary to improve the creation of jobs instead of the credit market.
( ) Despite the high levels of unemployment, the job market could be fully recovered by the second
semester of 2010.
( ) Both the housing and the job market should receive another government stimulus package.
Answer: C, E, E, C
5. The words although and moreover (8th paragraph) can be replaced respectively by:
a) even though and hence.
b) albeit and furthermore.
c) whereas and therefore.
d) regardless of and still.
e) notwithstanding and henceforth.
Answer: B
6. The expression shot in the arm (10th paragraph) means:
a) a sum of money which is borrowed, often from a bank, and has to be paid back, usually together with
an extra amount of money that you have to pay as a charge for borrowing.
b) a situation that has reached an extremely difficult or dangerous point.
c) a sudden fall of prices, values or sales.
d) a period of economic difficulty when it is difficult to borrow money from banks.
e) something which has a sudden and positive effect on something, providing encouragement and new
activity.
Answer: E
7. The word dismal (10th paragraph) can be replaced by:
a) hopeful.
b) sorrowful.
c) bright.
d) upbeat.
e) lighthearted.
Answer: B
8. Fill in the gaps in the 8th paragraph correctly:
a) could prove – focus
b) will prove – will focus
c) proved – would focus
d) would prove – focused
e) had proved – would have focused
Answer: D
9. Fill in the gap in the 11th paragraph correctly:* = no pronoun
a) which
b) that
c) *
d) what
e) whose
Answer: A
10. Which of the following words has the definition below?
The speed with which something happens or changes.
a) afloat (2nd paragraph)
b) bill (3rd paragraph)
c) slack (5th paragraph)
d) pace (7th paragraph)
e) budget (11th paragraph)
Answer: D
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 12.
TEXT 4: Brazil gets recognition for improved economic management
Investment-grade status, which was awarded to Brazil’s foreign-currency-denominated debt on April
30th by Standard & Poor’s, one of the main US credit rating agencies, is an acknowledgment of the
important progress achieved in macroeconomic management and of a substantial improvement in external
solvency ratios. Indeed, with reserves close to US$200bn, Brazil has become a net external creditor.
__________, weaknesses persist, as the government has confirmed its intention to keep increasing public
spending as part of its state-led development policies.
The quest for investment grade was so long and fraught with difficulties that financial markets were
taken somewhat by surprise when Standard & Poor’s (S&P) raised Brazil’s long-term foreign-currency
credit rating from BB+ to BBB- on the eve of the May 1st Labour Day holiday.
Even though some investors thought the upgrade had been long overdue, few expected it to materialise
before the end of the year due to current global uncertainty. The Latin American giant is now on par with
India, according to S&P’s ratings, but still two notches below the ratings given to Russia and Mexico, and
far below that of China.
The Economist Intelligence Unit, for its part, has held its BB rating for Brazil under its country risk
model. This remains just short of investment grade, and reflects a weakening current account and risks to
key macroeconomic indicators, given the impact of a US recession. However, steady GDP growth and a
falling debt interest burden will still underpin a score at the strong end of the BB band, and an upgrade to
EIU’s sovereign rating is quite possible in the medium term.
Fitch Ratings, another credit rating agency (which upgraded Peru to investment grade in March), has
said Brazil’s sovereign rating was under “active review”, while Moody’s has pointed out that Brazil’s
indicators are not yet as good as other investment grade countries.
__________ Standard & Poor’s upgrade is __________ strong vote of confidence and __________
milestone in __________ Brazil’s economic history, after years of mistrust following the 1987 debt
default.
The macroeconomic management of the government of Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva has been widely
praised, although improvements have been partially a consequence of the extremely positive external
environment until last year. The US subprime crisis and the accompanying global financial turbulence
have put the resilience of Brazil’s economy to the test. Even though it may eventually suffer some fallout
should global conditions worsen, S&P says that Brazil has already passed such a test.
There is ample evidence that Brazil’s external vulnerability has been significantly reduced. Instead of
slashing interest rates aggressively during years of financial bonanza and low inflation, the Central Bank
maintained a cautious and gradual monetary policy and piled up large amounts of foreign reserves. In
February, the announcement that Brazil had become a net international creditor was a further sign of
improvement in its solvency ratios.
In addition, the amount of public debt declined to 41.2% of GDP as of March. While the overall stock of
debt is still relatively high, S&P has praised “a fairly predictable track record of pragmatic fiscal and
debt management policies”. One of the most positive impacts of the upgrade itself may be to reduce the
cost associated with financing the sovereign debt and to improve its profile.
May 2nd, 2008
Adapted from http://www.economist.com/node/11318008?story_id=11318008
1. The appropriate expression to complete the blank in the 1st paragraph is:
a) Nevertheless
b) Notwithstanding
c) Furthermore
d) For instance
e) Hence
Answer: A
2. GDP (4th paragraph) is an example of __________ and stands for __________.
a) abbreviation – Giant Development Progress
b) abbreviation – Giant Domestic Product
c) abbreviation – Gross Domestic Product
d) acronym – Gross Development Production
e) acronym – Gross Domestic Product
Answer: E
3. The first paragraph:
a) shows how the Brazilian economy has increased since April 2008.
b) states the recognition of Brazil as a safe place to receive investments.
c) shows the amount of the Brazilian foreign debt.
d) declares the importance of foreign investments in Brazil.
e) informs how much Standard & Poor’s invested in Brazil in 2008.
Answer: B
4. In the sentence “Even though some investors thought the upgrade had been long
overdue, few expected it to materialise before the end of the year due to current global
uncertainty”, even though and due to express, respectively, ideas of:
a) cause and effect.
b) contrast and addition.
c) contrast and resulting.
d) complementarity and consequence.
e) resulting and effect.
Answer: C
5. In relation to investment-grade status, Brazil is:
a) above Mexico.
b) above Russia and India.
c) in the same level of China.
d) in the same level of Russia.
e) in the same level of India.
Answer: E
6. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below. It is said in the
text that the credit rating agencies:
( ) agree unanimously that Brazil’s indicators should be improved.
( ) think Brazil’s indicators are better than any other investment grade countries.
( ) should not have changed Brazil’s investment-grade status from BB+ to BBB- before May 1st .
( ) have different points of view about the Brazilian economy.
Answer: E, E, E, C
7. The sentence “The macroeconomic management of the government of Luiz Inacio
Lula da Silva has been widely praised” indicates that Lula’s administration has been:
a) exalted.
b) disapproved.
c) criticized.
d) depreciated.
e) condemned.
Answer: A
8. Fill in the gaps in the following sentence taken from the text using the articles
correctly:
__________ Standard & Poor’s upgrade is __________ strong vote of confidence and
__________ milestone in __________ Brazil’s economic history.* = no article
a) The – a – a – the
b) The – an – a – *
c) The – a – a – *
d) The – an – a – the
e) A – a – an – *
Answer: C
9. The word eventually (7th paragraph) can be replaced by:
a) at least.
b) finally.
c) actually.
d) occasionally.
e) all the same.
Answer: B
10. The sentence “Instead of slashing interest rates aggressively during years of
financial bonanza and low inflation, the Central Bank maintained a cautious and gradual
monetary policy and piled up large amounts of foreign reserves” is equivalent in
meaning to:
a) Besides slashing interest rates aggressively during years of financial bonanza and low inflation, the
Central Bank maintained a cautious and gradual monetary policy and piled up large amounts of foreign
reserves.
b) In addition to slashing interest rates aggressively during years of financial bonanza and low inflation,
the Central Bank maintained a cautious and gradual monetary policy and piled up large amounts of
foreign reserves.
c) Due to slashing interest rates aggressively during years of financial bonanza and low inflation, the
Central Bank maintained a cautious and gradual monetary policy and piled up large amounts of foreign
reserves.
d) Rather than slashing interest rates aggressively during years of financial bonanza and low inflation,
the Central Bank maintained a cautious and gradual monetary policy and piled up large amounts of
foreign reserves.
e) In spite of slashing interest rates aggressively during years of financial bonanza and low inflation, the
Central Bank maintained a cautious and gradual monetary policy and piled up large amounts of foreign
reserves.
Answer: D
11. In the fourth paragraph, the word however expresses an idea of:
a) condition.
b) effect.
c) cause.
d) addition.
e) contrast.
Answer: E
12. Brazil’s sovereign rating (5th paragraph) is an example of:
a) Present Progressive Tense.
b) question tag.
c) genitive case.
d) reported speech.
e) passive voice.
Answer: C
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 6.
TEXT 5: Is America still AAA? Não – Brazil rates America
When Brazil’s sovereign bonds were raised to investment grade last year there was much rejoicing,
such is the heft of the big credit-rating agencies in emerging markets. Yet somehow the process does not
work in reverse, even though there are several independent rating agencies based in the bigger emerging
markets that are capable of judging sovereign creditworthiness. This may be about to change. SR Rating, a
Brazilian firm, will soon issue a judgment on American government bonds. Its verdict is not pretty: the
company says it will issue a AA rating.
Paulo Rabello de Castro, who chairs the ratings committee at SR, describes the decision to rate Uncle
Sam as “an outright provocation”. Yet he also thinks that firms in emerging markets like Brazil, which are
accustomed to instability, might have some advantages when scanning the horizon for danger signs,
compared with agencies that operate in the relative calm of Europe or America.
“You can be living happily in the belly of a whale and operating with that as your world,” says Mr. de
Castro, “until one day the whale’s belly contracts and you discover there is a whole universe of risks out
there”. Brazilians, he suggests, are specialists in such belly contractions.
Questioning America’s long-held AAA rating is not as treasonable now as it once seemed. Moody’s has
recently raised the alarm about the combined strain that bailing out banks, stimulating the economy, and
paying for health care and social security will put on the Treasury. Mr. de Castro argues that perfect
scores should henceforth be saved for places like Norway that sit on lots of oil, put revenues from its sale
into a piggy bank and are unlikely to be invaded by their neighbours. As for the structured products that
were mistakenly given AAA ratings over the past few years, he argues that no asset that has been around
for less than ten years should be considered worthy of the accolade.
America’s bondholders will not be too put out by the verdict of one Brazilian rating agency. Concerns
about long-term credit worthiness aired recently by the People’s Bank of China are much more likely to
trouble them. SR Rating is, however, hoping to build a network of independent agencies in emerging
markets that, taken together, would have more clout. They might even help to prevent future contractions.
May 21st , 2009 | São Paulo
Adapted from http://www.economist.com/node/13714198?story_id=13714198
1. Match the columns below:
a) rejoicing ( ) direct
b) even though ( ) unfaithful
c) issue ( ) albeit
d) outright ( ) realize
e) scan ( ) worry
f) discover ( ) happiness
g) treasonable ( ) survey
h) henceforth ( ) power
i) concern ( ) hereafter
j) clout ( ) release
Answer: d, g, b, f, i, a, e, j, h, c
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Brazil and the United States had their sovereign bonds raised.
( ) The United States’ sovereign bonds were judged for the first time by a Brazilian rating agency.
( ) The ratings recently made by Brazilian and American credit agencies did not cause any surprise.
( ) The United States’ sovereign creditworthiness was wrongly rated by a Brazilian credit agency.
Answer: E, C, E, E
3. Paulo Rabello de Castro:
a) is a former member of the SR Rating’s credit committee.
b) declared that European and American rating firms are not as well prepared as the Brazilian ones.
c) said that emerging country-based rating firms are used to dealing with economic fluctuations.
d) was against the way his company rated the United States’ sovereign bonds.
e) thinks that Brazilians are not used to living with economic contractions anymore.
Answer: C
4. Read the following words stated by Paulo Rabello de Castro in the 3rd paragraph of
the text:
You can be living happily in the belly of a whale and operating with that as your world (…)
until one day the whale’s belly contracts and you discover there is a whole universe of risks
out there.
They can be considered:
a) a proverb.
b) a quotation.
c) a riddle.
d) a forecast.
e) a metaphor.
Answer: E
5. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Norway will probably go to war with one of its neighbours.
( ) It was a deceitful decision to question America’s AAA rating during the crisis.
( ) The verdict of the Brazilian rating agency bothered the United States’ investors.
( ) No developing country-based credit rating agency had got to judge the United States’
creditworthiness before the Brazilian firm.
Answer: E, E, E, E
6. In the last paragraph of the text, the word however cannot be replaced by:
a) rather than.
b) nevertheless.
c) nonetheless.
d) yet.
e) still.
Answer: A
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 6.
TEXT 6: U.S. looks to Brazil to fuel energy revolution
When George W. Bush came to Brazil, he brought with him an offer to promote biofuels in oil-
dependent countries just as Brazil is gripped by green energy fever.
Over the next six years, Brazil expects 77 new sugar or alcohol (both are raw ingredients for biofuels)
plants1 to be built – a rate of more than one a month. According to Unica, the industry association,
investments already under way amount to $14.6bn. Throughout its rich agricultural heartland, soya and
other crops are being torn out and replaced by sugar cane.
Most investment is by local companies but foreigners are also arriving. Sempra Energy of the US has
agreed, with local partners, to build 12 alcohol refineries in northern Brazil for $4.2bn. Others already
committed include Cargill of the US, Louis Dreyfus of France, the Noble Group of Singapore and Infinity
Bio-Energy of the UK.
US officials, seeking a way to reach out to the dominant economy of South America and undercut the
regional impact of [genitive case], think they have found it in biofuels.
Brazil has the potential to be the world’s leading producer. Establishing a partnership now would give
the US the significance in the region it has gradually lost since talk of a US-led Free Trade Area of the
Americas fizzled out a few years ago.
In spite of the widespread optimism, the outlook for Brazil’s ethanol industry seems uncertain. “It’s
euphoria,” says Roberto Giannetti da Fonseca of Ethanol Trading, which represents more than 200
Brazilian producers. “People seem to be investing without really studying what’s going on.”
The US and Brazil in equal measure between them produce about 72 per cent of the world’s ethanol.
However, Brazil is much more efficient than the US, where ethanol is made exclusively from maize2.
Production per hectare is twice that in the US and, per unit of energy used from planting to processing, it
is more than five times more efficient.
Yet it is unclear what Brazil will do with its expected increase in production. Its own market is by far
the world’s most biofueled: ethanol is added to gasoline at 23 per cent of volume and pure ethanol is
universally available as an alternative. Some 80 per cent of all new cars in Brazil can run on gasoline or
ethanol or any mixture of the two.
If other countries were to follow Brazil’s lead, its exporters’ futures would be secure. But the refusal of
governments in Europe and the US to expose their much less efficient producers to Brazilian competition
means an export boom cannot be expected.
Last year, Brazil exported more than 430m gallons of ethanol to the US – a six-fold leap over 2005 – in
spite of an import tariff of 54 cents per gallon and subsidies to US producers of 51 cents per gallon. But
last year’s surge was due to a shortage in the US that local producers will fill this year. Brazilian exports
are due to slump.
The US has made it clear that discussing import tariffs is not on Mr Bush’s agenda, and the European
Union is no less intransigent, but Washington will be able to offer co-operation on research into ethanol
and cellulose-based fuels made from a more diverse range of materials. That development is still 10 to 15
years from commercial reality but will yield much more environmentally-friendly fuels and will also
offer Brazil huge natural advantages.
The two will also discuss setting international standards to develop ethanol as a commodity, and joint
initiatives to develop the industry in Peru, Colombia, Central America and the Caribbean.
But as Marcos Jank of Icone, a trade think-tank in São Paulo, points out, any move on tariffs is a matter
for Congress and the short-term outcome of Mr Bush’s visit is likely to be limited. “But we think tariffs
have to3 be on the agenda and in a couple of years we can try to advance,” he says.
Mr Jank and many others in Brazil believe consolidation of the global market is inevitable. In that
process, the US will be the most significant single interest. In that context, each side has every reason to
reach out to the other.
By Jonathan Wheatley – March 6, 2007
Adapted from http://ethanolbrasil.blogspot.com/2007_03_01_archive.html
(with slight alterations)
1. In the text, what means the word PLANTS (ref. 1)?
a) Living things which grow in earth, in water or on other plants, and usually have a stem, leaves, roots
and flowers and produce seeds.
b) Something illegal or stolen that has been put secretly in a person’s clothing or among the things that
belong to them to make them seem guilty of a crime.
c) Large heavy machines or vehicles used in industry, for building roads, etc.
d) A group of buildings for the manufacture of a product; a factory.
e) Organisms that belong to the Kingdom Plantae (plant kingdom) in biological classification.
Answer: D
2. The correct form of [genitive case] in the text is:
a) Venezuela’s oil diplomacy
b) Venezuelas’ oil diplomacy
c) Venezuela oil’s diplomacy
d) Venezuela oils’ diplomacy
e) Venezuela’s oil’s diplomacy’s
Answer: A
3. In the text, the word MAIZE (ref. 2) means the same as:
a) soy
b) corn
c) bean
d) grain
e) pea
Answer: B
4. Read these two sentences taken from the text:
But last year’s surge was due to a shortage in the US that local producers will fill this year.
Brazilian exports are due to slump.
Now, give the correct synonyms to the expression DUE TO as it is being used in both
sentences:
a) therefore – hence
b) because of – otherwise
c) owing to – about to
d) for – despite
e) in spite of – furthermore
Answer: C
5. In the text, HAVE TO (ref. 3) can be substituted by:
a) are able to
b) ought to
c) should
d) dare
e) must
Answer: E
6. Use T (true) or F (false) to judge the following items:
I. More than a factory per month is expected to be built in Brazil to the production of sugar or alcohol
during the next years.
II. Brazilian, North American, French, Asian and European entrepreneurs have invested in biofuel
factories for the last years.
III. Brazil and the United States began to talk about a US-led Free Trade Area of the Americas just a
couple of years ago.
IV. Brazil produces two times more ethanol from maize than the United States.
V. Brazil exported six times more ethanol to the United States in 2006 than in 2005.
Now, mark the correct alternative:
a) T – F – F – F – F
b) T – F – F – T – T
c) T – F – F – F – T
d) T – F – T – F – T
e) T – T – F – F – T
Answer: C
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 7: The Iraq question
One of the things that I try to do when I’m on vacation in the States is to pay attention to the questions
friends and family ask about the Middle East. This isn’t always helpful. “How come you live in the
Middle East, but you still don’t have a tan?” asked one beach-crazy cousin last week. But more often than
not, people ask me questions about my life in Lebanon or Syria or Iraq – Are you safe? Do you have Arab
friends? What do you do fun? – that testify to the curiosity that Americans have about this region. But on
this recent trip – which ended when I returned home to Beirut on Tuesday – I was overwhelmed by one
particular question, a question asked by almost everyone, and one which I was unable to answer: What
should we do about Iraq?
One reason I find it so difficult to come up with any convincing response to the Iraq question is that I
have little moral authority on the subject. I’m not there. Besides reporting from the safety of Kurdish-
controlled Northern Iraq and the rare, furtive day-trip into Mosul or Kirkuk, I haven’t been in Baghdad –
the real Iraq – since July 2004.
I stopped going to Baghdad and Arab Iraq because I thought I could no longer be effective there,
because the growing dangers seemed to make it impossible for me do good work. Since I left, I’ve been
humbled by the quality of stories written by my colleagues at Time and elsewhere who continue to report
from Iraq. They found a way to do what I thought was impossible.
Moral authority on Iraq matters now more than ever, as we are faced with a seemingly impossible
choice. Do we abandon millions of Iraqis to their fate and watch the country become one giant terrorist
training factory sitting on the world’s third largest pool of oil? Or do we continue the surge and send more
troops on the doomed mission of bolstering the Iraqi government, which in fact is led by a bunch of Shia
warlords just waiting to resume their real business of killing Sunnis? At such a moment of moral
confusion, we need to someone who will make us believe in the impossible, who will lead us on a way
where there is no way.
Sadly, those are exactly the leaders we don’t have, ones willing to take moral responsibility for the Iraq
war. When you or I really screw up and want forgiveness and help solving whatever problem we created,
we apologize and take responsibility for our actions. But that’s exactly what the Bush Administration has
avoided doing.
The commutation of Scooter Libby – the one official set to pay the price for misleading the American
public about the reasons for going to war – is just the latest dodge. Why should citizens and soldiers
support an administration that won’t bear the consequences of its actions? Perhaps we shouldn’t be asking
what to do about Iraq. Perhaps we should ask what to do about America.
July 5, 2007 | Posted by Andrew Lee Butters (Beirut)
Adapted from http://time-blog.com/middle_east/
1. Which question is not made to the author during his trips to the United States?
a) Shall America abandon Iraq’s population to their own destiny?
b) What should be done about the Iraq question?
c) Why are you not tanned since you live in the Middle East?
d) Have you made friendships there?
e) What do you do to have a good time there?
Answer: A
2. Judge – right (C) or wrong (E) –the items below. The author:
( ) became tantalized with a question made by a cousin.
( ) is seldom asked questions about his personal life in the Middle East.
( ) thinks that Americans have much curiosity about the region he lives.
( ) travels to the United States, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq during his vacation.
Answer: E, E, C, E
3. The phrasal verb to come up with (2nd paragraph) means the same as:
a) to suggest.
b) to contend.
c) to infer.
d) to urge.
e) to seek.
Answer: A
4. According to the text, Andrew Lee Butters:
a) has lived in Iraq for the last four years.
b) himself thinks he is pretty able to talk about Iraq’s war because he lives there.
c) feels himself humiliated by the reporters who still work in Iraq.
d) has a lot of close friends who still live and work in Iraq.
e) thinks that the real Iraq is in the Northern part of the country.
Answer: C
5. Which of these following words taken from the text is not a false cognate?
a) Apologize.
b) Response.
c) Support.
d) Largest.
e) Resume.
Answer: B
6. The questions made by the author in the 4th paragraph show that:
a) the solution to the war is to send more troops to Iraq.
b) someone is needed to make us believe in the impossible.
c) Iraq is going to become a stronger place for terrorist training.
d) experts are sure about Iraq’s future after the troops leave the country.
e) the future of Iraq is uncertain.
Answer: E
7. The word forgiveness (5th paragraph) means, in Portuguese:
a) perdão.
b) sacrifício.
c) esquecimento.
d) favorecimento.
e) força.
Answer: A
8. The modal auxiliary should in “Perhaps we should ask what to do about America”
(last paragraph) can be best replaced by:
a) dare.
b) could.
c) ought to.
d) might.
e) must.
Answer: C
9. In the 5th paragraph, the author states that:
a) he seldom apologizes for his actions.
b) Bush Administration does not intend to assume the responsibility for their actions.
c) America’s problems must be solved before Iraq’s ones.
d) many governors are willing to assume the responsibility for the Iraq war.
e) ordinary people and soldiers must support an administration that bears the consequences of its
actions.
Answer: B
10. Based on the text, judge – right (C) ou wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) overwhelmed (paragraph 1) and stirred are interchangeable.
( ) Besides (paragraph 2) can be replaced by albeit.
( ) surge (paragraph 4) can be defined as a sudden and great increase.
( ) Sadly (paragraph 5) is synonymous with unfortunately.
Answer: C, E, E, C
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 20.
TEXT 8: Iraq leader Maliki supports Obama’s withdrawal plans
Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki supports US presidential candidate Barack Obama’s plan to
withdraw US troops from Iraq __________ [I] 16 months. When asked in an interview with SPIEGEL
when he thinks US troops should leave Iraq, Maliki responded “as soon as possible, __________ [II]”.
He then continued: “US presidential candidate Barack Obama talks about 16 months. That, we think,
would be the right timeframe for a withdrawal, with the possibility of slight changes”.
Maliki was careful to back away from outright support for Obama. “Of course, this is __________ [III]
an election endorsement. Who they choose as their president is the Americans’ business,” he said. But
then, apparently referring to Republican candidate John McCain’s more open-ended Iraq policy, Maliki
said: “Those __________ [IV] operate on the premise of short time periods in Iraq today are being more
realistic. Artificially prolonging the tenure of US troops in Iraq would cause problems”.
Iraq, Maliki went on to say, “would like to see the establishment of a long-term strategic treaty with the
United States, __________ [IV] would govern the basic aspects of our economic and cultural relations”.
He also emphasized though that the security agreement between the two countries should only “remain in
effect in the short term”.
The comments by the Iraqi leader come as Obama embarks on a trip to both Afghanistan and Iraq as
well as to Europe. Obama was in Afghanistan on Saturday to, as he said prior to his trip, “see what the
situation on the ground is… and thank our troops for the heroic work that they __________ [V]”. The
exact itinerary of the candidate’s trip has not been made public out of security concerns, but it is widely
expected that he will arrive in Iraq on Sunday to meet with Maliki.
Maliki has long __________ [VI] impatience with the open-ended presence of US troops in Iraq. In his
conversation with SPIEGEL, he was once again candid about his frustration over the __________ [VII]
about agreeing to a timetable for the withdrawal of US troops. But he did say he was optimistic that such
a schedule would be drawn up before Bush leaves the White House next January – a confidence that
appeared justified following Friday’s joint announcement in Baghdad and Washington that Bush has now,
for the first time, spoken of “a general time horizon” for moving US troops out of Iraq.
“So far the Americans have had trouble agreeing to a concrete timetable for withdrawal, because they
feel it would appear tantamount to an admission of defeat”, Maliki told SPIEGEL. “But that isn’t the case
at all. If we come to an agreement, it is not evidence of a defeat, but of a victory, of a severe blow we
have inflicted on al-Qaida and the militias.”
He also bemoaned the fact that Baghdad has little control over the US troops in Iraq. “It is a fundamental
problem for us that it should not be possible, in my country, to prosecute offences or crimes committed by
US soldiers against our population”, Maliki said.
Adapted from http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,566841,00.html
1. The word withdrawal is:
a) when you take money out of a bank account.
b) when a military force moves out of an area.
c) when something is taken away so that it is no longer available.
d) when someone prefers to be alone and does not want to talk to other people.
Answer: B
2. The blank [I] is filled correctly with:
a) inside.
b) into.
c) within.
d) on.
Answer: C
3. The blank [II] is filled correctly with:
a) for we wanted it.
b) due to our surprise.
c) as long as we know.
d) as far as we are concerned.
Answer: D
4. In the sentence “with the possibility of slight changes”, the underlined word means:
a) soft.
b) huge.
c) terrific.
d) great.
Answer: A
5. The blank [III] is filled correctly with:
a) by no meaning.
b) by any means.
c) by no means.
d) by some means.
Answer: C
6. The blanks [IV] are filled correctly with:
a) who – which
b) which – which
c) whom – that
d) what – whose
Answer: A
7. The sentence “The comments by the Iraqi leader come as Obama embarks on a trip
to both Afghanistan and Iraq as well as to Europe” means the same as:
a) The notes by the Iraqi leader come while Obama goes not only to Afghanistan but also Iraqi or
Europe.
b) The quotations made by the Iraqi leader come when Obama travels not only to Afghanistan and also
Iraqi and Europe.
c) The observations made by the Iraqi leader come when Obama travels not only to Afghanistan but
also Iraqi and Europe.
d) The remarks by the Iraqi president come while Obama goes either to Afghanistan or Iraqi or Europe.
Answer: C
8. The blank [V] is filled correctly with:
a) have been doing.
b) are doing.
c) have done.
d) would have done.
Answer: A
9. The sentence “The exact itinerary of the candidate’s trip has not been made public”
in the active form is:
a) They have not made public the exact itinerary of the candidate’s trip.
b) They had not made public the exact itinerary of the candidate’s trip.
c) They should have not made public the exact itinerary of the candidate’s trip.
d) They have made public the exact itinerary of the candidate’s trip.
Answer: A
10. The adjective possessive pronoun our (3rd paragraph) refers to:
a) Nouri al-Maliki.
b) Iraq and Maliki.
c) economic and cultural relations.
d) Iraqi people.
Answer: D
11. The blank [VI] is filled correctly with:
a) to show.
b) showed.
c) show.
d) showing.
e) shown.
Answer: E
12. The blank [VII] is filled correctly with:
a) Bush’s administration hesitancy
b) Bush’s administrations’ hesitancy
c) Bush’s administration’s hesitancy
d) Bush administration’s hesitancy
e) Bush’ administration’s hesitancy
Answer: D
13. The sentence “But he did say he was optimistic” means the same as:
a) But he did said he was optimistic.
b) But he really said he was optimistic.
c) But he did say he was optimistic.
d) But he actually said to us he was optimistic.
e) But he seldom said he was optimistic.
Answer: B
14. In “moving US troops out of Iraq”, out of can be replaced by:
a) from.
b) outside.
c) onto.
d) aside.
e) apart.
Answer: A
15. In “So far the Americans have had trouble agreeing to a concrete timetable for
withdrawal”, So far is equivalent in meaning to:
a) As long as.
b) In a fortnight.
c) From now on.
d) Until now.
e) Within a couple of days.
Answer: D
16. In the text, the word blow (6th paragraph) is a(n) __________ and can be replaced by
__________.
a) noun – hit
b) noun – wind
c) verb – shot
d) verb – punch
e) adjective – upper
Answer: A
17. The verb to bemoan (7th paragraph) means:
a) to make a formal statement saying that someone is accused of a crime.
b) to officially record something especially in a law court.
c) to express to someone that you are pleased about or appreciate something that they have done.
d) to tell someone that you are sorry for having done something that has caused them inconvenience.
e) to complain about or express sadness.
Answer: E
18. Tantamount to in “it would appear tantamount to an admission of defeat” cannot be
substituted by:
a) alike.
b) comparable with.
c) likely.
d) equivalent to.
e) the same as.
Answer: C
19. Fill in the following sentence meaningfully according to the text:
__________ Nouri al-Maliki __________ Barack Obama are __________ the US troops’
withdrawal from Iraqi.
a) Not only – but also – against
b) Both – and – for
c) Either – or – for
d) Neither – nor – against
e) * – and – off
Answer: B
20. Fill in the following sentence meaningfully according to the text:
__________ one year to the US troops __________ Iraq.
a) It did take more than – left
b) They will take more than – go away
c) It will take more than – leave
d) They will take less than – went on
e) It takes at least – drive away
Answer: C
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 8.
TEXT 9: Obama’s inaugural speech

My fellow citizens:
I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the
sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for his service to our nation, as well as the
generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition.
Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising
tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. Yet, every so often, the oath is taken __________
gathering clouds and raging storms. At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the
skill or vision of those in high office, but because we the people have remained faithful to the ideals of
our forebearers, and true to our founding documents.
So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans.
That we are in the midst of crisis is now well understood. Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching
network of violence and hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and
irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the
nation for a new age. Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered. Our health care is too costly;
our schools fail too many; and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen
our adversaries and threaten our planet.
These are the indicators of crisis, subject to data and statistics. Less measurable but no less profound is
a sapping of confidence __________ our land – a nagging fear that America’s decline is inevitable, and
that the next generation must lower its sights.
Today I say to you that the challenges we face are real. They are serious and they are many. They will
not be met easily or in a short span of time. But know this, America: They will be met. On this day, we
gather because we have chosen hope over fear, unity of purpose over conflict and discord.
On this day, we come to proclaim an end to the petty grievances and false promises, the recriminations
and worn-out dogmas, that for far too long have strangled our politics.
We remain a young nation, but in the words of Scripture, the time has come to set aside childish things.
The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our better history; to carry forward that
precious gift, that noble idea, passed on from generation to generation: the God-given promi​se that all are
equal, all are free, and all deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness.
In reaffirming the greatness of our nation, we understand that greatness is never a given. It must be
earned. Our journey has never been one of shortcuts or settling for less. It has not been the path for the
fainthearted – for those who prefer leisure __________ work, or seek only the pleasures of riches and
fame. Rather, it has been the risk-takers, the doers, the makers of things – some celebrated, but more often
men and women obscure in their labor – who have carried us up the long, rugged path toward prosperity
and freedom. (…)
Our challenges may be new. The instruments with which we meet them may be new. But those values
upon which our success depends – hard work and honesty, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity,
loyalty and patriotism – these things are old. These things are true. They have been the quiet force of
progress throughout our history. What is demanded then is a return to these truths. What is required of us
now is a new era of responsibility – a recognition, on the part of every American, that we have duties to
ourselves, our nation and the world; duties that we do not grudgingly accept but rather seize gladly, firm
in the knowledge that there is nothing so satisfying to the spirit, so defining of our character, than giving
our all to a difficult task. This is the price and the promise of citizenship. This is the source of our
confidence – the knowledge that God calls on us to shape an uncertain destiny.
This is the meaning of our liberty and our creed – why men and women and children of every race and
every faith can join in celebration across this magnificent Mall, and why a man whose father less than 60
years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred
oath.
So let us mark this day with remembrance, of who we are and how far we have traveled. In the year of
America’s birth, in the coldest of months, a small band of patriots huddled by dying campfires on the
shores of an icy river. The capital was abandoned. The enemy was advancing. The snow was stained with
blood. At a moment when the outcome of our revolution was most in doubt, the father of our nation
ordered these words be read to the people:
“Let it be told to the future world... that in the depth of winter, when nothing __________ hope and
virtue could survive... that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to meet
[it]”.
America. In the face of our common dangers, in this winter of our hardship, let us remember these
timeless words. With hope and virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms
may come. Let it be said by our children’s children that when we were tested, we refused to let this
journey end, that we did not turn back, nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God’s
grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations.
Adapted from http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/20/obama.politics/index.html
1. Match the two columns below:
a) bestow ( ) ancestral
b) oath ( ) enfraquecimento
c) forebearer ( ) conceder, dar
d) greed ( ) reunir-se
e) sapping ( ) juramento
f) grievance ( ) medroso
g) settle ( ) manchada
h) fainthearted ( ) mágoa, ressentimento
i) huddle ( ) ganância
j) stained ( ) acomodar-se
Answer: c, e, a, j, b, h, i, f, d, g
2. From the sentence “I stand here today humbled by the task before us”, we can infer
that Barack Obama:
a) thinks his mission will be easier if people help him.
b) feels himself reduced before the challenges of his position.
c) did not realize how hard the burden of his post is.
d) is definitely not afraid of his responsibilities.
e) will face his challenges with humility and devotion.
Answer: B
3. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below to answer the
following question: Which of the items below was not presented as an indicator of the
current crisis?
( ) Unemployment.
( ) Home foreclosure.
( ) Energy policy.
( ) Urban violence.
Answer: E, E, E, C
4. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below. According to the
text, it may be stated that Obama’s father:
( ) worked in a local restaurant.
( ) worked as a waiter in the fifties.
( ) lived in a time of strong colour prejudice.
( ) made an important oath 60 years ago.
Answer: E, E, C, E
5. According to Barack Obama, “greatness” must be:
a) deserved.
b) praised.
c) demanded.
d) purchased.
e) craved.
Answer: A
6. In “What is demanded then is a return to these truths”, the underlined words refer to:
a) challenges.
b) instruments.
c) those values.
d) loyalty and patriotism.
e) hard work and honesty.
Answer: C
7. Some sentences of the text have been left with blank spaces. Choose the option
below that contains the correct sequence of words that fill in the blanks, keeping the
main ideas of the text.
I. Yet, every so often, the oath is taken __________ gathering clouds and raging storms.
II. Less measurable but no less profound is a sapping of confidence __________ our land.
III. It has not been the path for the fainthearted – for those who prefer leisure __________ work.
IV. Let it be told to the future world... that in the depth of winter, when nothing __________ hope and
virtue could survive.
a) I. amongst – II. through – III. instead – IV. of
b) I. amongst – II. across – III. over – IV. of
c) I. amidst – II. across – III. instead – IV. of
d) I. amidst – II. across – III. over – IV. but
e) I. amidst – II. through – III. instead – IV. but
Answer: D
8. In the sentence “duties that we do not grudgingly accept but rather seize gladly”, the
underlined words can be replaced, respectively, by:
a) burdens – hesitantly – clasp – warily
b) burdens – hesitantly – grasp – warily
c) tasks – unwillingly – grasp – blissfully
d) tasks – unwillingly – give in – blissfully
e) tasks – unwillingly – give in – blissfully
Answer: C
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 10: Obama outlines coordinated cyber-security plan
Washington – President Obama declared Friday that the country’s disparate efforts to “deter, prevent,
detect and defend” against cyberattacks would now be run out of the White House, but he also promised
that he would bar the federal government from regular monitoring of “private-sector networks” and the
Internet traffic that has become the backbone of American communications.
Mr. Obama’s speech, which was accompanied by the release of a long-awaited new government
strategy, was an effort to balance the United States’ response to a rising security threat with concerns –
echoing back to the debates on wiretapping without warrants in the Bush years – that the government
would be regularly dipping into Internet traffic that knew no national boundaries.
One element of the strategy clearly differed from that established by the Bush administration in January
2008. Mr. Obama’s approach is described in a 38-page public document being distributed to the public
and to companies that are most vulnerable to cyberattack; Mr. Bush’s strategy was entirely classified.
But Mr. Obama’s policy review was not specific about how he would turn many of the goals into
practical realities, and he said nothing about resolving the running turf wars [preposition] the Pentagon,
the National Security Agency, the Homeland Security Department and other agencies over the conduct of
defensive and offensive cyberoperations.
The White House approach appears to place a new “cybersecurity coordinator” over all of those
agencies. Mr. Obama did not name the coordinator Friday, but the policy review said that whoever the
president selects would be “action officer” inside the White House during cyberattacks, [connector] they
were launched on the United States by hackers or governments.
In an effort to silence critics who have complained that the official will not have sufficient status to cut
through the maze of competing federal agencies, Mr. Obama said the new coordinator would have
“regular access to me,” much like the coordinator for nuclear and conventional threats.
Many computer security executives had been hoping that Mr. Obama’s announcement would represent a
turning point in the nation’s unsuccessful effort to turn back a growing cybercrime epidemic. On Friday,
several said that while the president’s attention sounded promising, much would depend on [pronoun] he
chose to fill the role. (…)
Adapted from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/30/us/politics/30cyber.html?_r=1
1. Match the definitions below:
a) backbone
b) boundary
c) policy
d) maze
e) role
1. [ ] A set of ideas or a plan of what to do in particular situations that has been agreed officially by a
group of people, a business organization, a government or a political party.
2. [ ] A complicated set of rules, ideas or subjects which you find difficult to deal with or understand.
3. [ ] The most important part of something, providing support for everything else.
4. [ ] The position or purpose that someone or something has in a situation, organization, society or
relationship.
5. [ ] A real or imagined line that marks the edge or limit of something.
Answer: C, D, A, E, B
2. The gap [preposition] in the 4th paragraph must be filled with:
a) among.
b) between.
c) beside.
d) over.
e) for.
Answer: A
3. The gap [connector] in the 5th paragraph must be filled with:
a) thus.
b) unless.
c) whether.
d) rather.
e) otherwise.
Answer: C
4. The gap [pronoun] in the 7th paragraph must be filled with:
a) who.
b) whom.
c) that.
d) whose.
e) whoever.
Answer: B
5. It can be inferred from the text that the former American president’s plan against
cyberattacks was:
a) hidden.
b) arranged.
c) labeled.
d) restricted.
e) tagged.
Answer: D
6. A turf war (4th paragraph) is:
a) any situation in which there is fierce competition between opposing sides or a great fight against
something harmful.
b) a war which is fought over a long period and only ends when one side has neither the soldiers and
equipment nor the determination left to continue fighting.
c) a fight or an argument to decide who controls an area or an activity.
d) a situation, often before a competition or battle, in which two opposing sides attempt to frighten or
discourage each other by making threats or by showing how strong or clever they are.
e) when two or more companies or people compete against each other in order to buy something.
Answer: C
7. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) In the Bush era, the virtual traffic was constantly monitored with no permission from Internet users.
( ) Mr. Obama’s and Mr. Bush’s strategies against cyberattacks are not alike.
( ) Mr. Obama released a long-term project against the American cybercrime epidemic.​
( ) The new government strategy against cybercrimes does not concern with people’s privacy.
Answer: C, C, E, E
8. From the sentence “he would bar the federal government from regular monitoring of
‘private-sector networks’ and the Internet traffic that has become the backbone of
American communications”, we can infer that:
a) the U.S. government will regularly monitor “private-sector networks” and the Internet traffic.
b) the U.S. government is constantly monitoring “private-sector networks” and the Internet traffic.
c) the U.S. government intends to intensify the monitoring of “private-sector networks” and the Internet
traffic.
d) the U.S. government is going to enlarge the monitoring of “private-sector networks” and the Internet
traffic.
e) the U.S. government will be forbidden to regularly monitor “private-sector networks” and the
Internet traffic.
Answer: E
9. Which question can be answered by the text?
a) Who will be the new cybersecurity coordinator?
b) How will the goals of the plans against cyberattacks be attained?
c) How will the cyberpirates be punished?
d) How Mr. Obama tried to stop the complaints against the new coordinator?
e) When will the cybersecurity plan be utterly enforced?
Answer: D
10. In the sentence “Many computer security executives had been hoping that Mr.
Obama’s announcement would represent a turning point in the nation’s unsuccessful
effort to turn back a growing cybercrime epidemic” (7th paragraph), the underlined verbs
are respectively in the:
a) Past Progressive and Simple Conditional
b) Past Perfect Progressive and Simple Conditional
c) Past Progressive Continuous and Simple Conditional
d) Past Progressive and Perfect Conditional
e) Past Perfect Progressive and Progressive Conditional
Answer: B
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 11: Physicists’ God-talk
Some well-known physicists in recent times have used language which, to many Christians, sounds as if
these men have some sort of Christian faith, or are leaning in that direction. Some Christian people have
thus been encouraged. Some writers in Christian magazines have encouraged this belief that the physicists
are getting “closer to God”, even claiming that what they say authenticates the Bible.
Albert Einstein once said, in reference to the mathematical orderliness of the universe, “God does not
play dice”. This was taken by many to mean that Einstein had some sort of faith in God.
More recently, physicist and philosopher Paul Davies titled his book The Mind of God. Leon Lederman,
a Nobel Prize-winner, called his book about the Higgs boson fundamental atomic particle, The God
Particle.
George Smoot, the cosmologist, described finding fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background
radiation as like “seeing God”.
Stephen Hawking, the well-known English cosmologist, seemingly echoing the sentiments of such
Christian intellectual giants as Isaac Newton, tells us that the aim of science is to know the “mind of
God”.
Are these men being drawn towards faith in God through their physics/astronomy/cosmology? Not at
all! Biographies of Einstein’s life show that he had no personal faith in God. A quote from a book review
published in Nature shows how we should not let statements such as those by Lederman, Smoot and
Hawking mislead us:
“Such statements seriously mislead the average person, who believes that the scientists are finding the
personal God of traditional theology. Nothing could be further from the truth. Lederman calls the Higgs
boson the ‘God Particle’ because it is the most important particle in particle physics today; Smoot means
that, when contemplating the cosmic radiation, he experiences a feeling of awe analogous to that of
religious believers; and Hawking’s phrase is shorthand for the Theory of Everything. All three physicists
– like most physicists of this century – describe themselves as agnostics or atheists. They do not believe
in a Person who created the Universe”. Likewise, Professor Davies does not believe in a personal
creator-God either.
Physicists tend to use religious terminology because it graphically expresses the religious/philosophical
nature of their thoughts and the sense of almost religious reverence they feel about their subject. Like the
“liberal” theologians, they use the language of orthodox Christianity, but in using the words they do not
mean what we may think they mean.
Dr. Geoffrey Burbidge, Professor of Physics at the University of California, San Diego, spoke flippantly
of his colleagues rushing off to join “the first church of Christ of the Big Bang” because of their
“evangelical fervour” for the “big bang”, not because he saw any genuine revival of Christianity in them.
We should not be lulled into thinking the physicists are “fellow travellers” just because they use our
language. Indeed, much of the physicists’ religious talk is tongue-in-cheek – and in this they ridicule true
Christian faith. Even worse, they blaspheme in referring to “God” as an atomic particle. Unfortunately for
them, God will have the last word, for He says: “... I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring
to nothing the understanding of the prudent” (1 Corinthians 1:19).
By Don Batten
Adapted from http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v17/i3/god_talk.asp
1. It can be inferred from the 1st paragraph that physicists:
a) have avoided talking about God.
b) do have Christian faith.
c) have used a kind of Christian language in their texts.
d) intend to validate the Holy Bible and get closer to God.
Answer: C
2. The 2nd paragraph:
a) shows examples of references made to God by some physicists.
b) shows how faithful are some well-known scientists.
c) compares some theories developed by modern physicists.
d) ratifies the faith that some researchers have in God.
Answer: B
3. The expression “Not at all!” (6th paragraph) expresses an idea of:
a) addition.
b) ratification.
c) contrast.
d) condition.
Answer: C
4. The 7th paragraph:
a) shows the real beliefs of the physicists.
b) confirms the faith some scientists have in God.
c) confronts the opinions of some scientists about God.
d) shows that the number of agnostic or atheist physicists is very low.
Answer: A
5. Match the columns below:
1. Agnostic
2. Atheists
3. Physicist
4. Professor
5. Philosopher
6. Cosmologist
( ) Someone who believes that God or gods do not exist.
( ) A teacher of the highest rank in a department of a British university, or a teacher of high rank in an
American university or college.
( ) Someone who studies or writes about the meaning of life.
( ) Someone who does not know, or believes that it is impossible to know, whether a god exists.
( ) A person who studies physics or whose job is connected with physics.
( ) A person who studies the nature and origin of the universe, or a theory about it.
Answer: 2–4–5–1–3–6
6. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Physicists actually believe in orthodox Christianity.
( ) Physicists do not know what they really mean when they use religious terminology.
( ) Scientists do not believe in any religion but Christianity.
( ) scientists feel a kind of devotion for their studies.
Answer: E, E, E, C
7. The last sentence of the text (“... I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring
to nothing the understanding of the prudent”) is a:
a) proverb.
b) cliché.
c) quotation.
d) speech.
Answer: C
8. Mark the false cognate word:
a) Sort.
b) Professor.
c) Unfortunately.
d) Colleagues.
Answer: A
9. The word thus in the sentence “Some Christian people have thus been encouraged”
(1st paragraph) can be substituted by:
a) otherwise.
b) actually.
c) hence.
d) unless.
Answer: C
10. Complete the definition for the expression tongue-in-cheek in “much of the
physicists’ religious talk is tongue-in-cheek”.
If you say something tongue-in-cheek:
a) you do not speak seriously about an important subject, in an attempt to be amusing or to appear
clever.
b) you touch somebody’s cheeks with your lips, especially as a greeting.
c) you do nothing to hurt someone who has hurt you.
d) you intend it to be understood as a joke, although you might appear to be serious.
Answer: D
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 12: Brazil’s Lula raps “white” crisis

Brazil’s President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva has said the world’s poor people should not be forced to
pay for the global financial crisis.
President Lula said white, __________ – not Indians, nor black, nor poor people – had created and
spread the crisis throughout the world. He was speaking at a news conference during a visit by British
Prime Minister Gordon Brown. Mr. Brown was in Brazil in advance of the G20 summit in London next
week.
Mr. Brown made a joint appeal with the Brazilian leader for the world’s biggest economies to provide
$100bn to boost global trade. Both leaders also appealed for the stalled round of Doha trade talks to be
resumed.
President Lula has long argued that poor and developing nations have been victims of mistakes made in
richer countries, caused by irresponsibility or a lack of regulation in the world’s banking systems.
It was not a surprise, __________, that he would return to this topic just days ahead of the crucial G20
summit in London.
What was perhaps less expected was the way in which the Brazilian leader chose on this occasion to
identify those to blame for the current economic situation.
“It is a crisis caused and encouraged by the irrational behaviour of white people with blue eyes”, the
president said, “who before the crisis appeared to know everything, but are now showing that they know
nothing”.
If Mr. Brown appeared uncomfortable with this claim, he did his best not to show it. Questioned by a
reporter, President Lula expanded his theory. “As I do not know any black or indigenous bankers”, the
president added. “I can only say it is not possible for this part of mankind, which is victimised more than
any other, to pay for the crisis.”
Mr. Brown said he preferred not to attribute blame to individuals, and the rest of the news conference
focused on a more conventional message of unity in advance of the G20 summit in London. As well as the
plan for a $100bn fund to boost world trade, there were calls for greater regulation of financial markets,
strong words against protectionism and an appeal for the stalled Doha round of world trade talks to be
restarted.
Adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7967546.stm
1. Fill in the gap in the 2nd paragraph correctly:
a) people of blue eyes
b) blue-eyed people
c) blue eyes peoples
d) blue-eying people
e) blued eyes peoples
Answer: B
2. Fill in the gap in the 5th paragraph correctly:
a) although
b) rather
c) despite
d) furthermore
e) therefore
Answer: E
3. President Lula:
a) is not for the round of Doha trade talks to be resumed.
b) said developed nations have been victimized by richer countries.
c) criticized the rich countries in a unexpected way.
d) does not agree with Gordon Brown’s position in respect to the round of Doha.
e) borrowed $100bn in order to improve the Brazilian economy.
Answer: C
4. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Both Lula and Brown are concerned about the world trade.
( ) It was not possible to know if Mr. Brown got uncomfortable with President Lula’s words.
( ) The international monetary policy is considered reckless by President Lula.
( ) Black and indigenous bankers must be blamed for the current global crisis.
Answer: C, C, C, E
5. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) During the news conference, Mr. Brown shared President Lula’s opinion about the braked Doha
round.
( ) It is necessary to borrow $100bn from the richer countries in order to solve the world trade crisis
once and for all.
( ) There were declarations contrary to a stricter regulation of financial markets and for the
protectionism.
( ) President Lula thinks that those in charge of the world economy do not have any idea of how to solve
the global crisis.
Answer: E, E, E, C
6. In the text, the word news (2nd and 9th paragraphs) can be replaced by:
a) press.
b) advice.
c) release.
d) advertisement.
e) gossip.
Answer: A
7. The relative pronouns which (6th paragraph), who (7th paragraph) and which (8th
paragraph) refer to:
a) the way – white people with blue eyes – crisis
b) the way – white people with blue eyes – this part of mankind
c) the way – the president – this part of mankind
d) the Brazilian leader – the president – mankind
e) the Brazilian leader – the president – crisis
Answer: B
8. In the sentence “President Lula has long argued that poor and developing nations
have been victims of mistakes made in richer countries” (4th paragraph), the underlined
tenses are examples of:
a) Present Progressive.
b) Past Perfect.
c) Present Perfect.
d) Perfect Conditional.
e) Present Perfect Progressive.
Answer: C
9. Mark the false cognate word:
a) advance (2nd paragraph)
b) resumed (3rd paragraph)
c) topic (5th paragraph)
d) expected (6th paragraph)
e) current (6th paragraph)
Answer: B
10. Match the columns of antonyms:
a) poor ( ) tiny
b) big ( ) past
c) stall ( ) unimportant
d) resume ( ) yet
e) crucial ( ) wealthy
f) current ( ) disagreement
g) best ( ) forward
h) unity ( ) feeble
i) as well as ( ) worst
j) strong ( ) halt
Answer: b, f, e, i, a, h, c, j, g, d
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 13: Obama plan could limit secret documents
Washington – President Barack Obama plans to deal with a Dec. 31 deadline that automatically would
declassify secrets in more than 400 million pages of Cold War-era documents by ordering government-
wide changes that could sharply curb the number of new and old government records hidden from the
public.
In an executive order the president is likely to sign before year’s end, Obama will create a National
Declassification Center to clear up the backlog of Cold War documents. But the order also will give
everyone more time to process the 400 million pages __________ flinging them open at year’s end
without a second glance.
The order aimed __________ eliminating unnecessary secrecy also is expected to direct all agencies to
revise their classification guides – the more than 2,000 separate and unique manuals used by federal
agencies to determine what information should be classified and what no longer needs that protection. The
manuals form the foundation of the government’s classification system.
Two of every three such guides haven’t been updated in the past five years, according to the 2008
annual report of the Information Security Oversight Office, which oversees the government’s security
classification.
The anticipated timing of Obama’s order was disclosed by a government official familiar with the
planning who requested anonymity in order to discuss the order before its release. A draft of the order
leaked last summer.
The still-classified Cold War records would provide a wealth of data on U.S.-Soviet relations,
including the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the fall of the Berlin Wall, diplomacy and espionage. A
Soviet spy ring in the Navy led by John Walker headlined 1985, which became known as “The Year of the
Spy”.
It took 19 years and a lawsuit for the National Security Archive, a private group that obtains and
analyzes once-secret government records, to get documents on the 1959 crisis when the United States and
the Soviet Union faced off over control of West Berlin. For nearly two decades, the contested documents
were shuttled back and forth among various offices in the Defense Department, then on to the State
Department and an unnamed intelligence agency, each conducting a separate declassification review,
before the government finally gave some of them up.
Adapted from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34500449/ns/politics-white_house/
1. Fill in the gap in the 2nd paragraph correctly:
a) otherwise
b) unless
c) rather than
d) despite
e) though
Answer: C
2. Fill in the gap in the 3rd paragraph correctly:
a) on
b) upon
c) over
d) in
e) at
Answer: E
3. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The National Declassification Center will bring out Cold War-era documents until the end of the
year.
( ) Classification guides may be revised by the American federal agencies.
( ) Precious information about the Soviet Union, after being declassified, may help the American
government to solve Cold War-era pending issues.
( ) It took almost twenty years for the National Security Archive to record files on the U.S.-Soviet
crisis.
Answer: E, C, E, E
4. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) President Barack Obama intends to forbid the government to classify war documents.
( ) The executive order to declassify war documents will surely be signed by President Barack Obama.
( ) The National Declassification Center is going to open war-era documents as soon as the executive
order is signed by President Barack Obama.
( ) A Soviet spy was found inside an American Navy ship during the Cold War.
Answer: E, E, E, E
5. The sentence “A draft of the order leaked last summer” (5th paragraph) means, in
Portuguese:
a) Um esboço da ordem vazou no último verão.
b) Um rascunho do projeto foi feito no verão passado.
c) Uma pequena parte da ordem foi divulgada no verão passado.
d) Uma parte da ordem veio a público no último verão.
e) Uma prévia do projeto vazou no verão passado.
Answer: A
6. The author of the text obtained some information about President Barack Obama’s
order from:
a) a relative.
b) an acquaintance.
c) an undercover agent.
d) an unreliable source.
e) a White House functionary.
Answer: E
7. The word sharply (1st paragraph) is equivalent in meaning to:
a) piercingly.
b) drastically.
c) promptly.
d) greedily.
e) dashingly.
Answer: B
8. Read the following excerpt taken from the last paragraph and observe the use of the
definite article:
The United States and the Soviet Union faced off over control of West Berlin.
Now, mark the item in which the article is being used incorrectly:
a) The Hague.
b) The United Kingdom.
c) The Netherlands.
d) The Oceania.
e) The Amazon.
Answer: D
9. The objective pronoun them (last paragraph) refers to:
a) years.
b) records.
c) documents.
d) decades.
e) offices.
Answer: C
10. The underlined expression in “the contested documents were shuttled back and
forth among various offices” means:
a) para cima e para baixo.
b) para frente e para trás.
c) de um lado para outro.
d) inexoravelmente.
e) aleatoriamente.
Answer: C
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 12.
TEXT 14: Book-burning: ________________________
__________ the night of 10 May 1933, a crowd of ________ 40,000 people __________ in the
Opernplatz – now the Bebelplatz – in the Mitte district of Berlin. Amid much joyous singing, band-
playing and chanting of oaths and incantations, they watched soldiers and police from the SS,
brownshirted members of the paramilitary SA, and impassioned youths from the German Student
Association and Hitler Youth Movement burn, at the behest of propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels,
upwards of 25,000 books decreed to be “un-German”.
The climax of a month-long nationwide campaign, this best-known of literary bonfires was intended as
both a purge and a purification of the true German spirit, supposedly weakened and corrupted by un-
German ideas and intellectualism. “The future German man”, the Reichsminister declared in a speech,
“will not just be a man of books, but a man of character. You do well, in this midnight hour, to commit to
the flames the evil spirit of the past. From this wreckage the phoenix of a new spirit will triumphantly
rise”.
The volumes consigned to the flames in Berlin, and more than 30 other university towns around the
country on that and following nights, included works by more than 75 German and foreign authors, (…)
among the authors whose books were burned that night was the great 19th-century German poet Heinrich
Heine, who barely a century earlier, in 1821, had written in his play Almansor the words: “Dort, wo man
Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen” – “Where they burn books, they will, [I], also
burn people”.
There’s something uniquely symbolic about the burning of books. It goes beyond the censoring of beliefs
and ideas. A book, [II], is something more than ink and paper, and burning one (or many) means something
more than destroying it by any other means. Goebbels, [III], was by no means the first to recognise the
symbolism: authorities around the world, both secular and religious, have known since the Chinese Qin
dynasty in 200BC that book-burning is an act of peculiar potency.
If Pastor Terry Jones, leader of the small but now extremely well-known Dove World Outreach Centre
in Gainesville, Florida, who planned to burn 200 copies of the Qur’an despite near-universal
condemnation, didn’t know it before, he certainly does now. (Jones, who has received death threats, may
have taken to carrying a gun, but no less a figure than Barack Obama warned yesterday of the
consequences the pastor’s act may have had for US servicemen in Iraq and Afghanistan.) (…)
Throughout history, says Matt Fishburn, author of Burning Books, a chronicle of the phenomenon
through the ages, most official book-burnings have been about “control”, to announce “what a regime
stands for”.
Like previous such ceremonies, the Nazi burnings (which Fishburn said, on their 75th anniversary in
2008, have since become “a cultural benchmark, a popular analogy and a common insult – to burn a book
today is to be a ‘fascist’”) were, essentially, about “announcing what would be acceptable in future;
shaping the new public sphere. The burnings were the symbol; the repressive legislation that came in their
wake was what really enforced it”.
More innocently, people have long lit celebratory bonfires to mark the end of one phase in their lives
and the start of another: graduating students may burn unpopular textbooks at the end of a course; refugees
celebrate naturalisation by burning their old papers. But it is as an official means of suppressing
dissenting or heretical views that book-burning has acquired its infamy.
The practice features prominently in two of the 20th century’s more alarming novels about authoritarian
future societies: Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, in which book-burning has become institutionalised in a
wholly hedonistic, anti-intellectual US, and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, where unapproved
books and tracts are consumed by flames in a “memory hole”.
It also crops up in the Bible. A passage in the New Testament Book of Acts (Acts 19: 19-20) suggests
Christian converts in Ephesus burned books of “curious arts”, generally taken to mean traditional magic:
“Many of them also which used curious arts brought their books together and burned them before all
men”. (…)
Why burning, [IV], rather than some other kind of destruction? The symbolism of flames is plain. For
Andrew Motion, former poet laureate and chair of this year’s Man Booker prize, “books are little
encapsulations of human effort and wisdom and, I suppose, of our sense of history. So to burn one of any
kind, and certainly one that is a representation of a culture and set of beliefs, is to appear to consign it to
the flames of eternal damnation”. Book-burning, [V], is first and foremost a monumental “manifestation of
intolerance. It’s the conflation of what ought to be nuanced views into one, hate-filled act”.
Does Pastor Jones fit this picture? There’s an important difference between his plans and officially
sanctioned book-burning campaigns such as those of the Nazis, says Richard Evans, regius professor of
history at Cambridge and a specialist in German social and cultural history.​
While the book-burnings of 1933 were largely independently led by fascist students, presaging the
“mass violence, real and symbolic” that was then starting to take over Germany, they were actively
encouraged by the Nazi leadership in a bid to “purge the un-German spirit”. Jones’s International Burn-a-
Koran Day is, [VI], an act of defiance and, in choosing to burn just one book many times over, “quite
clearly a symbolic attack on Islam as a whole”.
Anyone who had tried to burn Mein Kampf in 1933, Evans says, “would have been arrested and shot”.
Adapted from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/sep/10/book-burning-quran-history-nazis
1. The gaps in the 1st paragraph must be filled correctly and respectively with:
a) On – some – resumed
b) In – about – brought together
c) On – nearly – resumed
d) In – about – gathered
e) On – some – gathered
Answer: E
2. The gaps from I to VI must be filled with:
Where they burn books, they will, [I], also burn people.
A book, [II], is something more than ink and paper...
Goebbels, [III], was by no means the first to recognise the symbolism...
Why burning, [IV], rather than some other kind of destruction?
Book-burning, [V], is first and foremost a monumental “manifestation of intolerance.
Jones’s International Burn-a-Koran Day is, [VI], an act of defiance...
a) in the end – simply – of course – albeit – he said – reportedly
b) at the end – plainly – naturally – though – he said – on the other hand
c) in the end – plainly – of course – though – he says – on the other hand
d) at the end – plainly – naturally – though – he says – on the other hand
e) in the end – simply – of course – albeit – he says – reportedly
Answer: C
3. The word behest (1st paragraph) can be replaced by:
a) bidding.
b) indictment.
c) conviction.
d) sovereignty.
e) releasing.
Answer: A
4. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Nearly 25,000 “Un-German” books were burned by SS and SA’s radicals.
( ) The book-burning event described in the 1st paragraph happened amid a festive atmosphere.
( ) The books were burned after Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s propaganda minister, had considered them at
odds with the German guidelines.
( ) The city of Bebelplatz was formerly known as Opernplatz.
Answer: E, C, E, E
5. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The Opernplatz’s book-burning is considered one of the biggest literary bonfires of history.
( ) The true German spirit was fully recovered after the Opernplatz’s book-burning.
( ) The Opernplatz’s book-burning began sharply at midnight.
( ) The Reichsminister claimed the German man of the future needs both knowledge and nature.
Answer: C, E, E, C
6. In the 2nd paragraph of the text, the word wreckage can be replaced by:
a) leftovers.
b) debris.
c) flotsam.
d) jetsam.
e) odds and ends.
Answer: B
7. Read the following excerpt taken from the 4th paragraph:
Burning one (or many) means something more than destroying it by any other means.
Goebbels, [III], was by no means the first to recognise the symbolism.
The underlined words can be replaced respectively by:
a) depicts – manners – in no sense
b) shows – methods – undoubtedly
c) conveys – way – certainly not
d) expresses – route – absolutely
e) signifies – technique – assuredly
Answer: C
8. In accordance with the text:
a) Heinrich Heine’s books were burned due to the ideas he had against the spirit of the future German
man.
b) when a book is burned, a piece of the author’s spirit dies along with his written ideas.
c) it took a fortnight to the Opernplatz’s book-burning campaign comes to an end.
d) book-burning is a very ancient action which expresses more than the mere destruction of a material
thing.
e) Joseph Goebbels was the first in the last century to use book-burning as a way to demonstrate power
and superiority of a government above others.
Answer: D
9. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below about Pastor Terry
Jones:
( ) The popularity of his church increased after he declared his intentions to burn copies of the Qur’an.
( ) His attitude was considered wrong almost unanimously all over the world.
( ) He got tantalized with the declarations made by President Barack Obama.
( ) His attitudes may have created difficulties for the American soldiers in the Middle East.
Answer: C, C, E, C
10. Mark the best option to fill in the gap in the title of the text.
a) the culmination of hypocrisy
b) spreading the literary prejudice
c) a current and common issue
d) how can we cope with this?
e) fanning the flames of hatred
Answer: E
11. The word wholly (9th paragraph) cannot be replaced by:
a) altogether
b) comprehensively
c) thoroughly
d) utterly
e) roughly
Answer: E
12. Translate the following words into Portuguese:
a) Amid (1st paragraph) ________________________________________
b) Barely (3rd paragraph) ________________________________________
c) Stand for (6th paragraph) ________________________________________
d) Benchmark (7th paragraph) ________________________________________
e) Dissenting (8th paragraph) ________________________________________
f) Tract (9th paragraph) ________________________________________
g) Crop up (10th paragraph) ________________________________________
h) Damnation (11th paragraph) ________________________________________
i) Take over (13th paragraph) ________________________________________
j) Bid (13th paragraph) ________________________________________
Answer: a) entre (vários); b) mal, quase não; c) querer dizer; d) ponto de referência; e)
discordante; f) artigo, texto; g) surgir, aparecer; h) condenação; i) assumir o controle, tomar
conta; j) tentativa
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 15: Exporting our way to stability
OP-ED CONTRIBUTOR
As the United States recovers from this recession, the biggest mistake we could make would be to
rebuild our economy on the same pile of debt or the paper profits of financial speculation. We need to
rebuild on a new, stronger foundation for economic growth. And part of that foundation involves doing
what Americans have always done best: discovering, creating and building products that are sold all over
the world.
We want to be known not just for what we consume, but for what we produce. And the more we export
abroad, the more jobs we create in America. In fact, every $1 billion we export supports more than 5,000
jobs at home.
It is for this reason that I set a goal of doubling America’s exports in the next five years. To do that, we
need to find new customers in new markets for American-made goods. And some of the fastest-growing
markets in the world are in Asia, where I’m traveling this week.
It is hard to overstate the importance of Asia to our economic future. Asia is home to three of the
world’s five largest economies, as well as a rapidly expanding middle class with rising incomes. My trip
will therefore take me to four Asian democracies – India, Indonesia, South Korea and Japan – each of
which is an important partner for the United States. I will also participate in two summit meetings – the
Group of 20 industrialized nations and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation – that will focus on economic
growth.
During my first visit to India, I will be joined by hundreds of American business leaders and their
Indian counterparts to announce concrete progress __________ our export goal – billions of dollars in
contracts that will support tens of thousands of American jobs. We will also explore ways to reduce
barriers to United States exports and increase access to the Indian market.
Indonesia is a member of the G-20. Next year, it will assume the chairmanship of the Association of
Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) – a group whose members make up a market of more than 600 million
people that is increasingly integrating __________ a free trade area, and to which the United States
exports $80 billion in goods and services each year.
My administration has deepened our engagement with Asean, and for the first eight months of 2010,
exports of American goods to Indonesia increased by 47 percent __________ the same period in 2009.
This is momentum that we will build on as we pursue a new comprehensive partnership between the
United States and Indonesia.
In South Korea, President Lee Myung-bak and I will work to complete a trade pact that could be worth
tens of billions of dollars in increased exports and thousands of jobs for American workers. Other nations
like Canada and members of the European Union are pursuing trade pacts with South Korea, and
American businesses are losing opportunities to sell their products in this growing market. We used to be
the top exporter to South Korea; now we are in fourth place and have seen our share of Korea’s imports
drop in half over the last decade.
But any agreement must come with the right terms. That’s why we’ll be looking to resolve outstanding
issues on behalf of American exporters – including American automakers and workers. If we can, we’ll
be able to complete an agreement that supports jobs and prosperity in America.
South Korea is also the host of the G-20 economic forum, the organization that we have made the focal
point for international economic cooperation. Last year, the nations of the G-20 worked together to halt
the spread of the worst economic crisis since the 1930s. This year, our top priority is achieving strong,
sustainable and balanced growth. This will require cooperation and responsibility from all nations –
those with emerging economies and those with advanced economies; those running a deficit and those
running a surplus.
Finally, at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meeting in Japan, I will continue seeking new
markets in Asia for American exports. We want to expand our trade relationships in the region, including
__________ the Trans-Pacific Partnership, to make sure that we’re not ceding markets, exports and the
jobs they support to other nations.
We will also lay the groundwork for hosting the 2011 APEC meeting in Hawaii, the first such gathering
on American soil since 1993.
The great challenge of our time is to make sure that America is ready to compete for the jobs and
industries of the future. It can be tempting, in times of economic difficulty, to turn inward, away from trade
and commerce with other nations. But in our interconnected world, that is not a path to growth, and that is
not a path to jobs. We cannot be shut out of these markets. Our government, together with American
businesses and workers, must take steps to promote and sell our goods and services abroad – particularly
in Asia. That’s how we’ll create jobs, prosperity and an economy that’s built on a stronger foundation.
By Barack Obama
Published: November 5, 2010
Adapted from http://www.nytimes.com/
1. In the sentence “we need to find new customers in new markets for American-made
goods”, extracted from the 3rd paragraph, the word goods can be replaced by:
a) wells
b) liabilities
c) estates
d) assets
e) bounties
Answer: D
2. From the previous text, it can be inferred that Barack Obama:
a) intends to rebuild the American economy based on what the former Presidents have done best.
b) thinks the only solution for the American economic crisis is to increase the number of exported
products.
c) believes the old economic strategies will not help the America to recover from the recession.
d) will invest $1 billion in the exportation field to create more than 5,000 direct jobs.
e) believes the external market will be soon flooded again by the American-made products.
Answer: C
3. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) President Barack Obama has established a twofold exportation boost target until 2015.
( ) During his trip to Asia, Obama intends to sign export cooperation agreements with the four main
Asian economies.
( ) Both G-20 and APEC intend to aim attention at economic issues.
( ) The middle class in Asia has been facing a swift wage slump.
Answer: C, E, C, E
4. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) In India, Obama will get together with American and local exporters to declare that the goal of
billions of dollars in contracts was achieved.
( ) In Indonesia, Obama intends to increase the partnership between the United States and Asean.
( ) In South Korea, Obama need outdo Canada and members of the EU in order to recover the United
States’ former position as a top exporter to that country.
( ) In Japan, Obama will keep pursuing new commercial partners among the Asian countries.
Answer: E, E, E, C
5. In the 4th paragraph, the words hard, rapidly and therefore mean, respectively:
a) harsh – fastly – hence
b) tough – quickly – ergo
c) strict – fleet – howbeit
d) ruthless – hasty – withal
e) mild – rapidly – thus
Answer: B
6. In the fragment “We will also lay the groundwork for hosting the 2011 APEC meeting
in Hawaii”, the verb to lay means:
a) to wager.
b) to stake.
c) to deceive.
d) to lodge.
e) to set.
Answer: E
7. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) all over (paragraph 1) and throughout are interchangeable.
( ) supports (paragraph 2) can be paraphrased as pays expenses of.
( ) has deepened (paragraph 7) can be replaced by has been enhanced.
( ) tempting (paragraph 13) is synonymous with tantalizing.
Answer: C, C, E, E
8. Some sentences of the text have been left with blank spaces. Choose the option
below that contains the correct sequence of words that fill in the blanks, keeping the
main ideas of the text.
I. I will be joined by hundreds of American business leaders and their Indian counterparts to
announce concrete progress __________ our export goal.
II. a group whose members make up a market of more than 600 million people that is increasingly
integrating __________ a free trade area.
III. exports of American goods to Indonesia increased by 47 percent __________ the same period in
2009.
IV. We want to expand our trade relationships in the region, including __________ the Trans-Pacific
Partnership.
a) I. toward – II. into – III. from – IV. through
b) I. forward – II. unto – III. from – IV. during
c) I. toward – II. into – III. in – IV. throughout
d) I. forward – II. unto – III. from – IV. through
e) I. toward – II. into – III. in – IV. through
Answer: E
9. Based on the text above, it can be said that the idea expressed in the sentence
“those with emerging economies and those with advanced economies; those running a
deficit and those running a surplus” (10th paragraph) is one of:
a) contrast.
b) doubt.
c) reason.
d) reiteration.
e) result.
Answer: A
10. In the sentence “This year, our top priority is achieving strong, sustainable and
balanced growth” (10th paragraph), the verb to achieve cannot be replaced by:
a) to attain.
b) to accomplish.
c) to reach.
d) to relish.
e) to fulfill.
Answer: D
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 16: Independence and interdependence
For two centuries, American foreign policy __________ by a cyclical pattern in which decades of
involvement __________ by decades of isolationism. Now, on the two-hundredth anniversary of our
independence, although the cycle watchers __________ to turn inward, we find our leaders proclaiming
that interdependence __________ us with other nations.
Have we finally buried George Washington and the isolationist tradition he fathered? Not yet. As the
Vietnam debacle punctuated the end of an era of hyper-involvement, public debate and public opinion
polls became transfixed, right on cycle, by the shadowy ghost of isolationism. Our foreign policy leaders
have turned from the tarnished talisman of “national security” that served them so well in the Cold War to
the rhetoric of interdependence in order to exorcise Washington’s ghost and try to rebuild the public
consensus for a foreign policy of involvement.
Our thirty-fifth president announced that “the age of interdependence is here”. Our thirty-eighth
president warns us that “we are all part of one interdependent economic system”.
Wrestling with Washington’s ghost is not the best way to enter the third century. The slogan
“isolationism” both misleads us about our history, and creates a false debate that hinders the making of
relevant distinctions among types, degrees, and directions of American involvement with the rest of the
world. The choices that confront us as we enter our third century are not between isolationism and
interdependence. Both slogans contain a large mixture of myth. We were never all that isolated from the
rest of the world and we are not now fully interdependent with the rest of the world. Mexicans,
Nicaraguans, Filipinos, and Japanese, among others, must be permitted an ironic smile when they hear
about our isolationist history.
Isolation was our posture toward the European balance of power, and for a century that posture of
independence rested on our tacit military dependence on British naval power. Even in the interwar period
of this century, our independence from Europe was a military posture while we tried to influence events
through dollar diplomacy.
It is ironic that the end of the Vietnam War stimulated neoisolationist arguments: a strong case can be
made that, with only a quarter of our trade and investment involved in the militarily weak, poor countries,
American economic welfare and military security depend rather little on what kinds of domestic political
regimes rule such countries; exports to less developed countries represent about 1 per cent, and earnings
on direct investments in such countries represent about one half of 1 per cent of our gross national
product; less developed countries have limited – in some cases, negligible – military importance; except
for ideologies, the interests of Americans were poorly served by a foreign policy that involved the Third
World as an arena in which to combat communism; Americans do not really know what the best regimes
for less developed countries are. Neoisolationist arguments such as these were badly needed a decade
ago.
Now they are like an inoculation against a disease from which we have largely recovered: helpful
against recurring symptoms of the past, but possibly harmful as a prescription for the future.
By Joseph S. Nye, Jr.
Adapted from Foreign Policy, Nº. 22 (spring, 1976), p. 130-161.
1. Fill in the gaps in the 1st paragraph correctly:
For two centuries, American foreign policy __________ by a cyclical pattern in which decades
of involvement __________ by decades of isolationism. Now, on the two-hundredth
anniversary of our independence, although the cycle watchers __________ to turn inward, we
find our leaders proclaiming that interdependence __________ us with other nations.
a) has marked – have been followed – have us scheduled – has entangled
b) has been marked – has been followed – have us scheduled – has entangled
c) has been marked – have been followed – we have scheduled – has entangled
d) has been marked – have been followed – have us scheduled – has entangled
e) has been marked – have been followed – have us scheduled – has been entangled
Answer: D
2. In the 2nd paragraph of the text, the word tarnished can be replaced by:
a) slandered.
b) tainted.
c) damaged.
d) spoiled.
e) brightened.
Answer: B
3. In the 3rd paragraph of the text, there are examples of:
a) quotations.
b) proverbs.
c) riddles.
d) forecasts.
e) blackmails.
Answer: A
4. Read the following sentence taken from the 4th paragraph of the text:
The slogan “isolationism” both misleads us about our history, and creates a false debate…
It is equivalent in meaning to:
a) The slogan “isolationism” either misleads us about our history, or creates a false debate…
b) The slogan “isolationism” neither misleads us about our history, nor creates a false debate…
c) The slogan “isolationism” not only misleads us about our history, and creates a false debate…
d) Not only does the slogan “isolationism” mislead us about our history, it also creates a false debate…
e) Just as the slogan “isolationism” misleads us about our history, so too creates a false debate…
Answer: D
5. In the sentence “Isolation was our posture toward the European balance of power”
(5th paragraph), the word toward means:
a) in order to.
b) regarding.
c) forward.
d) despite.
e) regardless of.
Answer: B
6. The word negligible (6th paragraph) can be defined as something:
a) necessary or of great value.
b) with great effect or influence.
c) too slight or small in amount to be of importance.
d) smaller less than average or usual.
e) large in size or amount.
Answer: C
7. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) our (1st paragraph) refers to independence.
( ) them (2nd paragraph) refers to our foreign policy leaders.
( ) It (6th paragraph) refers to the end of the Vietnam war.
( ) they (7th paragraph) refers to neoisolationist arguments.
Answer: E, C, E, C
8. Read the last paragraph of the text and judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items
below:
Now they are like an inoculation against a disease from which we have largely recovered:
helpful against recurring symptoms of the past, but possibly harmful as a prescription for the
future.
It can be an example of:
( ) plain speech.
( ) metaphor.
( ) analogy.
( ) parallelism.
Answer: E, C, C, E
9. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The United States has followed a recurrent standard concerning its foreign policy.
( ) Currently, the interdependence is isolating the United States from the other countries.
( ) Before the fiasco in the Vietnam War, the United States was highly engaged in foreign issues.
( ) George Washington’s ideas of foreign affairs are considered cutting-edge until nowadays.
Answer: C, E, C, E
10. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The United States’ foreign affairs are obstructed by the “isolationism”.
( ) The United States’ levels of isolation and interdependence may be considered reasonable.
( ) The United States has used a monetary diplomacy rather than a military posture against the European
balance of power.
( ) The “neoisolationism” was created due to the circumstances the Vietnam War has ended.
Answer: C, C, E, E
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 17: Parliament backs new EU migrant laws
European Union lawmakers ruled today that illegal immigrants can be detained for up to 18 months and
face a re-entry ban of up to five years.
European Union interior ministers approved the plans earlier this month and the European Parliament
backed the new migration law by a large majority, with 369 voting for, 197 against and 106 abstaining.
Ireland and Britain, not part of the EU’s borderless Schengen area, will not implement this new law.
Denmark will decide within six months whether it will apply it or not.
The 18-month detention limit is longer than the current maximum period in two-thirds of the 27 EU
states. Although EU states can keep a lower limit if they want, rights groups say it will encourage
authorities to lock up more illegal migrants.
“We believe that the text approved today by the European Parliament does not guarantee the return of
irregular migrants in safety and dignity”, Amnesty International said in a statement. “It sets an extremely
bad example.”
Currently, the detention limit varies in EU members. Illegal migrants cannot be detained for more than
40 days in Spain and a year in Hungary, according to European Commission data.
Germany already has an 18-month detention cap, while eight EU countries which have higher caps or
none at all would need to introduce the new EU limit.
The new limit will be based on an initial cap of six months that can be extended to 18 months under
certain circumstances, including if the illegal migrant does not cooperate.
The law, which the 27 EU states need to implement within two years, gives migrants the right to appeal
against expulsion and the right to have a judge review a detention decision.
Children can also be detained, according to the new text, which says that this should be for the shortest
appropriate period of time.
European Justice and Home Affairs Commissioner Jacques Barrot said in a statement it was important
to have common standards and that the measure would be implemented with full respect for human rights
conventions.
The Socialist group in the European Parliament said it marked a victory for the “Europe of mistrust”.
The Green/Europe Free Alliance group, which had campaigned for a three-month maximum for
detentions, said the law fell “below acceptable standards of civilisation”.
Spanish Foreign Minister Miguel Angel Moratinos disagreed. “This is a directive that guarantees rights,
it is a directive that protects illegal immigrants. What it does is put things in order and that means it gives
legal guarantees to all those foreign citizens who have illegally entered European territory”, he said.
Adapted from http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/breaking/2008/0618/breaking105.htm
1. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) From now on it is forbidden to enter in Europe.
( ) England is one of the countries which will put in practice the new migration law within six months.
( ) Illegal immigrants can be in jail for up to five years.
( ) The new limit of detention for illegal immigrants is larger than the current one.
Answer: E, E, E, C
2. In accordance with the text, the current EU immigration law:
a) varies from one country to another.
b) is the same in all Europe.
c) is the same in Spain and Hungary.
d) will soon be replaced by the new one in Ireland.
e) is stricter than the new one.
Answer: A
3. According to Amnesty International:
a) with the new law, illegal immigrants will surely return safe and sound to their countries.
b) the new law is a good example of respect for human rights.
c) the new migration law gives no guarantee of safe and sound return to illegal immigrants.
d) the European Parliament should not have approved the new law because it is not so tough as it
should be.
e) the European Parliament gave a good example of how to deal with irregular immigrants.
Answer: C
4. In accordance with the text, the new law:
a) is already working.
b) gives no rights to the irregular immigrant.
c) should not be implemented in all EU countries.
d) will be in force by 2010.
e) is not applied to children.
Answer: D
5. Jacques Barrot:
a) is the former European Justice and Home Affairs Commissioner.
b) stated the new law follows human rights conventions.
c) was previously against the new migration law.
d) said common standards shall not be applied in EU.
e) said human rights are more important than any other law.
Answer: B
6. Miguel Angel Moratinos:
a) is against the new migration law.
b) agrees with the Green/Europe Free Alliance group.
c) said the new EU law gives rights to all irregular immigrants.
d) belongs to the Socialist group in European Parliament.
e) declared the new law is a victory for the “Europe of mistrust”.
Answer: C
7. The word currently (6th paragraph) can be substituted by:
a) actually.
b) really.
c) therefore.
d) nowadays.
e) whereas.
Answer: D
8. Mark the option that contains a pair of false cognate words:
a) large – data
b) legal – detention
c) judge – campaigned
d) majority – guarantee
e) current – introduce
Answer: A
9. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) Ban (paragraph 1) is a noun.
( ) Backed (paragraph 2) means the same as supported.
( ) Cap (paragraph 7) is synonymous with limit.
( ) Which (paragraph 9) can be replaced by that.
Answer: C, C, C, E
10. In which sentence is there a verb in the Present Perfect Tense?
a) European Union lawmakers ruled today that illegal immigrants can be detained for up to 18 months.
b) Ireland and Britain, not part of the EU’s borderless Schengen area, will not implement this new law.
c) Germany already has an 18-month detention cap, while eight EU countries which have higher caps or
none at all would need to introduce the new EU limit.
d) The Socialist group in the European Parliament said it marked a victory for the “Europe of mistrust”.
e) What it does is put things in order and that means it gives legal guarantees to all those foreign
citizens who have illegally entered European territory.
Answer: E
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 6.
TEXT 18: End of the road looms for “formula one” autobahns
They are the roads that could have been built specially for Jeremy Clarkson. Germany’s autobahns are
world famous for allowing perfectly legal, foot-to-the-floor motoring. But now one of Germany’s most
senior government officials has called for compulsory speed limits to be imposed on all the nation’s
motorways to cut greenhouse gas emissions. His plan would restrict German drivers to a relatively sedate
75 mph in a nation where locals quip that the right to drive at maximum speed is as important to their
identity as pesto is to the Italians or baguettes to the French.
Andreas Troge, president of the German Federal Environment Agency, has said that despite1 the work
done by car manufacturers to cut down2 on exhaust emissions, there needed to be a reduction in speed to
cut them further. In an interview with the German newspaper Berliner Zeitung, he said: “I want a
maximum speed limit, especially if the average fuel consumption of cars does not continue to decline”.
With a maximum speed limit of 120 kilometres per hour [75 mph], the carbon dioxide emissions could
be reduced by anything from 10% to 30%. “And in addition, the risk of road accidents will reduce
considerably – we should not forget that.”
The idea has been heavily criticised by German motoring groups, who claim there is no evidence that
their nation’s lack of a speed limit causes higher casualties.
Helmut Panke, a former director of BMW, now on the board of the European Association of Car
Manufacturers and the German Car Makers’ Association, said: “I am against a limit. We already have
many sections which3 have limits based on real circumstances, such as zones where4 speed is limited to
keep the noise down”. Panke, who admits to driving at 160 mph on “quiet Sunday mornings”, added:
“Such a relatively low speed limit would not make driving any safer. In fact, it would reduce safety”.
Motoring associations have also claimed that such a limit would have a relatively minor effect on
greenhouse gases, because autobahn traffic accounts for about 2% of the vehicles on German roads.
In addition, road deaths have reached an all-time low. Some argue that the lack of limits encourages
manufacturers to build safer cars. Peter Meyer, president of the German Association of Drivers, said:
“This suggestion is a pathetic5 idea hauled out of the ideological wardrobe”.
Around one-fifth of Germany’s 7,600 miles of autobahn do have speed limits, mainly to limit noise in
built-up areas. The roads also operate “dynamic speed limits” which impose levels according to
circumstances, such as weather.
There is also a “recommended limit” of 130 km/h (81 mph) but this is routinely ignored. The right to
drive at race-track speeds is a jealously guarded symbol of freedom from state meddling following the
traumatic experience of dictatorship under the Nazis and the East German Communists. The country’s
press often remarks that in Germany anyone6 can drive like Formula One driver Michael Schumacher.
Germany’s constitutional court last week struck down a nationwide ban on smoking in public places,
and tough laws limit the spread of CCTV to areas where the authorities can demonstrate actual levels of
crime, and each camera’s siting is annually reviewed. Unless a need for it can be demonstrated, it is taken
down. Germany compares relatively well with other countries with regard to the death rate on
motorways, with 3.8 fatalities per billion km travelled. While this is higher than the UK’s two deaths, it is
lower than the USA, France, Austria, Japan and Ireland.
The EU’s largest member regards cars as important to its national identity. In the aftermath of the Second
World War, many in the nation felt they had little historical heritage of which to be proud, prompting them
to quip their identity was encapsulated in three things: football, the Deutschmark and cars.
Journey began long before Nazis
Despite their association with Hitler in popular history, the autobahns were not a Nazi idea. They were
actually7 begun by the democratic but short-lived Weimar Republic, which ruled the nation from 1919
until8 1933. The first German autobahn was completed in 1932 between Cologne and Bonn. Upon taking
power, the Nazis simply continued with the building programme and allocated 100,000 workers to it. The
road building soaked up labour and reduced unemployment, and was used in propaganda. The
programme’s other aims included the building of national unity by making it easier for people to travel to
other parts of Germany.
Adapted from http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/index.cfm?id=1931922006
1. The speed limit on German autobahns is being discussed because:
a) the number of accidents has increased in the last few years.
b) driving at maximum speed is commoner in Italy and France.
c) autobahns were not built to fast drivers.
d) gas emissions are contributing to the number of casualties.
e) German authorities are worried about environmental issues.
Answer: E
2. According to Andreas Troge:
a) the number of accidents is not so high, despite the lack of a speed limit on autobahns.
b) it is necessary to establish speed limits on autobahns to reduce gas emissions.
c) there is no evidences that car manufacturers need to reduce the gas emission of their factories.
d) CO2 emissions will increase up to 30% if the speed limit is not established.
e) the idea of reducing emissions must be criticised by German motoring groups.
Answer: B
3. Helmut Panke:
a) is the director of BMW, the European Association of Car Manufacturers and the German Car
Makers’ Association.
b) said that the reduction of the speed limit is essential to lessen accidents and fatal deaths.
c) does not agree a speed limit is established on German autobahns.
d) agrees that the number of sections in which speed is limited must be increased.
e) said that the higher the speed limit, the safer cars will be.
Answer: C
4. In accordance with the text, which item is not incorrect?
a) The recommended speed limit on an autobahn is between 81 and 130 mph.
b) German drivers always comply with the speed limits in their country.
c) In Germany, everybody imitates Michael Schumacher’s way of driving.
d) Some 1520 miles of German autobahns have speed limits.
e) Autobahns were constructed just after the Nazis and the East German Communists’ fall.
Answer: D
5. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The death rate on motorways is higher in Germany than in the United States.
( ) Cars are important to the national identity of the United States.
( ) In Germany, there are almost four deaths for each one billion km travelled.
( ) Germany’s and United Kingdom’s death rates on motorways are lower than in the United States.
Answer: E, E, C, C
6. These words: despite (ref. 1), to cut down (ref. 2), which (ref. 3), where (ref. 4), pathetic
(ref. 5), anyone (ref. 6), actually (ref. 7) and until (ref. 8) can be replaced, respectively, by:
a) in spite of, to reduce, that, in which, unsuccessful, anybody, in fact and to
b) in spite of, to decrease, that, in which, unsuccessful, somebody, indeed and at
c) otherwise, to boost, what, in whom, sad, anybody, indeed and at
d) otherwise, to decrease, whose, in which, sad, somebody, in fact and for
e) hence, to boost, whose, in whose, unsuccessful, everybody, in fact and to
Answer: A
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 6.
TEXT 19:

Several biographies about Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin have been written, but this is the first
time the lives of these two great men have been examined side by side. Both men were rebels as they
turned the world of accepted norms on its head, yet they hailed from vastly different upbringings1. Darwin
was born into a life of privilege, highly educated and wanting for nothing, while2 Lincoln led a life of
relative poverty and little schooling, yet despite these differences, both rose to prominence and had a
significant impact on the world.
The parallels between the two men are striking3 and seem to go beyond mere consequence. Yet until
now, few writers or historians have pointed them out. Both men lost their mother early in life, neither got
along with their fathers, they struggled with depression and religious doubt while searching for direction.
The historian David R. Contosta argues that Darwin, with his groundbreaking4 work on evolution, was
simply born at the right time, as someone was certain to shortly draw the same conclusions. Lincoln
emerges as a more complex figure, deeply disturbed by the times, riddled with doubt, yet found pleasure
in Shakespeare.
This is an illuminating look at two rebel giants who persevered in the face of hardships and personal
demons. Contosta has presented a wealth of information in an approachable manner that will allow
__________ with an interest in history to better understand the times and forces that shaped these
remarkable5 men.
(Endereço eletrônico omitido propositadamente)
1. The text above is:
a) a review.
b) a tall story.
c) a tale.
d) a scientific article.
e) an essay.
Answer: A
2. The terms upbringings (ref. 1), striking (ref. 3), groundbreaking (ref. 4) and
remarkable (ref. 5) can be translated into Portuguese, respectively, as:
a) invenções – maravilhosos – pioneiro – fantásticos
b) educações – arrebatadores – de vanguarda – remediadores
c) instruções – estupendos – avançado – interessantes
d) estudos – assustadores – adiantado – apaziguadores
e) criações – impressionantes – inovador – notáveis
Answer: E
3. Judge the following assertions:
I. Both Lincoln and Darwin had a life of want but high tuition.
II. Many a writer has highlighted the coincidences that exist between Lincoln’s and Darwin’s lives.
III. Lincoln can be considered a more intricate character than Darwin.
Now, mark the correct answer:
a) Only item I is correct.
b) Only item II is correct.
c) Only item III is correct.
d) Only items I and II are correct.
e) Only items II and III are correct.
Answer: C
4. The word yet in “yet found pleasure in Shakespeare” cannot be replaced by:
a) however.
b) nevertheless.
c) nonetheless.
d) still.
e) thus.
Answer: E
5. In the 1st paragraph, the word while (ref. 2) introduces an idea of:
a) addition.
b) contrast.
c) time.
d) condition.
e) conclusion.
Answer: B
6. Which is the correct option to fill in the blank in the last paragraph?
a) anyone
b) someone
c) somebody
d) nobody
e) none
Answer: A
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 6.
TEXT 20: Meeting Cuba’s youngest politician

Fidel’s brother Raul Castro, 77, is now president and he chose 78-year-old Machado Ventura as his
number two.
But there is a new generation of communists waiting in the wings.
The majority of deputies elected to the National Assembly, or Parliament, earlier this year were born
after the revolution.
[Adjective], Liaena Hernandez, is just 18 years old. A petite young woman with long black hair and an
engaging smile, she has been a political activist since her early teens. We first met during a coffee break
at the last national assembly meeting.
“Having young Cubans in Parliament shows that the revolution continues. It isn’t just something from our
history,” she told me. Ms Hernandez comes from Guantanamo province at the eastern end of the island.
Her father is in the army and she has just completed her voluntary military service as a border guard in
an all-female unit along the controversial US naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
She was born just as Cuba’s main benefactor, the Soviet Union, collapsed.
What followed was called the special period, a time of hunger and hardship. The United States also
tightened the trade embargo believing it would hasten the collapse of communism.
This is the Cuba that Ms Hernandez grew up in.
Kissing babies
“I was born with the revolution. I’ve never known capitalism,” she said. “My earliest memories are of
socialism, the special period and the US blockade.”
“As a family we couldn’t have all the things we would have liked. For years I had to wear the same pair
of shoes to school, we just had to keep mending them.
“But at least I had free health care and education. And as a nation, everyone was willing to work
together to get by and move forward.”
Ms Hernandez invited the BBC to visit her on a constituency visit. She represents Manuel Tames, a
small rural community nestled in the foothills of the Guantanamo’s Sierra Cristal mountains. There is little
traffic on its dusty streets apart from horses and the occasional tractor.
At the heart of the town is an ageing sugar mill with its giant smokestack chimney. There is also a
recently renovated health centre with nurses and beds to spare. But solving constituency needs is not the
primary role of Cuban deputies.
“Our most important mission is to explain to the people the politics of the state so that they understand
what is going on,” she explained as we arrived.
[Pronoun] two dozen constituents had gathered to greet us outside of the municipal offices.
Like all good politicians, Ms Hernandez moved comfortably amongst them, kissing babies, joking and
chatting with young and old.
Better roads and housing are amongst their concerns, but food appears the number one priority.
Raul Castro has started to hand over unproductive state owned land to private farmers and co-
operatives in a bid to boost production and cut food imports. Farmers in Tames are waiting expectantly
for the scheme to take off.
“Today is a different period from that of the revolution. There were some things which were needed
then which are not so good now, because the context has changes,” she said.
“We need to keep perfecting our economic system, that’s where the country is going.”
“Perfeccionamento”
The government’s priority is to try and make the state-run system work more efficiently, [adverb]
opening up to a free market, like the Chinese have done.
You hear the word “perfeccionamento” – perfecting the system – used a lot by officials.
There are also no signs of any political reforms. Opposition parties are not allowed.
The national assembly only meets twice a year, a few days of committee sessions followed by a single
day’s sitting. Critics call it a rubber stamp parliament. The next session is scheduled for 27 December.
Candidates are also selected in advance. In the elections in January there were 614 people standing for
the same number of seats. You do not have to be a member of the Communist Party to stand, but it does
help.
Ms Hernandez, though, believes that the system has served Cuba well. “History has taught us that the
Communist Party is the road that Cuba needs to follow.
“We don’t need to copy other countries’ systems. We are satisfied with our own and we are going to
keep perfecting it.”
Adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7784234.stm
1. The correct form of [adjective] in the text is:
a) The younger
b) Youngest
c) The most young
d) The youngest
e) The more young
Answer: D
2. The correct form of [pronoun] in the text is:
a) Any
b) None
c) Some
d) No
e) Something
Answer: C
3. The correct form of [adverb] in the text is:
a) rather than
b) otherwise
c) therefore
d) however
e) although
Answer: A
4. In the text, the word party means:
a) a social event where a group of people meet to talk, eat, drink, dance, etc., often in order to celebrate
a special occasion.
b) an organization of people with particular political beliefs which competes in elections to try to win
positions in local or national government.
c) a group of people who are involved in an activity together, especially a visit.
d) one of the people or groups of people involved in an official argument, arrangement or similar
situation.
e) an occasion when people come together intentionally or unintentionally.
Answer: B
5. Choose the best question to the following description of Liaena Hernandez taken
from the 4th paragraph:
A petite young woman with long black hair and an engaging smile.
a) How is she?
b) What is she?
c) What is she like?
d) How does she look like?
e) What does she look like?
Answer: C
6. According to the text:
a) there is a new generation of Cuban communists preparing a new revolution.
b) Liaena Hernandez was born actually in the Soviet Union.
c) when Liaena was younger, she had no conditions to have her shoes mended.
d) she was elected because she kissed babies, joked and chatted with young and old people.
e) she intends to help the Cuban government to make the state-run system work more efficiently.
Answer: E
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 6.
TEXT 21: Was FARC hostage rescue a FARCE?
Paris (Thomson Financial) – Leaders of the Colombian FARC rebel movement were paid millions of
dollars to free Colombian politician Ingrid Betancourt and 14 other hostages, Swiss radio said on Friday,
quoting “a reliable source”.
The 15 hostages released on Wednesday by the Colombian army “were in reality ransomed for a high
price, and the whole operation __________ was a set-up,” the radio’s French-language channel said.
Saying the United States, which had three of its citizens among those freed, was behind the deal, it put
the price of the ransom at some $20 million.
The radio said its source was “close to the events, reliable and tested many times in recent years”.
The report added said the wife of one of the hostages’ guards was the go-between, having been arrested
by the Colombian army. She was released to return to the guerrillas, where she persuaded her husband to
change sides.
Switzerland, along with France and Spain, has been mediating with the FARC on behalf of Colombian
President Alvaro Uribe.
Adapted from http://www.democraticunderground.com/
1. The construction quoting “a reliable source” (1st paragraph) is equivalent in meaning
to:
a) paraphrasing “a fail-safe tattletale”.
b) citing “a foolproof rat”.
c) spelling “a dependable stoolie”.
d) telling “a fake informer”.
e) referring to “a trustworthy informant”.
Answer: E
2. The verb to ransom (2nd paragraph) means:
a) to persuade someone or make them certain.
b) to make someone do or believe something by giving them a good reason to do it or by talking to them
and making them believe it.
c) to give money to someone for something you want to buy or for services provided.
d) to pay money in order to set someone free.
e) to pay or receive a fixed amount of money for the use of a room, house, car, television, etc.
Answer: D
3. Which of the following words fill in the gap in the 2nd paragraph meaningfully?
a) afterwards
b) all the same
c) owing to
d) altogether
e) after all
Answer: A
4. Read the following statements:
I. The expression set-up (paragraph 2) means armação.
II. The word freed (paragraph 3) means the same as released.
III. The expression go-between (paragraph 5) means indeciso.
Now, mark the correct item:
a) Only item I is correct.
b) Only item II is correct.
c) Only item III is correct.
d) Only items I and II are correct.
e) Only items II and III are correct.
Answer: D
5. The expression on behalf of (6th paragraph) is equivalent in meaning with:
a) for the own sake
b) instead of
c) in spite of
d) would rather
e) provided that
Answer: B
6. The word among (3rd paragraph) can be replaced by:
a) between.
b) above.
c) amid.
d) about.
e) within.
Answer: C
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 8.
TEXT 22: Prospect of more U.S. troops worries Afghan public
Charikar, Afghanistan – As Americans, including President Obama’s top advisers, tensely debate
whether to send more American troops to Afghanistan, Afghans themselves are having a similar
discussion and voicing serious doubts.
In bazaars and university corridors across the country, eight years of war have left people exhausted and
impatient. __________________________________ Nearly everyone agrees that the Afghan government
must negotiate with the insurgents. If more American forces do arrive, many here say, they should come to
train Afghans to take over the fight, so the foreigners can leave.
“What have the Americans done in eight years?” asked Abdullah Wasay, 60, a pharmacist in Charikar, a
market town about 25 miles north of Kabul, expressing a view typical of many here. “Americans are
saying that with their planes they can see an egg 18 kilometers away, so why can’t they see the Taliban?”
Such sentiments were repeated in conversation after conversation with more than 30 Afghans in Kabul
and nearby rural areas and with local officials in outlying provinces. The comments point to the
difficulties that American and Afghan officials face if they choose to add more foreign troops.
If the foreign forces are not seen so by Afghans already, they are on the cusp of being regarded as
occupiers, with little to show people for their extended presence, fueling wild conspiracies about why
they remain here.
The feeling is particularly acute in the Pashtun south, but it is spreading to other parts of the country.
More American troops could tip the balance of opinion, particularly if they increase civilian casualties
and prompt even more Taliban attacks.
The grass-roots view among Afghans is at odds with those of top Afghan officials, as well as many
American military commanders, who strongly endorse a full-blown counterinsurgency strategy, including
a large troop increase.
The aim of sending more troops would be to help secure Afghanistan’s biggest cities and towns to make
the population feel safe and in doing so to show that the foreign presence can bring benefits.
At the same time, the Americans support the idea of negotiating with moderate members of the Taliban,
but would prefer to do so once the insurgency has been weakened. And, that, in turn, may also require
more troops.
Interior Minister Hanif Atmar said he was in “full agreement” with Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal, the
American commander of forces in Afghanistan, that a full-blown counterinsurgency strategy was
necessary, including more forces.
“One piece of that strategy is a troop increase as a stopgap measure that will create an environment in
which Afghan security forces can continue to grow and people will be protected against insurgents,” he
said.
The mood on the street is darker and more wary. Mr. Wasay and several friends visiting his pharmacy
were discussing the Taliban’s killing of a police chief in a rural part of the province. The rumor was that
Taliban fighters had severed his head and delivered it to his son, according to one of Mr. Wasay’s friends.
True or not, the anecdote was part of a growing mythology of Taliban power and a general perception
that neither the Afghan government nor American troops were protecting Afghans. (…)
With less certainty about America’s continued commitment, there is a growing sense that the only sure
way to peace is through negotiations with the Taliban. “They are the sons of this country, it is right to
negotiate with the Taliban,” said Mohammed Younnis, a shopkeeper in Charikar who sells tea, sugar and
grains.
“This government is Afghan, and the Taliban are Afghan; they should build the country together,” he
said.
By Alissa J. Rubin
Adapted from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/07/world/asia/07doubts.html?_r=1&hp
1. In the first paragraph, voicing means the same as:
a) uttering.
b) grieving.
c) issuing.
d) bringing out.
e) craving.
Answer: A
2. Which of the following sentences must be used to complete the second paragraph
meaningfully?
a) They are almost sure that the Taliban can be defeated.
b) Now, they are not so sure whether the Taliban can be defeated or not.
c) They have no doubt that the Taliban can be defeated within a couple of years.
d) They are increasingly skeptical that the Taliban can be defeated.
e) They don’t believe that the Taliban can be defeated without the people cooperation.
Answer: D
3. In “The feeling is particularly acute in the Pashtun south” (6th paragraph), the
underlined word can be replaced by:
a) fierce.
b) keen.
c) overwhelming.
d) piercing.
e) stabbing.
Answer: A
4. “To make something happen” is the definition of:
a) take over (2nd paragraph)
b) prompt (6th paragraph)
c) endorse (7th paragraph)
d) require (9th paragraph)
e) build (15th paragraph)
Answer: B
5. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) Such sentiments (4rd paragraph) refers to exhausted and impatient (2nd paragraph).
( ) it (6th paragraph) refers to the feeling (6th paragraph).
( ) so (9th paragraph) refers to negotiating with moderate members of the Taliban (9th paragraph).
( ) he (11th paragraph) refers to Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal (10th paragraph).
Answer: C, C, C, E
6. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Americans airplanes can hit small targets 18 kilometers away.
( ) Afghans themselves are tired of waiting the new American troops.
( ) ordinary people and Afghan officials share the same opinion about the American troops.
( ) Increasingly, Afghans recognize that the government should try to make a deal with the Taliban.
Answer: E, E, E, C
7. Which question can be answered by the text?
a) How many American soldiers had already been sent to Afghanistan?
b) How can the Afghans’ opinion about the American troops be changed?
c) When will the new American troops arrive in Afghanistan?
d) How much had the American government spent in the war against the Taliban?
e) Why doesn’t the American government negotiate with the Taliban?
Answer: B
8. Read the following statements:
I. full-blown (7th paragraph) means the same as all-out.
II. stopgap (11th paragraph) means the same as makeshift.
III. anecdote (13th paragraph) can be replaced by joke.
Now mark the correct option:
a) Only item I is correct.
b) Only item II is correct.
c) Only item III is correct.
d) Only items I and II are correct.
e) Only items II and III are correct.
Answer: D
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 6.
TEXT 23: The culture club
No one can accuse the French of letting a little global recession stand in the way of their cultural pride.
The proposed new museum of European and Mediterranean Civilizations, a vast minimalist cube on the
Marseille waterfront, will cost a hefty €175 million. But whatever the economy’s plight, the authorities
aren’t about to halt the project. Earlier this year new culture minister Frédéric Mitterrand was quick to
pledge his support, and the government stumped up an extra €6 million to ensure that Marseille’s latest
ornament will be finished in time for the city’s stint as European Capital of Culture in 2013.
Such generosity represents more than just a nod to national prestige. In Europe, countries looking for
ways to reboot their economies have been finding cash to splurge on their cultural infrastructures or
forging ahead with prominent projects that could spell future prosperity. Unlike in America, where
museums faced with plummeting endowments are being forced to cut back on renovations and acquisitions
– as well as staff, hours, and shows –, many of Europe’s cultural institutions are getting a recession
makeover.
This fall the British government promised €60 million to rescue culture projects, including a new
exhibition center for the British Museum designed by Lord Richard Rogers; an extension to the Tate
Modern gallery; and a €166 million Film Centre in London. Arts minister Ben Bradshaw said dropping
culture projects would be “political madness,” defying the stimulus logic of investing in vital
infrastructure in hard times. Germany’s €82 billion stimulus package provides money to kick-start cultural
infrastructure projects, including the restoration of Wagner’s villa at Bayreuth.
France’s economic stimulus package includes €100 million intended for the culture ministry to spread
its largesse. The theory is that what’s good for the arts is good for the economy: Paris’s best-known
modern building, the Pompidou Centre, begun in 1972, survived an oil shock and a deep recession to
open in 1977. It now receives 6 million visitors a year. “The time has come to maintain our heritage,”
said President Sarkozy, announcing the extra cash earlier this year. “It is a question of identity, of
meaning, of respect for our culture.”
In some cases that calls for fixing or restoring historical treasures. The French package covers face lifts
for a range of well-loved monuments, among them the Louvre and the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris,
and the palace of Versailles.
Other beneficiaries include a new museum of Lalique glassware in Strasbourg and the Palais de Tokyo,
the capital’s museum of contemporary art, which will get new exhibition space. In Germany, the largest
single recipient of the cultural stimulus money will be the country’s most popular museum, the Deutsches
Museum of science and technology in Munich, which is slated to receive €29 million for, among other
things, a new façade and entrance hall.
__________, these projects may only partially reverse the effects of the recession. The completion later
this year of British-Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid’s National Museum of 21st Century Arts in Rome
(MAXXI), a giant shell of steel and glass above a former barracks that was conceived in the late 1990s,
may mark the close of an era when European cities fought to outdo each other with megaprojects, from
Berlin’s rebuilt Reichstag to London’s Millennium Dome.
In Spain, work on the vast “City of Justice” in Madrid, including a dramatic circular civil court building
by Hadid, is now on hold.
So, too, is Norman Foster’s €230 million remodeling of Camp Nou, Europe’s largest football stadium,
in Barcelona, the city that pioneered the use of renowned architects for civic renewal.
Now the big projects are mainly in the developing world, led by high-profile commissions in China and,
above all, by Abu Dhabi’s $27 billion campaign to create a cultural Mecca. The U.S. and Europe won’t
be left out – Abu Dhabi’s plan features offshoots of the Louvre and the Guggenheim – but they won’t be in
the lead, either.
Adapted from http://www.newsweek.com/id/222632
1. In the first paragraph, the words hefty, plight, halt, pledge, stumped up and stint
mean, respectively, in Portuguese:
a) exorbitante – dificuldade – continuar – prometer – garantiu – época
b) absurda – situação – pender – retirar – aplicou – era
c) grande – drama – suspender – afirmar – prometeu – onda
d) enorme – provação – parar – garantir – investiu – temporada
e) alta – crise – interromper – confirmar – assegurou – estação
Answer: D
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The US and Europe are dealing with the current economic crisis alike.
( ) In Europe, the governments keep making investments in culture, even in economic tough times.
( ) European prestige is being raised due to the investments in culture.
( ) A set of changes to make the US theaters more appealing has been made.
Answer: E, C, E, E
3. Which of the following options must be used to fill in the gap in the 7th paragraph of
the text?
a) Suitably
b) Since
c) Rather
d) Although
e) However
Answer: E
4. In the fragment “countries looking for ways to reboot their economies have been
finding cash to splurge on their cultural infrastructures”, the verb to splurge means:
a) to hoard.
b) to bind.
c) to grip.
d) to reckon.
e) to splash out.
Answer: B
5. In the fragment “France’s economic stimulus package includes €100 million intended
for the culture ministry to spread its largesse”, the pronoun its refers to:
a) France’s economic stimulus package.
b) €100 million.
c) culture ministry.
d) largesse.
e) France.
Answer: C
6. Synonyms (=) or opposites (≠)?
a) nod _____ acceptance
b) plummeting _____ increasing
c) makeover _____ building
d) largesse _____ generosity
e) heritage _____ legacy
f) range _____ sort
g) slated _____ overlooked
h) among _____ amid
i) outdo _____ surpass
j) offshoot _____ sibling
Answer: a) =; b) ≠; c) ≠; d) =; e) =; f) =; g) ≠; h) =; i) =; j) =
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 12.
TEXT 24: Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts

Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts moved into its imposing granite temple of culture in 1909. It has just
been given a whopping dose of 21st -century spaciousness, light and cultural politics. “Art of the
Americas”, __________, was designed by the architectural firm run by Sir Norman Foster. It cost $345m
and took 11 years to complete.
The new building is free-standing but designed to seem part of the old one. __________, which rises to
the full height of the addition, connects on three sides to the existing building. Its fourth side opens onto
the new wing. The courtyard café provides refreshments and a place to rest. That is handy. The 53
galleries of the “Art of the Americas” wing display more than 5,000 objects, twice the number previously
on view.
They date from 900BC to the 1980s and are arranged in ascending order – from the Americas of ancient
times up through the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries to the top floor.
In addition to paintings and sculpture, there are photographs and fabrics, jewels and toys, wedding
gowns, teapots and pottery, a great deal of fine furniture, a collection of handsome model sailing ships
and the timber frame of a late 17th-century Massachusetts house. This does not exhaust the variety of
media on view.
The visitor enters the original building, passes through the courtyard into the new wing. Directly
opposite is a spotlit silver bowl in a tall, transparent case through which is visible a 1768 portrait of Paul
Revere by Boston’s John Singleton Copley, said to be the first American to paint in oils. The
revolutionary war hero and outstanding silversmith made the Sons of Liberty silver bowl in the case.
Many more Copleys are on view, often portraits of early American statesmen, as well as Gilbert Stuart’s
studies of George Washington. The galleries bring alive the early history of the United States. Yet walking
through them disquiet grows. Surely there is earlier material.
To see the art of ancient Central and South America it is necessary to descend to the basement. This is
psychologically and politically unfortunate. It is also inappropriate. The MFA has an almost unrivalled
collection of Mayan painted pottery from the Classical period (250-900AD).
Among them are 31 boldly painted chocolate drinking vessels, one of which says “chocolate” in
hieroglyphs. There is also fabulous, sculptural gold jewellery from Colombia and Panama and vivid red
woven and embroidered Peruvian fabric from the start of the first millennium. Beyond this is a display of
complex Native American bead and basket work and a glorious feather cloak worked to mimic fur.
Galleries that run along this central display present model ships and 17th-century Massachusetts period
rooms. These leaps in time, mood and cultures seem bizarre. The grandeur of the pre-Columbian art
fortunately transcends its surroundings.
The upper floors bring together John Singer Sargent’s paintings. He is much loved in Boston. Sargent
painted the ceiling of the rotunda in the old MFA as well as murals for the Boston Public Library. Also on
this level are seascapes by Winslow Homer, pictures by Thomas Eakins and James McNeill Whistler and
stained glass by Louis Comfort Tiffany. The top floor is home to such moderns as Georgia O’Keeffe,
Alexander Calder and Franz Kline. A surprise is a porcelain bowl painted by Jackson Pollock in 1939,
when he was hospitalised for depression and hoping that ceramics would prove therapeutic.
There is much to enjoy in the new wing and much cause for civic pride. __________, the project seems
misconceived. Apart from ancient material there is very little from Latin America. The early treasures
would be better seen in the old building near the superb collection of early Chinese sculpture of much the
same period. Next year a new contemporary gallery will open. Modern art could go there. Why not have
“Art of America” concentrating on the MFA’s strengths in material from the early United States and the
north-eastern colonies that preceded it? This would make room for focused displays. Perhaps even one
about the Boston Tea Party.
Adapted from http://www.economist.com/node/17519880?story_id=17519880&fsrc=scn/tw/te/rss/pe
1. Which of the following words cannot receive the suffix -ness as spaciousness (1st
paragraph)?
a) Wild.
b) Good.
c) Alone.
d) Selfish.
e) Nervous.
Answer: A
2. Fill in the gap in the 1st paragraph correctly:
a) a new four-storey addition
b) a new four storeys addition
c) a new four storey’s addition
d) a four storey new addition
e) a four storey new’s addition
Answer: A
3. Fill in the gap in the 2nd paragraph correctly:
a) A glass-walling courtyard
b) A glass-wall courtyard
c) A glass-walled courtyard
d) A courtyard walling-glass
e) A courtyard walling-glassed
Answer: C
4. The expression in addition to (4th paragraph) can be replaced by:
a) Notwithstanding.
b) Regardless of.
c) Besides.
d) However.
e) Nevertheless.
Answer: C
5. The word outstanding (5th paragraph) cannot be defined as:
a) impressive.
b) remarkable.
c) stunning.
d) feeble.
e) striking.
Answer: D
6. The sentence “Yet walking through them disquiet grows”, taken from the 5th
paragraph, contains an idea of:
a) addition.
b) contrast.
c) condition.
d) reason.
e) complementarity.
Answer: B
7. The sentence “Among them are 31 boldly painted chocolate drinking vessels” (7th
paragraph) indicates that the containers were painted in a __________ way.
a) mild
b) gentle
c) dauntless
d) menacing
e) noticeable
Answer: E
8. The gap in the last paragraph of the text must be filled with:
a) Furthermore.
b) Rather.
c) Instead.
d) Nonetheless.
e) Whether.
Answer: D
9. In the last paragraph of the text, the expression apart from means:
a) barring.
b) along with.
c) likewise.
d) over and above.
e) despite.
Answer: A
10. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts was utterly refurbished in 1909.
( ) The museum’s bistro is considered an awkward facility to the visitors.
( ) Jackson Pollock was given a handicraft anti-depression program.
( ) The MFA was considered flawless by the author of the review.
Answer: E, E, E, E
11. What kind of object is not mentioned in the text as part of the Boston’s Museum of
Fine Arts’ collections?
a) Clay arts.
b) Cloths.
c) Craft.
d) Stuffed animals.
e) Coloured-glass windows.
Answer: D
12. Match the columns below.
a) whopping ( ) section
b) run ( ) definitely
c) wing ( ) entwine
d) arranged ( ) badly planned
e) as well as ( ) massive
f) surely ( ) decorated
g) unrivalled ( ) outskirts
h) among ( ) magnificent
i) woven ( ) managed
j) embroidered ( ) along with
k) grandeur ( ) gather
l) surroundings ( ) amid
m) bring together ( ) organized
n) misconceived ( ) greatness
o) superb ( ) peerless
Answer: c, f, i, n, a, j, l, o, b, e, m, h, d, k, g
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 5.
TEXT 25: Two Americans win Nobel economics prize

Stockholm – Elinor Ostrom became the first woman to win a Nobel Prize in economics, honored along
with fellow American Oliver Williamson on Monday for analyzing economic governance – the rules by
which people exercise authority in companies and economic systems.
Ostrom was also the fifth woman to win a Nobel award this year – a record for the prestigious honors.
It was also an exceptionally strong year for the United States, with 11 American citizens – some of them
with dual nationality – among the 13 Nobel winners, including President Barack Obama, who won the
Nobel Peace Prize on Friday.
Ostrom, 76, and Williamson, 77, shared the 10 million kronor ($1.4 million) economics prize for work
that “advanced economic governance research from the fringe to the forefront of scientific attention,” the
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said.
Ostrom, a political scientist at Indiana University, showed how common resources – forests, fisheries,
oil fields or grazing lands – can be managed successfully by the people who use them, rather than by
governments or private companies.
“What we have ignored is what citizens can do and the importance of real involvement of the people
involved – versus just having somebody in Washington... make a rule,” Ostrom said during a brief session
with reporters in Bloomington.
Ostrom said it’s an honor to be the first woman to win a Nobel Prize in economics – and promised that
she won’t be the last. She said people discouraged her from seeking a Ph.D. when she applied for
graduate school but she loved studying economics.
Williamson, an economist at the University of California, Berkeley, focused on how firms and markets
differ in the ways that they resolve conflicts. He found that companies are typically better able to resolve
conflicts than markets when competition is limited, the citation said.
The academy did not specifically cite the global financial crisis, but many of the problems at the heart of
the current upheaval – bonuses, executive compensation, risky and poorly understood securities – involve
a perceived lack of regulatory oversight by government officials or by corporate boards. The Nobel
awards on Monday were clearly a nod to the role of rules, institutions and regulations in making markets
work. (…)
The Nobel prizes, with the exception of the economics prize, were established by Alfred Nobel, the
Swedish inventor of dynamite, in his will in 1895. The Economic Sciences prize, the last Nobel award to
be announced this year, was created in 1968 by the Swedish central bank in memory of Nobel.
In addition to the prize money, Nobel winners will receive a gold medal and diploma from the Swedish
king on Dec. 10, the anniversary of Nobel’s death in 1896. The choice of Obama, _______________, was
the biggest surprise of this year’s awards. (…)
Adapted from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/33275953/ns/business-stocks_and_economy/
1. Judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following statements:
( ) Fringe in “advanced economic governance research from the fringe to the forefront of scientific
attention” (4th paragraph) can be replaced by edge.
( ) Rather than in “Ostrom (…) showed how common resources (…) can be managed successfully by
the people who use them, rather than by governments or private companies” (5th paragraph) can be
replaced by willingly.
( ) Upheaval in “The academy did not specifically cite the global financial crisis, but many of the
problems at the heart of the current upheaval” (9th paragraph) can be replaced by stirring.
( ) Will in “The Nobel prizes, with the exception of the economics prize, were established by Alfred
Nobel, the Swedish inventor of dynamite, in his will in 1895” (10th paragraph) can be replaced by
crave.
Answer: C, E, C, E
2. Which of the options below completes meaningfully the blank in the last paragraph of
the text?
a) albeit
b) meanwhile
c) henceforward
d) suitably
e) remarkably
Answer: B
3. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Elinor Ostrom is the 1st American woman to become a Nobel laureate.
( ) Although Barack Obama had been one of the strongest candidates to run for the Nobel Peace Prize,
he did not expect to win.
( ) According to Oliver Williamson, companies and markets should not differ in the way they act to
solve conflicts.
( ) Ostrom’s and Williamson’s works were issued by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Answer: E, E, E, E
4. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The power of the ordinary people, concerning the administration of the natural resources, is
despised by the public and private sectors.
( ) Elinor Ostrom promised that the Nobel Prize she won will not be the last of her career.
( ) The Nobel Prizes were established after the death of Alfred Nobel.
( ) During the award ceremony, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences avoided discussions about the
global financial crisis.
Answer: E, E, C, E
5. In the fragment “among the 13 Nobel winners, including President Barack Obama,
who won the Nobel Peace Prize on Friday”, the pronoun who:
a) is correct, but can be replaced by that.
b) is correct, but can be replaced by whom.
c) is correct and cannot be replaced by that.
d) is incorrect and must be replaced by that.
e) is incorrect and must be replaced by whom.
Answer: C
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 12.
TEXT 26: Hunting down the hoarders
Lenin thought inflation a subversive force, as damaging to capitalism as any Bolshevik revolutionary.
Certainly, his heirs in the Chinese Communist Party are taking no chances. On November 17th the State
Council, China’s cabinet, promised “forceful measures” to stabilise prices. It said it would drum up
supply and crack down on hoarders and speculators. It1 even threatened to “interfere” with the prices of
daily necessities, which might include grains, cooking oils, sugar and cotton.
Inflation is not yet a threat to the republic. But consumer prices rose by 4.4% in the year to October, the
fastest rise for over two years. Food prices, which account for more than a third of the consumer-price
index2, are largely to blame: vegetables are almost a third more expensive than they were a year ago.
Even the most exotic commodities have been affected. As China’s prices rise, consumer confidence and
the stockmarket are falling. Shanghai shares have fallen by a tenth since the inflation figures came out.
Rising food prices may explain China’s inflation, but what is behind their rise? Floods, including a
deluge in Hainan province last month, hurt some crops. Harvests have also disappointed elsewhere in the
world: the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation said this week that the cost of the world’s food
imports may exceed $1 trillion this year, only $5 billion short of the record bill in 2008.

The macroeconomic weather has also played a role. China’s banks appear determined to breach their
quota of 7.5 trillion yuan ($1.1 trillion) of new loans this year. The People’s Bank of China raised their
reserve requirements this month for the fourth time this year and lifted interest rates in October for the
first time since 2007. But neither step will do much to constrain banks swimming in deposits and lending
to an economy growing, in nominal terms, by 15% a year.
And so the government is reaching for less conventional weapons. To shield the vulnerable, it urged
local governments to raise unemployment benefits, pensions and the minimum wage in line with inflation.
It also promises to increase shipments of cotton from the western region of Xinjiang, and to cut the price
of electricity, gas and rail transport for fertiliser makers. To keep the population sweet, on November 22nd
it will sell 200,000 tonnes of sugar.
If extra supplies do not curb prices, the government may set caps. It may repeat the kinds of measures it
imposed in 2008, when food inflation topped 23% after an outbreak of disease killed many of China’s
pigs. Then, the government required sellers of pork, rice, noodles, cooking oil and other staples to ask
permission before raising their3 prices.
Such controls4 serve as an “extreme signal” of the government’s determination to fight inflation, note
Mark Williams and Qinwei Wang of Capital Economics. That may help quash self-fulfilling expectations
of higher prices. But beyond that, price controls have “little to commend them”. If sellers cannot fetch a
good price, they will limit the supply of what they offer, or adulterate the quality. Whenever the
government stops petrol prices from rising in line with oil prices, queues at the pump merely lengthen.
Inflation undermines capitalism, according to Keynes, in part because it discredits entrepreneurs. They
become “profiteers” in the eyes of those hurt by rising prices. China’s leaders promise to hunt down and
punish hoarders and speculators. According to Andy Rothman of CLSA, a broker, some traders are taking
possession of agricultural commodities in the hopes that prices will rise. But how to stop households
buying two bottles of cooking oil rather than one?
Nov. 18th, 2010 | Hong Kong
Adapted from http://www.economist.com/node/17528136
1. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) For Lenin, inflation was as harmful as capitalism to the world economy.
( ) Lenin’s ideas have been followed by a plethora of members of the Chinese Communist Party.
( ) Providences against inflation are going to be taken by the Chinese government.
( ) Both grains and dairy goods are contributing to the rise of prices in China.
Answer: E, E, C, E
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The Chinese government intends to foment reserve of goods in order to fight against inflation.
( ) The State Council of China claimed it will start dealing with bad or illegal behaviour toward food
and supplies in a more severe way.
( ) Since 2008 the consumer-price index hadn’t reached so sensible levels.
( ) Food prices were responsible for about a 35% rise in the consumer-price index.
Answer: C, C, E, E
3. What piece of information cannot be inferred from the previous text?
a) Floods and deluges were some of the main reasons food prices increased in China.
b) In 2008 the cost of the world’s food imports reached more than $1 trillion.
c) China’s entire economic scenario had played a part in the rise of food prices as well.
d) China’s banks are inclined to change their credit policies.
e) The People’s Bank of China boosted interest rates stalled since 2007.
Answer: A
4. In “time for taming” (chart), the word taming means:
a) yielding.
b) overcoming.
c) discrediting.
d) humbling.
e) restraining.
Answer: E
5. In “But neither step will do much to constrain banks swimming in deposits” (4th
paragraph), the underlined word can be replaced by:
a) either.
b) no.
c) none.
d) nor.
e) nil.
Answer: B
6. In accordance with the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below. The
Chinese government:
( ) is trying to fight against inflation through unusual ways.
( ) intends to increase some benefits paid to the people in accordance with the consumer-price index.
( ) pledged to import cotton from the western countries for the first time.
( ) needs to sell 200,000 tonnes of sugar until November 22nd in order to calm down angry citizens.
Answer: C, E, E, E
7. The sentence “If extra supplies do not curb prices, the government may set caps” (6th
paragraph) means the same as:
a) Whether the government set caps, extra supplies may curb prices.
b) Extra supplies will not curb prices unless the government set caps.
c) Extra supplies will curb prices if the government set caps.
d) Unless extra supplies do not curb prices, the government may set caps.
e) Unless extra supplies curb prices, the government may set caps.
Answer: E
8. Judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following references:
( ) It1 refers to the Chinese Communist Party
( ) the consumer-price index2 refers to 4.4%
( ) their3 refers to other staples
( ) Such controls4 refers to measures
Answer: E, E, E, C
9. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) so (5th paragraph) is equivalent in meaning to therefore.
( ) urged (5th paragraph) means the same as besought.
( ) outbreak (6th paragraph) and epidemic are interchangeable.
( ) profiteer and broker (last paragraph) are synonyms.
Answer: C, E, C, E
10. Read the excerpt below taken from the 2nd paragraph:
As China’s prices rise, consumer confidence and the stockmarket are falling. Shanghai shares
have fallen by a tenth since the inflation figures came out.
Now mark the correct sequence of the verb tenses used in it:
a) Simple Past – Present Progressive – Present Perfect – Simple Present
b) Simple Past – Present Progressive – Present Perfect Progressive – Simple Past
c) Simple Present – Present Progressive – Present Perfect – Simple Past
d) Simple Present – Present Continuous – Past Perfect – Simple Past
e) Simple Present – Present Continuous – Past Perfect – Simple Present
Answer: C
11. The sentence “Rising food prices may explain China’s inflation, but what is behind
their rise?” (3rd paragraph) brings an example of:
a) reported speech.
b) embedded question.
c) passive voice.
d) genitive case.
e) phrasal verb.
Answer: D
12. Translate the following sentence taken from the 7th paragraph into Portuguese:
Whenever the government stops petrol prices from rising in line with oil prices, queues at the
pump merely lengthen.
___________________________________________________________________________________
Answer: Sempre que o governo impede que os preços da gasolina aumentem com os
(preços) do petróleo, as filas de espera nas bombas simplesmente alongam-se.
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 8.
TEXT 27: Iran candidate Mousavi backs women’s rights
Presidential candidate Mir-Hossein Mousavi has vowed to review laws that discriminate against
women in Iran if he wins an upcoming election.
Watched by his wife, Zahra Rahnavard, Mr. Mousavi told an audience of female supporters in Tehran:
“We should reform laws that are unfair to women”.
Patrols of so-called “morality police” regularly enforce standards of Islamic dress on Iran’s streets.
Mr. Mousavi, a reformist former PM, says he would seek to disband the force.
As Ms. Rahnavard spoke, many in the crowd shouted protests against the morality police, who regularly
arrest women they deem inappropriately dressed.
“We should prepare the ground for an Iran where women are treated without discrimination,” the AFP
news agency reported her as saying.
“We should reform laws that treat women unequally. We should empower women financially, women
should be able to choose their professions according to their merits, and Iranian women should be able to
reach the highest level of decision making bodies.”
Mir-Hossein Mousavi said he would put forward a bill to amend laws judged to be at odds with the
spirit of Iran’s constitution, in particular “discriminatory and unjust regulations” against women.
He also voiced his support for those campaigning for women’s rights and pledged new legal measures
to help end violence against women.
Correspondents consider Mr. Mousavi the main reformist challenger to President Mahmoud
Ahmadinejad, who is seeking another term. He is one of four candidates approved to run in the country’s
president election (…).
Mr. Mousavi served as prime minister during the years of the Iran-Iraq war from 1980-1988.
The other candidates are a former head of Iran’s powerful Revolutionary Guards, Mohsen Rezai, and
Mehdi Karroubi who was a speaker of Parliament and is considered a reformist.
Women’s rights are an emotive issue, with both Zahra Rahnavard and the wife of his rival Mehdi
Karroubi taking an active role on the campaign trail.
Adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8075603.stm
1. Match the two columns below:
a) unfair ( ) regard
b) seek ( ) program
c) arrest ( ) ex-
d) deem ( ) biased
e) empower ( ) promise
f) bill ( ) part
g) pledge ( ) detain
h) former ( ) warrant
i) issue ( ) look for
j) role ( ) matter
Answer: d, f, h, a, g, j, c, e, b, i
2. Mark the option which brings the word back with the same meaning as it is being
used in the title of the text:
a) The horse I backed came in last.
b) The management has refused to back our proposals.
c) You’re not just going to let her say those things about you without fighting back, are you?
d) If we push the table back against the wall, we’ll have more room.
e) He lay on his back, staring at the ceiling.
Answer: B
3. Which of the following is the best option to be used after the word many in the
sentence “many in the crowd shouted protests against the morality police” in order to
complete its meaning?
a) women.
b) people.
c) citizens.
d) dwellers.
e) wives.
Answer: A
4. In the 9th paragraph, the word term means the same as:
a) post.
b) job.
c) turn.
d) position.
e) task.
Answer: C
5. Mark the pair of false cognate words:
a) audience – supporters
b) patrols – police
c) arrest – inappropriately
d) discriminatory – unjust
e) parliament – reformist
Answer: A
6. The sentence “with both Zahra Rahnavard and the wife of his rival Mehdi Karroubi
taking an active role on the campaign trail” (12th paragraph) has the same meaning of:
a) with either Zahra Rahnavard or the wife of his rival Mehdi Karroubi taking an active role on the
campaign trail.
b) with neither Zahra Rahnavard nor the wife of his rival Mehdi Karroubi taking an active role on the
campaign trail.
c) with not only Zahra Rahnavard but also the wife of his rival Mehdi Karroubi taking an active role on
the campaign trail.
d) with only Zahra Rahnavard but the wife of his rival Mehdi Karroubi taking an active role on the
campaign trail.
e) with both Zahra Rahnavard but the wife of his rival Mehdi Karroubi taking an active role on the
campaign trail.
Answer: C
7. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Mir-Hossein Mousavi is not for the way women are treated in Iran.
( ) Mir-Hossein Mousavi and his wife are running for the presidency of their country.
( ) Iranian women are not aware of their actual rights.
( ) Iranian women must be allowed to form groups and take decisions.
Answer: C, E, E, E
8. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Mr. Mousavi is a former prime minister who fought against Iraq in the war occurred in the eighties.
( ) Mohsen Rezai and Mehdi Karroubi are not only reformists but also for the Iranian women’s rights.
( ) Mehdi Karroubi’s and Mir-Hossein Mousavi’s wives have a key role on the campaign trail.
( ) Iran’s constitution does not need to be changed in order to improve women’s rights.
Answer: E, E, C, C
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 8.
TEXT 28: Ukip MEP ejected for “Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer” jibe
It was supposed to have been a high-minded debate on the Irish collapse and the euro crisis but instead
the talk in the European Parliament today degenerated into a screaming match about goose-stepping Nazis,
Spitfires and Adolf Hitler.
Martin Schulz, a German social democrat previously taunted by the Italian prime minister, Silvio
Berlusconi, as being “perfect” for the role of Nazi concentration camp guard, was criticising the EU’s
attempts to bail out Ireland when a British MEP interrupted to call him a “Euro nationalist”.
“Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer,” [one people, one nation, one leader] yelled Godfrey Bloom, the UK
Independence party’s MEP for Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire, using the Nazi slogan to insult the leader
of the European socialists in the Strasbourg chamber.
MEPs were appalled. Jerzy Buzek, the Polish president of the European Parliament, demanded that
Bloom apologise and retract his remarks.
But the Ukip MEP said: “The views of Herr Schulz make the case. He is an undemocratic fascist”.
Bloom was expelled from the chamber. Leaders of all the other caucuses, including Michal Kaminski,
the controversial Polish right-winger who leads the Tories’ European group of conservatives and
reformists, demanded that “a severe sanction” be imposed on Bloom.
The Ukip member’s anger was apparently stirred by Schulz’s call for greater EU solidarity in the
financial crisis that is hitting Ireland and Portugal and threatening the euro single currency.
“My father, as a Spitfire pilot, fought for freedom against Nazi domination of Europe,” Bloom said
afterwards. “As an MEP, I will fight against the destruction of democracy across Europe. Schulz is an
unrepentant Euro nationalist and a socialist. He wants one currency, one EU state, one EU people. These
Euro nationalists are a danger to democracy. These people are fanatics.”
The outburst is in line with Ukip publicity stunts in the Parliament – calculated displays of rudeness
aimed at causing upset and attracting attention.
In February, the Ukip leader, Nigel Farage, turned on the new president of the European council,
Herman Van Rompuy, a former Belgian prime minister. “Really, you have the charisma of a damp rag and
the appearance of a low-grade bank clerk,” Farage told him. “Who are you? I’d never heard of you;
nobody in Europe had ever heard of you… I can speak on behalf of the majority of British people in
saying that we don’t know you, we don’t want you, and __________ you are put out to grass
__________.”
Farage admitted today that Bloom had been “rash and inflammatory”, but the MEP was supported by
far-right members from France’s National Front and the Freedom Party of the Dutch anti-Islam
campaigner Geert Wilders.
Some 20 MEPs walked out of the chamber in support of Bloom. Bruno Gollnisch, of Jean Marie Le
Pen’s National Front, said Bloom’s expulsion was illegal. Farage said: “This was the week that the
European commission has taken control of the economy of a second country, this time Ireland. The EU is
clearly intent on expanding its powers”.
As for Schulz, today was not the first time he had had to deal with Nazi-related slurs. Appearing before
the Parliament after taking over the rotating EU presidency in 2003, Silvio Berlusconi, the Italian prime
minister, clashed with the German social democrat. In comments that almost caused a diplomatic incident
between Berlin and Rome, Berlusconi said: “Mr Schulz, I know a movie producer in Italy who is making
a film about Nazi concentration camps. I will suggest you to play the role of a Kapo [an inmate made to be
a camp guard]. You are perfect”.
Ian Traynor – Brussels | Wednesday 24, November 2010
Adapted from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/nov/24/ukip-mep-ejected-godfrey-bloom
1. From the previous text, we can infer that:
a) the discussion on the Irish bankruptcy and the euro plight was expected to be skilful and proficient.
b) some Hitler’s defenders declared their support to the Nazi guidelines during the summit in Brussels.
c) Godfrey Bloom was the first to manifest his staunch point of view against Martin Schulz’s Nazi
ideas.
d) Martin Schulz was a former Nazi concentration camp guard.
e) Silvio Berlusconi has also made some Nazi comments about Martin Schulz.
Answer: E
2. What can be correctly inferred from the text above?
a) Members of the European Parliament were contrary to Godfrey Bloom’s remarks.
b) Bloom will probably be asked to resign from his MEP post.
c) Bloom and other MEPs declared Schulz is against bailing out Ireland.
d) Michal Kaminski’s opinion about Bloom’s statements is at odds with the other leaders’ views.
e) Bloom is utterly against EU’s help for countries in need.
Answer: A
3. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Bloom wants to follow his father’s steps and fight against the Nazi ideas.
( ) Bloom’s words against Schulz are in accordance with his party manoeuvres to draw attention.
( ) Herman Van Rompuy was another victim of the acid comments made by Ukip members.
( ) Van Rompuy was an unknown politican before becoming prime minister.
Answer: E, C, C, E
4. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Bloom’s attitudes towards Schulz were considered thoughtless and angering.
( ) Almost anybody in the European Parliament backed Bloom’s talks against the German MEP.
( ) Bloom should not have been illegally taken his MEP term away after his declarations against Schulz.
( ) Germany and Italy had had a sort of diplomatic incident due to Berlusconi’s rough words against
Schulz.
Answer: C, E, E, C
5. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) taunted (2nd paragraph) is synonymous with tantalized.
( ) yelled (3rd paragraph) can be replaced by uttered.
( ) appalled (4th paragraph) means the same as astounded.
( ) stirred (7th paragraph) and spurred are interchangeable.
Answer: C, E, C, C
6. The fragment “nobody in Europe had ever heard of you” (10th paragraph) means the
same as:
a) no one in Europe had never heard of you.
b) nobody in Europe had barely heard of you.
c) no one in Europe had hardly ever heard of you.
d) anybody in Europe had never heard of you.
e) anyone in Europe had hardly heard of you.
Answer: D
7. The gaps in the 10th paragraph must be correctly filled with:
a) the sooner – the better
b) the sooner – the best
c) the soonest – the better
d) the soonest – the best
e) sooner – better
Answer: A
8. Judge the following items about the uses of ’S (or just’) and ’D:
( ) the EU’s attempts (2nd paragraph) genitive case
( ) the Tories’ European group of conservatives and reformists (6th paragraph) informal omission of a
letter
( ) The Ukip member’s anger (7th paragraph) verb to be (is)
( ) I’d never heard of you (10th paragraph) verb to have (had)
Answer: C, E, E, C
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 29: Liang Congjie

Until the air began to clog and burn, the rivers turned to sludge and desert sand began to sift into the
streets of Beijing, China’s people did not much care what Mao Zedong’s great leap into industrialisation
had done to the motherland. Pollution did not happen in socialist countries; it was a Western, capitalist
evil. But Liang Congjie noticed. He realised he no longer saw the blue skies of the Beijing of his
boyhood, or the courtyard trees he had loved to climb. In the rugged south of Shanxi province, the water in
the mountain streams was now black with coal dust and undrinkable.
As a historian Mr Liang was a traditionalist, sighing sometimes that nothing could surpass the wooden
temples of the Tang dynasty; by breeding he was a preservationist, the son of a distinguished architect
who had famously sat weeping on the medieval walls of Beijing the night before Mao’s bulldozers
demolished them. Some were inclined to think that Mr Liang was less than committed to China’s progress.
But he was determined that China should surge forward armed with green sensibility, and a green heart.
Friends of Nature, founded by him in 1994 with three colleagues from the Academy for Chinese Culture,
was China’s first legal NGO and the first committed to protecting the country’s environment. At its
inaugural meeting it drew 60 members; there are now around 10,000. As Mr Liang proudly said, it was
for everybody: housewives, students, food-sellers in the market, even workers from the Capital Steel
Corporation factory where Mr Liang, each January, would gather snow in plastic bottles to show
schoolchildren the little black specks of pollution in it.
Though based on Western organisations he had seen on television, Friends of Nature was less a
lobbying outfit than a club, whose members would go tree-planting, camping and chorus-singing to spread
the green message through the land. In the main Beijing office, a homely red-painted house in a courtyard
littered with bicycles, visitors would be handed staff cards printed on recycled paper and given metal
reusable chopsticks, together with a lecture on how much of China’s virgin forest was disappearing for
wooden chopsticks every year. Here, among countless papers and the relentless tap of computers, Mr
Liang would be working away in shirt and casual slacks, never raising his soft voice, modest as ever. His
bike was among the others outside.
He came to his cause when he was past 60, a dignified figure with greying hair. Most of his professional
life had been spent unremarkably, teaching history in universities and compiling a 74-part encyclopedia of
China. His family background – American-educated parents, a grandfather renowned as a reformer under
the Qing dynasty – made him suspect during the Cultural Revolution, and for nine years he was forced to
teach in a cadre school in rural Yunnan. But he was slow to radicalise, and cautious even as his
radicalism grew. Not for him the prison or martyrdom route.
Instead he joined the right committees, especially in the Chinese People’s Political Consultative
Conference, and used his connections to persuade the government and the media to listen.
This was delicate work. In China, he always said, there was no point in the sort of dangerous and eye-
catching stunts favoured by Greenpeace. He indulged in one or two, handing a letter to Tony Blair, on a
visit to China in 1998, to petition him to help save the Tibetan antelope, or bringing in secret cameras to
record illegal logging in Sichuan. State goons kept a bit of an eye on him. But in general his campaigns
were conducted in an orderly Chinese manner. You did not criticise your parents; __________, you
helped with the housework. Similarly, you did not attack the government; __________, you reminded it
that there were laws already on the books to protect the land, the water and the air, and offered to help
enforce them.
Within these self-described limits, Mr Liang and his NGO notched up several famous victories. He
managed to stop the cutting of virgin forest (and the destruction of golden monkey habitat) in Yunnan
province. With others, he killed proposals to build giant dams on the Salween river and in one of the most
spectacular gorges of the Yangzi.
The Tibetan antelope, hunted almost to extinction for the fineness of its fur, remained his favourite
cause, and he went to the icy plateau to burn sequestered skins himself – though, to his sorrow, he could
not stop the disbanding of the heroic anti-poaching brigade and the transfer of patrols to corruptible local
officials. He was sure, he said diplomatically, that the government would do all it could. (…)
Adapted from http://www.economist.com/node/17519870?story_id=17519870&fsrc=scn/tw/te/rss/pe
1. The 1st paragraph of the text:
a) describes the China created by Mao Zedong.
b) shows the invisible effects of China’s industrialisation process.
c) states pollution was not common in the Eastern economies.
d) affirms Liang Congjie was the first to realize the effects of China’s industrialisation process.
e) claims the effects of China’s progress on the environment had been overlooked.
Answer: E
2. In accordance with the text, Liang Congjie:
a) used to go to work by bike and wearing informal clothes.
b) was a traditional history teacher who enjoyed talking about the myths of the past dynasties.
c) was a preservationist, who was utterly against China’s progress.
d) was against the way the environment policies were being run in China.
e) had funded Friends of Nature 16 years ago.
Answer: A
3. Read the fragment taken from the 2nd paragraph of the text in order to fill in the gap in
the sentence below:
The son of a distinguished architect who had famously sat weeping on the medieval walls of
Beijing the night before Mao’s bulldozers demolished them.
We can infer that Liang Congjie’s father __________ when the walls of Beijing were
demolished.
a) cried
b) yelled
c) protested
d) beseeched
e) prayed
Answer: A
4. In the 4th paragraph there are the words countless and relentless. Which of the
following options does not receive the suffix -less?
a) Aim.
b) Cheer.
c) Reckon.
d) Child.
e) Flaw.
Answer: C
5. The word unremarkably (5th paragraph) means the same as:
a) uncommonly.
b) ordinarily.
c) unusually.
d) atypically.
e) weirdly.
Answer: B
6. Which of the following China’s environment problems did not have Liang Congjie’s
efforts? Write C (right) or E (wrong).
( ) Deforestation.
( ) Animals’ extinction.
( ) Protection of rivers.
( ) Global warming.
Answer: C, C, C, E
7. Both gaps in the 6th paragraph must be filled with:
a) besides.
b) although.
c) unless.
d) instead.
e) despite.
Answer: D
8. The word littered (4th paragraph) is:
a) a verb referring to arrayed.
b) a verb referring to tidied.
c) an adjective referring to uncluttered.
d) an adjective referring to unkempt.
e) part of an adjectival phrase qualifying bicycles.
Answer: D
9. In context, orderly (6th paragraph) and cutting (7th paragraph) are respectively:
a) an adjective and a noun.
b) an adverb and a noun.
c) an adjective and a verb (gerund form).
d) an adverb and a verb (gerund form).
e) an adjective and a verb (present participle form).
Answer: A
10. In the last paragraph, the words though and sorrow can be replaced respectively by:
a) albeit and sadness.
b) despite and grief.
c) yet and relief.
d) still and ease.
e) nevertheless and anguish.
Answer: E
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 30: Eurozone OKs $145 billion bailout for Greece
Brussels – Finance ministers from the 16 countries that use the euro agreed Sunday to rescue Greece
with €110 billion in loans over three years to keep it from defaulting on its debts.
The loan package with the International Monetary Fund is also aimed at keeping Greece’s debt crisis
from spreading to other financially weak countries such as Spain and Portugal – just as Europe is
struggling out of a painful recession.
In return, Greece had to agree to an austerity program that will impose painful spending cuts and tax
increases on its people for years to come.
The plan will still need approval by some countries’ parliaments. But the head of the Eurogroup,
Luxembourg’s Jean-Claude Juncker, said Greece will get the first funds by May 19, when Athens has €8.5
billion worth of a 10-year bond maturing.
Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Cabinet approved aid legislation Monday, an official said, as Germany
slowly realized that letting Greece go bankrupt would send the euro into a tailspin and hurt its own
economy.
Fears that the money might be held up by objections in powerful Eurozone member Germany – where
the Greek bailout is not popular – sent shudders through bond and stock markets last week.
But European Union President Herman Van Rompuy called for a special summit of the Euro countries on
May 7 to “conclude the whole process” once national parliaments deal with the issue “in the next few
days”.
Berlin needs Parliament to approve its part in the rescue but Finance Minister Wolfgang Schaeuble and
Chancellor Angela Merkel said that could be wrapped up by Friday.
“It is not an easy decision but there is no alternative,” Schaeuble said after the Eurozone finance
ministers approved the package in an emergency meeting in Brussels.
U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, who spoke with Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou
by phone Sunday night, also welcomed what he called an “ambitious reform program” by Greece and the
“substantial financial package agreed to by the IMF and European Commission”.
Juncker said the Eurozone would contribute €80 billion to the package, with €30 billion of that to be
made available this year. The rest of the money would come from the __________.
EU Monetary Affairs Commissioner Ollie Rehn said the loans from other Eurozone countries to Greece
would carry an interest rate of “around 5 percent”.
Because the interest rate is higher than the one those countries face themselves, they could make money
out of the rescue package. But the rate is significantly lower than Greece would face if it tried to borrow
on the international market, where it has seen its borrowing costs spiral because of investor fears it would
default.
Athens has said the plan will allow it breathing space to implement harsh new austerity measures it
announced earlier Sunday to bring its economy into order.
“This mechanism is an enormous step forward for Europe and of course for Greece,” Greek Finance
Minister George Papaconstantinou said.
The new measures he announced earlier __________ Athens include cuts __________ civil servants’
salaries and pensions, and tax increases that aim to cut the deficit to __________ 3 percent of gross
domestic product, __________ EU limits, __________ 2014. The deficit currently stands __________
13.6 percent.
“We are called on today to make a basic choice. The choice is between collapse or salvation,”
Papaconstantinou said before flying to Brussels.
He said savings worth €30 billion through 2012 would be achieved through public service and pension
pay cuts, higher taxes and streamlining government.
Annual holiday bonuses will be capped at €1,000 ($1,330) per year for civil servants and scrapped for
those with gross monthly salaries over €3,000 ($3,995), he said. Pensioners’ bonuses will also be capped
at €800 and canceled for those paid more than €2,500 ($3,330).
Salary cuts will not extend to the private sector, as had been widely feared.
Greeks receive their annual pay in 14 salaries, receiving extra at Christmas, Easter and for their summer
vacations.
The IMF and EU said the bailout and austerity program were tough and would help Greece out of its
troubles, but warned it would take years.
“The steps being taken, while difficult, are necessary to restore confidence in the Greek economy and to
secure a better future for the Greek people,” said a joint statement by Rehn and IMF head Dominique
Strauss-Kahn. “We are confident that Greece will rise to the challenge and succeed”.
Adapted from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/36896504/ns/business-world_business/
1. Translate the following words/expressions into Portuguese:
a) bailout ______________________
b) loan ______________________
c) default ______________________
d) bankrupt ______________________
e) tailspin ______________________
f) shudder ______________________
g) interest rate ______________________
h) harsh ______________________
i) streamline ______________________
j) tough ______________________
Answer: a) resgate financeiro; b) empréstimo; c) deixar de pagar; d) falência; e)
desvalorização; f) temor, receio; g) taxa de juros; h) severo; i) enxugar; j) rígido
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) the word painful (2nd and 3rd paragraphs) is equivalent in meaning to rough.
( ) the word once (7th paragraph) can be replaced by since.
( ) the adjective possessive pronoun its (8th paragraph) refers to Berlin.
( ) wrapped up (8th paragraph) can be replaced by button up.
Answer: E, C, E, E
3. Fill in the gap in the 11th paragraph correctly:
a) Washington, DC-based IMF
b) Washington, IMF-based DC
c) Washington based-IMF DC
d) Washington, DC-IMF based
e) based IMF-DC, Washington
Answer: A
4. Read the following sentence taken from the 5th paragraph of the text:
Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Cabinet approved aid legislation Monday, an official said, as
Germany slowly realized that letting Greece go bankrupt would send the euro into a tailspin
and hurt its own economy.
The words in bold are considered false cognates. Which of the following pairs of words is not
formed only by false cognates?
a) agenda – assist
b) assume – comprehend
c) balcony – cigar
d) journal – prejudice
e) legend – improve
Answer: E
5. In the sentence “Athens has said the plan will allow it breathing space to implement
harsh new austerity measures” (14th paragraph), the word harsh is semantically
equivalent to:
a) strict.
b) feeble.
c) yielding.
d) compliant.
e) sluggish.
Answer: A
6. The definition “a related group of things when they are offered together as a single
unit” belongs to the word:
a) process.
b) program.
c) package.
d) measure.
e) joint.
Answer: C
7. Mark the sequence of prepositions that completes the following excerpt correctly:
The new measures he announced earlier __________ Athens include cuts __________ civil
servants’ salaries and pensions, and tax increases that aim to cut the deficit to __________ 3
percent of gross domestic product, __________ EU limits, __________ 2014. The deficit
currently stands __________ 13.6 percent.
a) by – in – below – within – by – at
b) in – on – under – within – by – at
c) in – in – below – along – in – on
d) in – in – below – within – by – at
e) in – on – under – across – in – on
Answer: D
8. Which of the contextual references below is incorrect?
a) its (1st paragraph) Greece
b) the plan (4th paragraph) the loan package with the International Monetary Fund
c) its (5th paragraph) Germany
d) who (10th paragraph) U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner
e) it (22nd paragraph) the bailout
Answer: E
9. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Greece borrowed €110 billion in order to settle its debts and avoid a major recession.
( ) Spain and Portugal were affected by the Greek recession despite the €110 billion loan package made
with the International Monetary Fund.
( ) Greece will need to make tax increases in order to pay the loan package with IMF.
( ) The stock markets fear that the German Parliament does not release the money to help Greece.
Answer: E, E, E, C
10. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Some European countries may charge interest rates above the ones normally applied within their
own internal markets.
( ) Greece estimates the loan made with the IMF and the EU be settled until 2012.
( ) In Greece, cuts from 800 to 1.000 euros will be made in the bonus paid to the people.
( ) The package created to bail Greece out was approved in an EU summit held in May.
Answer: C, E, E, E
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 31: Rio police claim control of drug gang stronghold
Police backed by helicopters and armoured vehicles invaded a Rio shantytown complex long held by
traffickers today, quickly taking over the drug gang stronghold, a senior official said.
Black-clad officers from elite police units entered the Alemão favela amid heavy gunfire as hundreds of
drug gang members tried to hold their position. Police encountered less resistance than expected and
claimed victory, saying they were in control of the shantytown although many gang members remained
inside.
“We won,” said Mario Sergio Duarte, head of Rio state’s military police. “We brought freedom to the
residents of Alemão.”
Officers on the ground said they had not completely taken over the complex, and that gunmen were still
fighting back. Gunfire could still be heard in the area.
“Without any doubt we know there are gang members holed up inside this slum still and we’ve got to go
in and take them out,” said one soldier at the base of the slum.
Duarte said: “Now it’s time to be patient. We’ve taken over the territory but it doesn’t mean that we
won’t have confrontations with the gang members still inside. We have to be careful because they may be
trying to set up traps for our men”.
At least five police helicopters were helping to provide intelligence on where the gang members might
be. Police and troops started moving up the slum inside armoured vehicles as residents watched from
their windows. Tracked personnel carriers were moving in and out of the slum on its southern edge,
carrying soldiers.
High-calibre rifle casings littered the streets for three blocks around the favela, and bloodied bandages
were scattered on the ground. Vehicles from the forestry service were seen carrying soldiers to the jungle
areas inside the slum to cut back trees and eliminate possible escape routes.
There were no initial reports of any police injuries. Duarte said large amounts of weapons, ammunition
and drugs were seized in the operation, which came after a week of widespread violence in Rio, with
more than 100 cars and buses set on fire and at least 35 deaths, mostly of suspected traffickers.
Residents were told to remain inside their homes and to co-operate with police. Many were thrilled
with the police operation.
“Fantastic, this is exactly the thing we needed,” said Ana Costa, who lives a block from the favela in the
Penha district. “This community has been so violent for so long that I never thought that I would see this
day. I still have my doubts but I’m praying that peace has finally come here.”
Hundreds of soldiers in camouflage and elite and regular police had been surrounding the Alemão since
Saturday night, sheltering behind armoured vehicles. They had exchanged intermittent, heavy gunfire with
gang members at many of the 44 entrances to the slum.
The invasion came after Rio saw its calmest night in a week, with only one volley of gunfire heard
overnight in the favela. Police said there was gunfire at about 1 a.m., but after that mostly silence. In the
rest of the city, for the first time in more than a week there were no vehicles set alight – what had become
a hallmark sign of the gang’s bloody protest against tough policing.
In a week of widespread violence blamed on the gangs, authorities had already seized the Vila Cruzeiro
favela, which was once thought virtually impenetrable. More than 200 armed gang members fled that
offensive and ran to the nearby Alemão complex of a dozen favelas which are home to at least 85,000
people.
Adapted from http://www.guardian.co.uk/
1. The word quickly (1st paragraph) can be replaced by:
a) fastly.
b) swiftly.
c) suddenly.
d) roughly.
e) utterly.
Answer: B
2. The word residents (3rd paragraph) is equivalent in meaning to:
a) tenants.
b) lodgers.
c) roomers.
d) dwellers.
e) leaseholders.
Answer: D
3. Along the text, the Portuguese word favela is being substituted by:
( ) shantytown.
( ) ground.
( ) complex.
( ) slum.
Answer: C, E, E, C
4. Which of the following options does not contain an example of phrasal verb?
a) Police backed by helicopters and armoured vehicles invaded a Rio shantytown complex long held by
traffickers today.
b) Officers on the ground said they had not completely taken over the complex, and that gunmen were
still fighting back.
c) Without any doubt we know there are gang members holed up inside this slum still and we’ve got to
go in and take them out.
d) We have to be careful because they may be trying to set up traps for our men.
e) Tracked personnel carriers were moving in and out of the slum on its southern edge, carrying
soldiers.
Answer: A
5. Give the synonyms for the underlined words in the fragment below:
High-calibre rifle casings littered the streets for three blocks around the favela, and bloodied
bandages were scattered on the ground.
a) caps – bonds – grouped
b) containers – wraps – clustered
c) corpses – plasters – piled up
d) bodies – straps – gathered
e) capsules – gauzes – spread
Answer: E
6. The verb to seize (9th paragraph) means:
a) to take something quickly and keep or hold it.
b) to take using sudden force.
c) to take hold of something or someone suddenly and roughly.
d) to take possession of it with legal authority.
e) to take something without the permission or knowledge of the owner and keep it.
Answer: D
7. From the sentence “Many were thrilled with the police operation” (10th paragraph), we
can infer that the people were very __________.
a) scared.
b) frightened.
c) excited.
d) concerned.
e) distressed.
Answer: C
8. The word fled (last paragraph) is:
a) an adjective referring to runaway.
b) an adjective referring to scapegoat.
c) a verb referring to break away from.
d) a verb referring to dodged.
e) part of a participial verbal phrase qualifying More than 200 armed gang members.
Answer: C
9. Read the excerpt below taken from the 11th paragraph:
This community has been so violent for so long that I never thought that I would see this day. I
still have my doubts but I’m praying that peace has finally come here.
Now mark the correct sequence of the verb tenses used in it:
a) Present Perfect – Simple Past – Simple Conditional – Present Perfect – Present Progressive –
Present Perfect
b) Past Perfect – Past Progressive – Simple Conditional – Simple Present – Present Progressive –
Simple Present
c) Present Perfect – Simple Past – Perfect Conditional – Simple Present – Present Continuous – Simple
Present
d) Present Perfect – Simple Past – Simple Conditional – Simple Present – Present Continuous – Simple
Present
e) Present Perfect – Simple Past – Simple Conditional – Simple Present – Present Progressive –
Present Perfect
Answer: E
10. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) More than thirty drug dealers were killed during the police operation in Rio de Janeiro.
( ) Both the air force and the military police participated in the operation.
( ) Before the operation, the carioca slums were considered places impossible to go through.
( ) The number of police officers wounded during the operation was far below than expected.
Answer: E, E, E, E
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 8.
TEXT 32: Rio reborn
More than two thousand heavily armed police operatives swept into Rio’s most notorious shantytown
today following a week of explosive confrontations that have left at least 50 people dead.
The operation, unprecedented in the city’s history, began _____________ around 8 a.m. and focused on
the Complexo do Alemão, a gigantic network of slums that is the HQ of Rio’s Red Command drug faction
and houses around 70,000 impoverished residents.
According to police the favela had been “conquered” __________ around 9.30 a.m., with drug
traffickers offering little resistance.
Gang members reportedly attempted to flee the 2,600 police and army operatives through the favela’s
sewage system or by disguising themselves as Bible-carrying evangelical preachers.
They left behind “mansions” filled with wide-screen televisions, swimming pools and a sauna. In the
home of Pezão, one of the area’s top traffickers, police found a giant poster of the Canadian singer Justin
Bieber.
Around 10 tonnes of marijuana were seized along with a small arsenal of assault rifles and a missile. At
least three suspected drug traffickers died in confrontations with police operatives while several gang
members handed themselves in at special “surrender centres” that opened around the slum.
“This was the HQ, the fortress and the heart of the drug faction with the greatest firepower,” said
Colonel Mario Sergio Duarte, the head of Rio’s military police. “We will continue chasing them
wherever they are.”
In an interview with Brazilian TV, Rio’s mayor, Eduardo Paes, said the operation represented “virtually
a re-foundation of this city”. He added: “Rio will go back to being the marvellous city. There is still a lot
of work to be done but today this city has taken a major step forwards”.
Among those arrested on Sunday was Zeu, a notorious Red Command trafficker who was behind the
2002 murder of the Brazilian journalist Tim Lopes.
Lopes, a reporter for Brazil’s Globo television channel, was dismembered with a Samurai sword after
being caught trying to film gang members selling drugs with a hidden camera. His body was burned in a
so-called “microwave”, a makeshift crematorium made of car-tyres.
Rodrigo Oliveira, the head of civil police operations, said: “The population of Rio can celebrate. But
we do not pretend we will be able to pacify the Complexo do Alemão in two or three hours. The situation
seems to be calm”.
The head of Rio’s drug squad, Marcus Vinicius Braga, described the operation as “worryingly calm”
and suggested further confrontations were likely. “We are winning, but we haven’t won yet,” he said.
The week-long wave of violence that has rocked the 2016 Olympic city has shocked Brazil, with
tourists from across the country reportedly cancelling holidays there. Samba schools cancelled their pre-
carnival rehearsals and tens of thousands of students were unable to study.
Yesterday, the Pope sent a message of solidarity to Rio authorities and slum residents.
Rio’s governor, Sergio Cabral, said the operation was an attempt to make up for “30 years of neglect” in
the city’s slums.
“We are recovering Rio de Janeiro from decades of ills, economic and social crises and political
failure,” he said, vowing to promote a “social” invasion of the newly conquered slum.
This afternoon Brazilian troops hoisted the country’s green and yellow flag at the crest of the Complexo
do Alemão.
Adapted from http://www.guardian.co.uk/
1. The word houses (2nd paragraph) is:
a) a noun referring to building.
b) a noun referring to dwelling.
c) a verb referring to shelter.
d) a verb referring to lodge.
e) part of a verbal phrase qualifying around 70,000 impoverished residents.
Answer: C
2. Which prepositions must be used to fill in the gaps in the sentences below?
The operation, unprecedented in the city’s history, began __________ around 8 a.m. (2nd
paragraph)
According to police the favela had been “conquered” __________ around 9.30 a.m. (3rd
paragraph)
a) at – by
b) at – in
c) at – on
d) on – by
e) on – at
Answer: A
3. In “Around 10 tonnes of marijuana were seized along with a small arsenal of assault
rifles and a missile” (6th paragraph), the underlined words cannot be replaced by:
a) Some – in addition to
b) Almost – as well as
c) Nearly – likewise
d) Roughly – apart from
e) At least – alike
Answer: E
4. Which of the following words did not receive the prefix re- as reborn (title) and re-
foundation (8th paragraph)?
a) Recurrent.
b) Reindeer.
c) Refill.
d) Rehab.
e) Repress.
Answer: B
5. The word makeshift (10th paragraph) means:
a) offhand.
b) made-up.
c) impromptu.
d) unrehearsed.
e) unprepared.
Answer: C
6. Based on the text, it can be said that the relationship established between the words
“worryingly calm” (12th paragraph) is one of:
a) result.
b) addition.
c) contrast.
d) paradox.
e) reason.
Answer: D
7. Read the 15th paragraph of the text:
Rio’s governor, Sergio Cabral, said the operation was an attempt to make up for “30 years of
neglect” in the city’s slums.
Now, mark the option in which the phrasal verb to make up is being used in the way.
a) We often quarrel but we always make it up soon after.
b) I made up an excuse about having to look after the kids.
c) We could use the rest of the material to make up some curtains.
d) I suspect we were only invited to make up numbers.
e) You’ll have to make up the work you’ve missed while you were away.
Answer: E
8. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Gang members tried to escape from the military siege dressing themselves as priests.
( ) Surrender centres became overcrowded with gang members who gave up fighting against the
military forces.
( ) The main responsible for the Brazilian reporter Tim Lopes’s death was killed during the operation.
( ) Many stalled social projects will be resumed now the carioca slums were recovered by the police.
Answer: E, E, E, E
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 12.
TEXT 33: Revealed: U.S. diplomats slam world leaders
London – Among the hundreds of thousands of leaked State Department documents were candid and
often unflattering assessments of foreign leaders. The classified diplomatic cables were released Sunday
by online whistle-blower WikiLeaks. The massive release of material intended for diplomatic eyes only
is sure to ruffle feathers in foreign capitals, a certainty that prompted U.S. diplomats to scramble in recent
days to shore up relations with key allies in advance of the disclosures.
The cables contain many tart comments. French President Nicolas Sarkozy was described as an
“emperor with no clothes” and Afghan counterpart Hamid Karzai was said to be “weak” and “easily
swayed”. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, Russia’s head of state, was described in one 2008 cable
as playing “Robin to (Russian Prime Minister Vladimir) Putin’s Batman”. Libyan leader Moammar
Gadhafi, __________, was described as erratic and in the near constant company of a Ukrainian nurse,
according to The New York Times.
The newspaper said a batch of documents raised questions about Italian Prime Minister Silvio
Berlusconi and his relationship with Putin. One cable said Berlusconi “appears increasingly to be the
mouthpiece of Putin” in Europe, the Times reported.
German news weekly Der Spiegel said U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton asked her
ambassadors in Moscow and Rome to inform her whether there was any truth in rumors that Berlusconi
and Putin have private business ties. Both men have denied such claims. Another cable from Rome to
Washington described Berlusconi as “physically and politically weak” and asserted that his “frequent late
nights and penchant for partying hard mean he does not get sufficient rest”. Berlusconi was also seen as
“vain and ineffective as a modern European leader”.
According to Der Spiegel, one cable sent from the American Embassy in Moscow said that Medvedev’s
wife Svetlana “remains the subject of avid gossip”. It suggested that the Russian first lady had compiled a
list of officials who should be made to “suffer” due to their alleged disloyalty to her husband.
Another cable told how Gadhafi “appears to have an intense dislike or fear of staying on upper floors,
reportedly prefers not to fly over water, and seems to enjoy horse racing and flamenco dancing”. Gadhafi,
who has ruled Libya for over 40 years, is also said to rely heavily on his staff of four Ukrainian nurses,
including a woman named Galyna Kolotnytska, who is described as “a voluptuous blonde,” according to
The New York Times.
“Some embassy contacts have claimed that he and the 38-year-old Kolotnytska have a romantic
relationship. While he did not comment on such rumors, a Ukrainian political officer recently confirmed
that the Ukrainian nurses “travel everywhere with the Leader,” the cable read.
Other cables posted by The New York Times describe U.S. officials’ meetings with Karzai’s half-
brother, who heads a provincial council in southern Afghanistan. Ahmad Wali Karzai is depicted as an
operator who doubts the value of elections and “is widely understood to be corrupt and a narcotics
trafficker”.
A U.S. diplomat described German Chancellor Angela Merkel as someone who “avoids risk and is
seldom creative”.
The U.K.’s Guardian newspaper said other documents describe how Yemeni President Ali Abdullah
Saleh was “dismissive, bored and impatient” during a meeting with White House counter-terrorism chief
John Brennan and that a South African government official described Zimbabwean President Robert
Mugabe as “the crazy old man”.
According to Der Spiegel, another cable discussing the wife of Azerbaijan leader Ilham Aliyev said she
had extensive plastic surgery and that as a result it is possible to confuse her for one of her daughters.
Britain’s Sun newspaper told how one British former government minister was described as a “hound dog
where women are concerned”. Prince Andrew is also accused of “rude behavior,” The Sun added.
The Obama administration __________ for the release for the past week. Top officials have notified
allies that the contents of the diplomatic cables could prove embarrassing because they contain candid
assessments of foreign leaders and their governments, as well as details of American policy. But in the
wake of the disclosures, Francois Baroin, spokesman for the French government, said Monday that
“France is very much in solidarity with the American administration”. He described WikiLeaks a “threat
against the authority of a democratic society”.
Adapted from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/
1. It can be inferred from the text that the opinions about some world leaders were:
a) artful and critical.
b) sincere and unfavorable.
c) tricky and insulting.
d) deceitful and flattering.
e) devious and harsh.
Answer: B
2. Translate into Portuguese the sentence below:
The massive release of material intended for diplomatic eyes only is sure to ruffle feathers in
foreign capitals, a certainty that prompted U.S. diplomats to scramble in recent days to shore
up relations with key allies in advance of the disclosures.
_________________________________________
Answer: O lançamento maciço de material destinado a visão diplomática certamente
provocará reações em capitais estrangeiras, uma certeza que levou os diplomatas norte-
americanos a esforçar-se nos últimos dias para reforçar as relações com aliados importantes
antes das revelações.
3. In the sentence “The cables contain many tart comments” (2nd paragraph), the
underlined words mean respectively the same as:
a) wires and sharp.
b) information and luscious.
c) links and caustic.
d) messages and sour.
e) chains and bitter.
Answer: D
4. The blank in the 2nd paragraph must be correctly filled with:
a) meanwhile.
b) otherwise.
c) besides.
d) notwithstanding.
e) albeit.
Answer: A
5. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Hamid Karzai was described was a feeble and easily influenced person.
( ) Dmitry Medvedev was defined as a mere assistant of Vladimir Putin.
( ) Moammar Gadhafi was characterized as an unpredictable person and he is supposedly having an
affair with a Ukrainian physician.
( ) Silvio Berlusconi’s proximity with Vladimir Putin was questioned.
Answer: C, C, E, C
6. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Berlusconi’s behavior is regarded as inappropriate for a political leader.
( ) Svetlana is considered a woman who enjoys talking about other people’s private lives.
( ) Medvedev is being betrayed by some members of his government.
( ) Hillary Rodham Clinton reportedly wants to know more details about Berlusconi and Putin’s affairs.
Answer: C, E, E, C
7. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below. Moammar
Gadhafi:
( ) needs constant health supervision.
( ) is apparently afraid of heights.
( ) is the former ruler of Libya.
( ) betrays his wife with one of his nurses.
Answer: E, C, E, E
8. In the sentence “Other cables posted by The New York Times describe U.S. officials’
meetings with Karzai’s half-brother, who heads a provincial council in southern
Afghanistan” (8th paragraph), the underlined words are, respectively:
a) adjective – adjective – noun – noun
b) adjective – adjective – noun – verb
c) adjective – adjective – verb – verb
d) pronoun – noun – noun – verb
e) pronoun – noun – verb – noun
Answer: B
9. According to the text, Angela Merkel is:
a) careful and gifted.
b) mindful and innovative.
c) wary and prolific.
d) cautious and unimaginative.
e) leery and unfailing.
Answer: D
10. Fill in the gap in the sentence below taken from the last paragraph:
The Obama administration __________ for the release for the past week.
a) has to be braced
b) have been bracing
c) has been bracing
d) would have been bracing
e) had been braced
Answer: C
11. In “they contain candid assessments of foreign leaders and their governments, as
well as details of American policy” (last paragraph), the expression as well as cannot be
replaced by:
a) along with.
b) besides.
c) likewise.
d) apart from.
e) in addition.
Answer: E
12. Translate into Portuguese the false cognates below taken from the text:
a) candid ____________________
b) assessment ____________________
c) classified ____________________
d) cable ____________________
e) intended ____________________
f) official ____________________
g) discuss ____________________
h) content ____________________
i) policy ____________________
Answer: a) franco, sincero, direto; b) avaliação; c) secreto; d) mensagem; e) destinar, ter a
intenção de; f) funcionário; g) discutir, debater; h) conteúdo; i) política
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 34: ______________________

While fascinating in their own right, these WikiLeaks document dumps are also fascinating in the way
they draw out fairly fundamental intuitions about the rights and privileges of the American state. Earlier
today I attempted to draw up a taxonomy of different ideological/character types elicited by WikiLeaks,
but quickly became mired in the complexity of it all. Rather than diagnose the world, I’ll just diagnose
myself in contrast to my colleague.
In this morning’s post, my worldly co-blogger characterises the content of the tens of thousands
classified diplomatic cables as mere “gossip”, and maintains “that grabbing as many diplomatic cables as
you can get your hands on and making them public is not a socially worthy activity”. I strongly disagree.
Greg Mitchell’s catalogue of reactions to the leaked cables is a trove of substantive information. For
example, drawing on the documents made available by WikiLeaks, the ACLU reports that the Bush
administration “pressured Germany not to prosecute CIA officers responsible for the kidnapping,
extraordinary rendition and torture of German national Khaled El-Masri”, a terrorism suspect dumped in
Albania once the CIA determined it had nabbed a nobody. I consider kidnapping and torture serious
crimes, and I think it’s interesting indeed if the United States government applied pressure to foreign
governments to ensure complicity in the cover-up of it agents’ abuses. In any case, I don’t consider this
gossip.
I think we all understand that the work of even the most decent governments is made more difficult when
they cannot be sure their communications will be read by those for whom they were not intended. That
said, there is no reason to assume that the United States government is always up to good. The United
States is nominally a democracy, but it’s sadly ridiculous to think this means very much. To get at the
value of WikiLeaks, I think it’s important to distinguish between the government – the temporary, elected
authors of national policy – and the state – the permanent bureaucratic and military apparatus superficially
but not fully controlled by the reigning government.
The careerists scattered about the world in America’s intelligence agencies, military, and consular
offices largely operate behind a veil of secrecy executing policy which is itself largely secret. American
citizens mostly have no idea what they are doing, or whether what they are doing is working out well. The
actually-existing structure and strategy of the American empire remains a near-total mystery to those who
foot the bill and whose children fight its wars. And that is the way the elite of America’s unelected
permanent state, perhaps the most powerful class of people on Earth, like it.
As Scott Shane, The New York Times’ national security reporter, puts it: “American taxpayers,
American citizens pay for all these diplomatic operations overseas and, you know, it is not a bad thing
when Americans actually have a better understanding of those negotiations”. Mr Shane goes on to suggest
that “Perhaps if we had had more information on these secret internal deliberations of governments prior
to the invasion of Iraq in 2003, we would have had a better understanding of the quality of the evidence
that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction”.
I’d say providing that information certainly would have been a socially worthy activity, even if it came
as part of a more-or-less indiscriminate dump of illegally obtained documents.
I’m glad to see that the quality of discussion over possible US efforts to stymie Iran’s nuclear ambitions
has already become more sophisticated and, well, better-informed due to the information provided by
WikiLeaks.
If secrecy is necessary for national security and effective diplomacy, it is also inevitable that the
prerogative of secrecy will be used to hide the misdeeds of the permanent state and its privileged agents. I
suspect that there is no scheme of government oversight that will not eventually come under the indirect
control of the generals, spies, and foreign-service officers it is meant to oversee. Organisations such as
WikiLeaks, which are philosophically opposed to state secrecy and which operate as much as is possible
outside the global nation-state system, may be the best we can hope for in the way of promoting the
climate of transparency and accountability necessary for authentically liberal democracy. Some folks ask,
“Who elected Julian Assange?” The answer is nobody did, which is, ironically, why WikiLeaks is able to
improve the quality of our democracy. Of course, those jealously protective of the privileges of
unaccountable state power will tell us that people will die if we can read their email, but so what?
Different people, maybe more people, will die if we can’t.
(Fonte omitida propositalmente)
1. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below. The author of the
text:
( ) and Julian Assange are co-workers.
( ) does not agree with Assange’s standpoint toward the leaked documents.
( ) did not get to separate the WikiLeaks documents into distinguished groups.
( ) decided to make a parallel between his and Assange’s works.
Answer: E, C, E, E
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The WikiLeaks documents disclosed mere rumours made by the U.S. diplomats.
( ) It is not worthwhile to lose time reading the texts published by WikiLeaks.
( ) Khaled El-Masri was mistakenly arrested and whipped by CIA agents.
( ) The German government convicted CIA officials due to abuses against a German terrorist suspect.
Answer: E, E, E, E
3. The author of the text thinks that:
a) classified documents are important to keep a democracy running.
b) the democracy in the United States is just apparent.
c) the government and the state must be a unity.
d) a government should have charge of all the aspects of a country.
e) in the United States things does not work so perfectly as they should be.
Answer: B
4. The word kidnapping (3rd paragraph) works respectively as:
a) a verb and a verb.
b) a noun and a verb.
c) a noun and a noun.
d) a noun and an adjective.
e) a verb and a noun.
Answer: C
5. Judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following contextual references:
( ) my colleague (1st paragraph) refers to Julian Assange.
( ) a nobody (3rd paragraph) refers to Khaled El-Masri.
( ) That said (4th paragraph) refers to they were not intended.
( ) they (5th paragraph) refers to American citizens.
Answer: C, C, E, E
6. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) draw out (1st paragraph) means the same as lead on.
( ) trove (3rd paragraph) can be replaced by scattering.
( ) stymie (8th paragraph) is equivalent in meaning to hinder.
( ) accountability (last paragraph) and responsibility are interchangeable.
Answer: E, E, C, C
7. Mark the correct item in accordance with the text:
a) U.S. officials around the world are responsible for maintaining the secrecy of the American foreign
policies.
b) The ordinary American citizen is generally unaware of the work done by some sectors of the U.S.
government.
c) Scott Shane thinks the secrecy of the American government contributed to the failure in the Iraq’s
invasion.
d) WikiLeaks has contributed to improve the American efforts against Iranian nuclear program.
e) American officials have used their right to classify documents to keep some government mistakes
unveiled.
Answer: B
8. Which of the following fragments taken from the text does not contain at least one
false cognate word?
a) In this morning’s post, my worldly co-blogger characterises the content of the tens of thousands
classified diplomatic cables as mere “gossip”. (2nd paragraph)
b) I think we all understand that the work of even the most decent governments is made more difficult
when they cannot be sure their communications will be read by those for whom they were not
intended. (4th paragraph)
c) I think it’s important to distinguish between the government – the temporary, elected authors of
national policy – and the state – the permanent bureaucratic and military apparatus. (4th paragraph)
d) The careerists scattered about the world in America’s intelligence agencies, military, and consular
offices largely operate behind a veil of secrecy executing policy which is itself largely secret. (5th
paragraph)
e) I’d say providing that information certainly would have been a socially worthy activity, even if it
came as part of a more-or-less indiscriminate dump of illegally obtained documents. (7th paragraph)
Answer: E
9. This text was probably taken from a:
a) blog.
b) review.
c) journal.
d) paper.
e) digest.
Answer: A
10. After reading the text, one can say the title that best suits to it is:
a) WikiLeaks vs. The United States
b) WikiLeaks is not as useful as it should be
c) My opinion about WikiLeaks
d) In defence of WikiLeaks
e) The reasons why WikiLeaks should be praised
Answer: D
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 35: Cirque du Soleil’s place in the sun
It is as close as most people get to a fantasy world. Darkness falls. Pulsating music fills the air. Magical
and bizarre creatures frolic and cavort on the ground and in the air. Mysterious fogs and magical lights
appear and disappear. No words are spoken in any earthly language, but the story is understood all the
same. You haven’t lost touch with reality or crossed into a parallel universe – you’ve entered the world of
Cirque du Soleil, a unique Canadian troupe that has written its own huge worldwide success story. Cirque
du Soleil’s history goes back to 1982, when a group of stilt-walking jugglers and fire-eaters – then called
“Club des talons hauts” – came to Baie-Saint-Paul, a small Quebec community, to work as buskers.
Immensely successful with the public, the company of acrobats went on to set up a festival. In 1984, the
Quebec government invited the group to perform in the celebrations of the 450th anniversary of Jacques
Cartier’s arrival in Canada. After performing at venues throughout Quebec, the Cirque toured Ontario and
appeared at Expo 86 in Vancouver.
The 1990s saw an explosion in the troupe’s size, scope and success. By the end of the century, Cirque
du Soleil had permanent shows in Las Vegas, Orlando and Biloxi, and offices in Amsterdam, Singapore,
Montreal and Las Vegas. A total of seven shows playing simultaneously in North America, Europe and
Asia sold tens of thousands of tickets each week.
Cirque du Soleil shows are truly otherworldly experiences. As you enter the big top, there are familiar
echoes of traditional circuses – popcorn vendors, the hum of expectations. But Cirque du Soleil shows
are as far from traditional circuses as could be imagined. No animals figure among the cast of performers;
__________ [I], humans fill all roles in every show. The shows each have a theme – as simple as a story
of unrequited love, or as broad as our human frailty and angst at the end of the century. The lack of
dialogue or narration means that performances easily transcend linguistic and national boundaries. Instead
of a calliope or brass band, the music is supplied by a live ensemble heavy on exotic percussion and
sounds. And productions are spectacularly conceived and executed.
Contortionists, trapeze artists, hand-balancers, jugglers – stunning acts are mixed with troupes of
dancers, characters and clowns dressed as anything from lizards to commedia dell’arte characters.
The shows seamlessly blend heart-stopping acrobatics with moments of comedy and of tragedy.
Audiences are drawn into the show’s spell, sometimes to utter silence.
Most important, Cirque du Soleil __________ [II] in taking the circus experience to new heights of
artistry and popularity in an era when few circuses survive. But wait... the lights are dimming and the
music is swelling... it’s time for another show to begin!
Adapted from http://www43.statcan.ca/02/02f/02f_supp/02f_supp_003_e.htm
1. The first paragraph:
a) makes a description of many circus’ shows around the world.
b) shows how funny and amusing a Cirque du Soleil’s spectacle can be.
c) describes how impressive and innovative a Cirque du Soleil’s show can be.
d) says that Cirque du Soleil’s shows are amusing and scaring.
Answer: C
2. Which language is spoken during the Cirque’s shows?
a) None.
b) English.
c) French.
d) German.
Answer: A
3. In the text, Cirque du Soleil:
a) is introduced like an ordinary circus.
b) is shown as a fantasy world.
c) is shown as a place full of threatening creatures.
d) is detailed described: the canvas, the ring and all the characters are shown.
Answer: B
4. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) frolic and cavort (1st paragraph) can be replaced by fool around.
( ) hum (4th paragraph) is equivalent in meaning to buzz.
( ) unrequited (4th paragraph) can be replaced by impossible.
( ) seamlessly (6th paragraph) means terrifically.
Answer: C, C, E, E
5. Judge the items below.
( ) Cirque du Soleil is in its thirties.
( ) In the beginning, Cirque du Soleil was a group of street artists.
( ) Cirque du Soleil was previously known as “Club des talons hauts”.
The correct sequence is:
a) T – F – T
b) F – T – F
c) F – F – T
d) F – T – T
Answer: D
6. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) The Cirque toured Quebec, Ontario and Vancouver after Expo 86.
( ) The actual success came in the nineties to the Cirque.
( ) The Cirque has permanent spectacles in all the seven continents every week.
( ) The Canadian government hired the Cirque to celebrate the anniversary of the President.
Answer: E, C, E, E
7. Cirque du Soleil shows are:
a) not so similar as traditional ones.
b) full of narratives and there are many dialogues among the characters.
c) more closely connected to spiritual things than to the ordinary things of life.
d) crowded of contortionists, trapeze artists, hand-balancers, jugglers and lizards.
Answer: C
8. To the author:
a) the mixture of comedy and tragedy is the most notorious characteristic of the Cirque.
b) it is very hard to be completely in silence during the Cirque’s presentations.
c) if there were no heart-stopping acrobatics, the shows would be better.
d) the Cirque du Soleil elevated the levels of artistic talent and popularity, even in a time of few
circuses.
Answer: D
9. The gap I must be filled with:
a) instead.
b) also.
c) nevertheless.
d) though.
e) hence.
Answer: A
10. The gap II must be filled with:
a) had been succeeded.
b) has been succeeded.
c) shall succeed.
d) has to succeed.
e) has succeeded.
Answer: E
Read the following text and answer the question.
TEXT 36: The FP top 100 global thinkers
Foreign policy presents a unique portrait of 2010’s global marketplace of ideas and the thinkers who
make them.
1. Warren Buffett and Bill Gates
Chairman1, Berkshire Hathaway | Omaha, Neb.
Co-chair, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Seattle
For stepping up2 as the world’s states falter3.
2. Dominique Strauss-Kahn and Robert Zoellick
IMF managing director | Washington
World Bank president | Washington
For steely4 vision at a moment of crisis.
3. Barack Obama
President | Washington
For charting5 a course through criticism.
4. Zhou Xiaochuan
Governor6, People’s Bank | China
For holding the world’s economic fate in his hands.
5. Ben Bernanke
Chairman, Federal Reserve | Washington
For owning7 the U.S. economy, no matter what it takes.

6. Celso Amorim
Foreign minister | Brazil
For transforming Brazil into a global player.
Celso Amorim wouldn’t crack a smile at the old canard that Brazil is the country of the future, and
always will be. The wily and urbane Brazilian diplomat, finishing off his second term as foreign minister,
has done his utmost to make his country an international powerhouse – right now.
Neither reflexively opposing the United States in the style of Latin America’s old left nor slavishly
following its lead, Amorim has charted an independent course.
He has criticized developed countries as hypocritical and advocated that developing countries take a
leading role in combating climate change. This year, he teamed with an unlikely partner, Turkish Foreign
Minister Ahmet Davutoglu (No. 7), to cut an eleventh-hour deal designed to dial down the international
tension over Iran’s nuclear program. Although the initiative succeeded mostly in setting teeth on edge in
Western capitals, it also put Brazil on the map.
Under Amorim’s guidance, Brazil has enthusiastically embraced the BRIC alliance with Russia, India,
and China, which he thinks has the power to “redefine world governance”. Brazil aspires to a permanent
seat on the U.N. Security Council; in the meantime8, it has built up its diplomatic corps and boosted its
contribution to international peacekeeping missions in places like Haiti. Amorim’s tenure9 under Brazil’s
larger-than-life retiring president, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, has proved that it is possible to have, as he
recently put it, “a humanist foreign policy, without losing sight of the national interest”.
December 2010
Adapted from http://www.foreignpolicy.com/
Judge the following items in accordance with the text – right (C) or wrong (E).
1. ( ) Chairman (ref. 1) means the same as CEO.
2. ( ) Bill and Melinda Gates are vice-presidents of a foundation named after them.
3. ( ) Stepping up (ref. 2) means boosting.
4. ( ) Falter (ref. 3) means stumble.
5. ( ) In “For stepping up as the world’s states falter” the word as conveys an idea of ​comparison.
6. ( ) Steely (ref. 4) and relentless are not interchangeable.
7. ( ) Charting (ref. 5) means the same as streamlining.
8. ( ) Governor (ref. 6) can be replaced by overseer.
9. ( ) Owning (ref. 7) is a noun.
10. ( ) Celso Amorim worked against his will with Ahmet Davutoglu.
11. ( ) Amorim is a person who does not like to live in the countryside.
12. ( ) Thanks to Amorim, Brazil has adopted a posture in dealing with the United States different from
the other Latin America countries.
13. ( ) Western countries got annoyed with Brazil after the agreement made with Iran towards its
nuclear program.
14. ( ) In the meantime (ref. 8) can be replaced by meanwhile.
15. ( ) Tenure (ref. 9) means tenderness.
Answer: 1 – E; 2 – E; 3 – C; 4 – C; 5 – E; 6 – C; 7 – E; 8 – E; 9 – E; 10 – E; 11 – E; 12 – C;
13 – C; 14 – C; 15 – E
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 37: Los Angeles Catholic Church has to pay 660 mln to abuse victims
Los Angeles (AFP) – The Roman Catholic Church in Los Angeles apologized Sunday to hundreds of
people sexually abused by [pronoun] priests after agreeing to a record 660-million-dollar settlement, the
biggest in US history. Lawyers for [article 1] Los Angeles archdiocese and 508 victims of abuse dating
back to the 1940s thrashed out the massive settlement on the eve of a potentially explosive court case due
to open on Monday.
Archdiocese head Cardinal Roger Mahony – who has been accused by angry victims of attempting to
cover up pedophilia cases during his reign – told a press conference that the cases should never have
happened. “This long journey has now come to [article 2] end, and a new chapter of that journey is
beginning,” Mahony said. “Once again I apologize to anyone who has been offended, who’s been abused
by priests, by deacons, by religious men and women or by lay people... It should not have happened and
should not ever happen again.”
Mahony said he was haunted by the fact that victims would never be able to reclaim their innocence. “It
is the one part of the settlement process I find so frustrating, because the one thing I wish I could give the
victims, I cannot,” he said.
Ray Boucher, the lead attorney for the victims, said the settlement was long overdue. “Some of the
victims have waited more than five decades for a chance at reconciliation and resolution,” Boucher said.
“This is a down payment on that debt long overdue.” Attorneys for both sides will appear in Los Angeles
Superior Court on Monday to file the settlement, which must be approved by a judge. The deal will be the
largest settlement by any Roman Catholic archdiocese to sex abuse victims in the United States.
Abuse cases across the country [verb] Roman Catholic churches around 2.1 billion dollars to date.
Several priests have been convicted and at least four dioceses have gone bankrupt paying civil penalties.
The Los Angeles church is expected to sell off assets from its estimated four billion dollar real estate
holdings to pay for the settlement. The church had already settled 46 cases in December for 60 million
dollars.
John Manly, a lawyer who represented around 50 victims who now stand to receive payouts of 1.2-1.3
million dollars each, told AFP the archdiocese had settled to avoid the embarrassment of a court case.
Manly said the release of internal documents as part of the settlement would raise questions over the
leadership of Mahony. “I think when people see the documents and see what he knew and what he did they
will be stunned,” Manly told AFP.
Victims accuse Mahony of allegedly covering up evidence of child molestation by transferring priests to
other churches and for trying to keep the abuse reports secret. “Cardinal Mahony paying out money is
great, but where is the accountability from the hierarchy of the church?”, Manly said. “They will continue
their lives as normal; the victims still have to deal with a lifetime of problems.” Manly questioned why
Mahony had not been held to account. “If what transpired under his leadership was bad enough to pay a
half billion dollars, why is he still walking free, and why hasn’t the district attorney taken action against
him?”, Manly said.
Barbara Blaine, the leader of Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP), a nationwide
victims support group, meanwhile called the settlement “wonderful news for all the victims”. She praised
the “brave victims, compassionate lawmakers and victims’ attorneys, who took hard, uncertain cases and
overcame seemingly endless hardball tactics by bishops” to win the case.
Blaine said she believed the church had settled not out of compassion, but to avoid disclosing “under
oath, in open court, how much [genitive case] knew about and how little they did about pedophile priests,
nuns, brothers and seminarians”. Blaine said she hoped the church documents detailing the abuse cases
would expose the truth. “No amount [preposition 1] money can give the victims back their lost innocence
and stolen childhoods, but hopefully this will put some closure on a very painful part of their lives,” she
said. The Los Angeles settlement dwarfs figures from other cases. The previous biggest payout was
[preposition 2] Boston, where victims accepted a deal worth 157 million dollars.
Adapted from http://news.yahoo.com/
1. The correct form of [pronoun] in the text is:
a) its
b) their
c) theirs
d) yours
e) your
Answer: A
2. The correct forms of [article 1] and [article 2] are, respectively:
a) the – the
b) the – a
c) the – an
d) no article – an
e) no article – the
Answer: C
3. The correct form of [verb] is:
a) have costing
b) has costed
c) has cost
d) have costed
e) have cost
Answer: E
4. The correct form of [genitive case] is:
a) the churche’s corporate officials
b) the church’s corporate officials
c) the church corporate’s officials
d) the churchs’ corporate’s officials
e) the church’s corporate’s officials’
Answer: B
5. The correct forms of [preposition 1] and [preposition 2] are, respectively:
a) of – in
b) of – at
c) from – in
d) from – at
e) by – from
Answer: A
6. In the fragment:
“Archdiocese head Cardinal Roger Mahony – who has been accused by angry victims of
attempting to cover up pedophilia cases during his reign – told a press conference that the
cases should never have happened.”
The relative pronoun WHO:
a) está correto e não admite qualquer substituição.
b) está correto, mas pode ser substituído por that.
c) está correto, mas pode ser substituído por whom.
d) está incorreto e deve ser substituído por whom.
e) está incorreto e deve ser substituído por whose.
Answer: A
7. In the fragment “The deal will be the largest settlement by any Roman Catholic
archdiocese to sex abuse victims in the United States”, the indefinite pronoun ANY
means, in Portuguese:
a) algum
b) alguma
c) nenhum
d) nada
e) qualquer
Answer: E
8. Which of the following sentences does not contain at least one false cognate word?
a) The Roman Catholic Church in Los Angeles apologized Sunday to hundreds of people sexually
abused...
b) The deal will be the largest settlement by any Roman Catholic archdiocese to sex abuse victims in
the United States.
c) The Los Angeles church is expected to sell off assets from its estimated four billion dollar real estate
holdings to pay for the settlement.
d) Victims accuse Mahony of allegedly covering up evidence of child molestation by transferring
priests to other churches...
e) Barbara Blaine, the leader of Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP), a nationwide
victims support group, meanwhile called the settlement “wonderful news for all the victims”.
Answer: D
9. The pronouns HE and THEIR in the sentence “Mahony said he was haunted by the
fact that victims would never be able to reclaim their innocence” refer, respectively, to:
a) Roger Mahony – innocence
b) Roger Mahony – victims
c) Roger Mahony – fact
d) fact – victims
e) fact – innocence
Answer: B
10. According to the text:
a) Hundreds of pedophile priests, nuns, brothers and seminarians are being sued for having sexually
abused a few people.
b) If the Church apologizes for their actions, the 660-million-dollar settlement will not have to be paid.
c) Several priests have already been condemned due to their involvement in sexual abuse cases.
d) The Los Angeles church will sell an estimated four-billion-dollar property in order to pay its debts.
e) Archdiocese head Cardinal Roger Mahony is being sued by the victims that he himself abused.
Answer: C
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 38: Nobel prize: Liu honored in absentia

Liu Xiaobo and his wife Liu Xia in an undated photo | Reuters
(Oslo, Norway) – Clapping solemnly, dignitaries in Norway celebrated this year’s Nobel Peace Prize
winner, imprisoned Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo, with an empty chair.
Friday’s ceremony was the first time in 74 years the award was not handed over. Liu wasn’t able to
collect the prestigious $1.4 million award in Oslo on Friday because he is being held in a Chinese prison.
China was infuriated when the 54-year-old literary critic won. He is serving an 11-year prison sentence
on subversion charges for urging sweeping changes to Beijing’s one-party communist political system.
In Beijing, both CNN and BBC TV went black at 8 p.m. local time, exactly when the Oslo ceremony
was taking place. Security outside Liu’s apartment in Beijing was heavy and several dozen journalists
were herded away by uniformed police to a cordoned-off area.
The last time a Nobel Peace Prize was not handed out was in 1936, when Adolf Hitler prevented
German pacifist Carl von ​Ossietzky from accepting his award.
China has also pressured foreign diplomats to stay away from the Nobel ceremony. China and 17 other
countries have declined to attend, including Russia, Pakistan, Iran, Venezuela and Cuba. At least 46 of the
65 countries with embassies in Oslo accepted invitations. Serbia, which previously said it would stay
away, announced Thursday it would now attend.
Some 1,000 guests, including ambassadors, royalty and other VIPs took their seats in Oslo’s modernist
City Hall for the two-hour ceremony, among them U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and U.S.
Ambassador Barry White. About 100 Chinese dissidents in exile and some activists from Hong Kong
were also attending.
Chinese dissident Wan Yanhai, the only one on a list of 140 activists in China invited by Liu’s wife to
attend the ceremony, said the jubilation felt by many at Liu’s honor will be tinged with sadness.
“I believe many people will cry, because everything he has done did not do any harm to the country and
the people in the world. He just fulfilled his responsibility,” Wan told The Associated Press. “But he
suffered a lot of pain for his speeches, journals and advocacy of rights.”
Wan managed to travel to Oslo because he fled to the United States in May after Chinese authorities
increased their harassment of his AIDS advocacy group.
Before the ceremony, 2,000 schoolchildren gathered outside city hall in a display of appreciation for
Liu. Some handed letters to Norwegian Nobel Committee Chairman Thorbjoern Jagland, hoping he could
convey their greetings to the jailed laureate.
Jagland said awarding the prize to Liu was not “a prize against China”, and he urged Beijing that as a
world power it “should become used to being debated and criticized”.
Outside Parliament, the Norwegian-Chinese Association held a pro-China rally with a handful of
people proclaiming the committee had made a mistake in awarding the prize to Liu.
The Nobel Peace Prize can be collected only by the laureate or close family members. Cold War
dissidents Andrei Sakharov of the Soviet Union and Lech Walesa of Poland were able to have their wives
collect the prizes for them. Myanmar democracy activist Aung San Suu Kyi’s award was accepted by her
18-year-old son in 1991.
The ceremony in Oslo will be followed by a torchlight parade through Oslo’s streets and a banquet
hosted by Norwegian King Harald and Queen Sonja.
In the Swedish capital of Stockholm, the other Nobel laureates were to be honored in a separate
ceremony Friday. Winners in literature, physics, chemistry and economics will receive their awards from
Sweden’s King Carl XVI Gustaf, followed by another lavish dinner.
In Berlin, Chancellor Angela Merkel’s spokesman noted that Friday is International Human Rights Day
and said the German government will continue to press for Liu’s release.
“It is fitting that, on just this day, in Liu Xiaobo a man is being honored with the Nobel Peace Prize
__________ has worked courageously for political freedom and human rights,” Christoph Steegmans
said. Germany “regrets that Liu Xiaobo was not allowed to take part personally in the award ceremony”.
On Thursday, about 100 protesters chanting “Freedom to Liu! Freedom for China!” marched to the
Chinese Embassy in Oslo but were thwarted by police from delivering a petition with more than 100,000
signatures urging Liu’s release from prison.
By AP/Bjoern H. Amland Friday, Dec. 10, 2010
Adapted from http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2036255,00.html
1. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) For the first time the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to a laureate inside a prison.
( ) Liu Xiaobo has already served 11 years of his term.
( ) Liu was convicted after declaring his dissatisfaction with the Communist Party guidelines.
( ) The award was given to the laureate against the Chinese authorities’ will.
Answer: E, E, E, E
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The awarding ceremony was broadcast to China.
( ) Many Liu’s supporters shouted protests against the police outside his apartment.
( ) Reporters had to be isolated near Liu’s apartment in order to avoid turmoil.
( ) Carl von Ossietzky and Liu Xiaobo did not receive their awards for practically the same reason.
Answer: C, E, E, E
3. The word attend (6th paragraph) means:
a) show up.
b) oversee.
c) usher.
d) heed.
e) take on.
Answer: A
4. The words some and about (7th paragraph) can be best replaced by:
a) virtually.
b) boldly.
c) roughly.
d) fiercely.
e) thoroughly.
Answer: C
5. It can be inferred from the text that:
a) Chinese diplomats were forbidden to attend the Nobel Prize ceremony.
b) Almost fifty ambassadors attended the ceremony in Oslo.
c) Wan Yanhai declared the happiness for Liu’s prize would be replaced by the grief of his absence.
d) Liu’s attitudes did not harm China, but the Chinese people.
e) Wan had to run away from China in order to avoid being arrested by the Chinese government.
Answer: E
6. Based on the text judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below:
( ) harassment (10th paragraph) and badgering are synonyms.
( ) greetings refers to letters in the 11th paragraph.
( ) it “should become used to being debated and criticized” (12th paragraph) is an example of passive
voice.
( ) handful (13th paragraph) is a noun.
Answer: C, E, C, C
7. The word lavish (16th paragraph) cannot be replaced by:
a) scanty.
b) bountiful.
c) plentiful.
d) profuse.
e) lush.
Answer: A
8. In accordance with the text:
a) No one besides the laureate can receive his award.
b) China thinks it should not receive critics just because it is a superpower.
c) The Chinese government believes they are being persecuted by Western countries.
d) The German government lamented Liu’s absence during the award ceremony.
e) In China, Liu’s supporters were arrested for having asked his liberation.
Answer: D
9. The word thwarted (last paragraph) can be replaced by:
a) imprisoned.
b) hindered.
c) seized.
d) caught.
e) charged.
Answer: B
10. Fill in the gap in the fragment below taken from the 18th paragraph:
It is fitting that, on just this day, in Liu Xiaobo a man is being honored with the Nobel Peace
Prize __________ has worked courageously for political freedom and human rights,
a) who
b) whom
c) whose
d) what
e) which
Answer: A
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 39: ___________________

In the summer of 1912 Harry Houdini was clapped in manacles and leg-irons, stuffed into a crate that
had been weighed down by lead, and dropped from a tugboat into New York’s East River. Less than a
minute later, he was free. That, more or less, is the trick Barack Obama is currently trying to copy.
Of course, Mr Obama has not been tossed overboard literally. But consider his trajectory so far. He
campaigned in poetry (2008), governed in prose (2009) and then the wheels fell off his presidency.
Although 2010 brought legislative gains, including the great prize of health reform, the year was
bracketed by political losses. At its beginning he lost his supermajority in the Senate. By its end he had
lost his majority in the House. An immobilised president who lacks the numbers to put his measures
through Congress might just as well be trussed up in a crate.
Unless he is an escapologist, __________. Well before November’s mid-term shellacking turfed the
Democratic majority out of the House, Obama-watchers wondered whether this president had the
ideological flexibility to do what Bill Clinton did in the same predicament after the mid-terms of 1994.
Now, after the tax deal Mr Obama struck last week with the Republican leadership, under which the
“temporary” Bush-era tax reductions that were supposed to expire on December 31st look set to be
extended for everyone, they have at least the beginning of an answer. Like Mr Clinton, this man can turn
on a dime.
Mr Obama promised repeatedly to increase taxes on the rich (ie, individuals earning more than
$200,000 and couples earning more than $250,000). How does he justify changing his mind? Simple:
politics is the art of the possible, elections have consequences and the Democrats lacked the numbers they
needed (the Senate had tried and failed) to keep the tax reduction in place for poorer Americans but let
them expire for the rich.
If he __________, he says, the Republicans __________ everyone’s taxes rise – a blow not only to
taxpayers but also to economic growth. Besides, to sweeten the bitter medicine, Mr Obama managed in
his negotiations to attach a mini-stimulus that the Republicans would never otherwise have countenanced.
All of this makes perfect sense. But it makes the sort of sense that in the 1950s inspired Nye Bevan, a
firebrand on the left of Britain’s Labour Party, to describe the centrist Hugh Gaitskell as a “desiccated
calculating machine”. Like Gaitskell, Mr Obama now stands accused by his own party’s bitter
progressives of lacking fire, fight, principle and backbone. “Hardly __________ in the Democratic
caucus here feels that the president tried hard enough to deliver on his campaign promises,” said Alan
Grayson of Florida. Mr Obama did not help his cause with the left by lashing out at “sanctimonious”
purists who would prefer to feel good themselves than do what was good for the people.
If you are a president who has just suffered the political equivalent of being stuffed in a crate and
dropped in a river, does it make sense to antagonise your own party this way? Maybe. When faced with
impasse, wriggling through the middle does not have to be dishonourable. It can even lead to political
recovery.
It was presumably to make this point that Mr Obama invited Mr Clinton, the consummate comeback kid,
to a press conference at the White House, where the old charmer and pioneer of “triangulation”
pronounced the tax compromise “a good deal” and told a new generation of political reporters that
“there’s never a perfect bipartisan bill in the eyes of a partisan”.
Mr Obama’s good fortune is that it is not only progressives who find the deal unpalatable.
Conservatives hate it too. Charles Krauthammer, an influential columnist, calls it “the swindle of the
year”: the artless Republicans let Mr Obama smuggle in a huge new stimulus, bigger than the first, just in
time for his re-election bid in 2012. Mitt Romney, seeking the Republican nomination once again, is
unhappy that the tax cuts have not been made permanent. Tea-partiers hate the burden on the deficit.
Senator Jim DeMint of South Carolina complains that the deal “raises the death tax” (in fact it would
reinstate the estate tax, suspended in 2010 only, at a lower level than planned).
If Mr Obama’s luck holds, the passionate intensity of the conservatives might just cancel out that of the
progressives and so affirm, in the eyes of the majority in the centre, his own claim to be reaching for
precious common ground in the tricky terrain of divided government.
That cannot be what Mitch McConnell and John Boehner, the Republican leaders in Congress, intended
when they made their deal with the president. But, having made it, they too risk losing face if they allow it
to unravel.
Can we see you do that again?
Houdini performed his trick for startled audiences over and over again. Mr Obama will find doing this
harder. The incoming Republicans have no interest in allowing him a repeat performance, and there is a
limit to the number of times a president seeking re-election can trample on the feelings of his own party.
Besides, to win re-election in 2012 Mr Obama needs to prove that he is more than an escapologist or a
calculating machine. Some of the fire, fight, principle and backbone that has gone missing since the
inspiring campaign of 2008 has to become visible again. He has said recently that he is guided by a “north
star”, that America is passing through another “Sputnik moment”*, that he intends to reform the tax code
and tackle the deficit. But none of this has yet cohered into a clear vision for the next two years. Even his
shrinking band of steadfast supporters worries now that, along with his loss of the House and the fraying
of his coalition, Mr Obama has lost his sense of direction.
He had better disabuse them soon. The British might occasionally elect a desiccated calculating
machine. Americans expect something more.
Adapted from http://www.economist.com/node/17733401?story_id=17733401&fsrc=scn/tw/te/rss/pe
* Sputnik moment: A Sputnik moment is a point where people realise that they are threatened or
challenged and have to redouble their efforts to catch up. It comes from the time when the Soviet Union
launched the first satellite, the Sputnik 1, and beat the USA into space.
From http://www.usingenglish.com/reference/idioms/sputnik+moment.html
1. Translate the following words into Portuguese.
a) Clap ______________________
b) Crate ______________________
c) Bracket ______________________
d) Truss up ______________________
e) Shellacking ______________________
f) Budge ______________________
g) Lash out ______________________
h) Wriggle ______________________
i) Unpalatable ______________________
j) Swindle ______________________
k) Unravel ______________________
l) Startled ______________________
Answer: a) colocar; b) caixote; c) associar; d) amarrar; e) derrota; f) mudar de opinião; g)
atacar; h) contorcer-se, retorcer-se; i) desagradável, intragável; j) manobra, trapaça; k)
desemaranhar; l) espantado
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Barack Obama intends to use old tricks in order to solve the American crisis.
( ) Obama’s situation is indeed very similar to Houdini’s.
( ) Since 2008, Obama’s status has been decaying.
( ) Political misfortunes characterized Obama’s term in 2010.
Answer: E, E, E, C
3. The gap in the 4th paragraph must be correctly filled with:
a) that is
b) that’s why
c) that’s because
d) so that
e) and that’s that
Answer: A
4. In accordance with the text:
a) Barack Obama deals with the hardships of his term similarly to Bill Clinton.
b) Obama had to extend a Bush-era temporary tax policy in order to keep the economy running.
c) Both Obama and Clinton changed their minds to solve tax policy issues.
d) People who earn between $200,000 and $250,000 will pay fewer taxes in 2011 in comparison to
2010.
e) Poorer people will pay fewer taxes in 2011 in comparison to 2010.
Answer: C
5. Fill in the gaps in the 6th paragraph:
If he __________, he says, the Republicans __________ everyone’s taxes rise.
a) had to budge – would not have let
b) has not budged – would have let
c) has to budge – would not have let
d) had budged – would let
e) had not budged – would have let
Answer: E
6. Complete the following fragment taken from the 7th paragraph:
Hardly __________ in the Democratic caucus here feels that the president tried hard enough
to deliver on his campaign promises.
a) no one
b) anybody
c) nobody
d) someone
e) none
Answer: B
7. Judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following contextual references:
( ) its (3rd paragraph) refers to 2010.
( ) this man (4th paragraph) refers to Obama.
( ) the swindle of the year (10th paragraph) refers to the deal.
( ) them (last paragraph) refers to his shrinking band of steadfast supporters.
Answer: C, C, C, C
8. Which of the following words taken from the text cannot be considered a false
cognate?
a) currently
b) fortune
c) audiences
d) supporters
e) estate
Answer: A
9. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Very few people believe Barack Obama has been doing his best so far to put in practice the pledges
he made before the elections.
( ) Charles Krauthammer, Mitt Romney and Jim DeMint are declared Tea-partiers.
( ) Mitch McConnell and John Boehner have lost status for defending Obama’s tax policy.
( ) The number of Obama’s advocates has been lessening.
Answer: C, E, E, C
10. Choose the most suitable title for the text:
a) He needs more than magic to solve the crisis
b) Obama appeals to old tricks to save the economy
c) He needs a lot more than one minute to set himself free
d) Can Houdini teach something to Obama?
e) Will magic tricks help Obama to save the economy?
Answer: C
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 12.
TEXT 40: Emergency drill evokes memories of Sept. 11
New York – It was an emergency drill, yet the scene of hundreds of firefighters, police officers and
other first responders hustling around the World Trade Center site Sunday evoked the aftermath of the
Sept. 11, 2001 attacks.
Firefighters carried oxygen tanks, hoses and heavy axes into an underground train station, while police
and other emergency personnel helped those playing injured – all part of a large disaster response
exercise at ground zero.
More than 800 first responders participated in Sunday’s mock terrorist attack, which simulated an
explosion on a New Jersey-bound PATH commuter train in a tunnel. The police, firefighters and other
emergency personnel joined about 150 volunteers, who posed as injured passengers smudged
__________ grime and fake blood.
The hundreds of first responders represented the largest police and firefighter presence at the trade
center site since the aftermath of Sept. 11, 2001. The purpose of the drill was to improve interagency
cooperation in the event of a real disaster.
“The __________ for today is: You can never be too prepared,” said Chris Ward, executive director of
the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which runs area transit hubs and owns the trade center
site. “We will evaluate how well we did prepare, how well we performed, find wherever we did make
mistakes and how we can improve.”
PATH service was suspended during the exercise, and streets around the trade center site were blocked
off.
Participating agencies included New York City’s police and fire departments and its Office of
Emergency Management and Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, as well as the police department
of the Port Authority, which operates the PATH trains.
“The main thing we’re trying to evaluate is the ability of all these agencies to work together,” said
Joseph Bruno, New York City’s commissioner of emergency management. Poor communication and
jurisdictional infighting between the police and fire departments impeded rescue efforts when the twin
towers were struck in 2001, and Bruno said he was confident that the departments are better at working
together now.
“I think we are at a totally different place than we were at the time of that incident, and that’s good,” he
said.
Firefighters went into the PATH tunnel to extinguish fires caused by the drill’s explosions and to rescue
passengers. There were 10 fake fatalities. Most of the injured passengers were able to walk out of the
station, but about 20 were carried out on red stretchers.
Chief Joseph Pfeifer, head of counterterrorism for the Fire Department of New York, said firefighters
used lightweight aluminum carts that fit onto train tracks to transport the most severely injured. He said
the carts were developed after the July 7, 2005, bombings on the London subway system because “it’s
very labor intensive to carry someone out”.
Officials bought television ads and plastered train stations with posters to warn downtown Manhattan
residents of the drill. The warnings for those in the area came after a Department of Defense-arranged
flyover by a jet above downtown Manhattan last month panicked thousands of Wall Street workers and
residents.
Adapted from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/30796146/
[with alterations]
1. Mark the synonyms according to the context:
a) drill ( ) practice ( ) dig
b) aftermath ( ) occurrence ( ) afterwards
c) purpose ( ) score ( ) goal
d) improve ( ) better ( ) worsen
e) as well as ( ) but ( ) along with
f) main ( ) secondary ( ) leading
g) struck ( ) hit ( ) shaken
h) stretchers ( ) litters ( ) tourniquets
i) residents ( ) dwellers ( ) tenants
j) warnings ( ) news ( ) notices
Answer: a) practice, b) occurrence, c) goal, d) better, e) along with, f) leading, g) hit, h) litters,
i) dwellers, j) notices
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) New York suffered a new terrorist attack.
( ) Some volunteers were hurt during a military exercise.
( ) Volunteers made firefighters and police officers up with fake blood.
( ) The incident occurred in New York was actually a fake alarm.
( ) The emergency drill recalled the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks.
Answer: E, E, E, E, C
3. Which question cannot be answered by the text?
a) Why was the exercise done?
b) What kind of equipment was used during the drill?
c) How many streets were obstructed during the drill?
d) Who is the head of the PATH?
e) How was the population warned about the exercise?
Answer: C
4. What hindered the salvation actions during the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks?
a) The deficient articulation of the agencies involved.
b) The volunteers’ lack of attention.
c) The lack of equipments such as oxygen tanks, hoses and stretchers.
d) The absence of well-trained emergency personnel.
e) The absence of leadership among the firefighters and the police officers.
Answer: A
5. In the 1st paragraph, the word yet is being used with the same meaning as in:
a) Of all the songs I’ve heard tonight, that’s the best yet.
b) We haven’t needed extra staff as yet, but may do in the future.
c) She won’t be back for a long time yet.
d) This is one possible solution to the problem. Yet, there are others.
e) Rachel bought yet another pair of shoes to add to her collection.
Answer: D
6. In the sentences “The police, firefighters and other emergency personnel joined
about 150 volunteers” (3rd paragraph) and “Most of the injured passengers were able to
walk out of the station, but about 20 were carried out on red stretchers” (10th
paragraph), the word about cannot be replaced by:
a) some.
b) within.
c) approximately.
d) almost.
e) roughly.
Answer: B
7. The adjective possessive pronoun its (7th paragraph) refers to:
a) Office of Emergency Management.
b) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
c) New York City’s police department.
d) New York City’s fire department.
e) New York City.
Answer: E
8. In the text, PATH is:
a) a slang.
b) an idiom.
c) an acronym.
d) an abbreviation.
e) a neologism.
Answer: C
9. Joseph Bruno:
a) is former New York City’s commissioner of emergency management.
b) said the training is resulting in the improvement of the rescue strategies.
c) stated the training will avoid new terrorist attacks in the United States.
d) thinks the disagreement between cops and firefighters does not hinder rescue efforts.
e) confirmed ten people died during the exercise.
Answer: B
10. From the last paragraph we can infer that:
a) signs were spread throughout downtown train stations to warn the citizens of a rescue exercise.
b) pamphlets warning about a military drill were thrown over the city by a Department of Defense
airplane.
c) TV ads and posters announced the new strategies of the government to fight against the terrorism.
d) Manhattan citizens ran scared after a plane crashed a building in Wall Street.
e) a Department of Defense jet intercepted a terrorist attack in Manhattan.
Answer: A
11. Which option fills in the gap in the 3rd paragraph correctly?
a) over
b) within
c) with
d) by
e) between
Answer: C
12. The gap in the 5th paragraph must be filled with:
a) jargon.
b) speech.
c) quotation.
d) proverb.
e) motto.
Answer: E
Read the text and answer the following question.
TEXT 41: Pity the Christian Arabs
[Subtitle]
Miriam Fekry, a 22-year-old Egyptian, savored her life as she updated her Facebook page. “2010 is
over. This year has the best memories of my life. Really enjoyed this year. I hope that 2011 is much better.
Plz God stay beside me & help make it all true.” She was to die coming out of New Year’s Eve mass at
St. Mark and St. Peter Church in her hometown of Alexandria. More than a score of her fellow Copts
were killed, and about a hundred wounded, in the most brazen deed of terror against the Coptic minority.
The Copts are of course rooted in Egypt; the very word itself, in Arabic, once designated the Egyptians
as a whole. Islam had found them there when it came to Egypt in the seventh century. A majority of them
went over to Islam, and the Coptic and Greek ​languages yielded to Arabic. A 10th of the population would
stay true to the Coptic faith. Yet today, in one of the great intellectual swindles, they are made to feel
unwanted, interlopers in their own homeland.
Two months earlier, a church in Baghdad was assaulted by terrorists, and 46 worshipers perished.
Christianity is embattled in the lands of its birth. In a recent study of exquisite quality, Habib Malik, a
Lebanese philosopher and historian, sounded an alarm. In his book Islamism and the Future of the
Christians of the Middle East, published by the Hoover Institution, Malik conveyed the moral and
philosophical passion of a Christian Arab of deep liberalism worried about the fate of the Christians all
around him. In times past, Western gunboats and envoys and the educational and religious missions of
Western powers had concerned themselves with the fate of the Christians of the East. Consulates in the
Levant provided a shield for local Christians. Jerusalem was dubbed a kingdom of the consuls. But the
world has been remade, and the Christians of the East have to fend for themselves.
The terror that hit Alexandria did not come out of the blue. Islamists have been sowing the wind, and the
Egyptian state, interested only in the prerogatives of the pharaoh and his retainers, has stepped out of the
way. There is no end to the charges hurled at the Copts. In the dark fantasies, the Copts, friends of the
Zionists and tools of America, are hellbent on a state of their own in rural upper Egypt, where there is a
heavy Coptic concentration.
It is said that they use churches to store weapons. In truth, the Copts walk on eggshells, eager not to
offend. They are denied elementary communal rights: they are forbidden to repair their churches, let alone
use them as hiding places for arms.
As the dream of modernity in Egypt has faded, there has settled upon that crowded land a deep sense of
disillusion – and bigotry. Egyptians were once proud of the openness of their country. Their identity was
eclectic. Europe began at Alexandria, Asia at Cairo, and Africa at Aswan. The pillars of their civilization
were Pharaonic, Coptic, Greco-Roman, and Islamic. The world, in its richness, could be found in Egypt,
and Alexandria itself was the hedonistic city celebrated by Lawrence Durrell in his timeless quartet. One
does not have to be unduly old, or unduly nostalgic, to recall that Egypt. But the radical Islamists, and the
multitudes that wink at them, are a different breed. For that kind of open world, the forces of darkness
have nothing but searing enmity.
Once upon a time, E. M. Forster described the Egyptians as a people used to “harmonizing contending
assertions”. But the pressures on this crowded land and the brittle ways of a military autocracy have
swept away so much of Egypt’s promise. The Copts have taken to the streets of late; they have crossed the
threshold of fear. But the autocracy is entrenched, and so are its ways of evasion and denial – and outright
repression.
Pity the Christian Arabs. They were the pioneers of Arab nationalism. In the late years of the 19th
century, they led an Arab renaissance. The manifesto of Arab nationalism, The Arab Awakening, was
written in 1938 by George Antonius, born in Lebanon to the Greek Orthodox faith and raised in
Alexandria in the years of its economic boom. The principal theorist of the Baath party was a Greek
Orthodox Syrian by the name of Michel Aflaq. The examples can be multiplied. The Christian Arabs were
sure that a new age of Arab enlightenment would make room for them. How tragically wrong they were.
Adapted from http://www.newsweek.com/2011/01/16/pity-the-christian-arabs.html
Judge the following items in accordance with the text – right (C) or wrong (E).
1. ( ) Miriam Fekry was murdered owing to her facebook ads.
2. ( ) Miriam Fekry along with more than twenty of her fellow Copts were killed during a New Year’s
Eve party.
3. ( ) The gap [subtitle] can be correctly filled with “Who will protect them from Islamist assault?”.
4. ( ) The word “Copts” was once used to refer to the Egyptian people in general.
5. ( ) The foreign Copts are not welcome in Egypt.
6. ( ) Almost fifty prayers were killed during a robbery in a church in Baghdad.
7. ( ) In the sentence “The terror that hit Alexandria did not come out of the blue” (4th paragraph), the
underlined expression means “from an unexpected or unforeseen source”.
8. ( ) The Egypt of the past is glowingly recalled by the older citizens.
9. ( ) The word “bigotry” (6th paragraph) means the same as fanaticism.
10. ( ) The word “brittle” (7th paragraph) means the same as resilient.
Answer: 1 – E; 2 – E; 3 – C; 4 – C; 5 – E; 6 – E; 7 – C; 8 – E; 9 – C; 10 – E
Read the text and answer the following question.
TEXT 42: China’s tough new attitude is both dangerous and counterproductive
What has happened to the “harmonious world” that China’s president, Hu Jintao, once championed?
Where is the charm offensive that was meant to underpin it? Recent revelations about its military
programmes are the latest Chinese moves to have unsettled the world. Strip the charm from Chinese
diplomacy and only the offensive is left. Sino-American relations* are at their lowest ebb since a Chinese
fighter collided with an American EP-3 spyplane a decade ago.
In the past few weeks China has made a splash with progress on an anti-ship missile and a stealth
fighter jet. Every country has legitimate interests and the right to spend money defending them, especially
a growing power like China. But [gap 1] their purpose is defensive, such weapons will inevitably alarm
America and China’s neighbours. In the harmonious world China says it seeks, assertiveness needs to be
matched with reassurance and explanation.
Yet China undermined the confidence-building visit this week to Beijing of Robert Gates, America’s
defence secretary, when it staged a test flight of the new jet. It was an unfortunate curtain-raiser for the
visit of China’s president, Hu Jintao, to Washington on January 18th.
Sino-American relations have been deteriorating for a year. On his first visit to China in 2009 President
Barack Obama was treated with disdain, and the Chinese government reacted with fury when he
sanctioned arms sales to Taiwan that were neither a surprise nor game-changing and saw the Dalai Lama
– also routine for American presidents. China broke off military-to-military contacts and officials
suddenly stopped returning American diplomats’ calls.
Tensions have also been growing with neighbours that China was once careful to cultivate. China has
more forcefully asserted sovereignty over great swathes of the South China Sea. It overreacted after a
Chinese trawler rammed a Japanese coastguard vessel in contested waters controlled by Japan. It got into
a spat with India over visas for Kashmiri residents. And it failed to condemn the North Korean sinking of
a South Korean corvette and the shelling of a South Korean island. Even Africa, once extremely friendly
to China, is having doubts. Anger in Zambia is growing over Chinese managers who shot at mine workers.
[gap 2] a single incident sparked the spyplane crisis, today’s tensions are the culmination of lots of
different things. China’s new raw-knuckle diplomacy is partly the consequence of a rowdy debate raging
inside China about how the country should exercise its new-found power. The liberal, internationalist
wing of the establishment, always small, has been drowned out by a nativist movement, fanned by the
internet, which mistrusts an American-led international order. Western hawks conclude that China has
broken with the pragmatic engagement it has followed for three decades. Its tough new line, they say,
warrants an equally tough response.
Don’t underestimate America
China’s recent behaviour is in part the product of a miscalculation, dating from the global financial
crisis. Many Chinese believe that America’s power has gone into an inexorable decline. Chinese leaders’
preoccupation with sweeping changes to the Communist Party hierarchy in 2012 may be helping to
reinforce this belief. At a time of domestic uncertainty, running down the foreign opposition is popular.
America is certainly losing clout in relative terms, but it will remain the world’s most fearsome military
power for a very long time. If China behaves as though America is weak, and seeks to push back its
power, a querulous but well-tended relationship could slide into competition and confrontation and bring
about a cold-war stand-off or rivalry for influence in neighbouring states. Already, China’s tough new
attitude is having an effect. America has redoubled its commitment to policing the South China Sea. Japan
and South Korea have just announced closer defence co-operation. This does not serve China’s interests.
Mr Hu needs to counter rabid anti-Americanism at home by acknowledging the stabilising role the
United States plays in the region, from which, indeed, China gets a huge free ride in the form of safe sea
lanes and vast supplies of Middle East oil. And he should use his visit to America to reassure Mr Obama
that pragmatic engagement still holds. He needs to show the world an open, confident face of a rising
China. And though Communist leaders don’t “do” apologies, Mr Hu must persuade the world that a
prickly year has been an aberration.
Adapted from http://www.economist.com/node/17902953?fsrc=scn/tw/te/ar/chinapolicy
* Sino-American or People’s Republic of China – United States relations: It refers to international
relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the United States of America (USA). Most
analysts have characterized present Sino-American relations as complex and multi-faceted. The United
States and the People’s Republic of China are usually neither allies nor enemies. Generally, the U.S.
government and military establishment do not regard the Chinese as an adversary, but as a competitor in
some areas and a partner in others.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-American_relations
Judge the following items in accordance with the text – right (C) or wrong (E).
1. ( ) The questions made in the 1st paragraph of the text were used to express the author’s
dissatisfaction with Hu Jintao’s policies.
2. ( ) The verbs “to champion” and “to underpin” (1st paragraph) can be replaced by to support.
3. ( ) From the sentence “Strip the charm from Chinese diplomacy and only the offensive is left” (1st
paragraph) we can infer that, despite the efficiency of its corps diplomatique, the Chinese government
deals with its foreign affairs in a disrespectful way.
4. ( ) The [gap 1] must be correctly filled with even if.
5. ( ) The suffix -ness (as used in the word “assertiveness” – 2nd paragraph) can also be used in ready.
6. ( ) The sentence “Yet China undermined the confidence-building visit this week to Beijing of Robert
Gates (…) when it staged a test flight of the new jet” (3rd paragraph) contains an idea of concession.
7. ( ) China has not approved the summit between Barack Obama and the Dalai Lama and therefore
decided to cut straight military and diplomatic relationships with the United States.
8. ( ) The prefix over- (as used in the word “overreacted” – 5nd paragraph) can also be used in
burdened.
9. ( ) The [gap 2] must be correctly filled with whereas.
10. ( ) From the last sentence of the text – “Mr Hu must persuade the world that a prickly year has been
an aberration” – it can be inferred that China’s recent behavior towards its foreign affairs is at odds
with the actual intentions of the country: become an opener economy and a more reliable political
partner.
Answer: 1 – E; 2 – C; 3 – E; 4 – C; 5 – C; 6 – E; 7 – E; 8 – C; 9 – C; 10 – E
Read the text and answer the following question.
TEXT 43: A speech that changed history
American military power has always provoked mixed reactions from the rest of the world. It has also
been a source of deep ambivalence at home, as a deft new book on President Dwight Eisenhower shows.
Unwarranted Influence: Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Military-Industrial Complex examines the
leader’s 1961 farewell address to the American people*, which bequeathed the phrase “military-
industrial complex” to the world’s political lexicon. Author James Ledbetter, editor of Reuters.com, uses
Eisenhower’s speech as a springboard to explore the modern links between war, big business, and the
U.S. government, as well as attempts to reconcile these (often lucrative) relationships with American
democratic ideals. He also offers a valuable meditation on the difficulty of understanding the intentions
behind (and predicting the impact of) any landmark political oratory.
Unwarranted Influence is the latest in a worthwhile genre aimed at examining major, history-changing
speeches (the most famous being Garry Wills’s Lincoln at Gettysburg**). __________ [I] other books of
its kind, Ledbetter’s is structured __________ [II] an hourglass, with the speech __________ [III] the
neck that links the contexts, forces, and individuals involved in its concoction to the interpretations and
real-world consequences it generates. (The reader ought to first tackle Eisenhower’s address, reprinted in
an appendix, before starting the book.)
At the top of Ledbetter’s hourglass: ideas that developed between the 1920s and 1950s about the
terrifying and total impact of war on society (including “merchants of death” and “the garrison state”) and
that formed the mulch from which Eisenhower’s speech grew. (Ledbetter might well have extended his
analysis further back in time to discuss the age-old fear of standing armies and permanent military
establishments that agitated U.S. politics from the Revolution through the Civil War.) The author also
offers insights into how these ideas – usually associated with the left – became touchstones of postwar
U.S. political rhetoric, influencing even a conservative war hero turned president.
After setting up the ideological background for Eisenhower’s speech, Unwarranted Influence turns to
the orator himself. Among the book’s many virtues is its thoughtful portrayal of the president (including
his little-known stint as a War Department speechwriter) and his evolving ideas on war and peace.
Ledbetter’s Eisenhower is a realist – all too aware of the human costs of war; skeptical of political,
technological, or economic quick “fixes” for problems of daunting complexity; and open to ideas and
arguments from a wide range of sources beyond the bounds of his own party. (It is a shock, and a pleasant
one, to learn that the stalwart Republican read and pondered editorials by noted liberal journalist Norman
Cousins, and that the two enjoyed an intermittent correspondence.)
Unwarranted Influence also recaptures Eisenhower’s troubled second term, and his sense of urgency
about distilling his political legacy and giving some final, informed counsel to the American people. That
counsel, delivered in January 1961, stressed the need for balance, a key virtue in Eisenhower’s thinking.
Above all, it sought to demonstrate the need for a wise balance between American liberties and national
security, a tug of war that troubles the country even to this day.
In Eisenhower’s view, the military-industrial complex posed a grave risk to the checks and balances of
the American government. It was a controversial thought at the time, and it still is. As Ledbetter’s book
shows, Eisenhower’s words still speak to us, a full half century after he left office – an impact few other
political speeches can claim.
Adapted from http://www.newsweek.com/2011/02/20/a-speech-that-changed-history.html
Judge the following items in accordance with the text – right (C) or wrong (E).
1. ( ) After reading the text, it can be inferred it is a review.
2. ( ) The verb “to bequeath” (1st paragraph) is synonymous with to bestow.
3. ( ) James Ledbetter’s Unwarranted Influence depicts, firstly, a Dwight Eisenhower’s biography and
only after deals with the President’s policies.
4. ( ) American freedom and national security have been troubling the United States since the end of the
Civil War.
5. ( ) James Ledbetter’s and Garry Wills’s books analyse the impact and relevance of historical
addresses in the current American society.
6. ( ) The gaps [I], [II] and [III] in the sentence “__________ [I] other books of its kind, Ledbetter’s is
structured __________ [II] an hourglass, with the speech __________ [III] the neck that links the
contexts, forces, and individuals involved in its concoction to the interpretations and real-world
consequences it generates” (2nd paragraph) must be filled respectively with Like, like and as.
7. ( ) The word “thoughtful” in “Among the book’s many virtues is its thoughtful portrayal of the
president” (4th paragraph) means the same as comprehensive.
8. ( ) The word “stint” in “including his little-known stint as a War Department speechwriter” (4th
paragraph) means the same as penchant.
9. ( ) Eisenhower’s second term was harsher than the first one.
10. ( ) The number of political addresses whose historical importance can be compared to
Eisenhower’s one is very small.
Answer: 1 – C; 2 – C; 3 – E; 4 – E; 5 – E; 6 – C; 7 – E; 8 – E; 9 – E; 10 – C
* Read more 1
Eisenhower’s farewell address (sometimes known as “Eisenhower’s farewell address to the nation”)
was the final public speech of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States, delivered January
17, 1961. Although the speech is best-known for its warning about the growing military-industrial
complex, it also contained warnings about planning for the future and the dangers of massive spending,
especially deficit spending. This speech and Eisenhower’s Chance for Peace speech have been called the
“bookends” of his administration.
Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower%27s_farewell_address
Military-Industrial Complex Speech, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961
My fellow Americans:
Three days from now, after half a century in the service of our country, I shall lay down the
responsibilities of office as, in traditional and solemn ceremony, the authority of the Presidency is vested
in my successor.
This evening I come to you with a message of leave-taking and farewell, and to share a few final
thoughts with you, my countrymen.
Like every other citizen, I wish the new President, and all who will labor with him, Godspeed. I pray
that the coming years will be blessed with peace and prosperity for all.
Our people expect their President and the Congress to find essential agreement on issues of great
moment, the wise resolution of which will better shape the future of the Nation.
My own relations with the Congress, which began on a remote and tenuous basis when, long ago, a
member of the Senate appointed me to West Point, have since ranged to the intimate during the war and
immediate post-war period, and, finally, to the mutually interdependent during these past eight years.
In this final relationship, the Congress and the Administration have, on most vital issues, cooperated
well, to serve the national good rather than mere partisanship, and so have assured that the business of the
Nation should go forward. So, my official relationship with the Congress ends in a feeling, on my part, of
gratitude that we have been able to do so much together.
II. We now stand ten years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major wars among
great nations. Three of these involved our own country. Despite these holocausts America is today the
strongest, the most influential and most productive nation in the world. Understandably proud of this pre-
eminence, we yet realize that America’s leadership and prestige depend, not merely upon our unmatched
material progress, riches and military strength, but on how we use our power in the interests of world
peace and human betterment.
III. Throughout America’s adventure in free government, our basic purposes have been to keep the
peace; to foster progress in human achievement, and to enhance liberty, dignity and integrity among people
and among nations. To strive for less would be unworthy of a free and religious people. Any failure
traceable to arrogance, or our lack of comprehension or readiness to sacrifice would inflict upon us
grievous hurt both at home and abroad.
Progress toward these noble goals is persistently threatened by the conflict now engulfing the world. It
commands our whole attention, absorbs our very beings. We face a hostile ideology – global in scope,
atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose, and insidious in method. Unhappily the danger is poses
promises to be of indefinite duration. To meet it successfully, there is called for, not so much the
emotional and transitory sacrifices of crisis, but rather those which enable us to carry forward steadily,
surely, and without complaint the burdens of a prolonged and complex struggle – with liberty the stake.
Only thus shall we remain, despite every provocation, on our charted course toward permanent peace and
human betterment.
Crises there will continue to be. In meeting them, whether foreign or domestic, great or small, there is a
recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution
to all current difficulties. A huge increase in newer elements of our defense; development of unrealistic
programs to cure every ill in agriculture; a dramatic expansion in basic and applied research – these and
many other possibilities, each possibly promising in itself, may be suggested as the only way to the road
we wish to travel.
But each proposal must be weighed in the light of a broader consideration: the need to maintain balance
in and among national programs – balance between the private and the public economy, balance between
cost and hoped for advantage – balance between the clearly necessary and the comfortably desirable;
balance between our essential requirements as a nation and the duties imposed by the nation upon the
individual; balance between actions of the moment and the national welfare of the future. Good judgment
seeks balance and progress; lack of it eventually finds imbalance and frustration.
The record of many decades stands as proof that our people and their government have, in the main,
understood these truths and have responded to them well, in the face of stress and threat. But threats, new
in kind or degree, constantly arise. I mention two only.
IV. A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. Our arms must be mighty, ready
for instant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction.
Our military organization today bears little relation to that known by any of my predecessors in
peacetime, or indeed by the fighting men of World War II or Korea.
Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had no armaments industry. American makers of
plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But now we can no longer risk
emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments
industry of vast proportions. Added to this, three and a half million men and women are directly engaged
in the defense establishment. We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all
United States corporations.
This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American
experience. The total influence – economic, political, even spiritual – is felt in every city, every State
house, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development.
Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all
involved; so is the very structure of our society.
In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether
sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced
power exists and will persist.
We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We
should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing
of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that
security and liberty may prosper together.
Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial-military posture, has been
the technological revolution during recent decades.
In this revolution, research has become central; it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly.
A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government.
Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in
laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free
ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of
the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity.
For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers.
The prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the
power of money is ever present and is gravely to be regarded.
Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the
equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological
elite.
It is the task of statesmanship to mold, to balance, and to integrate these and other forces, new and old,
within the principles of our democratic system – ever aiming toward the supreme goals of our free
society.
V. Another factor in maintaining balance involves the element of time. As we peer into society’s future,
we – you and I, and our government – must avoid the impulse to live only for today, plundering, for our
own ease and convenience, the precious resources of tomorrow. We cannot mortgage the material assets
of our grandchildren without risking the loss also of their political and spiritual heritage. We want
democracy to survive for all generations to come, not to become the insolvent phantom of tomorrow.
VI. Down the long lane of the history yet to be written America knows that this world of ours, ever
growing smaller, must avoid becoming a community of dreadful fear and hate, and be instead, a proud
confederation of mutual trust and respect.
Such a confederation must be one of equals. The weakest must come to the conference table with the
same confidence as do we, protected as we are by our moral, economic, and military strength. That table,
though scarred by many past frustrations, cannot be abandoned for the certain agony of the battlefield.
Disarmament, with mutual honor and confidence, is a continuing imperative. Together we must learn
how to compose differences, not with arms, but with intellect and decent purpose. Because this need is so
sharp and apparent I confess that I lay down my official responsibilities in this field with a definite sense
of disappointment. As one who has witnessed the horror and the lingering sadness of war – as one who
knows that another war could utterly destroy this civilization which has been so slowly and painfully built
over thousands of years – I wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight.
Happily, I can say that war has been avoided. Steady progress toward our ultimate goal has been made.
But, so much remains to be done. As a private citizen, I shall never cease to do what little I can to help the
world advance along that road.
VII. So – in this my last good night to you as your President – I thank you for the many opportunities you
have given me for public service in war and peace. I trust that in that service you find some things worthy;
as for the rest of it, I know you will find ways to improve performance in the future.
You and I – my fellow citizens – need to be strong in our faith that all nations, under God, will reach the
goal of peace with justice. May we be ever unswerving in devotion to principle, confident but humble
with power, diligent in pursuit of the Nation’s great goals.
To all the peoples of the world, I once more give expression to America’s prayerful and continuing
aspiration:
We pray that peoples of all faiths, all races, all nations, may have their great human needs satisfied; that
those now denied opportunity shall come to enjoy it to the full; that all who yearn for freedom may
experience its spiritual blessings; that those who have freedom will understand, also, its heavy
responsibilities; that all who are insensitive to the needs of others will learn charity; that the scourges of
poverty, disease and ignorance will be made to disappear from the earth, and that, in the goodness of time,
all peoples will come to live together in a peace guaranteed by the binding force of mutual respect and
love.
Public Papers of the Presidents, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1960, p. 1035-1040
Adapted from http://www.h-net.org/~hst306/documents/indust.html
* Read more 2

The Gettysburg Address is a speech by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and is one of the best-known
speeches in United States history. It was delivered by Lincoln during the American Civil War, on the
afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, at the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery in
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy
at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg.
Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gettysburg_Address
Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address
Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in
liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so
dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a
portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.
It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The
brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or
detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they
did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought
here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining
before us – that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the
last full measure of devotion – that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that
this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people,
for the people shall not perish from the earth.
19 November, 1863
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/gettysburgaddress.htm
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 44: An end or a beginning?
It is the greatest drama to shake Egypt since the killing of Anwar Sadat in 1981. Huge nationwide
protests have challenged the long rule of President Hosni Mubarak, threatening to dislodge him. As yet,
the denouement remains unwritten. Will it match Tunisia, where a popular uprising sent another strongman
president into exile, toppled his ruling party and opened the way to real democracy? Or will it look like
Iran in 2009, where a hardline regime crushed a popular protest movement with iron-fisted resolve?
The protests have left hundreds dead, frozen Egypt’s economy, forced a cabinet to resign, brought the
army onto the streets and prompted Mr Mubarak to promise reforms. Egypt’s tough 82-year-old president,
in charge for the past three decades, now says he will go – but only at the end of his term in September,
with dignity and with a subtle threat that if he does not get his way, things could turn uglier still.
While offering a bare minimum of concessions, he has driven a wedge between millions of protesters
who demand change and millions of others who fear chaos and want a return to normal. By February 2nd
the two sides were battling __________.
Mr Mubarak has been slow to respond throughout the crisis, but his few ​appearances have been cleverly
pitched. When he finally spoke, after midnight on January 28th, a day when hundreds of thousands across
the breadth of Egypt had battled furiously with his police, it was with a husky voice and the petulance of a
master betrayed by bungling servants. He said he understood his people’s concerns, and as a concession
fired his cabinet. But he blamed the unrest on miscreants and agitators, declaring that protests had grown
so loud only because he himself had magnanimously granted rights to free expression.
There was something in this. During his rule Egyptians have changed, as has the world they live in.
They do speak more freely now, but not only because Mr Mubarak’s regime has belatedly allowed the
airing of more critical views. New technologies have also made it impossible for states such as Egypt’s
to retain the information monopolies they once enjoyed.
Mr Mubarak was right in a wider sense, too. It has been on his watch, and in part because of his
policies, that Egyptian society has ripened for a sudden outburst that now threatens to blow away his
regime. This is true not only because he failed to improve the lot of Egypt’s poorest very much, because
he throttled meaningful political evolution, or because he let his police humiliate victims with impunity.
Some of Mr Mubarak’s modest achievements, such as improving literacy, keeping peace with
neighbours, extending communications networks and fostering the emergence of a large urban middle
class, have also sharpened tensions.
This is one reason why the unrest in Egypt and Tunisia echoes resoundingly across the region. Most of
the other countries there, whether monarchies or republics, also have structures that seem increasingly
anomalous in the modern world. Since the 1950s the Arab social order has been run by paternalist
strongmen, bolstered by strong security forces and loyalist business grandees. Those below have been
marginalised from politics, except as masses to be roused for some cause, or as a rabble with which to
frighten a narrow and fragile bourgeoisie. They have been treated as subjects, rather than citizens.
But much as in southern Europe in the 1970s, when authoritarian regimes in Portugal, Spain and Greece
fell in a heap, or later in Latin America, where juntas collapsed like dominoes, Arab societies are
changing in ways likely to provoke a sweeping political reordering. Because of the extreme violence of a
radical fringe, much of the outside world’s concern for the region has focused on the rise of Islamism as a
social and political force.
The role of groups such as Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood is important. But it is underlying social changes
that affect all, rather than the ideological aspirations of some, that are jamming the mechanics of
authoritarian control. Islamists in both Tunisia and Egypt may soon emerge as leading political actors. So
far, however, they have taken a back seat.
Adapted from http://www.economist.com/
1. It can be inferred from the text that:
a) Anwar Sadat’s death has shaken Egypt as intensely as the protests against President Hosni Mubarak.
b) President Mubarak received death threats during the protests against his policy.
c) Egyptians, Tunisians and Iranians have dealt with their political crises alike.
d) In Tunisia, the real democracy has begun only after the then ruling party was dissolved.
e) In Iran, many rioters wound up dying in strifes with the authorities.
Answer: C
2. From the sentence “As yet, the denouement remains unwritten” (1st paragraph) we
can infer:
a) the agreement that may put an end to the fightings was not signed yet.
b) no agreement to cease the riots was done until now.
c) the rioters still have not decided to stop fighting against the government.
d) the ending of the crisis in Egypt remains uncertain up to now.
e) no reasonable solution to solve the crisis in Egypt was found by the government.
Answer: D
3. Mark the wrong item to complete the sentence below.
Owing to the protests in Egypt:
a) innocent people have been unfairly murdered.
b) the economy has stalled.
c) the governing body was laid off.
d) the President was led to pledge shiftings.
e) military intervention was prompted.
Answer: A
4. Give the correct sequence of synonyms for the highlighted words in the excerpt
below taken from the 2nd paragraph of the text:
Egypt’s tough 82-year-old president, in charge for the past three decades, now says he will go
– but only at the end of his term in September, with dignity and with a subtle threat that if he
does not get his way, things could turn uglier still.
a) sturdy – turn – slight – become
b) strong – shift – tenuous – change into
c) healthy – cycle – faint – shift
d) stiff – spell – fine – grow into
e) frail – span – quiet – develop
Answer: A
5. Fill in the gap in the 3rd paragraph correctly:
a) one another
b) each other
c) themselves
d) by themselves
e) A and B are correct
Answer: B
6. Translate into Portuguese the 4th paragraph of the text:
Mr Mubarak has been slow to respond throughout the crisis, but his few appearances have
been cleverly pitched. When he finally spoke, after midnight on January 28th, a day when
hundreds of thousands across the breadth of Egypt had battled furiously with his police, it was
with a husky voice and the petulance of a master betrayed by bungling servants. He said he
understood his people’s concerns, and as a concession fired his cabinet. But he blamed the
unrest on miscreants and agitators, declaring that protests had grown so loud only because
he himself had magnanimously granted rights to free expression.
_____________________________________________
Answer: Sr. Mubarak agiu de forma lenta durante toda a crise, mas suas poucas aparições
foram inteligentemente direcionadas. Quando ele finalmente falou, depois da meia-noite do dia
28 de janeiro, um dia em que centenas de milhares por toda a extensão do Egito lutaram
furiosamente contra a polícia, foi com uma voz rouca e a petulância de um líder traído por
serviçais incompetentes. Ele disse que entendia as preocupações de seu povo e, como
concessão, demitiu seu gabinete. Mas ele culpou os canalhas e agitadores pelos distúrbios,
declarando que os protestos haviam crescido tanto apenas porque ele mesmo havia
magnanimamente garantido direitos para a liberdade de expressão.
7. In the sentence “They do speak more freely now” (5th paragraph), the auxiliary do:
a) means the same as the verb to make.
b) is equivalent in meaning to shall.
c) could be replaced by eventually.
d) emphasizes the subject of the main verb.
e) is being used to give extra force to the main verb.
Answer: E
8. Which contextual reference is wrong?
a) it (1st paragraph) refers to denouement.
b) who (3rd paragraph) refers to millions of protesters.
c) this (5th paragraph) refers to he himself had magnanimously granted rights to free expression.
d) Some (…) achievements (6th paragraph) refers to improving literacy (...) and fostering the
emergence of a large urban middle class.
e) They (7th paragraph) refers to Those below.
Answer: A
9. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Tough military forces and powerful rich men help to support the way some Arab countries are ruled.
( ) Despite his long term, Mubarak attained few accomplishments, which contributed to the insurrection
against his government as well.
( ) European, Latin American and Arab societies, since the seventies, have passed through strict
political and governmental changes.
( ) The situation in Egypt and Tunisia will just completely change if the opposition groups regard the
people as an important part of the process.
Answer: C, C, E, E
10. In the sentence “The role of groups such as Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood is
important” (last paragraph), the word role can be replaced by:
a) paper.
b) rule.
c) issue.
d) part.
e) rate.
Answer: D
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 6.
TEXT 45: After Hosni Mubarak, Egypt looks forward
Egyptians in their millions danced and partied __________ [i] the night on Saturday, celebrating the fall
of the man who ruled like a pharaoh for 30 years and hoping their army will grant them democracy now
Hosni Mubarak is gone.
With intoxicating speed a wave of people power has roared __________ [ii] the biggest Arab nation,
just four weeks after Tunisians toppled their own ageing strongman. Now, across the Middle East,
autocratic rulers are calculating their own chances of survival.
“I am proud to be Egyptian, that’s the only way I can say it,” said Rasha Abu Omar, a call centre
worker, among the throngs on Cairo’s Tahrir, or Liberation, Square. Eighteen days of rallies there,
resisting police assaults and a last-ditch charge by hardliners on camels, had brought undreamt of success.
“We are finally going to get a government we choose,” the 29-year-old Abu Omar added. “Perhaps we
will finally get to have the better country we always dreamed __________ [iii].”
Hours after word flashed out that Mubarak was stepping down and handing over to the army, it was not
just Tahrir Square but, it seemed, every street and neighbourhood in Cairo, Alexandria and cities and
towns across the country that were packed full.
Through the night, fireworks cracked, cars honked under swathes of red, white and black Egyptian flags,
people hoisted their children above their heads. Some took souvenir snaps with smiling soldiers on their
tanks on city streets. All laughed and embraced in the hope of a new era.
Journalists long used to the sullen quiet of the police states that make __________ [iv] much of the
Middle East felt the surging joy of the population around them as a palpable, physical sensation.
Relayed by satellite television channels and on Internet social networking sites, the euphoria in Egypt
flashed around a region where autocrats hold sway from the Atlantic to the Gulf.
It was just eight weeks to the day since a young Tunisian vegetable seller, Mohamed Bouazizi, set
himself alight outside a local government building in the provincial city of Sidi Bouzid, protesting in this
way at his ill-treatment by police, who had taken away his livelihood, and at venal, oppressive
government.
Four weeks later, Tunisian President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali had been forced to flee __________ [v]
the country when his generals told him they were not prepared to defend him against protesters.
Now Mubarak, an 82-year-old who when this year began seemed ready to establish a new dynasty on
the Nile by handing over to his businessman son, sits, impotent, in the Egyptian Red Sea resort of Sharm
el-Sheikh and his generals hold power in Cairo.
In Algiers, thousands of police in riot gear were braced for action to stop a planned demonstration
there on Saturday from mimicking the uprising in Egypt. Officials have banned the opposition march,
setting the stage for possible clashes. “It’s going to be a great day for democracy in Algeria,” said
Mohsen Belabes, a spokesman __________ [vi] the small RCD opposition party which is one of the
organisers of the protest.
In Bahrain, the oil-rich Gulf kingdom, officials were handing out cash worth over $2,500 to every
family, to appease them ahead of protests opposition groups plan for Monday.
In non-Arab Iran, leaders hailed the victory of the people over a leader seen in Tehran as a puppet of
Washington and Israel. But the White House said a clampdown on media coverage of the events in Egypt
showed that Iran’s Islamist rulers were “scared” of pro-democracy activists who have said they may
renew the street protests that rocked Tehran in 2009.
“It’s broken a psychological barrier not just for North Africa but across the Middle East. I think you
could see some contagion in terms of protests; Morocco, perhaps Jordan, Yemen,” said Anthony Skinner
of political risk consultancy Maplecroft.
Mubarak’s end was, finally, swift, coming less than a day after he had stunned protesters by insisting he
would not step down despite widespread expectations that he was about to do so. It remains to be seen
how the army will create democracy for the first time in a nation that traces its history back 7,000 years.
Vice President Omar Suleiman said a military council would run the country of 80 million for now. The
council gave few details of what it said would be a “transitional phase” and gave no timetable for
presidential or parliamentary elections. It said it wanted to “achieve the hopes of our great people”.
Some question the army’s appetite for democracy. Western powers, and Israel just across the Sinai
desert border, worry about the electoral strength of Islamist groups.
In the United States, Mubarak’s long-time sponsor, President Barack Obama said: “The people of Egypt
have spoken.” He stressed to the US-aided Egyptian army that “nothing less than genuine democracy”
would satisfy people’s hunger for change.
He also acknowledged: “This is not the end of Egypt’s transition. It’s a beginning. I’m sure there will be
difficult days ahead, and many questions remain unanswered”.
Washington has pursued a sometimes meandering line since the protests began on Jan. 25, apparently
reluctant to lose a bulwark against militant Islam in the Middle East but also anxious to endorse calls for
political freedom.
Behind the celebrations, there was a note of caution over how far the armed forces under Field Marshal
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Mubarak’s veteran defence minister, were ready to permit democracy,
especially since the hitherto banned Islamist Muslim Brotherhood is one of the best organised movements.
“This is just the end of the beginning,” said Jon Alterman of the Center for Strategic and International
Studies.
“Egypt isn’t moving toward democracy, it’s moved into martial law and where it goes is now subject to
debate.”
US officials familiar with the Egyptian military say Tantawi, 75, has long seemed resistant to change.
Suleiman, a 74-year-old former spy chief, annoyed some this week by questioning whether Egyptians
were ready for democracy.
Al Arabiya television said the army would soon dismiss the cabinet and suspend parliament. The head
of the Constitutional Court would join the leadership with the military council.
The best deterrent to any attempt to maintain military rule could be the street power of protesters who
showed Mubarak they could render Egypt ungovernable without their consent.
But as continued turmoil in Tunisia shows a month after the overthrow of the strongman there inspired
young Egyptians to act, any government will face huge social and economic problems.
Adapted from http://ibnlive.in.com
1. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) A big party was staged in Egypt in order to celebrate Hosni Mubarak’s resignation.
( ) Tunisia’s and Egypt’s presidents’ fall may lead to the resignation of other Arab leaders.​
( ) In order to avoid his fall, Mubarak tried to disperse the crowd of protesters using mounted police
officers.
( ) The riots in Egypt have attained an unimaginable outcome.
Answer: E, C, E, C
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) After Mubarak’s resignation, a feeling of hope and longing spread throughout Egypt.
( ) Mohamed Bouazizi’s self-immolation ignited the protests in the Arab world.
( ) Before the riots in Egypt, Mubarak’s son had been preparing himself to take over the government.
( ) Both in Algeria and in Bahrain police officers fought against protesters in order to avoid the same
results attained by Tunisian and Egyptian rioters.
Answer: C, C, E, E
3. Which of the following contextual references is incorrect?
a) them (7th paragraph) refers to journalists.
b) a region (8th paragraph) refers to the Atlantic to the Gulf.
c) there (12th paragraph) refers to Algiers.
d) a puppet of Washington and Israel (14th paragraph) refers to Hosni Mubarak.
e) so (16th paragraph) refers to step down.
Answer: B
4. Use True or False to judge the following items.
(______) In the expression packed full (5th paragraph) the word packed works as an adverb.
(______) The relation between sullen quiet and surging joy (7th paragraph) is of contrast.
(______) In the 8th paragraph, the word relayed can be replaced by broadcast.
(______) In ill-treatment (9th paragraph), the word ill works as a prefix and is equivalent in meaning to
sick.
Answer: True – True – True – False
5. Fill in the gaps in the text correctly:
a) i. through – ii. throughout – iii. of – iv. up – v. from – vi. for
b) i. throughout – ii. over – iii. of – iv. upon – v. Ø – vi. of
c) i. through – ii. across – iii. of – iv. up – v. Ø – vi. for
d) i. throughout – ii. across – iii. with – iv. up – v. from – vi. of
e) i. through – ii. over – iii. with – iv. upon – v. Ø – vi. for
Answer: C
6. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Western countries doubt that the Egyptian Army and the Islamist groups are able to cope with the
establishment of a democratic government by themselves.
( ) Before the riots in Egypt, the American President, Barack Obama, was a longtime supporter of his
Egyptian counterpart, Hosni Mubarak.
( ) Jon Alterman, an expert in foreign affairs, does not agree with the way democracy is being
established in Egypt and claims the current moment of the Arab country requires a martial law
intervention.
( ) The Egyptian people may keep the country without a ruler if their demands are not met.
Answer: E, E, E, E
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 46: The Fisher House™ Program

The Fisher House™ Program is __________ unique private-public partnership that supports America’s
military in their time of need. The program recognizes the special sacrifices of our men and women in
uniform and the hardships of military service by meeting a humanitarian need beyond that normally
provided by the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs.
Because members of the military and their families are stationed worldwide and must often travel great
distances for specialized medical care, Fisher House™ Foundation donates “comfort homes,” built on the
grounds of major military and VA medical centers. These homes enable family members to be close to a
loved one __________ the most stressful times – during the hospitalization for an unexpected illness,
disease, or injury.
There is at least one Fisher House™ at every major military medical center to assist families in need
and to ensure that they are provided with the comforts of home in a supportive environment. Annually, the
Fisher House™ Program serves more than 8,500 families, and have made available more than two
million days of lodging to family members since the program originated in 1990. Based on a comparison
of fees at a Fisher House™ (the average charge is less than $10 per family per day, with many locations
offering rooms at no cost) with commercial lodging facilities in the same area, it is estimated that families
have saved more than $60 million __________ staying at a Fisher House™ since the program began.
In addition to constructing new houses, Fisher House™ Foundation continues to support existing Fisher
Houses™ and help individual military families in need. Families and friends of patients at any of the
military’s hospitals can now receive up-to-the-minute reports on a loved one by going to the patient’s own
customized web page, thanks to new services provided __________ CaringBridge. We are also proud to
administer and sponsor Scholarships for Military Children, the Hero Miles program, and co-sponsor the
Newman’s Own Award.
Adapted from http://www.fisherhouse.org/aboutUs/aboutUs.shtml
1. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below. The Fisher House
Program:
( ) is sponsored uniquely by private investment.
( ) is supported only by public initiative.
( ) sponsors military families in war times.
( ) provides support to North American militaries when they need help.
Answer: E, E, E, C
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below. The Fisher House
Foundation:
( ) has purchased a few houses to war veterans.
( ) enables proximity between the family and the hospitalized military.
( ) has worldwide coverage and deals with great distances medical care.
( ) deals with any kind of ailments, treating not only American but also Latin American soldiers.
Answer: E, C, E, E
3. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Fisher House works in military facilities.
( ) The Fisher House Program is in its twenties.
( ) Fisher House has already helped 8,500 families since 1990.
( ) Fisher House provides comfort and support to military families.
Answer: C, C, E, C
4. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) There are not free rooms at the Fisher House Program.
( ) Families have already spent $60 million lodging at the Fisher House facilities.
( ) A daily rate at a Fisher House facility does not cost even $10 per family.
( ) Commercial lodging facilities are cheaper than Fisher House rooms.
Answer: E, E, C, E
5. In the text, the expression in addition to (4th paragraph) cannot be replaced by:
a) Furthermore
b) Otherwise
c) Besides
d) Beyond
Answer: B
6. Which word below does not have the plural form like men and women (1st paragraph)?
a) Policewoman
b) Englishwoman
c) Norman
d) Fireman
Answer: C
7. Which of these sentences taken from the text does not contain at least one false
cognate word?
a) The program recognizes the special sacrifices of our men and women in uniform...
b) ... during the hospitalization for an unexpected illness, disease, or injury.
c) There is at least one Fisher House™ at every major military medical center to assist families in
need...
d) ... with commercial lodging facilities in the same area...
Answer: A
8. In accordance with the text:
a) it is possible to be informed about the status of a Fisher House patient through a personalized web
site.
b) the families and the friends of a patient do not have how to be informed about his condition before
the end of the medical treatment.
c) Fisher House Foundation has not sponsored the Newman’s Own Award anymore.
d) CaringBridge has built many facilities to the Fisher House Foundation.
Answer: A
9. Which of the following options has the same meaning of the sentence “In addition to
constructing new houses, Fisher HouseTM Foundation continues to support existing
Fisher HousesTM and help individual military families in need” (4th paragraph)?
a) The Fisher House Foundation either constructs new houses or continues to support existing Fisher
Houses and helps individual military families in need.
b) Not only does the Fisher House Foundation construct new houses, but it also continues to support
existing Fisher Houses and helps individual military families in need.
c) The Fisher House Foundation neither constructs new houses nor continues to support existing Fisher
Houses and helps individual military families in need.
d) The Fisher House Foundation both constructs new houses or continues to support existing Fisher
Houses or helps individual military families in need.
Answer: B
10. Mark the correct sequence of words to fill in the gaps in the text correctly.
The Fisher House™ Program is __________ unique private-public partnership that supports
America’s military in their time of need. (1st paragraph)
These homes enable family members to be close to a loved one __________ the most
stressful times – during the hospitalization for an unexpected illness, disease, or injury. (2nd
paragraph)
Based on a comparison of fees at a Fisher House™ (…) with commercial lodging facilities in
the same area, it is estimated that families have saved more than $60 million __________
staying at a Fisher House™ since the program began. (3rd paragraph)
Families and friends of patients at any of the military’s hospitals can now receive up-to-the-
minute reports on a loved one by going to the patient’s own customized web page, thanks to
new services provided __________ CaringBridge. (4th paragraph)
a) an – at – Ø – through
b) an – at – by – by
c) a – in – by – through
d) a – at – by – through
e) a – in – Ø – by
Answer: D
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 47: Aerial images online endanger national security, critics say

One is an assemblyman in California; the other a piano tuner in Pennsylvania.


But when they independently looked at online aerial imagery of nuclear power plants and other sites,
they had the same reaction: They said they feared that terrorists might be doing the same thing.
Now, both have launched efforts to try to get Internet map services to remove or blur images of sensitive
sites, saying the same technology that allows people to see a neighbor’s swimming pool can be used by
terrorists to choose targets and plan attacks.
“It is disturbing to me that terrorists can now perform considerable surveillance without visiting the
targeted site,” piano tuner and nuclear watchdog Scott Portzline wrote in a letter to Homeland Security
Secretary Janet Napolitano.
Portzline is asking the Department of Homeland Security and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to
seek voluntary compliance from satellite and aerial imagery companies to blur images of nuclear plants.
Joel Anderson, a member of the California Assembly, has more expansive goals. He has introduced a
bill in the state Legislature that would prohibit “virtual globe” services from providing unblurred pictures
of schools, churches and government or medical facilities in California. It also would prohibit those
services from providing street-view photos of those buildings.
“It struck me that a person in a tent halfway around the world could target an attack like that with a
laptop computer,” said Anderson, a Republican legislator who represents San Diego’s East County.
Anderson said he doesn’t want to limit technology, but added, “There’s got to be some common sense.”
Without leaving his Pennsylvania home, Portzline can take a virtual tour of the nation’s 66 nuclear
power plants. Using the online mapping services, he zooms in on the iconic cooling towers of one plant
and the less-distinctive reactor building.
But the more striking images come when Portzline clicks on the “bird’s-eye” option offered by the map
service. The overhead views, which come chiefly from satellites, are replaced with strikingly clear
oblique-angle photos, chiefly shot from aircraft. By clicking another button, he can see the same building
from all four sides.
“What we’re seeing here is a guard shack,” Portzline said, pointing to a rooftop structure. “This is a
communications device for the nuclear plant.”
He added, “This particular building is the air intake for the control room. And there’s some nasty thing
you could do to disable the people in the control room. So this type of information should not be
available. I look at this and just say, ‘wow.’”
Terror expert and author Brian Jenkins agreed that the pictures are “extraordinarily impressive”.
“If I were a terrorist planning an attack, I would want that imagery. That would facilitate that mission,”
he said. “And given the choice between renting an airplane or trying some other way to get it, versus
tapping in some things on my computer, I certainly want to do the latter. (It will) reduce my risk, and the
first they’re going to know about my attack is when it takes place.”
The operators of Three Mile Island, the plant closest to Portzline’s home, say they are not worried about
the online imagery.
“Our security programs are designed and tested to defend against (an attacker) that has insider
information – even more information then is available on the Internet,” said Ralph DeSantis, spokesman
for AmerGen, which operates the plant. “In addition to that, our physical security is constantly changing...
so what you see one day won’t be the same as the next day,” he said.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission tells CNN it has seen Portzline’s letter and is reviewing the
images.
“In the past we’ve considered such images to be dated and of sufficiently low resolution as to not be a
concern. But we’re taking another look because the resolution of nuclear power plants is something we
take very seriously, and we frequently assess and reassess risk as the situation changes,” said NRC
spokesman Eliot Brenner.
But __________ action beyond requesting voluntary blurring of images may be well beyond the
purview of the NRC or the DHS, industry officials say. __________ because while the government
licenses imaging satellites and restricts the resolution satellite operators __________ provide
commercially, it does not license aerial photography, which provides the __________ quality images.
Regulating aerial imagery of sensitive infrastructure would be problematic or impossible, a spokesman
for one major satellite imagery company said, noting that people can take aerial photos of the CIA
headquarters in Virginia while landing at Reagan National Airport in Washington.
And, he adds, “_____________________”
By Mike M. Ahlers | CNN
Adapted from http://edition.cnn.com/2009/TECH/06/05/aerial.images.security/index.html
1. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) An assemblyman and a piano tuner took some aerial photos of a nuclear plant.
( ) An assemblyman and a piano tuner released some aerial photos of a nuclear plant on the Internet.
( ) Blurred images of a nuclear plant were discovered in the Internet by an assemblyman and a piano
tuner.
( ) Aerial photos available on the Internet may have both harmless and destructive applications.
( ) Aerial photos of a nuclear plant may soon be used by terrorists as part of a classified plot.
Answer: E, E, E, C, E
2. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) No aerial images of schools, churches and government or medical facilities can be taken anymore.
( ) Sharp pictures of schools, churches and government or medical facilities should not be available on
“virtual globe” sites.
( ) Street-view images of schools, churches and government or medical facilities must be provided by
“virtual globe” sites.
( ) A bill restraining the use of “virtual globe” sites must soon be approved by the Republican
legislators.
( ) Limits must be urgently imposed in the use of some virtual tools.
Answer: E, C, E, E, E
3. The online mapping services:
a) do not show unblurred pictures of the U.S. nuclear plants.
b) ought to improve the quality of the aerial images they provide.
c) provide both overhead and oblique-angle photos from nuclear plants.
d) provide overhead views from the U.S. nuclear plants mainly taken from aircraft.
e) are trying to improve the quality of their once striking satellite images.
Answer: C
4. In accordance with the text, it is not incorrect to say that:
a) Brian Jenkins is a former terrorist who writes books about his successful attacks.
b) taking aerial photos from an airplane is the safest option for those who are planning a terrorist attack.
c) the online imagery of nuclear plants is tantalizing some of the enforcement agencies in charge of the
situation.
d) it is possible to forecast terrorist strikes when they are executed through the Internet.
e) the photos do not represent an actual threat to the security of the nuclear plants.
Answer: E
5. According to the text, the photos provided by “virtual globe” sites cannot be defined
as:
a) gruesome.
b) astonishing.
c) outstanding.
d) dazzling.
e) startling.
Answer: A
6. In paragraph 13, the latter refers to:
a) “That would facilitate that mission”.
b) “renting an airplane”.
c) “trying some other way to get it”.
d) “tapping in some things on my computer”.
e) “(It will) reduce my risk”.
Answer: D
7. The sentence “If I were a terrorist planning an attack, I would want that imagery” (13th
paragraph) means the same as:
a) Supposing that I was a terrorist planning an attack, I would want that imagery.
b) Unless I was a terrorist planning an attack, I would want that imagery.
c) Unless I wasn’t a terrorist planning an attack, I would want that imagery.
d) Provided that I had been a terrorist planning an attack, I wanted that imagery.
e) Assuming that I had been a terrorist planning an attack, I would want that imagery.
Answer: A
8. In the sentence “In addition to that, our physical security is constantly changing”
(last paragraph), the underlined expression cannot be replaced by:
a) Besides.
b) Therefore.
c) Furthermore.
d) Moreover.
e) Also.
Answer: B
9. The following paragraph of the text has been left with two blank spaces. Choose the
option below that contains the correct sequence of words that fill in the blanks, keeping
the main ideas of the text.
But __________ action beyond requesting voluntary blurring of images may be well beyond
the purview of the NRC or the DHS, industry officials say. __________ because while the
government licenses imaging satellites and restricts the resolution satellite operators
__________ provide commercially, it does not license aerial photography, which provides the
__________ quality images.
a) any – This is it – ought to – higher
b) no – That is – can – highest
c) any – That is – can – higher
d) no – So that is – ought to – highest
e) any – At that – can – higher
Answer: C
10. Fill in the gap in the last paragraph of the text meaningfully:
a) Why define what is sensitive?
b) How sensitive it can be defined?
c) Who will define what is sensitive?
d) What defines sensitiveness?
e) Who defines what sensitive is?
Answer: E
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 6.
TEXT 48: Bloody Sunday report: David Cameron apologises for “unjustifiable” shootings
David Cameron today issued a formal, state apology for the “unjustified and unjustifiable” killing of 14
civil rights marchers by British soldiers on Bloody Sunday in Derry 38 years ago. The prime minister
said Lord Saville inquiry’s long-awaited report showed soldiers [verb] about their involvement in the
killings, and that all of those who died were innocent. He said the inquiry was “absolutely clear” and
there were “no ambiguities” about the conclusions.
Cameron told the Commons: “What happened on Bloody Sunday was both unjustified and unjustifiable.
It was wrong”.
Relatives cheered as they watched the statement, relayed to screens outside the Guildhall in Derry.
Bloody Sunday, as the events on January 30, 1972 came to be known, was one of the most controversial
moments of the Troubles*. Paratroopers opened fire while trying to police a banned civil rights march.
They killed 13 marchers outright, and, according to Saville, wounded another 15, one of whom
subsequently died later in hospital.
The 5,000-page, 10-volume report, which took 12 years to compile at a cost of almost £191m,
concludes there was no justification for shooting at any of those killed or wounded on the march. (…)
In the Commons, the prime minister began his statement by saying he was “deeply patriotic” and did not
want to believe anything bad about his country. But he said that the conclusions of the 12-year inquiry
were “absolutely clear”. He went on to outline the findings of the inquiry before making the apology.
“The government is ultimately responsible for the conduct of the armed forces, and for that, on behalf of
the government and on behalf of the country, I am deeply sorry.”
The Saville inquiry [verb] that the order sending British soldiers into the Bogside “should not have been
given”, said Cameron. It concluded that none of those killed by British soldiers was armed with firearms
and no warning was given by the soldiers. Cameron said the casualties were caused by the soldiers
“[verb] their self control”.
Saville uses the word “unjustifiable” repeatedly throughout his report to describe the fatal shootings
carried out by the parachute regiment – a judgment that opens up the possibility of legal action against
soldiers involved in the atrocity.
But the eagerly awaited report does not hold the British government at the time directly responsible for
the atrocity. The report found that there was “no evidence” that [conjunction] the British government
[conjunction] the unionist-dominated Northern Ireland administration encouraged the use of lethal force
against the demonstrators. It also exonerates the army’s then commander of land forces, Major General
Robert Ford, of any blame. Ford was in Derry on the day of the military operation. He had agreed to
deploy the parachute regiment in the city.
The report concludes that “he [conjunction] knew [conjunction] had reason to know at any stage that his
decision would or was likely to result in soldiers firing unjustifiably on that day.”
Most of the damning criticism against the military was directed at the soldiers on the ground who fired
on the civilians. Saville said that “Lance Corporal F” – who was identified as shooting between four to
six of the Bloody Sunday victims – had “falsely claimed” that he had shot a nail bomber.
“Lance Corporal F did not fire in panic or fear... we are sure that he instead fired either in the belief that
no-one at the rubble barricade was posing a threat of causing death and serious injury, or not caring
whether or not anyone there was posing a threat,” the report said.
Saville finds that one senior officer, Lieutenant Colonel Derek Wilford, ignored instructions from his
brigadier that he should not order troops to go deeper into the Bogside, where the protest was taking
place.
“There was thus no separation between peaceful marchers and those who had been rioting and no means
whereby soldiers could identify and arrest only the latter,” the report said.
Wilford’s fateful decision to order the paratroopers into the Bogside was unjustified because “it would
run a significant risk that people other than those engaging the soldiers with lethal force would be killed
or injured by army gunfire.”
Saville says that on Bloody Sunday there had been “a serious and widespread loss of fire discipline
among the soldiers”.
Saville also concludes that many of the soldiers lied to his inquiry: “Many of these soldiers have
knowingly put forward false accounts in order to seek to justify their firing”.
Under the rules of the inquiry this conclusion means that soldiers could be prosecuted for perjury.
The report also focuses on the actions of two Republican gunmen on the day and said that the Official
IRA men had gone to a prearranged sniping position.
But Saville found that their actions did not provoke in any way the shootings by the parachute regiment.
On the actions of Martin McGuiness, now the deputy first minister of Northern Ireland, Saville said that
he “was probably armed with a Thompson sub-machine gun” but said that there was no evidence he fired
the weapon and that this provided no justification for the soldiers opening fire.
There are no direct recommendations for prosecutions in relation to the soldiers but the continued use of
the term “unjustifiable” will open up the possibility of legal action, campaigners vowed today.
Cameron sidestepped the question of prosecutions when pressed in the Commons by acting Labour
leader Harriet Harman.
He said the decision should be “entirely independent”.
Survivors and relatives welcomed Saville’s findings as they left the Guildhall.
A minute’s silence was held as thousands of supporters filled the square outside, waiting to be told
about the report’s contents.
A representative of each of the families spoke in turn, and a copy of the hated report by Lord Widgery
which, in 1972, accused the victims of firing weapons or handling bombs was torn apart by one of the
families’ representatives.
Denis Bradley, who played a key part in secret talks that brought about the IRA ceasefire of 1994 and
who was on the Bloody Sunday march 38 years ago, welcomed the report’s findings.
The former Derry priest, who narrowly escaped being shot on the day, said he was “amazed” at how
damning the findings were against the soldiers. He said: “This city has been vindicated, this city has been
telling the truth all along”.
Henry McDonald and Owen Bowcott in Derry, and Hélène Mulholland
Adapted from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jun/15/bloody-sunday-report-saville-inquiry-
* The Troubles: It was a period of ethno-political conflict in Northern Ireland which spilled over at
various times into England, the Republic of Ireland, and mainland Europe. The duration of the Troubles is
conventionally dated from the late 1960s and considered by many to have ended with the Belfast “Good
Friday” Agreement of 1998.
Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Troubles
1. Match the columns below.
a) to issue ( ) aplaudir, vibrar
b) there to be ( ) ferir, machucar
c) to cheer ( ) considerar
d) to relay ( ) haver
e) to wound ( ) dispor, destacar
f) to carry out ( ) emitir, publicar
g) to hold ( ) realizar, executar
h) to deploy ( ) transmitir
i) thus ( ) desviar-se, esquivar-se
j) to sidestep ( ) portanto
Answer: a) emitir, publicar; b) haver; c) aplaudir, vibrar; d) transmitir; e) ferir, machucar; f)
realizar, executar; g) considerar; h) dispor, destacar; i) portanto; j) desviar-se, esquivar-se
2. The gaps [verb] in the text must be filled, respectively and correctly, by:
a) lied – founded – losing
b) lied – found – losing
c) lied – founded – loosing
d) laid – found – losing
e) laid – founded – loosing
Answer: B
3. The gaps [conjunction] in the text must be filled, respectively and correctly, by:
a) neither ... or | either ... nor
b) neither ... or | neither ... nor
c) either ... or | either ... nor
d) either ... or | neither ... nor
e) either ... or | neither ... or
Answer: D
4. Mark the incorrect contextual reference:
a) The prime minister (1st paragraph) refers to David Cameron.
b) Lord Saville inquiry (1st paragraph) refers to Bloody Sunday.
c) Paratroopers (4th paragraph) refers to British soldiers.
d) It (11th paragraph) refers to the atrocity.
e) the latter (16th paragraph) refers to those who had been rioting.
Answer: D
5. Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The Bloody Sunday, occurred almost 40 years ago, triggered a violence wave throughout Ireland in
retaliation for the massacre.
( ) Fourteen civil rights protesters died during the English and Irish army soldiers brutal attack.
( ) The final report about the Bloody Sunday was finished twelve years after the incident, has five
thousand pages and cost almost £200m to the government coffers.
( ) The Lord Widgery report was completely at odds with the truth of the Bloody Sunday massacre
according to the Lord Saville report.
Answer: E, E, E, E
6. The words fateful (17th paragraph) and narrowly (last paragraph) can be replaced
respectively by:
a) untoward and barely.
b) ominous and almost.
c) gruesome and nearly.
d) eventful and utterly.
e) doomful and wholly.
Answer: A
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 49: The Hillary doctrine
In a time of momentous change in the world, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton sets out on her
most heartfelt mission: to put women and girls at the forefront of the new world order.

Hillary Clinton seemed to be in a rare moment of repose while the Middle East erupted. She’d just
__________ [I] from a surprise trip to Yemen and now sat for 30 minutes against a blue backdrop in the
State Department’s Washington broadcast studio as reports streamed in of Libya’s violent crackdown on
its own people.
But Clinton was far from a passive observer. She was in energetic discussion on the Egyptian news site
Masrawy.com, where her presence excited a __________ [II] of questions – more than 6,500 in three
days – from young people across Egypt. “We hope,” she said, “that as Egypt looks at its own future, it
takes advantage of all of the people’s talents” – Clinton shorthand for including women. She had an
immediate answer when a number of questioners suggested that her persistent references to women’s
rights constituted American meddling in Egyptian affairs: “If a country doesn’t recognize minority rights
and human rights, including women’s rights, you will not have the kind of stability and prosperity that is
possible”.
The Web chat was only one of dozens of personal exchanges Clinton has committed to during the three
months since Tunisia’s unrest set off a political explosion whose end is not yet in sight. At every step, she
has worked to connect the Middle East’s hunger for a new way __________ [III] with her categorical
imperative: the empowerment of women. Her campaign has begun to resonate in unlikely places. In the
Saudi Arabian capital of Riyadh, where women cannot travel without male permission or drive a car, a
grandson of the Kingdom’s founding monarch (Prince Alwaleed bin Talal bin Abdulaziz al-Saud) last
month denounced the way women are “economically and socially marginalized” in Arab countries.
“I believe that the rights of women and girls is the unfinished business of the 21st century,” Clinton
recently told Newsweek during another rare moment relaxing on a couch in the comfortable sitting room of
her offices on the State Department’s seventh floor, her legs propped up in front of her. “We see women
and girls across the world __________ [IV] are oppressed and violated and demeaned and degraded and
denied so much of what they are entitled to as our fellow human beings.”
Clinton is paying particular attention to __________ [V] women’s voices are heard within the local
groups calling for and leading change in the Middle East. “You don’t see women in pictures coming from
the demonstrations and the opposition in Libya,” she told Newsweek late last week, adding that “the role
and safety of women will remain one of our highest priorities.” As for Egypt, she said she was heartened
by indications that women would be included in the formation of the new government. “We believe that
women were in Tahrir Square, and they should be part of the decision-making process. If [the Egyptians]
are truly going to have a democracy, they can’t leave out half the population.”
“I have had quite an experience over the last three months,” is how Clinton characterizes the stamina
requirements of an amped-up shuttle diplomacy. Two years into her tenure as America’s 67th secretary of
state, she has out-traveled every one of her predecessors, with 465,000 air miles and 79 countries already
behind her. Her Boeing 757’s cabin, stocked with a roll-out bed, newspapers, and a corner humidifier,
now serves as another home __________ [VI] she flies between diplomatic hot spots, tackling the wars in
Afghanistan and Iraq, tensions with Iran and North Korea, the Arab-Israeli peace process, and, now, the
serial Middle East upheavals. She is, it seems, everywhere at once, crossing time zones and defying jet
lag, though signs of exhaustion – a hoarse voice, bleary eyes – slip through. (A recent 19-hour “day trip”
to Mexico landed her at Maryland’s Andrews Air Force Base well after 2 a.m., which left approximately
six hours to get home, sleep, and make her first meeting of the day that would culminate in President
Obama’s State of the Union address.)
It is hardly the life the former first lady and senator from New York envisioned. Indeed, she can fairly
be described as the surprise secretary of state, the country’s first formidable female presidential
candidate who had made clear her desire to shed the supporting roles of her past. When Barack Obama
approached her about assuming the post, it was clear what he got out of the deal: an opportunity to
reinforce his “change the tone” pledge by offering a choice role to his one-time competitor, and the
credibility, gravitas – and gender balance – her appointment conferred. Less obvious at the time was what
she might hope to accomplish. A sense of duty and a want of appealing alternatives may __________
[VII] her to Foggy Bottom, but Clinton has turned the job into what may well be the role of her lifetime:
advocate in chief for women worldwide.
__________ [VIII] the current unrest and pervasive uncertainty, Clinton’s mission has only gained in
urgency. As she noted in Qatar in January, two weeks before Egypt’s first “day of rage,” the Middle East’s
old foundations were “sinking into the sand”. But there has been a hard core of realism to her recognition
of a new opening for women. “We are watching and waiting,” she said. “People jockey for power, and
often the most conservative elements once again use the opportunity to crack down on women and
women’s roles.”
While Clinton views the subjugation of the world’s women as a moral question, she plants her argument
firmly on the grounds of national security, terrain she knows is far less __________ [IX] to be attacked as
“too soft” to be relevant to U.S. interests. “This is a big deal for American values and for American
foreign policy and our interests, but it is also a big deal for our security,” she told Newsweek. “Because
where women are disempowered and dehumanized, you are more likely to see not just antidemocratic
forces, but extremism that leads to security challenges for us.” (…)
Asked whether she worries her eventual departure from the State Department will endanger the future of
her mission, Clinton admits to feeling a great weight of responsibility for all the women and girls she has
met and the many millions of others like them. “It is why there are 133 references to women and girls in
the QDDR (Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review),” she says, turning reflexively to the hard
evidence. “It is why I mention the issue in __________ [X] setting I am in, and why I mention it with
every foreign leader I meet”.
“It is like any challenge,” she goes on, her tone brightening. “You just keep at it, take it piece by piece,
seize the ground you can, hang onto it, and then move forward a little bit more.” She pauses. “And we are
heading for higher ground.”
Adapted from http://www.newsweek.com/
1. Fill in [gap I] correctly:
a) to return
b) return
c) returning
d) returned
e) to returning
Answer: D
2. Fill in [gap II] correctly:
a) many
b) few
c) stream
d) rather
e) quite
Answer: C
3. Fill in [gap III] correctly:
a) in order to
b) towards
c) forward
d) along
e) apart
Answer: C
4. Fill in [gap IV] correctly:
a) who
b) whom
c) which
d) whose
e) Ø
Answer: A
5. Fill in [gap V] correctly:
a) provided that
b) unless
c) whatever
d) either
e) whether
Answer: E
6. Fill in [gap VI] correctly:
a) so
b) as
c) since
d) once
e) meanwhile
Answer: B
7. Fill in [gap VII] correctly:
a) had been leading
b) have been led
c) have lead
d) have led
e) had led
Answer: D
8. Fill in [gap VIII] correctly:
a) Between
b) Amid
c) Though
d) Despite
e) Throughout
Answer: B
9. Fill in [gap IX] correctly:
a) wholly
b) implausible
c) liken
d) likely
e) utterly
Answer: D
10. Fill in [gap X] correctly:
a) single
b) each one
c) every
d) one another
e) very
Answer: C
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 50: Libya: “Where is America?”
On Saturday, in Brega, I met Osama BenSadik, a forty-seven-year-old Libyan-American who had
returned to his homeland from Martinsville, Virginia, to help the revolution. He was offering his services
in the hospital. (He is a volunteer firefighter in Henry County.) He told me, full of passion and pride and
fear, that his twenty-one-year-old son, Muhanad, a second year medical student and a Boy Scout, who had
been in school here in Libya, had gone to fight at the front line. “Tell America to come and help, because
if we don’t, if we let the Libyan revolution fail, then we – you and I and all of us – would see things we
could never imagine,” he said. It wasn’t a full-formed thought, but I understand BenSadik to be referring
to the roiling and sometimes contradictory emotions among the young fighters at the front, who were
watching their friends be __________ [I], and trying to come to terms with what it all meant. BenSadik
told me that he feared for his son’s safety because he was brave, and had told him that he felt the
revolution was a cause worth dying for.
The next day, I was at what remained of Libya’s rebel front line on the western edge of Ajdabiya, the
eastern town that is a gateway to Benghazi. A large green gateway surrounded the trash of men at war and
slag heaps of construction offal. A smattering of anti-aircraft batteries and a few hundred tense and
dispirited men standing around with weapons, staring at the horizon, were all that seemed to be left of the
euphoric crowd of several thousand civilian men and boys-turned-revolutionaries who had sung and
danced and chanted at that same gateway as they readied themselves to attack and vanquish the hated
Qaddafi regime just twelve days ago. After arming __________ [II] with weaponry captured from police
and army facilities, they charged westward, hoping to liberate the rest of the country. Members of the old
Army supposedly joined them, but evidence of their support is scant. Without the help or advice of
professionally trained soldiers and officers, the last ten days or so have seen the rebels – the youthful
“shabbab”, as everyone calls them – bloodied at the oil towns of Ras Lanuf and Brega, west of here, and
retreating in ever increasing panic and disarray.
The rebels __________ [III] ground because they have not learned how to hold it. At the front lines at
Ras Lanuf and Brega, they didn’t dig trenches, and so when jets came to bomb them they panicked and
ran. Last Friday, I was with them as they abandoned what had been their new fallback front line, in front
of the refinery east of Ras Lanuf (having lost the town itself the day before) under withering barrages of
rocket fire. That night, I slept in Brega; when I ventured back, the next day, to see if there was anything left
of the front line, I found just fifteen or twenty battlewagons at a checkpoint in the desert fifty miles east,
near El Aquela. A few more technical vehicles with guns showed up from Brega to reinforce the line; a
few were beyond, “probing” the desert, according to an officer I talked to – one of the very few soldiers I
had spotted anywhere near the front lines in recent days.
__________ [IV], the sky filled with the approaching roar of a diving jet fighter, which swooped in and,
as we scrambled next to a car, dropped a bomb about a hundred feet from where we were. Once again, as
we had seen so many times in the previous days, everyone fled – because there was no cover, and
nowhere to hide.
At Brega, there was a kind of reassembly of men, but they were few, and there were, again, no
fortifications, no trenches, and precious few guns. The next morning, Brega, too, was abandoned
__________ [V] similar scenes, as Qaddafi’s forces, coming onwards, heralded their intention to
advance with long-range rocket fire and more aerial bombardment.
For days now, all the fighters have come up to Westerners like myself and asked, with varying degrees
of passion, “Where is Obama, where is America?” They wanted to know why the West has, as they see it,
dragged its feet about a no-fly zone. It __________ [VI] clear that without some kind of international
deterrent force the rebellion would fail. From here, the arguments being used against a no-fly zone, which
seems a low-risk investment in the anti-Qaddafi revolution, have been impossible to fathom. It worked in
Serbia, after all, and the West had managed to impose and then enforce a no-fly zone with alacrity in Iraq
after the first Gulf War, and then kept it in place for twelve long years. Why is it suddenly so difficult to
impose one here in Libya?
In truth, even if a no-fly zone is imposed now, it might not be enough to stop Qaddafi’s advance. Its real
value, as far as I have been able to ascertain, would be the symbolic importance, the morale boost it
would give the fighters, to allow them to feel that they are not entirely alone in the world. It might even
buy them enough time to rally more volunteers to stand and fight, __________ [VII] retreat, in the face of
Qaddafi’s advancing ground forces – or at least to dig some trenches. If Libya’s revolutionaries are truly
abandoned, however, anything is possible. An ideological incoherence seethes in these young people –
trying to be brave, terrified and nonetheless going forward, and being blown to pieces – __________
[VIII] could be exploited if their revolutionary euphoria turns to bitter resentment.
At Ajdabiya hospital yesterday, I __________ [IX] Osama BenSadik. He crumpled in my arms as I
walked up to him, and his whole body heaved as he wept. Muhanad had been killed, fighting, not far from
Brega, Saturday morning. BenSadik sobbed with a father’s inconsolable grief. He was at the hospital,
waiting for the body, which he hoped would be retrieved – but he didn’t know, because it was Qaddafi
territory now.
If Muhanad’s body came, he told me, he would take it to his brother’s house in Benghazi and he would
mourn for three days as in the Libyan tradition. Then he would return to the front. “I am not going to let
Muhanad’s death be in vain,” he said. “I’m not going back to America until this is over. I don’t care about
anything __________ [X].”
Posted by Jon Lee Anderson
Adapted from http://www.newyorker.com/
1. Fill in [gap I] correctly:
a) slaughtering
b) slaughtered
c) to slaughter
d) to slaughtering
e) slaughters
Answer: B
2. Fill in [gap II] correctly:
a) them
b) one another
c) each other
d) themselves
e) theirs
Answer: D
3. Fill in [gap III] correctly:
a) had loosed
b) have loosed
c) have lost
d) have to lose
e) had lost
Answer: C
4. Fill in [gap IV] correctly:
a) Meanwhile
b) In the meantime
c) Suddenly
d) Whereas
e) While
Answer: C
5. Fill in [gap V] correctly:
a) between
b) amid
c) over
d) along
e) within
Answer: B
6. Fill in [gap VI] correctly:
a) has became
b) had been became
c) has been becoming
d) had became
e) had become
Answer: E
7. Fill in [gap VII] correctly:
a) instead of
b) regardless of
c) in spite of
d) rather than
e) otherwise
Answer: D
8. Fill in [gap VIII] correctly:
a) which
b) that
c) whose
d) what
e) Ø
Answer: A
9. Fill in [gap IX] correctly:
a) told from
b) looked after
c) come across
d) ran into
e) took over
Answer: D
10. Fill in [gap X] correctly:
a) elsewhere
b) anymore
c) more else
d) or else
e) meanwhile
Answer: B
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 8.
TEXT 51: NASA-funded research discovers life built with toxic chemical

NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all
known life on Earth.
Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the
first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. The
microorganism substitutes arsenic for phosphorus in its cell components.
“The definition of life has just expanded,” said Ed Weiler, NASA’s associate administrator for the
Science Mission Directorate at the agency’s Headquarters in Washington. “As we pursue our efforts to
seek signs of life in the solar system, we have to think more broadly, more diversely and consider life as
we do not know it.”
This finding of an alternative biochemistry makeup will alter biology textbooks and expand the scope of
the search for life beyond Earth. The research is published in this week’s edition of Science Express.
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur are the six basic building blocks of all
known forms of life on Earth. Phosphorus is part of the chemical backbone of DNA and RNA, the
structures that carry genetic instructions for life, and is considered an essential element for all living
cells.
Phosphorus is a central component of the energy-carrying molecule in all cells (adenosine triphosphate)
and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Arsenic, which is chemically similar to
phosphorus, is poisonous for most life on Earth. Arsenic ​disrupts metabolic pathways ___________
chemically it behaves similarly to phosphate.
“We know that some microbes can breathe arsenic, but what we’ve found is a microbe doing something
new – building parts of itself out of arsenic,” said Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a NASA Astrobiology Research
Fellow in residence at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., and the research team’s lead
scientist. “If something here on Earth can do something so unexpected, what else can life do that we
haven’t seen yet?”
The newly discovered microbe, strain GFAJ-1, is a member of a common group of bacteria, the
Gammaproteobacteria. In the laboratory, the researchers successfully grew microbes from the lake on a
diet that was very lean on phosphorus, but included generous helpings of arsenic. When researchers
removed the phosphorus and replaced it with arsenic the microbes continued to grow. Subsequent
analyses indicated that the arsenic was being used to produce the building blocks of new GFAJ-1 cells.
The key issue the researchers investigated was when the microbe was grown on arsenic did the arsenic
actually became incorporated into the organisms’ vital biochemical machinery, such as DNA, proteins and
the cell membranes. A variety of sophisticated laboratory techniques was used to determine where the
arsenic was incorporated.
The team chose to explore Mono Lake because of its unusual chemistry, especially its high salinity, high
alkalinity, and high levels of arsenic. This chemistry is in part a result of Mono Lake’s isolation from its
sources of fresh water for 50 years.
The results of this study will inform ongoing research in many areas, including the study of Earth’s
evolution, organic chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, disease mitigation and Earth system research. These
findings also will open up new frontiers in microbiology and other areas of research.
“The idea of alternative biochemistries for life is common in science fiction,” said Carl Pilcher,
director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the agency’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif.
“Until now a life form using arsenic as a building block was only theoretical, but now we know such life
exists in Mono Lake.” (…)
Adapted from http://www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/astrobiology_toxic_chemical.html
1. It can be inferred from the text that:
a) a new form of life from outer space was discovered in Mono Lake, California, by NASA
researchers.
b) despite arsenic is poisonous, it is perfectly common some living organisms using it to reproduce
themselves.
c) the new microorganism has stretched the definition about what encompasses life on Earth.
d) the concept of life has changed widely after the discovery of the new form of life.
e) in order to keep searching life in the solar system, scientists must look for it first on Earth.
Answer: C
2. Which of the following options fills in the gap in the 6th paragraph of the text?
a) because
b) despite
c) whether
d) hence
e) thus
Answer: A
3. Judge the following items:
I. The new microorganism is the only microbe on Earth that is able to cope with arsenic.
II. It is possible that life can do things scientists have not contemplated yet.
III. GFAJ-1, a breed of the Gammaproteobacteria, is capable of incorporating the element arsenic in its
proteins.
Now, mark the correct option:
a) Only item I is correct.
b) Only item II is correct.
c) Only item III is correct.
d) Only items I and II are correct.
e) Only items II and III are correct.
Answer: E
4. Judge the following items:
I. The scientists are still investigating the very moment arsenic was incorporated by the microorganism.
II. Mono Lake’s salinity, alkalinity and arsenic levels increased 50 years ago.
III. Not only microbiology but also other scientific fields shall be benefited with the discovery.
Now, mark the correct option:
a) Only item I is correct.
b) Only item II is correct.
c) Only item III is correct.
d) Only items I and II are correct.
e) Only items I and III are correct.
Answer: C
5. In the sentence “Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono
Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to
thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic”, extracted from the 2nd
paragraph, the underlined words can be replaced, respectively, by:
a) realizing – smooth – get on
b) carrying out – strict – develop
c) attaining – sharp – rise
d) leading – rough – wear out
e) handling – mild – grow
Answer: B
6. Which of the following words can be turned into the plural form in the same way as
bacteria?
a) Campus
b) Encyclopedia
c) Criterion
d) Radius
e) Stadium
Answer: C
7. In the sentence “Arsenic, which is chemically similar to phosphorus, is poisonous for
most life on Earth”, extracted from the 6th paragraph, the relative pronoun which:
a) is correct, but can be replaced by that.
b) is correct and cannot be replaced.
c) is correct, but can be replaced by what.
d) is incorrect and must be replaced by that.
e) is incorrect and must be replaced by what.
Answer: B
8. In the sentence “the researchers successfully grew microbes from the lake on a diet
that was very lean on phosphorus”, also taken from the 8th paragraph, the word lean
can be replaced by:
a) rich.
b) fat.
c) plump.
d) bare.
e) flat.
Answer: D
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 52: Google launches new space race to the moon
(CNN) – When Neil Armstrong became the first man to set foot on the moon, he uttered unforgettable
words. But the next visitor to roam the lunar landscape may send back e-mail instead. Welcome to a new
kind of space race, where the earthly guest will be a machine and the goal is as much exploration as
seeking out new business ventures.
The quest is part of the Google Lunar X Prize, which will put $20 million into the hands of the first
privately funded team that can land a rover on the moon; have it travel on the surface for 500 meters or
more; send back data, photos and video; and do it all by December 31, 2012.
The prize drops to $15 million after that date and goes away altogether after 2014.
One of the main requirements is to have as little government involvement in the project as possible.
“We believe that space should be open to anyone and everyone, especially those people who want to
go,” said Becky Ramsey, the X Prize Foundation’s director of communications for space projects.
“The government has accomplished amazing things... but we think that we can do it less expensively.”
The idea grew out of conversations between X Prize Chairman Peter Diamandis and Google co-
founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page.
“We thought it would be a good fit,” said Tiffany Montague, technical program manager at Google and
the company’s main representative for the Google Lunar X Prize. “Many of us here are interested in space
as a hobby, or we came from space backgrounds.”
Google, which is paying the main prize purse – $30 million total, including bonus prizes –, hopes the
competition will result in education, “interesting new content” and inspiration, she added.
“What I think this prize is really about is inspiring young minds and inspiring the global population to
compete for a dream,” Montague said.
There are 13 teams officially competing in the race, but the X Prize Foundation expects that number to
grow to about 25. The multinational lineup includes Americans, Italians, Romanians and a “mystery
team”, which can hide its identity __________ July 20, 2009, under the rules.
The competitors include university scientists, business people, engineers, robotics experts and even
students.
Ramsey said all of the teams are considered serious contenders, but not all of them are expected to be
able to complete the task.
“I liken our teams to the garage bands of the space exploration world,” she said. “These are the people
who have a dream, who have a passion, who have the knowledge and ability and the drive, and they think
they can do this. So we’re giving them the opportunity.” (…)
Adapted from http://edition.cnn.com/2008/TECH/space/06/20/google.lunar.xprize/index.html
1. According to the text, judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) An unforgettable message was sent through the web by Neil Armstrong.
( ) Google is sponsoring a new sort of space race whose prize is $20 million.
( ) The new space race will award a prize to the first private company to send a manned flight to the
moon.
( ) The competitors of the space race must send land rovers to the surface of the moon.
Answer: E, C, E, E
2. In the sentence “The prize drops to $15 million after that date and goes away
altogether after 2014”, the verbs to drop and to go away and the adverb altogether can
be replaced by:
a) to increase – to vanish – absolutely
b) to lift up – to fade away – actually
c) to fall – to disappear – completely
d) to decrease – to leave – utterly
e) to dwarf – to withdraw – wholly
Answer: C
3. Regarding the text, judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong (E). The teams:
( ) must avoid using public funds.
( ) cannot use public funds.
( ) need to use government money.
( ) have to count on government investment.
Answer: C, E, E, E
4. In accordance with the text, judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong (E).
The Google Lunar X Prize:
( ) aims to find new astronauts.
( ) is chiefly sponsored by Google.
( ) was developed by Tiffany Montague.
( ) will be officially launched this year.
Answer: E, C, E, E
5. The only question that can be answered by the text is:
a) How many entrepreneurs are participating of the Google Lunar X Prize?
b) How much do the contenders have to pay to participate of the project?
c) How many teams are able to finish the task?
d) Why was the Google Lunar X Prize created?
Answer: D
6. In the text, the competitors are being compared to:
a) people who has been trained for traveling in spacecraft.
b) a group of fashionable young men or women who perform popular songs together and dance as a
group.
c) a group of musicians who play modern music together.
d) people who start their own business, especially when this involves risks.
Answer: C
7. Mark the pair of words formed only by false cognates:
a) data – experts
b) contenders – competitors
c) expects – ability
d) identity – privately
Answer: A
8. Which word completes the sentence below correctly?
The multinational lineup includes Americans, Italians, Romanians and a “mystery team,”
which can hide its identity __________ July 20, 2009.
a) on
b) in
c) as far as
d) until
Answer: D
9. “Ramsey said all of the teams are considered serious contenders, but not all of them
are expected to be able to complete the task.”
The above sentence as a whole expresses:
a) consequence.
b) cause.
c) contrast.
d) reason.
Answer: C
10. The word drive (last paragraph) means the same as:
a) claw.
b) determination.
c) talon.
d) crane.
Answer: B
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 9.
TEXT 53: Sepp Blatter defends choice of hosts
Johannesburg – FIFA President Sepp Blatter insisted Monday that the votes to award World Cups to
Russia and Qatar were based on developing soccer and had nothing to do with money. He also noted that
the world’s biggest soccer tournament will have to adjust to more than just the sweltering desert heat
when it takes its party-like atmos​phere to the Middle East in 2022.
Blatter said that homosexual fans “should refrain from any sexual activities” that are illegal in Qatar.
Drinking alcohol also is restricted in the country, but Blatter hopes soccer’s universal appeal will bridge
cultural differences at the 2022 World Cup.
“It’s another culture and another religion, but in football we have no boundaries,” said Blatter, who was
in South Africa for the official closing of the 2010 World Cup. “We open __________ to __________ and
I think there shall not be __________ discrimination against __________ human beings, being on this
side or that side, left or right or __________.”
“Football is a game that does not affect any discrimination. You may be assured... if people want to
watch a match in Qatar in 2022, they will be admitted to matches.”
Having praised South Africa’s tournament as an example of the success a first-time host can achieve,
Blatter added during his appearance at Soccer City that he thought there was “too much concern” for the
World Cup in Qatar.
FIFA has been criticized for choosing Russia and Qatar over more traditional soccer countries during a
Dec. 2 vote that took place without two members of the executive committee who were suspended for
allegedly agreeing to take money for their support.
In his first public address since the vote, Blatter defended FIFA’s choices. “We go to Eastern Europe, to
Russia where the World Cup has never been. And later on, we go to the Middle East, we go to the Arabic
world, we go to the Islamic world,” Blatter said.
“This is the development of football and don’t speak about money. This has nothing to do with money, as
it had nothing to do with money here in Africa. It has to do with the development of the game,” he said,
pounding the podium with his fist for emphasis.
Blatter also announced a $100 million legacy fund for South Africa. He said $20 million had already
been used to build a new South African Football Association headquarters and for part of the organizing
of the competition, but promised the remainder would go to “social and community projects”. FIFA
earned an estimated $3.5 billion from this year’s World Cup.
South Africa President Jacob Zuma, who had met with Blatter at Soccer City earlier Monday, said he
hoped the first World Cup in Africa would act as a catalyst for development in the country. “We are
officially closing one of the major highlights and success stories of the year,” Zuma said. “We hosted a
memorable World Cup.”
Blatter said he was proud of the South African tournament. “FIFA’s World Cup is not a circus, coming
into a country, putting up some tents and when the performance is over, taking everything with and perhaps
some more and going home,” he said. “No, FIFA’s World Cup is more than that.”
Adapted from http://espn.go.com/sports/soccer/news/_/id/5915159/fifa-president-sepp-blatter-defends-
decisions-2018-2022-hosts
1. Regarding the text, Joseph Blatter:
a) was first against Russia’s and Qatar’s bids to host the FIFA World Cup.
b) said nothing but the climate worries him to the 2022 World Cup.
c) stated Russia and Qatar will make a significant investment in order to run the World Cup project
successfully.
d) believes an interchange between Eastern and Western cultures may occur during the World Cup in
Qatar.
e) thinks homosexual soccer fans may be arrested during the 2022 World Cup if they don’t behave
themselves according to the local laws.
Answer: D
2. Judge the following items:
I. Cultural and religious barriers did not hinder the 2010 World Cup.
II. Anybody who wants to go to Qatar in 2022 will be allowed to.
III. The success attained by South Africa in the 2010 World Cup must serve as an example to Russia and
Qatar.
Now mark the correct option:
a) Only item I is correct.
b) Only item II is correct.
c) Only item III is correct.
d) Only items I and II are correct.
e) Only items II and III are correct.
Answer: B
3. Judge the following items about the vocabulary of the 6th paragraph:
I. The word over is equivalent in meaning to rather than.
II. The expression took place can be replaced by thrived.
III. The adverb allegedly means the same as reportedly.
Now mark the correct option:
a) Only item I is correct.
b) Only item II is correct.
c) Only item III is correct.
d) Only items I and II are correct.
e) Only items I and III are correct.
Answer: A
4. It can be inferred from the text that:
a) two FIFA officials were convicted for having been bribed by Russian and Qatari representatives.
b) Joseph Blatter made a public speech to justify his choices and cease critics definitely.
c) Blatter defended FIFA’s choice in a harsh tone during a public speech.
d) after the World Cup in Qatar, the next one will be hosted either by an Arabic or an Islamic country.
e) the World Cup in South Africa had different goals in comparison to the ones aimed at Russia’s and
Qatar’s tournaments.
Answer: C
5. Fill in the gaps in the following sentence taken from the 3rd paragraph:
We open __________ to __________ and I think there shall not be __________
discrimination against __________ human beings, being on this side or that side, left or right
or __________.
a) anything – anybody – any – any – whoever
b) everything – everybody – any – any – whoever
c) anything – anybody – any – no – whoever
d) everything – everybody – any – any – whatever
e) anything – anybody – no – no – whatever
Answer: D
6. Mark the right item in accordance with the text:
a) The biggest part of the legacy fund for South Africa will be spent in projects to help the poor and the
needy.
b) The World Cup in South Africa was the most lucrative of history.
c) The South African Football Association spent $20 million to build a new facility.
d) The 2010 World Cup was remarkable, but it did not bring the level of development for the local
people the South Africa President had estimated.
e) FIFA’s World Cup does not have the scope of a circus show, according to Joseph Blatter.​
Answer: A
7. Which of the following structures taken from the text is not in the passive voice?
a) were based (1st paragraph)
b) is restricted (2nd paragraph)
c) may be assured (4th paragraph)
d) will be admitted (4th paragraph)
e) has been criticized (6th paragraph)
Answer: C
8. The sentence “This has nothing to do with money, as it had nothing to do with money
here in Africa. It has to do with the development of the game” (8th paragraph) as a whole
expresses an idea of:
a) addition.
b) cause.
c) comparison.
d) concession.
e) contrast.
Answer: E
9. Which of the following references is not correct?
a) its (1st paragraph) refers to the world’s biggest soccer tournament.
b) it (3rd paragraph) refers to Qatar.
c) we (7th paragraph) refers to FIFA (’s World Cup).
d) his (8th paragraph) refers to Joseph Blatter.
e) who (10th paragraph) refers to South Africa President Jacob Zuma.
Answer: B
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 12.
TEXT 54: Cheer when an opponent shows skill
In a week dominated by talk of football finance and the Old Firm heading to England to maximise their
revenue, I met two great Glasgow football fans who lifted my spirits and made me remember what it is I
love about the beautiful game.
Brothers Davie and Ronnie Jackson from Rutherglen are probably heading towards bus pass age, but
their joy and fervour for football shone as brightly as mine the first time I was lifted over the turnstiles.
Both are Clyde fans. Both had chucked an old rucksack over their shoulders and took a cheap day ticket
to Dundee to have a gander at the two football grounds, because that’s what football fans do.
I’d just interviewed United chairman Stephen Thompson, when I bumped into the “boys”.
Strolling up to Dens and Tannadice on spec, they’d been given a guided tour of each ground. At
Tannadice, Ken Nicol, who among other jobs holds the fort occasionally at the reception desk, had shown
them round and treated them to lunch on the club.
The three of us got talking and they regaled me with tales of football old and new, but mostly old.
Because although their hearts lie with the Bully Wee, they are of a vintage like our grandfathers, fathers
and uncles. It is the game and the game’s great players they love over and above one football club.
As laddies when the cost of following Clyde away from home was out of the question, they high-tailed it
to Cathkin Park on a Saturday to see Third Lanark (now defunct from the senior game but making a
comeback as a Glasgow amateur side).
They chatted glowingly of the greats like Goodfellow, Hilley, Harley, Gray and McInnes as though they
were fans of the Hi Hi and not the side from Shawfield.
And, in truth, they were. They were of a generation that loved football for its own sake and for the joy of
watching great players, regardless of the team.
Fittingly, given that we stood in the corridor at Tannadice, they reminisced about seeing Dundee United
as an old second division side and waxed lyrically about a man who is a hero for both Clyde and the
Arabs, Johnny Coyle, whose goal won the Scottish Cup for Clyde in 1958 against the Hibs at Hampden.
Names like Harry Haddock, George Brown and Tommy Ring peppered their animated conversation as
the great players of yesteryear tripped off their tongues the way you used to recite the times tables.
They glowingly recalled the Dundee side containing Cox Seith, Wishart, Gilzean and Ure which won the
league in 1962 and set Europe alight, beating Cologne, Sporting Lisbon, and Anderlecht before falling to
AC Milan in the semi-finals of the European Cup. By the time they started on the joys of Hearts’ terrible
trio of Conn, Bauld and Wardhaugh and the Hibs Famous Five, memories of my own late dad were
swimming round my head.
He too was like the Jacksons, regularly recalling with gusto great goals by a Billy Steel or a Laurie
Reilly, or grimacing as he recalled a crunching tackle from Rangers’ Willie Woodburn or the Dons’ Davie
Shaw.
The game was the thing for them, even over and above club loyalty.
They had, and have, a deep love and appreciation of genuine and committed talent irrespective of which
shirt it wore.
Meeting the Jacksons made me think. How often do any of us these days put our hands together for a
great goal or an inspired pass by the opposition?
Something, which if one of our own had done, would have us out of our seats and three feet in the air.
Maybe it’s time to start celebrating the game the right way again.
We all want to see our teams win and prosper, but surely first and foremost we want to see the game
played the right way, and can be big enough to show our appreciation when an opposing player does
something out of the ordinary.
So come on. Whether you’re a Hibee, a Jambo or a Dandy Don, whether you’re a Sellick man or a
Teddy Bear, go on, celebrate when you see genius in action.
When Sone Aluko leaves a trail of defenders gasping in his wake as he flies down the wing, when Andy
Dorman drives past three defenders and lashes one into the top corner, and when Derek Riordan turns on
a five pence piece and rifles one in from ten yards, forget the colours you’re wearing for a brief minute,
and put your hands together for the beautiful game.
Like me after meeting Davie and Ronnie Jackson, you’ll feel the better for it.
Adapted from http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/jimspence/2009/04/cheer_when_an_opponent_shows_s.html
1. It can be inferred from the text that:
a) Dundee won the league in 1962 beating AC Milan in the semi-finals.
b) The two boys the author met in the stadium are not football fans.
c) In order to become a real football fan, you have to cheer against your favorite team.
d) Davie and Ronnie Jackson are not real fans of the Shawfield.
e) Davie and Ronnie Jackson are not boys, they are old.
Answer: E
2. From the sentence “I met two great Glasgow football fans who lifted my spirits and
made me remember what it is I love about the beautiful game” (1st paragraph), we can
infer:
a) the author became a Glasgow fan.
b) the author renovated his passion for football.
c) the author asked to the Glasgow fans what football represented to them.
d) the two Glasgow fans were interviewed by the author.
e) the two Glasgow fans are friends of the author.
Answer: B
3. In the sentence “And, in truth, they were” (10th paragraph) the underlined words
cannot be replaced by:
a) certainly.
b) indeed.
c) eventually.
d) actually.
e) surely.
Answer: C
4. “Because although their hearts lie with the Bully Wee, they are of a vintage like our
grandfathers, fathers and uncles.”
The sentence above, taken from the 7th paragraph of the text, contains a relation of:
a) doubt.
b) addition.
c) condition.
d) comparison.
e) certainty.
Answer: D
5. In English, there are some words that can change their meanings in the plural form. In
the 1st paragraph of the text there is one of these words (spirits). Which of the following
options does not follow the same pattern?
a) Watch.
b) Custom.
c) Scale.
d) Glass.
e) Minute.
Answer: A
6. The word turnstiles (2nd paragraph) can be translated as:
a) arquibancadas.
b) catracas.
c) bandeiras.
d) torcidas.
e) traves.
Answer: B
7. Observe the following sentence taken from the 13th paragraph:
(...) memories of my own late dad were swimming round my head.
Which of the following options has the word late being used with the same meaning?
a) Is that the time? I’d no idea it was so late.
b) It was built in the late nineteenth century.
c) You’ll be late for your flight if you don’t hurry up.
d) Our ferry was two hours late because of the strike.
e) She gave her late husband’s clothes to charity.
Answer: E
8. The word glowingly (9th paragraph) means the same as:
a) sadly.
b) solemnly.
c) cheerfully.
d) unhappily.
e) dully.
Answer: C
9. “I’d just interviewed United chairman Stephen Thompson, when I bumped into the
‘boys’” (4th paragraph).
From the sentence above, we can infer that the author __________ the “boys”.
a) discovered
b) talked to
c) hit
d) came across
e) turned in
Answer: D
10. The personal pronoun they (9th paragraph) refers to:
a) Goodfellow and Hilley.
b) Davie and Ronnie Jackson.
c) Harley, Gray and McInnes.
d) Hi Hi.
e) Shawfield.
Answer: B
11. The main objective of the author of the text is:
a) to inform the results of the championship.
b) to celebrate the victory of his favorite team.
c) to ask people to respect the old football fans.
d) to describe how beautiful a football match can be.
e) to tell people to celebrate even when the opponent team shows its skills.
Answer: E
12. This text is:
a) a chronicle.
b) a parody.
c) a tall story.
d) a digest.
e) an essay.
Answer: A
Read the text and answer the following questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 55: Blow your diet? Blame your brain
Low-fat labels and encouraging exercise can backfire.
Ever make a resolution to go out and exercise and end up grabbing a gooey chocolate cupcake instead?
No matter how good our intentions are, sometimes it seems like our stomachs are out to sabotage us.
Scientists are now starting to understand why this happens.
As it turns out, the issue is often not insatiable stomachs, but diet-undermining brain chemistry. At labs
around the country, researchers are finding that our brains behave in just the opposite way we would
expect them to when it comes to diet and exercise.
Researchers recently discovered that public service announcements exhorting the fat and flabby among
us to get more exercise might have an unfortunate and unexpected side effect: They can inspire people to
eat more, according to a study published in the journal Obesity.
To learn a little more about the impact of campaigns designed to get couch potatoes moving, scientists
from the University of Illinois rounded up 53 college students and asked them to judge a series of posters
promoting exercise. After they rated the exercise posters, the students were then asked to evaluate some
raisins. They were told they could eat as many raisins as they needed to make the evaluation.
The researchers then ran the same experiment but substituted posters that promoted goals such as joining
a group or togetherness for the exercise posters. Again the students were asked to rate some raisins after
scoring the posters. The students scarfed down more raisins after scrutinizing posters that promoted
exercise than after looking over the other set of posters.
Study author Delores Albarracin, a professor of psychiatry at the university, suspects that the exercise
posters simply inspired the students to do something – and because food was available, eating became the
thing to do.
What this means, she says, is that we need to be careful about when and where we encourage people to
work out. We shouldn’t be showing ads touting the benefits of exercise when people are sitting in front of
the TV with a bag of chips in their hands.
The study brings up the intriguing possibility that these ads could be doing more harm than good if
they’re not targeted correctly, says Dr. Louis Aronne, clinical professor of medicine and director of the
Comprehensive Weight Control Program at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical
Center. (…)
By Linda Carroll | msnbc.com contributor
Adapted from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/30702871/
1. Match the columns correctly:
a) gooey ( ) amid
b) flabby ( ) examine closely
c) among ( ) raise
d) togetherness ( ) sticky
e) scarf down ( ) announcement
f) scrutinize ( ) fellowship
g) work out ( ) praise
h) ad ( ) flaccid
i) tout ( ) exercise
j) bring up ( ) scoff
Answer: a) gooey (suculento) = sticky; b) flabby (flácido) = flaccid; c) among (entre) = amid;
d) togetherness (companheirismo) = fellowship; e) scarf down (devorar, comer) = scoff; f)
scrutinize (examinar com atenção) = examine closely; g) work out (exercitar-se, malhar) =
exercise; h) ad (anúncio) = announcement; i) tout (enaltecer) = praise; j) bring up (levantar) =
raise
2. Mark the sentence which shows an approximate meaning with “Ever make a
resolution to go out and exercise and end up grabbing a gooey chocolate cupcake
instead?”.
a) Despite going out and exercising you end up grabbing a gooey chocolate cupcake.
b) In spite of going out and exercising you end up grabbing a gooey chocolate cupcake.
c) Rather than go out and exercise you end up grabbing a gooey chocolate cupcake.
d) Whether you go out and exercise or you end up grabbing a gooey chocolate cupcake.
e) Quite often you go out and exercise or you end up grabbing a gooey chocolate cupcake.
Answer: C
3. The study described in the text shows that:
a) the more a person eats, the fatter he/she becomes.
b) workout ads can lead a person to eat more.
c) diet and exercise make the brain work harder.
d) the most famous diets show no side effects.
e) no diet can make a person get slimmer in short term.
Answer: B
4. If you are a “couch potato”, you are:
a) a person who is always unsuccessful at everything he/she does.
b) a person who knows a lot about and is very interested in a particular subject.
c) a person with a high level of knowledge or skill; a specialist.
d) a person who watches a lot of television and does not have an active style of life.
e) a person who loves crisps and eats a lot of them.
Answer: D
5. Which of the following sentences shows the verb to run with the same meaning as in
“The researchers then ran the same experiment”?
a) Some people run their lives according to the movements of the stars.
b) She is running one of the companies of her family.
c) We’re running an interesting experiment.
d) A magazine subscription usually only runs for one year.
e) I can’t afford to run a car.
Answer: C
6. The college students who participated in the study:
a) ate more raisins after analyzing the posters that promoted exercise.
b) ate more raisins after analyzing the posters that promoted goals such as joining a group.
c) ate more raisins after analyzing the posters that promoted togetherness.
d) stopped eating raisins after the results of the research were released.
e) stopped working out after the results of the research were released.
Answer: A
7. The word ads (8th and 9th paragraphs) is:
a) a slang.
b) an idiom.
c) an acronym.
d) an abbreviation.
e) a neologism.
Answer: D
8. The sentence “these ads could be doing more harm than good if they’re not targeted
correctly” (9th paragraph) means the same as:
a) Unless these ads are targeted correctly, they cannot be doing more harm than good.
b) If these ads are not targeted correctly, they cannot be doing more harm than good.
c) Unless these ads are not targeted correctly, they cannot be doing more harm than good.
d) If these ads are targeted correctly, they can be doing more harm than good.
e) Unless these ads are targeted correctly, they can be doing more harm than good.
Answer: E
9. “A subject or problem which people are thinking and talking about.”
The definition above is for the word:
a) Resolution (1st paragraph)
b) Issue (3rd paragraph)
c) Judge (5th paragraph)
d) Set (6th paragraph)
e) Weight (9th paragraph)
Answer: B
10. Translate the following sentence taken from the 6th paragraph into Portuguese.
The researchers then ran the same experiment but substituted posters that promoted goals
such as joining a group or togetherness for the exercise posters.
_________________________________________________
Answer: Os pesquisadores, então, realizaram a mesma experiência, mas colocaram cartazes
que promoviam objetivos/metas como aderir a/fazer parte de um grupo ou
união/companheirismo no lugar dos cartazes que promoviam/de exercícios.
2ND PART | VOCABULARY SKILLS

TEXTS AND QUESTIONS


Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 10.
TEXT 1: Creativity and aging
Could you compose classical music when you’re 100? Elliott Carter can.
For Elliott Carter, turning 100 amounts to little more than a distraction from writing music. “The trouble
with having a centennial is that you’re here,” he jokes to a visiting reporter. Over the last year, hundreds
of events around the world have anticipated Carter’s Dec. 11 birthday, and they’ve brought tides of
visitors – musicians, composers, the dreaded journalists – to his Greenwich Village apartment, where he
has lived since 1945.
Those interruptions, combined with the more mundane chores of old age (regular hearing-aid checks,
daily naps, mandatory strolls), add up to time away from the work he loves.
Carter hasn’t let any of that noise slow his progress. In fact, over the last few years, Carter has been
composing some of the best music of his career at a pace that would challenge a writer half, or even one-
third his age.
“There are so many fascinating sounds that he invents, unusual combinations,” says pianist Daniel
Barenboim, a former director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. On Dec. 11, Barenboim will debut one
of Carter’s newest compositions, “Interventions”, at Carnegie Hall, accompanied by the Boston
Symphony Orchestra and led by conductor James Levine.
The event will be the first time a major orchestra has premiered a piece written by a composer in honor
of his own 100th birthday.
What has allowed Carter to remain prolific for so long? He’s one of a growing cohort of aging masters
(Clint Eastwood, 78; composer Milton Babbit, 92; and playwright Horton Foote, 92) who have captured
the attention of gerontologists.
There’s evidence that their professions, more than any particular lifestyle choice, may have contributed
to their longevity. “The very act of engaging one’s mind in creative ways directly affects health,” says Dr.
Gene Cohen, director of the Center on Aging, Health & Humanities at George Washington University.
In 2001, Cohen undertook a study of 150 adults ages 65 to 100 to examine the effects of various pursuits
on their well-being. The control group was engaged in noncreative community activities, and the other
group participated in community-based art programs.
After one year, Cohen found that the group engaged in creative activities, such as painting or singing in a
choir, had started fewer new medications, experienced fewer falls and made fewer doctor’s visits than
the control group. “Anything that stimulates the brain, reduces stress, and promotes a more balanced
emotional response will trigger positive changes in the body,” he says.
Composer Carter’s work challenges the mind (and the player) in ways that traditional classical music
does not. At Harvard in the 1920s, he studied math and philosophy, and much of his music is based on
complex rhythmic and harmonic patterns. Orchestra musicians have likened it to solving advanced
mathematical equations – different instruments move at different speeds, forcing musicians to count out
their parts carefully to avoid getting lost.
Carter’s more recent pieces, while still rhythmically complex, are less dense and more accessible than
what he’s written in the past. As a result, his compositions, always popular in Great Britain and many
parts of Europe, are winning new recognition in the United States.
Levine, who also acts as music director at New York City’s Metropolitan Opera, and Barenboim have
been Carter’s two biggest proponents. Since 2002, Levine has commissioned or co-commissioned nine
Carter works and performed his earlier pieces on dozens of occasions.
Barenboim has commissioned half a dozen, beginning with Carter’s only opera, “What Next?” in 1998.
Carter says his more recent style reflects his age. “As time has gone on, I’ve become more impatient,”
he says. He has fears of leaving a work unfinished, so he has turned to writing shorter pieces with fewer
instruments.
Physically, writing is also more exhausting: “When I write an orchestra piece, there’s this huge piece of
paper, and in order to write the flute on top, I have to stand up; to write the double bass at the bottom I
have to sit down”. Still another factor is that he simply grew tired of his older style. “Each of my pieces
is an adventure,” he says. “And I thought, ‘Complicated pieces, I’ve done that; now I’m going to do
something else.’” After all, a guy needs something new to challenge him in his second century.
Adapted from http://www.newsweek.com/id/173346
1. The verb to amount (1st paragraph) means the same as:
a) to care.
b) to mean.
c) to seek.
d) to keep.
e) to spread.
Answer: B
2. Give an opposite to tides of in the 1st paragraph of the text:
a) lots of.
b) currents of.
c) seas of.
d) hardly any.
e) enough.
Answer: D
3. The word strolls (2nd paragraph) means the same as:
a) saunters.
b) sneezes.
c) researches.
d) cruises.
e) dashes.
Answer: A
4. Mark a synonym for the expression In fact (3rd paragraph):
a) Actually.
b) However.
c) Unless.
d) Usually.
e) In addition.
Answer: A
5. What has allowed Carter to remain prolific for so long?
Give an opposite to the underlined word:
a) wealthy.
b) workaholic.
c) stubborn.
d) profuse.
e) idle.
Answer: E
6. In “He’s one of a growing cohort of aging masters”, the word cohort means:
a) feature.
b) summit.
c) class.
d) hallmark.
e) trait.
Answer: C
7. Read the following fragment:
Anything that stimulates the brain, reduces stress, and promotes a more balanced emotional
response will trigger positive changes in the body.
The underlined word means:
a) raise.
b) prompt.
c) stall.
d) halt.
e) forge.
Answer: B
8. In “Orchestra musicians have likened it to solving advanced mathematical equations”,
the word likened does not mean:
a) approached.
b) compared.
c) linked.
d) distinguished.
e) matched.
Answer: D
9. In the sentence “When I write an orchestra piece, there’s this huge piece of paper,
and in order to write the flute on top, I have to stand up; to write the double bass at the
bottom I have to sit down”, the word piece can be replaced, respectively, by:
a) music and portion.
b) composition and part.
c) arrangement and sheet.
d) theme and slice.
e) song and bite.
Answer: C
10. In “to write the double bass at the bottom I have to sit down”, the opposite of
bottom is:
a) base.
b) foot.
c) underside.
d) ground.
e) top.
Answer: E
Read the following text and answer the questions from 1 to 15.
TEXT 2: The world’s best foreign minister
This may have been the best month for Brazil since about June 1494. That’s when the Treaty of
Tordesillas was signed granting Portugal everything in the new world east of an imaginary line that was
declared to exist 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands. This ensured that what was to become
Brazil would be Portuguese and thus develop a culture and identity very different from the rest of Spanish
Latin America. This guaranteed the world would have samba, churrasco, “The Girl from Ipanema”, and
through some incredibly fortuitous if twisted chain of events, Gisele Bundchen.
While it took Brazil sometime to live up to the backhanded maxim that it was “the country of tomorrow
and always would be”, there is little doubt that tomorrow has arrived for the country even if much work
remains to be done to overcome its serious social challenges and tap its extraordinary economic potential.
The evidence that something new and important was happening in Brazil began to build years ago, when
then President Cardoso engineered a shift to economic orthodoxy that stabilized a country racked by
cycles of boom and bust and mind-blowing inflation. It has gained momentum however, throughout the
extraordinary term of the country’s current President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.
Some of that momentum is due to Lula’s commitment to preserving the economic foundations laid by
Cardoso, a courageous political move for a lifelong labor leader from the opposition Workers Party.
Some of it is due to luck, a changing global energy paradigm that helped make Brazil’s 30 years of
investment in biofuels start to pay off in important new ways, massive discoveries of oil off Brazil’s coast
and growing demand from Asia that has enabled Brazil to become a world agricultural export leader and
assume the role of “breadbasket of Asia”. But much of it is due to great skill on the part of Brazil’s
leaders in seizing a moment that many of their predecessors likely would have fumbled.
Of those leaders, much of the credit goes to President Lula who has become a bit of a rock star on the
international scene, harnessing energy, drive, charisma, uncanny intuition, and common sense so
effectively that his lack of formal education has hardly been an impediment. Some goes to other members
of his team, such as his chief of staff Dilma Rousseff, a former energy minister who has become a very
tough chief of staff and a possible successor to Lula. But I believe a large amount of it ought to go to
Celso Amorim, who has masterminded a transformation of Brazil’s role in the world that is almost
unprecedented in modern history. He has been Lula’s foreign minister since 2003 (he also served in the
same role in the 1990s) but I think there is a fair case to be made that he is currently the world’s most
successful foreign minister.
It is impossible to pinpoint just one turning point in Amorim’s efforts to transform Brazil from a
lumbering regional power of dubious international clout into one of the most important players on the
world stage, acknowledged by global consensus to play an unprecedented leading role.
It may have come when he played a central role helping to engineer a pushback by emerging countries
against a business-as-usual power play by the U.S. and Europe during the Cancun trade talks in 2003. It
might have been the canny way the Brazilians have used issues such as their biofuels leadership to forge
new dialogues and influence either with the United States or with other emerging powers. It certainly
involved his embrace of the idea of transforming the BRICs from acronym to important geopolitical
collaboration, working with his counterparts in Russia, India and China to institutionalize the dialogue
between the countries and to coordinate their messages. (Arguably the BRIC helped most by this alliance
is Brazil. Russia, China and India all earn places at the table due to military capabilities, population size,
economic clout or resources. Brazil has all these things...but less than the others.) It also involved
countless other things from the Brazil’s deepened and tightened ties with countries like China, it’s
promotion of both investment flows and a reputation for being comparatively secure in the face of global
economic reversals, the comfort level America’s new President has with his Brazilian counterpart – even
extending to encouraging them to play a role as a conduit to, for example, the Iranians. Agree or not with
their every move in places like Honduras or in the OAS on Cuba, Brazil has also continued to play an
important regional role even as it is clear its focus has shifted to the global stage.
Nothing illustrates how far Brazil has come or how effective the Lula-Amorim team has been than the
events of the past few weeks. First, the countries of the world cashier the G8 and embrace the G20,
guaranteeing Brazil a permanent place at the most important table in the world. Next, Brazil becomes the
first country in South America to be awarded the right to host the Olympics. Yesterday’s FT carried news
that “Asia and Brazil lead rise in consumer confidence”, a reflection on the reputation that the government
has effectively sold (with the bulk of the credit going to a resurgent Brazilian private sector). And this
week’s stories out of the IMF-World Bank Meeting in Istanbul show a further institutionalization of
Brazil’s new role with agreement to change the structure of the International Monetary Fund. According to
today’s Washington Post: “The nations also preliminarily agreed to reshape the fund’s voting structure,
promising a blueprint for giving more clout to emerging giants like Brazil and China by January 2011”.
Not a bad few days work. And while it’s Brazil’s Finance Ministry you’ll find at IMF-World Bank
Meetings, the undisputed architect of this remarkable transformation of Brazil’s role in Amorim.
Much work remains to be done, of course. Part of it has to do with the new role that has been shaped.
Brazil wants a permanent place on the U.N. Security Council and more of a leadership role in other
international institutions. It may well earn these, but it will have to maintain its growth and stability to get
there. Further, Brazil seems inclined to minimize regional threats such as those posed by Venezuela
(Brazilians tend to look down their nose at their neighbors to the north almost as much as they do toward
their Argentine friends to the south... and thus they under-estimate the ability of men like Hugo Chavez to
do too much damage). And they have an election coming up that may change the cast of players and, of
course, that can alter the current trajectory in any number of ways – good and bad.
But it is hard to think of another foreign minister who has so effectively orchestrated such a meaningful
transformation of his country’s international role. And that’s why if I were asked today to cast a ballot, my
vote for world’s best foreign minister would likely go to Santos’ native son, Celso Amorim.
One note on yesterday’s post: I received a note late yesterday from a spokesperson for the British
Embassy taking issue with my assertion that the British Ambassador had joked that he wasn’t getting much
attention from the Obama administration.
The thrust of their point was that “the Embassy denies categorically that the Ambassador made these
remarks, even in jest, and that in our view the relationship between the UK and USA remains as close as
ever – whatever the noises off by febrile commentators in the media”. While I stand by my story, their
email to me on this was so civil and well-argued that I felt it only fair to pass on their views. I would take
the “febrile commentators” point personally, but I had a flu shot only yesterday so they can’t possibly
mean me.
Posted by David Rothkopf | Wednesday, October 7, 2009
Adapted from http://rothkopf.foreignpolicy.com/
1. The word thus (1st paragraph) means the same as:
a) unless.
b) despite.
c) whether.
d) therefore.
e) albeit.
Answer: D
2. In the 2nd paragraph, overcome and tap can be replaced respectively by:
a) beat and get.
b) win and surpass.
c) break down and dismiss.
d) outburst and attain.
e) earn and achieve.
Answer: A
3. In the 3rd paragraph, the words shift, rack, mind-blowing and term are synonymous
with:
a) switch – tantalize – overwhelming – turn
b) change – torment – astonishing – span
c) turn – distress – staggering – season
d) bend – burden – stunning – spell
e) crack – grieve – astounding – phase
Answer: A
4. In the 4th paragraph, due to, seize and fumble mean the same as:
a) for – shrink – humble
b) because – enjoy – tremble
c) owing to – grab – mishandle
d) whereas – hold of – sink
e) on account of – snatch – mess up
Answer: C
5. Read the following fragment taken from the 5th paragraph:
Of those leaders, much of the credit goes to President Lula who has become a bit of a rock
star on the international scene, harnessing energy, drive, charisma, uncanny intuition, and
common sense so effectively that his lack of formal education has hardly been an
impediment.
The words in bold mean:
a) using – clout – eerie – scarcely
b) applying – determination – remarkable - eventually
c) controlling – vitality – unearthly – roughly
d) employing – motivation – unusual – barely
e) taming – energy – weird – somewhat
Answer: D
6. Still about the 5th paragraph vocabulary, mark the opposites for former, tough, fair
and successful:
a) actual – delicate – prejudiced – powerless
b) ex- – harsh – honorable – ineffectual
c) latter – fragile – unjust – profuse
d) present – weak – biased – forfeiting
e) current – feeble – unreasonable – unable
Answer: E
7. The words pinpoint, lumbering and clout (6th paragraph) can be best replaced by:
a) determinate – awkward – scope
b) spot – blundering – prestige
c) identify – lithe – sway
d) discern – dazzling – influence
e) track – stiff – power
Answer: B
8. Give synonyms to the words role, forge and arguably (7th paragraph):
a) task – raze – untenably
b) paper – raise – suitably
c) duty – flatten – reasonably
d) part – build – credibly
e) function – obliterate – feasibly
Answer: D
9. Read the following fragment taken from the 7th paragraph of the text:
It also involved countless other things from the Brazil’s deepened and tightened ties with
countries like China.
Now mark the synonyms for the highlighted words.
a) innumerable – lightened – fastened
b) endless – paled – tuned up
c) infinite – improved – deranged
d) measurable – strengthened – overhauled
e) uncountable – enhanced – sharpened
Answer: E
10. Mark the opposites for permanent, confidence and effectively (8th paragraph):
a) temporary – mistrust – inefficiently
b) lasting – definiteness – ineffectually
c) brief – uneasiness – tellingly
d) provisory – skepticism – incapably
e) perennial – bewilderment – ultimately
Answer: A
11. The word blueprint (8th paragraph) means:
a) authorization.
b) solution.
c) plan.
d) exception.
e) agreement.
Answer: C
12. The word remarkable (9th paragraph) cannot be substituted by:
a) impressive.
b) notable.
c) outstanding.
d) striking.
e) awful.
Answer: E
13. In “Further, Brazil seems inclined to minimize regional threats such as those posed
by Venezuela” (10th paragraph), the underlined word cannot be replaced by:
a) Besides.
b) In addition.
c) Also.
d) As well.
e) Moreover.
Answer: D
14. The words meaningful and ballot (11th paragraph) means, respectively:
a) expressive and tally.
b) considerable and poll.
c) important and score.
d) relevant and research.
e) worthwhile and survey.
Answer: B
15. Read the following fragment from the last paragraph of the text:
The thrust of their point was that “the Embassy denies categorically that the Ambassador
made these remarks, even in jest, and that in our view the relationship between the UK and
USA remains as close as ever – whatever the noises off by febrile commentators in the
media”.
The highlighted words mean:
a) core – observations – acutely
b) meaning – comments – facetiously
c) intention – declarations – sincerely
d) sense – information – earnestly
e) purpose – thoughts – thoughtfully
Answer: B
Read texts 3 and 4 to answer the questions from 1 to 5.
TEXT 3
Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally
applied to behavior within civil governments, but politics has been observed in other group interactions,
including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. It consists of “social relations involving
authority or power” and refers to the regulation of a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to
formulate and apply policy.
Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics
TEXT 4: “Barack Obama” contests Brazil elections against “Chico Bin Laden”
Six candidates in Brazil’s local elections have “adopted” the name Barack Obama to help set
themselves apart from hundreds of rivals.
However the three candidates who registered to contest the polls as Obama and another three who are
now called Barack – or in one case Barak – Obama, have some stiff competition if they hope to stand out.
More than 200 hopefuls contesting the municipal polls next weekend have renamed themselves after
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, the country’s popular president with an approval rating of 80 per cent.
Others have selected monikers from the wild to the ridiculous. There are candidates named after
animals (Cattle Ana, Elephant without a Tail), vehicles (German in the Lorry, Jeep Johnny), kitchen
utensils (Big Charlie Knives, Golden Fork), US presidents (Bill Clinton, Jorge Bushi) and infamous
Middle-Eastern leaders (DJ Saddam, John Bin Laden, Chico Bin Laden, Luis Bin Laden). King of the
Cuckolds, Kung Fu Fatty and The Second King of Prawns will also contest the polls.

Claudio Henrique-Barack Obama is one of eight candidates who have taken up the Illinois senator’s
name during local elections in Brazil | Photo: AP
Claudio Henrique dos Anjos registered the name Claudio Henrique-Barack Obama as the one voters
will see on the ballot after people started comparing him with the Democratic candidate.
“I am black and I wore a suit on television and people started to tell me I was just like that Barack
Obama guy in the United States,” said Mr dos Anjos, who is running for mayor of Belford Roxo, a city on
the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro.
“It was a great idea, more and more people are paying attention to my campaign. People can see that I
have plans and programmes, not that I am just some guy out for power.”
Brazilian politicians often adopt unusual names at election time. Candidates are allowed to either
register in their own name or a chosen one. Many use their long-held nicknames but some adopt
outlandish identities to grab attention.
Lula’s personal approval rating hit 80 percent this week, higher than any president since polling began
more than 20 years ago, and many candidates have added Lula to their name in the hope that some of his
success will rub off.
One man went as far as changing his name to President Lula. Others call themselves Ambulance Lula,
Radio Lula, Singer Lula, Hairdresser Lula and Here Comes Lula.
Few have a real chance at election. But the Brazilian Barack Obama is confident both he and his
namesake are in with a good chance of victory.
“He is doing a bit better than me but things are changing and I think we’ll at least get into a run-off,”
said the Brazilian version. “I’ve got a harder task than he does, he’s already nine points ahead of McCain.
And I don’t have $64 million in my campaign chest.”
By Andrew Downie in São Paulo | 1 Oct., 2008
Adapted from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/
1. Match the two columns below.
a) poll ( ) avaliação
b) stiff ( ) vizinhança
c) stand out ( ) baú
d) rating ( ) eleição
e) moniker ( ) contagiar
f) outskirts ( ) destacar-se
g) grab ( ) segundo turno
h) rub off ( ) duro, difícil
i) run-off ( ) chamar
j) chest ( ) apelido
Answer: a) eleição, b) duro/difícil, c) destacar-se, d) avaliação, e) apelido, f) vizinhança, g)
chamar, h) contagiar, i) segundo turno, j) baú
2. Which of the following options cannot be used to refer to apelido in English?
a) Namesake.
b) Cognomen.
c) Epithet.
d) Byname.
e) Nickname.
Answer: A
3. The word outlandish (8th paragraph) is equivalent in meaning to:
a) ordinary.
b) gruesome.
c) stunning.
d) weird.
e) outstanding.
Answer: D
4. Judge the following items.
I. In the text 3, the words policy and politics are equivalent in meaning.
II. In the text 4, contest and mayor are considered false cognate words.
III. In the texts 3 and 4, the word power means the same as strength.
a) Only item I is correct.
b) Only item II is correct.
c) Only item III is correct.
d) Only items I and II are correct.
e) Only items II and III are correct.
Answer: B
5. The word however (2nd paragraph) means the same as:
a) thus.
b) albeit.
c) ergo.
d) yet.
e) whether.
Answer: D
For the next 30 questions, read the texts from 5 to 9 and mark the correct synonyms or antonyms of the
words in bold.
TEXT 5
The covert (1) operations that target Iran’s nuclear program suddenly came to light with explosive
violence and stunning (2) implications for the future of warfare on Nov. 29. On that Monday morning,
dawn (3) had just broken over a bustling (4) Tehran so deeply shrouded (5) in smog that many
commuters wore face masks to protect against the fumes and dust in the air. On Artesh Street, among rows
of new and half-finished apartment blocks, the nuclear physicist Majid Shahriari was working his way
through rush-hour traffic with his wife and bodyguard in his Peugeot sedan. A motorcycle pulled up
beside the scientist’s car. Nothing extraordinary about that. But then the man on the bike stuck something to
the outside of the door and sped away. When the magnetically attached bomb went off (6), its focused
explosion killed Shahriari instantly. It wounded the others in the car but spared (7) their lives. A clean
hit.
Adapted from http://www.newsweek.com/
1. Mark the synonym:
a) open
b) public
c) furtive
d) forthright
e) disclosed
Answer: C
2. Mark the antonym:
a) dazzling
b) insignificant
c) remarkable
d) striking
e) great
Answer: B
3. Mark the antonym:
a) aurora
b) bright
c) morning
d) sunrise
e) dusk
Answer: E
4. Mark the synonym:
a) hasty
b) dormant
c) inert
d) lazy
e) sluggish
Answer: A
5. Mark the synonym:
a) cracked
b) exposed
c) covered
d) unfolded
e) unveiled
Answer: C
6. Mark the synonym:
a) burst
b) turned off
c) failed
d) halted
e) switched off
Answer: A
7. Mark the synonym:
a) took
b) ceased
c) finished
d) pitied
e) broke off
Answer: D
TEXT 6
Heavy snow trapped dozens of travelers on at least two Indiana highways on Monday, while Chicago
and other parts of the Midwest saw subzero wind chills, school closures and massive cleanup following a
weekend storm. The heavy lake effect snow in northern Indiana was part of a slow-moving storm that has
been crawling (8) across the Midwest since Friday night. At least 11 deaths have been attributed to the
storm, which dumped (9) nearly two feet of snow in parts of Minnesota and Wisconsin before moving
into Michigan and Indiana. On Monday, it stretched (10) farther east, with snow in parts of Ohio,
Pennsylvania and New York. In northwest Indiana, up to (11) 16 inches of lake effect snow fell in some
areas around LaPorte. Lake effect snow develops when cold air rushes over the warmer water in Lake
Michigan.
Adapted from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/
8. Mark the antonym:
a) creeping
b) poking
c) dragging
d) lagging
e) rushing
Answer: E
9. Mark the synonym:
a) bore
b) unloaded
c) stored
d) unbuttoned
e) undertook
Answer: B
10. Mark the synonym:
a) abridged
b) curtailed
c) heightened
d) lessened
e) decreased
Answer: C
11. Mark the antonym:
a) more than
b) at least
c) no less than
d) at most
e) at worst
Answer: A
TEXT 7
Franz Ferdinand played a surprise gig (12) at the All Tomorrow’s Parties festival in England on
Saturday night, although (13) the band didn’t debut (14) any new material. Earlier in the day the group’s
Alex Kapranos and Nick McCarthy joined former (15) Orange Juice singer Edwin Collins for two songs
during his set; Collins was backed by Teenage Fanclub, which meant (16) three generations of Scottish
indie-rock were briefly (17) on the stage.
Adapted from http://www.rollingstone.com/
12. Mark the synonym:
a) interview
b) gathering
c) summit
d) performance
e) appointment
Answer: D
13. Mark the synonym:
a) given
b) provided
c) ergo
d) whether
e) albeit
Answer: E
14. Mark the synonym:
a) hide
b) première
c) conceal
d) ditch
e) bury
Answer: B
15. Mark the antonym:
a) actual
b) current
c) ex-
d) latter
e) ongoing
Answer: B
16. Mark the synonym:
a) conveyed
b) spread
c) fled
d) displayed
e) delayed
Answer: A
17. Mark the synonym:
a) dully
b) tiresomely
c) lengthily
d) shortly
e) randomly
Answer: D
TEXT 8
It was the only U.S. soccer team America ever truly (18) loved. So how do you even begin to breathe
life back into the New York Cosmos without it coming off as a cheap imitation? How do you go about
restarting a professional sports franchise with such a loaded name from scratch (19), anyway? The
original Cosmos zenith began in 1977, lasting a few years. Remnants of the counter-culture inspired
people to try out new things, a lingering (20) effect of having once yearned (21) for new institutions to
orbit their lives around. New York was turning apocalyptic. The Son of Sam was on the loose, crack was
king and people ran riot during the blackouts. Elsewhere (22), Led Zeppelin gave its last concert. So did
the Supremes and Elvis Presley. Apple was incorporated. And at the busy intersection of all these
changes stood the lovable, hard-partying, star-studded Cosmos, which embodied the new, put together
from parts of the old. Good luck recreating that.
Adapted from http://espn.go.com/
18. Mark the antonym:
a) actually
b) de facto
c) surely
d) sincerely
e) deceitfully
Answer: E
19. Mark the synonym:
a) in the end
b) at the end
c) from the beginning
d) from the edge
e) since the outline
Answer: C
20. Mark the antonym:
a) fleeting
b) enduring
c) settled
d) rooted
e) deep-seated
Answer: A
21. Mark the antonym:
a) desired
b) spurned
c) craved
d) wished
e) hungered
Answer: B
22. Mark the synonym:
a) Meanwhile
b) Here
c) Nowhere
d) Abroad
e) Everywhere
Answer: A
TEXT 9
Mark Zuckerberg, the co-founder and chief executive of Facebook, likes to say that his Web site brings
people together, helping to make the world a better place. But Facebook isn’t a utopia, and, when it
comes up short (23), Dave Willner tries to clean up. Dressed in Facebook’s quasi-official uniform of
jeans, a T-shirt and flip-flops, the 26-year-old Mr. Willner hardly (24) looks like a cop on the beat (25).
Yet he and his colleagues on Facebook’s “hate and harassment (26) team” are part of a virtual police
squad charged (27) with taking down content that is illegal or violates Facebook’s terms of service. That
puts them on the front line of the debate over free speech on the Internet. (…)
The soft-spoken Mr. Willner, who on his own Facebook page describes his political views as “turning
swords into plowshares and spears (28) into pruning (29) hooks,” makes for an unlikely enforcer.
An archaeology and anthropology major in college, he said that while he loved his job, he did not love
watching so much of the underbelly of Facebook. “I handle (30) it by focusing on the fact that what we do
matters,” he said.
Adapted from http://www.nytimes.com/
23. Mark the synonym:
a) is peerless
b) is foolproof
c) is utopian
d) is flawless
e) is lacking
Answer: E
24. Mark the antonym:
a) scarcely
b) barely
c) precisely
d) slightly
e) little
Answer: C
25. Mark the synonym:
a) doing a raid
b) stinging
c) arresting criminals
d) on patrol
e) working in his spare time
Answer: D
26. Mark the synonym:
a) aid
b) assistance
c) support
d) badgering
e) furtherance
Answer: D
27. Mark the synonym:
a) blamed
b) bolted
c) bidden
d) crowded
e) dashed
Answer: C
28. Mark the synonym:
a) lance
b) archery
c) machine gun
d) rifle
e) shotgun
Answer: A
29. Mark the synonym:
a) enlarging
b) trimming
c) lengthening
d) increasing
e) developing
Answer: B
30. Mark the synonym:
a) neglect
b) slighted
c) overlooked
d) disregard
e) deal with
Answer: E
For the next 10 questions, read the texts from 10 to 13.
TEXT 10
Joy Division were an English rock band that formed in 1976 in Salford, Greater Manchester. With their
dark, cavernous sound and use of guitars, throbbing bass, and electronics, they pioneered the post-punk
sound of the late 1970s. In May 1980, after the suicide of its lead singer, Ian Curtis, the remaining
members reformed as New Order and went on to achieve1 much critical and commercial success. Though
the group achieved only modest success during their career, and released only just two official albums,
they have since been acclaimed as one of the most inventive2 and influential bands of their era. Thom
Jurek writes, “They left just a small bit of music and an echo that still rings”.
Adapted from wikipedia.org
1. The word achieve (ref. 1) may be replaced, without altering the meaning by:
a) avoid.
b) demand.
c) maintain.
d) accomplish.
e) provide.
Answer: D
2. The opposite of the most inventive (ref. 2) is:
a) the less inventive.
b) the more inventive.
c) the least inventive.
d) as inventive so.
e) much inventive.
Answer: C
TEXT 11
Just weeks after the cops stormed1 New York nightlife, the British police conducted a similar drug sting,
busting one of London’s biggest clubs. The cops arrested2 eleven people at Brixton’s club “The Fridge”.
Like the stings3 in Chelsea, the operation took months of planning, involving over 200 police officers. The
arrests concerned the dealing4 and use of ecstasy, cocaine, and amphetamines.
Adapted from clubplanet.com
3. In the text, stormed (ref. 1) means:
a) rained.
b) tore.
c) stuck.
d) improved.
e) attacked.
Answer: E
4. Read the statements below:
I. “Arrested” (ref. 2) can be substituted by “caught”.
II. “Stings” (ref. 3) is the same as “raids”.
III. “Dealing” (ref. 4) means “doing”.
Now mark the correct sequence:
a) T – T – T
b) T – T – F
c) T – F – F
d) T – F – T
e) F – T – F
Answer: B
TEXT 12
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers that were originally designed as personal
organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. PDAs are also known as pocket computers or
palmtop computers.
PDAs have many uses: calculation, use as a clock and calendar, accessing the Internet, sending and
receiving e-mails, video recording, typewriting and word processing, use as an address book, making and
writing on spreadsheets, use as a radio or stereo, playing computer games, recording survey1 responses,
and Global Positioning System (GPS).
Newer PDAs also have both color screens and audio capabilities, enabling them to be used as mobile
phones (smartphones), web browsers, or portable media players. Many2 PDAs can access the Internet,
intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi, or Wireless Wide-Area Networks (WWANs). One of the most significant
PDA characteristics is the presence of a touch screen.
Adapted from wikipedia.org
5. Give a synonym for survey (ref. 1) and an antonym for many (ref. 2):
a) question – Few
b) study – Much
c) research – Quite
d) release – Rather
e) task – Little
Answer: A
TEXT 13
In Joel Schumacher’s psychological thriller “The Number 23”, Jim Carrey takes on another dramatic
role1. Carrey’s character is similar to his roles in “The Truman Show” and “Eternal Sunshine of the
Spotless Mind”: he portrays an average2 man thrust into quite extraordinary situations after a series of
strange events cause him to question everything he’s ever taken for granted. On his birthday, Walter
Sparrow is given a mysterious and tattered book called The Number 23 by his loving wife, Agatha
(Virginia Madsen). As Walter reads the book, he quickly notices its alarming similarities to his own life.
Rather than stop reading, he continues, unknowingly inviting the book to take over his life. The deeper
Walter gets into the plot, the more he sees himself in its protagonist, Fingerling, whom we see through
highly stylized sequences in which Carrey appears as the seedy3 detective character.
Adapted from precomania.com
6. In the text, role (ref. 1) is the same as:
a) paper.
b) part.
c) rule.
d) personnel.
e) picture.
Answer: B
7. Give, respectively, a synonym and an antonym for average (ref. 2):
a) same – freak
b) alike – different
c) ordinary – unusual
d) common – foreign
e) equal – strange
Answer: C
8. The opposite of the word seedy (ref. 3) is:
a) reputable.
b) immoral.
c) dirty.
d) squalid.
e) sleazy.
Answer: A
9. The sentence he’s ever taken for granted, taken from the text, is the same as:
a) he’s not always realized.
b) he’s never taken for granted.
c) he’s already taken for granted.
d) he’s never believed.
e) he’s always believed.
Answer: E
10. “AS Walter reads the book, he QUICKLY NOTICES its alarming similarities to his own
life.”
After reading the sentence above, replace the words in capital for synonyms:
a) Like Walter reads the book, he fastly realizes its alarming similarities to his own life.
b) Like Walter reads the book, he fastly sees its alarming similarities to his own life.
c) While Walter reads the book, he fastly sees its alarming similarities to his own life.
d) While Walter reads the book, he fast realizes its alarming similarities to his own life.
e) While Walter reads the book, he fast repairs its alarming similarities to his own life.
Answer: D
Read the texts from 14 to 19 and mark the synonyms or the antonyms for the underlined words in the
questions from 1 to 28.
TEXT 14: Do not fear the vodka bottle
Our Moscow correspondent offers some advice to business travellers heading to his city. It’s a vibrant
place, where boredom will be the last of your worries and where private business moves quickly. But
dealings with the state can be tortuous, especially if a traffic policeman decides to take a look at your
papers in the hope of a bribe. You should always carry your passport and visa with you, as well as the
phone number of a Russian contact who can assist you.
Adapted from http://www.economist.com/
1. The word boredom means:
a) wearisome.
b) excitement.
c) thrill.
d) turmoil.
e) awareness.
Answer: A
2. In the text, bribe is equivalent in meaning to:
a) bait.
b) reward.
c) pay-off.
d) blackmail.
e) ransom.
Answer: C
3. The expression as well as cannot be replaced by:
a) along with.
b) besides.
c) likewise.
d) apart from.
e) in addition.
Answer: E
4. The opposite of assist is:
a) watch.
b) support.
c) aid.
d) hinder.
e) forward.
Answer: D
TEXT 15
The Basque separatist group ETA said Monday it was declaring a permanent cease-fire.
In a statement released to the Basque newspaper Gara – where it typically releases information – ETA
said it declares a permanent general and verifiable cease-fire as a “firm commitment towards a process
to achieve a lasting resolution and towards an end to the armed confrontation”.
There was no immediate reaction from the Spain’s Socialist government, which has repeatedly called
for ETA to unilaterally announce a definitive end to its decades of separatist violence, blamed for more
than 800 deaths, and a pledge to lay down its weapons.
ETA wants Basque independence in northern Spain and southwest France. Various Basque leftist parties
– including the Batasuna party, outlawed for its links to ETA – as well as four Nobel peace laureates and
the Nelson Mandela Foundation also have called in recent months for the organization to establish a
permanent and verifiable cease-fire.
The latest remark comes after weeks of speculation in Spain that ETA would issue a statement during the
holiday season. (CNN)
Adapted from http://www.dihitt.com.br/
5. The verb to release can be replaced by:
a) to loose.
b) to disclose.
c) to take out.
d) to unleash.
e) to yield.
Answer: B
6. Based on the text, which of the words below does not contain a semantic relationship
with the other options?
a) Permanent
b) Verifiable
c) Firm
d) Lasting
e) Definitive
Answer: B
7. The opposite for general is:
a) ordinary.
b) prevailing.
c) widespread.
d) exceptional.
e) commonplace.
Answer: D
8. Outlawed can be replaced by:
a) forbidden.
b) barred.
c) banned.
d) denied.
e) cursed.
Answer: C
TEXT 16: The market in justice
Bounty hunters and bail bondsmen have not got a very good press. The American Bar Association
regards the whole business of commercial justice as tawdry. Hollywood films suggest that bounty hunters
are not that different from the people they pursue. A fascinating article in the current Wilson Quarterly, by
Alex Tabarrok, tells a different story, and suggests that bounty hunters not only provide the public with
value for money, they are also as consumer-friendly as you can be in their business:
“In addition to being effective, bail bondsmen and bounty hunters work at no cost to the taxpayers. The
public reaps a double benefit, because when a bounty hunter fails to find his man, the bond is forfeit to
the government. Because billions of dollars of bail are written every year and not every fugitive is caught,
bond forfeits are a small but welcome source of revenue. At the federal level, forfeits help fund the Crime
Victim Fund, which does what its name suggests, and in states such as Virginia and North Carolina they
yield millions of dollars for public schools.
Indeed, budget shortfalls around the nation are leading to a reconsideration of commercial bail. Oregon,
which banned commercial bail in 1974, is considering a controversial bill to reinstate it, and even
Illinois, nearly 50 years after establishing its alternative system, may once again allow bail bondsmen”.
Jan. 13th, 2011 | Schumpeter
Adapted from http://www.economist.com/
9. Mark the opposite for tawdry:
a) tasteless.
b) flashy.
c) outlandish.
d) garish.
e) becoming.
Answer: E
10. The opposite for fascinating is:
a) appalling.
b) spellbinding.
c) alluring.
d) compelling.
e) ravishing.
Answer: A
11. In the text, the verb to reap means the same as:
a) to arrange.
b) to array.
c) to gather.
d) to sow.
e) to raise.
Answer: C
12. Forfeit can be replaced by:
a) lost.
b) profited.
c) gained.
d) earned.
e) won.
Answer: A
13. The word yield is not equivalent to:
a) produce.
b) provide.
c) generate.
d) withhold.
e) supply.
Answer: D
TEXT 17
Wyclef Jean recently stopped by Rolling Stone’s offices to perform an intimate acoustic set of new and
old songs.
Two of the songs – “My Haitian Experience” and “Earthquake” – are from his new EP, If I Were
President: My Haitian Experience. The third track is a rollicking version of “Gone Till November,” the
hit single from his 1997 debut solo LP, Carnival.
It’s been quite a year for Jean: his homeland of Haiti was ravaged by an earthquake in January, yet his
efforts to bring attention to the crisis brought millions of dollars in relief to the ravaged country.
In August, he announced he was running for president of Haiti, but his candidacy was ultimately
rejected by the country’s government.
Adapted from http://www1.rollingstone.com/topics/rslive?vid=wyclef
14. The phrasal verb to stop by means:
a) to halt.
b) to call.
c) to drop.
d) to break.
e) to arise.
Answer: B
15. The opposite for rollicking is:
a) energetic.
b) noisy.
c) playful.
d) flippant.
e) earnest.
Answer: E
16. Ravaged means the same as:
a) ransacked.
b) enhanced.
c) razed.
d) mended.
e) undermined.
Answer: C
17. The adverb ultimately can be replaced by:
a) finally.
b) after all.
c) absolutely.
d) hereafter.
e) afterwards.
Answer: A
TEXT 18: Mr. Clean
In 2002, when the average price of a vacuum was about $125 and the world was experiencing a
hangover from the recent dotcom bubble, Sir James Dyson came to America to sell a vacuum cleaner.
Specifically the Dyson DC07, a cyclonic upright vacuum capable of generating 100,000g of centrifugal
force (three times that of a bullet exiting a gun) and pulling dirt into a canister made from the same
material manufacturers use for crash helmets. All for the chin-dropping price of $399. (…) But eight
years later, amid a tougher economic climate, Dyson faces a new, albeit well-known, challenge. Will the
quality and innovation that helped sell his product when he first came here in 2002 be enough to keep a
growing number of price-conscious consumers coming back? (…)
“We increased our market share in every country we sell in,” Dyson told the London Times this year.
They have a term for that in Britain-turning the laws of business allegedly on their head and getting people
to pay more to get more even during a recession. It’s called “doing a Dyson”.
Adapted from http://www.newsweek.com/
18. In the text, the word hangover is equivalent in meaning to:
a) wreckage.
b) remainder.
c) offshoot.
d) trail.
e) aftermath.
Answer: E
19. Canister cannot be replaced by:
a) bucket.
b) vessel.
c) recipient.
d) container.
e) receptacle.
Answer: C
20. In the text, chin-dropping is synonymous with:
a) unbelievable.
b) lofty.
c) steep.
d) dwarfed.
e) sky-scraping.
Answer: A
21. The preposition amid means the same as:
a) between.
b) during.
c) after.
d) before.
e) meanwhile.
Answer: B
22. Tougher is equivalent to:
a) weaker.
b) more feeble.
c) flatter.
d) fiercer.
e) more stable.
Answer: D
23. Albeit can be substituted by:
a) perhaps.
b) undoubtedly.
c) although.
d) yet.
e) unless.
Answer: C
TEXT 19: The Beatles’ Abbey Road crossing gets UK heritage protection

English Heritage, which normally works to protect the country’s buildings, awarded the status that
decrees every effort must be made to ensure the crossing is maintained.
Thousands of Beatles’ fans imitate the famous picture of John Lennon, Sir Paul Mc​Cartney, Ringo Starr
and George Harrison walking across Abbey Road, London, every year.
Sir Paul, who was barefoot in the iconic picture, said, “It’s been a great year for me and a great year for
The Beatles and hearing that the Abbey Road crossing is to be preserved is the icing on the cake”.
UK tourism and heritage minister John Penrose said: “This London zebra crossing is no castle or
cathedral but, thanks to The Beatles and a ten minute photo-shoot one August morning in 1969, it has just
as strong a claim as any to be seen as part of our heritage. And as such it merits the extra protection that
Grade II listing provides”.
The simple picture went on to become one of the most famous album covers off all time.
The Abbey Road studios, where the album was recorded, were listed in February.
Adapted from http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/
24. In the text, the word effort means:
a) exertion.
b) idleness.
c) leisure.
d) drowsiness.
e) sloth.
Answer: A
25. The word heritage is equivalent to:
a) endowment.
b) bounty.
c) bequest.
d) income.
e) wage.
Answer: C
26. The verb to merit can be replaced by:
a) to demand.
b) to pledge.
c) to swear.
d) to deserve.
e) to warrant.
Answer: D
27. The word extra means:
a) farther.
b) further.
c) notorious.
d) large.
e) huge.
Answer: B
28. The word where can be replaced by:
a) which.
b) elsewhere.
c) that.
d) in which.
e) on which.
Answer: D
Read the following text for the next 5 questions.
TEXT 20: Battling for Brazil’s environment
“The Paulo Afonso gorge is filled with what seems not water, but the froth of milk – a dashing and
dazzling, whirling and surfaceless mass, which gives a wondrous study of fluid in motion,” Burton wrote
when visiting the country in 1867. But this magnificent waterfall has been reduced to a mere trickle in
recent times after the course of the São Francisco River that flows through the gorge was altered by the
building of a huge dam.
Some 40% of the power used in north-east Brazil now comes from the Paulo Afonso hydropower plant
– like many in the country, the source of much controversy since its construction. But this has come at a
cost to both people and the environment, reflected in the loss of the Paulo Afonso waterfall, once the
biggest attraction in the whole region.
Edson Pires, one of the main managers of the electric system in the region, admitted that the building of
the dam had had some negative consequences. “Many people were displaced, and many cities were
flooded when the dams were built to provide water for these power plants that are on the São Francisco
River,” he conceded.
But he added that steps had been taken wherever possible to minimise the impact. “These people were
rehoused in villages that were built along the São Francisco River, with irrigation projects and new
houses,” he said. “I guarantee that nobody is without a house because of a lake.”
Mr. Pires said that he personally felt strongly about any environmental impact the dam may have had.
“This is a rare kind of river. It’s beautiful, the quality of its water is really high and I feel really happy
when I occasionally swim in its water,” he insisted.
Many of those who work in the industry take a similar view, and sing the praises of both the river and
the power plant – there is even a corporate CD of such songs. Some add that the Paulo Afonso waterfall
may not be gone forever.
According to Antonio Gaudino of the São Francisco Power Company, its waters can be unleashed again
at the flick of a switch. “It is a programmed waterfall – if the dam opens its floodgates, the Paulo Afonso
waterfall will return,” Mr. Gaudino explained.
He added that he felt the changes made to the river to accommodate the dam only added to the region’s
appeal to tourists. “There is adventure here – there are several canyons that could provide for bungee
jumping or other activities like this,” he said.
“After the dam of Xingo – about 60 km down the river from Paulo Afonso – the canyons of the São
Francisco started to be navigated. Before there were rapids here. Now the level of the river is a bit higher
– because of the engineering works – it’s possible to have different kinds of boats going down the river.”
But the loss of the São Francisco’s powerful flow has had other environmental costs.
In 1867, the Paulo Afonso marked the end of Burton’s journey, as the rapids beyond would have
capsized his canoe – today he would be able to follow the São Francisco all the way to the Atlantic.
In the past, water from the river could be found as far as seven km into the Atlantic Ocean. But the
reduction in flow means now it is the sea that can be found about two km inland – causing erosion and
damage to the beautiful mouth of the river. (…)
By Paulo Cabral | BBC Brazilian Service
Adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3154333.stm
1. Match the words in English with their correct translations:
a) froth ( ) usina
b) trickle ( ) dano
c) dam ( ) soltar
d) plant ( ) espuma
e) provide ( ) perda
f) praise ( ) fornecer, dar
g) unleash ( ) virar
h) loss ( ) fio d’água
i) capsize ( ) elogio, louvor
j) damage ( ) represa
Answer: a) espuma, b) fio d’água, c) represa, d) usina, e) fornecer, dar, f) elogio, louvor, g)
soltar, h) perda, i) virar, j) dano
2. The words dashing, dazzling, whirling (1st paragraph) can be replaced respectively by:
a) exuberant – sparkling – flighty
b) exuberant – sparkling – vertiginous
c) exuberant – stunning – flighty
d) attractive – bold – vertiginous
e) attractive – bold – flighty
Answer: B
3. The word some (2nd paragraph) cannot be replaced by:
a) almost.
b) about.
c) nearly.
d) roughly.
e) utterly.
Answer: E
4. In the 2nd paragraph, the word once means:
a) in the past.
b) one single time.
c) on a single occasion.
d) as soon as.
e) pretty soon.
Answer: A
5. Which of the following words does not receive the prefix re- as rehoused (4th
paragraph)?
a) Rehab.
b) Relish.
c) Research.
d) Refuel.
e) Replace.
Answer: B
Read the following text and translate the words in bold into Portuguese.
TEXT 21: A man, a plan

Psychobiography in politics is ordinarily a mug’s game. Sometimes, though, an assessment of inherited


traits and ideologies can be telling. For years, Israeli and American commentators have been waiting for
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to leave behind the right-wing Revisionist ideology of his father,
Benzion, a historian of the Spanish Inquisition, and, like Nixon leaving for China, end the occupation of
the Palestinian territories. Just as Nixon set aside decades of Cold War ideology and Red-baiting in the
interests of practical global politics, Netanyahu would transcend his own history, and his party’s, to end
the suffering of a dispossessed people and regain Israel’s moral standing.
This waiting game is a delusion. The stubborn ideological legacy that, in part, blocks such a
transformation runs deep. During Netanyahu’s first term as Prime Minister, in the late nineteen-nineties, I
met with him in his office, in Jerusalem, and he fondly recalled how his father encountered David Ben
Gurion, in 1956, not long after Israel captured the Sinai.
Ben Gurion had vowed to keep the Sinai for a thousand years, but Benzion was convinced that he would
lose it. Why? Ben Gurion asked.
“Because the U.S. will force you to,” the elder Netanyahu said.
“Of course, he was right, unfortunately,” the son said. “That was the first and last time an Israeli Prime
Minister succumbed to an American diktat.” This ingrained wariness toward Israel’s most stalwart ally
and benefactor is just part of Netanyahu’s inheritance. On that same trip to Israel, Benzion, who is now a
hundred and one, invited me to his house for lunch, and I am not sure that I have ever heard more
outrageously reactionary table talk. The disdain for Arabs, for Israeli liberals, for any Americans to the
left of the neoconservatives was chilling. The bitter ideological resentments were deepened by genuine
loss: another of Benzion’s sons, Yoni, was the Israeli commando killed in the extraordinary rescue of the
hostages at Entebbe, in 1976. In books, speeches, and action, Benjamin Netanyahu has proved himself his
father’s son.
Now in his second term and ruling in a coa​lition government that includes anti-​democratic, even proto-
fascistic ministers, such as Avigdor Lieberman, Netanyahu has stub​bornly refused the appeals of
Washington and of the Pales​tinian leaders Mahmoud Abbas and Salam Fayyad, who have shown
themselves willing to make the concessions needed for a peace deal.
In the midst of a revolution in the Arab world, Netanyahu seems lost, defensive, and unable or unwilling
to recognize the changing circumstances in which he finds himself.
The occupation – illegal, inhumane, and inconsistent with Jewish values – has lasted forty-four years.
Netanyahu thinks that he can keep on going, secure behind a wall. Late last month, he called the German
Chancellor, Angela Merkel, to register his displeasure that Germany had voted for a U.N. Security
Council resolution condemning the Jewish settlements. According to an account in the Israeli daily
Haaretz, a German source said that Merkel could hardly contain her outrage. “How dare you?” she said.
“You are the one who has disappointed us. You haven’t made a single step to advance peace.” The U.S.
vetoed the resolution, but sources in the Administration say that the vote was debated intensely.
Netanyahu told Merkel that he intends to give a speech in the next few weeks supporting an interim
Palestinian state on about half the territory of the West Bank. If that is his plan, it will be unacceptable to
the Palestinians, and he knows it. Smug and lacking in diplomatic creativity, Netanyahu has alienated and
undermined the forces of progressivism in the West Bank and is, step by ugly step, deepening Israel’s
isolation.
It is time for President Obama to speak clearly and firmly. Concentrating solely on the settlements, as he
has done in the past, is not enough; he needs a more comprehensive approach. Administration officials
talk about “getting it right” in the Middle East, by which they mean finding the right diplomatic levers in
order to support the potential democratic elements in such varied countries as Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and
Bahrain, without moving too far ahead of events or becoming engaged militarily in ways that could lead to
disaster. Getting Israel and Palestine right must be part of that effort. The old, wishful habit of waiting for
Netanyahu is an abdication of American influence and interests.
If the Administration has been reluctant to put forward a comprehensive peace plan, it’s not because it
has any difficulty imagining such a plan. Inevitably, the parameters of a two-state solution would be like
those established at Taba, in 2001, and by Ehud Olmert and Mahmoud Abbas, in 2008. The greater
concern is domestic politics, both in the United States and in Israel.
For decades, AIPAC, the Anti-Defamation League, and other such right-leaning groups have played an
outsized role in American politics, pressuring members of Congress and Presidents with their capacity to
raise money and swing elections. But Democratic Presidents in particular should recognize that these
groups are hardly representative and should be met head on.
Obama won seventy-eight per cent of the Jewish vote; he is more likely to lose some of that vote if he
reverses his position on, say, abortion than if he tries to organize international opinion on the Israeli-Arab
conflict. However, some senior members of the Administration have internalized the political restraints
that they believe they are under, and cannot think beyond them. Some, like Dennis Ross, who has served
five Presidents, can think only in incremental terms.
Obama’s views are not mysterious. His political home is Hyde Park, on the South Side of Chicago,
where he came to know liberal Zionists and Palestinian academics, and to understand both the necessity
of a Jewish state after the Second World War and the tragedy and the depths of Palestinian suffering.
The President has made mistakes on this issue: it was a mistake not to follow his historic speech in
Cairo, in 2009, with a trip to Jerusalem. When it comes to domestic politics in Israel, he is in a
complicated spot. For some Israelis on the right, his race and, more, his middle name make him a source
of everlasting suspicion.
Yet he is also a communicator of enormous gifts, capable both of assuring Israeli progressives and of
reaching out to the anxious center. A visit to Israel, coupled with the presentation of a peace plan, would
also help structure international support and clarify American interests. The Palestinian question is not an
internal matter for Israel; it is an international matter.
The importance of an Obama plan is not that Netanyahu accept it right away; the Palestinian leadership,
which is weak and suffers from its own issues of legitimacy, might not embrace it immediately, either,
particularly the limits on refugees. Rather, it is important as a way for the United States to assert that it
stands not with the supporters of Greater Israel but with what the writer Bernard Avishai calls “Global
Israel,” the constituencies that accept the moral necessity of a Palestinian state and understand the dire
cost of Israeli isolation. Even as Obama continues to stress his commitment to Israeli security, he has to
emphasize the truth that, without serious progress toward an agreement, matters will likely deteriorate,
perhaps to the point, yet again, of violence.
One of the myths of Israeli history is that only a few intellectuals on the left could see, in the wake of the
1967 war, that a prolonged occupation of Palestinian lands would be a moral and political calamity. In
fact, records of the first cabinet meeting after the war show that the Justice Minister, Yaakov Shimshon
Shapira, said, “In a time of decolonization in the whole world can we consider an area in which mainly
Arabs live, and we control defense and foreign policy?... Who’s going to accept that?”
Ultimately, no one. If America is to be a useful friend, it owes clarity to Israel, no less than Israel and
the world owe justice – and a nation – to the Palestinian people.
By David Remnick
Adapted from http://www.newyorker.com/
1. mug’s game: ___________________
2. traits: ___________________
3. term: ___________________
4. fondly: ___________________
5. diktat: ___________________
6. willing to: ___________________
7. unwilling: ___________________
8. settlements: ___________________
9. outrage: ___________________
10. smug: ___________________
11. undermined: ___________________
12. solely: ___________________
13. comprehensive: ___________________
14. effort: ___________________
15. wishful: ___________________
16. concern: ___________________
17. right-leaning: ___________________
18. swing: ___________________
19. depths: ___________________
20. issue: ___________________
21. everlasting: ___________________
22. gifts: ___________________
23. coupled: ___________________
24. rather: ___________________
25. toward: ___________________
Answer: 1. um esforço fútil ou não rentável; 2. traços, características; 3. mandato; 4.
afetuosamente; 5. estadista; 6. dispostos a; 7. relutante, indisposto; 8. assentamentos; 9.
ultraje; 10. presunçoso; 11. enfraquecido; 12. exclusivamente; 13. abrangente, amplo; 14.
esforço; 15. saudoso; 16. preocupação; 17. de direita; 18. agitar; 19. profundezas; 20.
questão, assunto; 21. eterno; 22. habilidades; 23. acompanhado; 24. em vez disso; 25. em
direção a, em relação a
Read the following text and translate the words in bold into Portuguese.
TEXT 22: Will the crisis create a new Japan?
On Sept. 1, 1923, a 7.9-magnitude temblor struck Tokyo. More than 100,000 people lost their lives and
more than 3 million were left homeless in the Great Kanto Earthquake. Fueled by rumors that ethnic
Koreans were poisoning water wells, mobs killed thousands of Koreans in the days that followed. The
Japanese government declared martial law, but the civilian authorities’ inability to deal with the disaster
contributed to an eventual military takeover.
Seventy-one years later, on Jan. 17, 1995, Kobe was hit by a 6.9-magnitude quake. The Great Hanshin
Earthquake killed 6,400 people. Damage was estimated at more than $100 billion, or 2.5 percent of
Japanese national income – similar to current estimates of the toll of last week’s 9.0-magnitude temblor in
the Tohoku region of northern Japan. Yet, within 18 months, economic activity in Kobe had reached 98
percent of its pre-quake level. A state-of-the-art offshore port facility was built, housing was
modernized – and a scruffy port city became an international showpiece.
It is tempting to regard the different responses to these tragedies as proof that a more advanced society
will respond more constructively to adversity. The simpler truth is that disasters can quickly transform a
nation – for better, or for worse.
Which way will Japan go?
Last week’s earthquake and tsunami devastated a society that, for all its wealth, was stuck in a rut.
Over the past two decades, Japan’s economic growth averaged an anemic 1 percent a year. Politically, the
country was rudderless. The Liberal Democratic Party, which had governed almost continuously since the
end of the U.S. military occupation following World War II, had finally worn out its welcome. And the
novice Democratic Party of Japan, which had assumed power in 2009, was flailing.
For four decades after the war, Japan experienced cozy politics backed by a robust economy. Lightly
populated rural districts had a disproportionate effect on national politics. The government financed
multibillion-dollar bridges to nowhere, expensive port facilities for small fishing villages and bullet
trains to traverse bucolic rural areas – and seemingly lined every riverbed in Japan in concrete.
But in 1990, the bubble burst. The working-age share of the population began to fall. In 1998, the labor
force started to shrink, and a decade later, the country’s population began to decline. Eventually, voters
concerned about the mounting costs of wasteful projects tossed out the LDP.
Before the earthquake and tsunami devastated the Tohoku region on March 11, the country was already
facing a slowing economy, fiscal strain and deflation, and decades of wasteful spending had saddled the
country with a debt more than twice the size of the economy. Now, beyond the tragedy’s human toll, the
economic costs are still being counted – and could be vastly expanded if the nuclear reactor damage is
closer to that of Chernobyl than to Three Mile Island. If rebuilding is handled skillfully, there is hope that
a different kind of Japan will emerge.
Despite its weak starting point, the government holds a few cards. Ninety-five percent of Japan’s debt is
owned by its citizens, not foreign hedge funds; it’s unlikely that those citizens would dump their bond
holdings if the government takes on more debt to rebuild the city of Sendai, for example. Financially, the
government has more maneuvering room than might seem apparent.
Some rebuilding can be financed by redirecting spending from useless white-elephant projects to the
higher priority of remaking Tohoku. The quality of public investment in the nation could improve, perhaps
permanently, as a result of this crisis.
Japan’s shrinking labor force could constrain the country’s ability to rebuild – thus forcing politicians
and the public to confront its misgivings about immigration. Japan has long exerted tight control of its
borders and makes it difficult for foreigners to live and work in the country. Among leading industrial
nations, only South Korea has a lower share of foreigners in its workplaces. The foreigners now in Japan
fall into various niches: highly skilled white-collar expatriates; low-skilled, often illegal, laborers;
imported rural brides. Economists have long argued that Japan needs to welcome more workers to remain
economically competitive. The imperative to rebuild housing and infrastructure on a massive scale could
force this immigration challenge into the open.
The rebuilding process can also help slow, if not reverse, the extraordinary concentration of economic
power in Tokyo. Over the past 10 to 20 years, hundreds of Japanese corporations have moved their
headquarters from cities such as Osaka and Kitakyushu to the Japanese capital.
The nation’s transition to a post-industrial society (with its greater emphasis on white-collar services),
the decline of regional financial institutions and a cultural emphasis on face-to-face communication in
business have encouraged the clustering of economic life in Tokyo. But post-earthquake rebuilding could
help spread economic activity across the country. If pursued creatively, this could help create an entirely
new source of economic strength in northern Japan.
But what is really at stake – and what will determine whether these other changes have any chance of
coming to pass – is the structure of Japanese politics. If the incumbent DPJ successfully manages this
emergency, the episode could reassure Japanese voters that this fledgling party represents a credible
alternative to the LDP. Japan would then have a true two-party system in which political power and ideas
are genuinely contested.
Such a transformation could make governing Japan more messy and complicated, but it also could allow
the nation to confront in a forthright way sensitive issues that it has avoided for too long: the coddling of
its heavily subsidized farmers, its self-defeating trade policy, its unwillingness to face immigration
reform, its awkward defense policy, and its uncertain place in Asia and in the world. Japan could emerge
as a more conventional and modern country with more genuinely democratic politics.
But if the government does a poor job in the crisis – if the Great Tohoku Earthquake becomes Japan’s
Hurricane Katrina – then the country’s aging and cautious electorate could flock back to the LDP and
reestablish the status quo of much of the past half-century.
So which will it be? No doubt, Japan – resilient and socially cohesive – will rebuild Sendai and other
devastated areas. But will that push the country back into its past, or propel it into a more ambitious
future?
The safe bet is a return to the status quo: comfortable decline in experienced hands. But Japan has been
changed by natural disasters before. The Great Tohoku Earthquake could be the shock that pushes Japan
not only to rebuild a city, but to remake itself politically for the 21st century.
By Marcus Noland | Wednesday, March 16
Adapted from http://www.washingtonpost.com/
1. fueled: ___________________
2. wells: ___________________
3. mobs: ___________________
4. takeover: ___________________
5. income: ___________________
6. toll: ___________________
7. state-of-the-art: ___________________
8. offshore: ___________________
9. facility: ___________________
10. scruffy: ___________________
11. showpiece: ___________________
12. wealth: ___________________
13. stuck in a rut: ___________________
14. rudderless: ___________________
15. flailing: ___________________
16. cozy: ___________________
17. seemingly: ___________________
18. lined: ___________________
19. burst: ___________________
20. shrink: ___________________
21. tossed out: ___________________
22. strain: ___________________
23. saddled: ___________________
24. hedge: ___________________
25. constrain: ___________________
26. misgivings: ___________________
27. brides: ___________________
28. clustering: ___________________
29. at stake: ___________________
30. fledgling: ___________________
31. forthright: ___________________
32. issues: ___________________
33. coddling: ___________________
34. unwillingness: ___________________
35. awkward: ___________________
Answer: 1. levados, impulsionados; 2. poços; 3. mafiosos; 4. golpe; 5. renda; 6. índice, taxa;
7. avançada; 8. litorânea; 9. instalação; 10. feia, descuidada; 11. exemplo; 12. riqueza; 13.
preso em uma situação em que é difícil progredir; 14. sem rumo; 15. agitando-se, debatendo-
se; 16. confortável, aconchegante; 17. aparentemente; 18. revestiu; 19. explodiu, estourou; 20.
encolher, diminuir; 21. retirar, excluir; 22. tensão; 23. sobrecarregaram; 24. fundos de hedge
(fundos que adotam estratégias mais especulativas e arriscadas, porém, mais rentáveis que os
fundos tradicionais); 25. constranger, reprimir; 26. desconfianças, receios, dúvidas; 27. noivas;
28. aglomeração, concentração; 29. em jogo; 30. inexperiente, incipiente; 31. direto; 32.
questões, temas; 33. agraciamento; 34. indisposição; 35. inoperante
Before answering the next activities, read the explanation below.
A cloze test (also cloze deletion test) is an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text
with certain words removed (cloze text), where the participant is asked to replace the missing words.
Cloze tests require the ability to understand context and vocabulary in order to identify the correct words
or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of a text. This exercise is commonly administered for
the assessment of native and second language learning and instruction.
Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloze_test
Now, complete the gaps in the texts 23, 24 and 25 meaningfully.
TEXT 23: China’s capital boosts controls on foreign media
Beijing – China’s capital is ___________ its controls on foreign journalists amid calls on the Internet
for anti-government protests styled on those rocking the Middle East and North Africa.
________________ must now apply for government permission to conduct any news gathering within
Beijing’s center, the vice director of the city’s Foreign Affairs Office, Li Honghai, told a news conference
Sunday.
No details ____________________ given. Li said the verbal order was merely Beijing’s interpretation
of a 2008 decree from the State Council, China’s Cabinet.
“Beijing’s local policy is a further and ____________ detailed measure,” Li said.
China had relaxed reporting rules ahead of the 2008 ___________________ Olympic Games, dropping
the requirement for official permission to report. The State Council extended those relaxed rules after the
games in its decree, leading some to hail a new era of openness for foreign reporters, _________ still
under strict limitations.
Li’s announcement follows weeks of anonymous calls on the Internet for protests at designated spots in
Beijing, Shanghai and other ____________________ cities.
The appeals ____________ drawn few outright demonstrators but have sparked a harsh police
crackdown, an indication of how deeply they have unnerved authorities constantly on guard for any sign of
challenges to Communist _______________.
Police and security agents shooed away onlookers and assaulted and detained ______________ who
turned up at the protest sites in Beijing and Shanghai.
Also at Sunday’s ___________ conference, Beijing city government spokeswoman Wang Hui
denounced the Internet appeals as an attempt to ___________ China’s stability.
“All clear-minded people will know that these people have chosen the wrong place and have the wrong
idea. The things they want to see ______________ have not and cannot occur in Beijing,” Wang said.
Protest calls were issued for Sunday, and large numbers of uniformed and plainclothes police patrolled
and scrutinized passers-by on the pedestrian shopping street of Wangfujing, which was crowded as
____________ with shoppers but saw no visible protests.
Foreign reporters who ______________ to get through police checkpoints were followed and
videotaped.
Though heavy, the police presence was less obtrusive than a week ago when police patrolled with dogs,
and large water trucks drove up and ____________ hosing down the street and effectively thinning out the
crowds.
Police were also heavily ____________ at another designated protest __________ outside a shopping
mall in the western Xidan shopping district, standing in groups of about a dozen each on surrounding
street corners and patrolling sidewalks and pedestrian overpasses.
Outside the ____________ subway station, officers checked ____________ cards of people and
questioned and filmed journalists. Reporters were told to leave and were made to board a parked bus
where their press accreditation details were recorded.
In Shanghai, uniformed police were standing guard in the subway tunnels and on the sidewalks near
People’s Square as a cold ______________ fell. Some foreign journalists were taken for questioning by
police after arriving in the area, but it was unclear __________________ authorities had detained any
other visitors to the area.
China’s censors have carefully shaped local coverage of the protests in the Middle East to discourage
Chinese ___________ from drawing inspiration from them. State media emphasize the protests’
_________ effects on the societies and economies of the countries involved and give prominent coverage
to the woes of Chinese workers evacuated from Libya and elsewhere.
Concern over unrest ______________ the government this year to boost spending on police, courts,
prosecutors and other domestic security __________ than the usually favored military budget, climbing
13.8 percent to $95 billion in the national budget announced Saturday.
By Christopher Bodeen
Adapted from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41933573/ns/business-media_biz/
Answer: increasing – Reporters – were – more – Beijing – albeit – Chinese – have – rule –
journalists – news – undermine – take place – usual – managed – down – deployed – site –
nearest – identification – rain – if – citizens – negative – spurred – higher
TEXT 24: Ozires Silva

Ozires Silva (Bauru – São Paulo state, January 8, 1931) is the founder of Embraer and a famous
______________ entrepreneur.
Ozires ____________________ on Escola de Aeronáutica do Campo dos Afonsos (Rio de Janeiro)
______________ a military pilot. He then served the Brazilian Air Force for 4 years in the Amazon
rainforest region.
In 1962, Ozires graduated on Aeronautics Technological Institute (ITA) as an aeronautical engineer. He
was immediately ______________ by the Brazilian General Command for Aerospace Technology (CTA),
where he would ____________ part of the IPD – Instituto de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento
(___________ IAE – Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço). He soon became the lead engineer of the
Bandeirante ___________.
The first Bandeirante prototype ________ on October 26, 1968. After that, Ozires attempted to
convince private industries to produce the Bandeirante in _____________, without success. His efforts,
__________, contributed to the creation of a government-owned ____________________ manufacturer,
the Embraer, which he become president on July 29, 1969.
In 1986, Ozires ________ Embraer. He became president of Petrobras for a short time, and also
became Minister of Infrastructure from March 15, 1990 to March 27, 1991. He returned to Embraer from
1991 to 1995 to conduct the privatization process. He was ____________ president of Varig from 2000
to 2002.
Ozires Silva was the first ___________ to report the May 19, 1986 São Paulo UFO __________, when
he was flying on an executive Xingu turbo-prop plane.
Ozires is also ______________ (2004) Director of Technology of AVAMAX, Executive Vice-President
of Academia Brasileira de Estudos Avançados “Dr. Adolfo Bezerra de Menezes Cavalcanti”, and
President of Pele Nova, a biotechnology _______ and President at World Trade Center Advisory Board.
He is currently ________ of Unimonte, an ___________ private university in Brazil.
Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozires_Silva
Answer: Brazilian – graduated – as – hired – become – current – project – flew – series –
however – aircraft – left – also – witness – sighting – former – company – dean – important
TEXT 25: Obama’s Brazil visit: fresh start for ties?
Barack Obama’s trip to Brazil this weekend differs in a marked way from the previous 14 visits by US
presidents, writes analyst Paulo Sotero.
For the first time ____________________ the restoration of democracy in Brazil in 1985, a high-level
bilateral dialogue will start with the US leader heading south. Until now, it was the other way around.
Brazilian ________ were expected to go first to Washington.
Three of the last five, including Luiz ​Inácio Lula da Silva, felt it was necessary to visit the White House
even before taking ____________________.
So in this sense, Mr Obama’s visit to Brazil – the first stop of a four-day trip that includes Chile and El
Salvador – is a ___________ symbolic gesture.
Taking place in the first three months of President Dilma Rousseff’s administration, it clearly reflects
the desire of ___________ governments to renew an important ____.
Diplomatic ties were seriously strained by the 2009 constitutional crisis in Honduras and Brazil’s failed
2010 attempt, along with Turkey, to mediate a nuclear agreement ______________ Iran and the
international community.
More importantly, President Obama’s initiative to visit Brazil before greeting President Rousseff in
____________________ can be seen as recognition by the US of the new relevance the South American
giant has assumed in regional and global _____________ since becoming a democratic and economically
stable nation.
“Brazil is no _______________ an emerging country, it has emerged,” says the US ambassador to
Brazil, Thomas Shannon.
Mr Shannon ______________ both nations have now to learn how to relate to one another in productive
and mutually advantageous ways when ______________ with regional and global issues in which both
are key actors.
These include the world’s economic governance, climate ______________, food security, poverty
reduction, global health and peace.
Debt and deficit
The policy context makes the positive message implicit in Mr Obama’s ___________ to Brazil even
more relevant.
The difficulties both he and his Brazilian ____________ face to implement their respective
governments’ agendas involve strikingly similar issues.
In the US, as in Brazil, the _____________ are to reduce public debt and deficits and improve the
quality of public expending.
At the same time, both have to find ways to ____________________ the quantity and quality of
investment in education, infrastructure and innovation, and make their economies more competitive
internationally.
Gender and race equality are shared concerns of Presidents Rousseff and Obama,
____________________ the first female and first black leaders of their countries, and are
____________________ to be highlighted during the visit, especially when Mr Obama meets the people
of Rio de Janeiro on Sunday.
With US companies eager to ___________ in Brazil’s expanding economy, the two presidents will be
meeting business leaders in Brasília to announce agreements to increase co-operation in energy,
infrastructure, science and technology and international development assistance, especially in Africa,
where both countries have economic and political ____________________.
The visit is not expected to resolve old differences, such as the ______________ that have persisted for
decades in agricultural trade and remain the bone of contention at the inconclusive Doha
_______________ of the World Trade Organization.
China’s under-valued currency, which has a negative impact on Brazilian and US international
commerce, is unlikely to be highlighted in public by Ms Rousseff ___________ Mr Obama’s visit for two
reasons.
Firstly, Brazil also has grievances against the “qualitative easing” policy of the US Federal Reserve,
which adds pressure to the already overvalued Brazilian ________, the real.
China is now the number one ________ of Brazil’s exports and the country’s largest trading partner,
while the US remains the largest supplier of Brazil’s imports, with $27bn (£17bn) sold last year, $2bn
more than China.
____________, Ms Rousseff is scheduled to visit Beijing in April and has no interest in picking a fight
with the Chinese authorities, ____________ demands from Brazilian industrialists that she does so and
protects the market for Brazilian-made products.
World stage
In recent weeks, US officials have said that Brazilians should not count on an announcement during Mr
Obama’s visit of US _______________ for Brazil’s long-standing demand for a permanent seat on a
reformed United Nations Security Council.
Meanwhile, a senior Brazilian official told an American diplomat that Mr Obama’s trip would be
viewed as a ________________ if he did not make such an announcement.
Efforts by Itamaraty – the Brazilian ___________ ministry – to include in the visit’s final communiqué a
reference to a common vision on international security and development and the importance of the
Security Council reform suggest, _________, that Brasília recognises the need to rebuild the mutual
confidence lost during the Iranian episode.
Brazil, it seems, would be _________ with less than a full endorsement for the time being.
In Washington, at the same time, the reverberations of popular pro-democracy uprisings in North Africa
and the Middle East and a sense of inevitability of a rising Brazil’s ascension to the Security Council
have encouraged ____________ who would like to see President Obama repeat in Brasília what he did
last year in Delhi and announce his support for Brazil’s UN seat.
In a recent meeting of former senior US officials, including some ambassadors, a majority expressed
support for this _________.
“Both the Security Council reform and Brazil’s ascension to permanent member are __________. They
entail little or no cost to the US and will produce no immediate consequence, since the issue of Security
Council reform is not currently in the UN ________,” said one of the meeting’s participants.
Those who share this opinion argue that the immediate impact of US backing for Brazil’s seat would be
to ______________ the sense of rapprochement between the two largest democracies and economies in
the Americas.
This is bound to be amplified by the __________ welcome Brazilians are expected to give to Mr
Obama – no small feat for a president who has had difficulties in translating his personal popularity
around the world ________ tangible results for his US policies.
Paulo Sotero is director of the Brazil Institute at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars,
in Washington DC.
Adapted from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12731912
Answer: since – presidents – office – meaningful – both – relationship – between – Washington
– affairs – langer – believes – dealing – change – trip – counterpart – challenges – increase​ –
respectively – likely – invest – interests – ones – Round – during – currency – buyer – Secondly
– despite – support – failure – foreing – however – satisfied – those – idea – inevitable –
agenda – strengthen – warm – into
WORD TRANSLATION

Mark the correct translations to the words/expressions in italics.


1. The film tells anew the story of his rise to fame and power.
a) novamente
b) parcialmente
c) tendenciosamente
d) aleatoriamente
e) sem novidades
Answer: A
2. In good condition, dolls from this period sell for £500 apiece.
a) por cada pedaço
b) um pedaço
c) cada
d) à vista
e) parcelado
Answer: C
3. We tried to persuade her not to resign, but to no avail.
a) sem chance
b) sem necessidade
c) não foi fácil
d) em vão
e) sem compromisso
Answer: D
4. He avowed that he regretted what he had done.
a) negou
b) confessou
c) jurou
d) salientou
e) insinuou
Answer: B
5. You can’t help but stand in awe of powerful people.
a) medo
b) espanto
c) pânico
d) respeito
e) desprezo
Answer: B
6. There followed an awkward silence while we all tried to think of something to say.
a) sepulcral
b) demorado
c) estranho
d) longo
e) embaraçoso
Answer: E
7. They come from a privileged background.
a) vizinhança
b) origem
c) formação
d) arredores
e) residência
Answer: C
8. I told my aunt I’d give her 10 dollars if she let me borrow her dress, but she didn’t
take the bait.
a) oferta
b) isca
c) engodo
d) negócio
e) empréstimo
Answer: A
9. Poverty begets hunger, and hunger begets crime.
a) aumenta
b) acentua
c) piora
d) gera
e) exacerba
Answer: D
10. Stay a little longer, I beseech you!
a) solicito
b) imploro
c) peço
d) exijo
e) ordeno
Answer: B
11. The George Cross is a decoration that is bestowed on British civilians for acts of
great bravery.
a) apreciada
b) merecida
c) usada
d) vendida
e) concedida
Answer: E
12. His theory has produced a blizzard of statistics on the global dimming phenomenon.
a) grande quantidade
b) pequena quantidade
c) média
d) aumento
e) diminuição
Answer: A
13. The breadth of her knowledge is amazing.
a) alcance
b) largura
c) extensão
d) limite
e) fronteira
Answer: C
14. I’ve tried persuading her, but she won’t budge.
a) discutir
b) vacilar
c) mudar
d) conversar
e) tentar
Answer: C
15. All the rooms have built-in cupboards and wardrobes.
a) espaçosos
b) na medida certa
c) reformados
d) embutidos
e) adaptados
Answer: D
16. The men were caked in layers of filth and grime.
a) atolados
b) sujos
c) enfurnados
d) soterrados
e) cobertos
Answer: E
17. The caucus was held to decide which candidate the party will support in the next
election.
a) votação
b) reunião
c) pesquisa
d) sufrágio
e) análise
Answer: B
18. My attempts to apologize were very clumsy.
a) desastrosas
b) bem-sucedidas
c) bem elaboradas
d) aceitas
e) recusadas
Answer: A
19. It was said that the police concealed vital evidence.
a) revelou
b) descobriu
c) escondeu
d) investigou
e) negligenciou
Answer: C
20. They started washing up, so that was our cue to leave the party.
a) sinal
b) pista
c) sugestão
d) ideia
e) afirmativa
Answer: A
21. She was a small, dainty child, unlike her sister who was large and had big feet.
a) magra
b) levada
c) delicada
d) gentil
e) agradável
Answer: C
22. This is a daring new film by one of our most original modern directors.
a) inteligente
b) astuto
c) temerário
d) arriscado
e) audacioso
Answer: E
23. Stop dawdling! You’ll be late for school!
a) perambular
b) dormir
c) perder tempo
d) parar à toa
e) titubear
Answer: C
24. The race ended in a dead heat.
a) acidente trágico
b) morte
c) vitória acachapante
d) empate
e) tragédia
Answer: D
25. When the newspapers published the full story, all his earlier deceits were revealed.
a) escândalos
b) fraudes
c) segredos
d) sonhos
e) ambições
Answer: B
26. She is the new dean of the Faculty of Engineering.
a) reitora
b) professora
c) diretora
d) coordenadora
e) supervisora
Answer: A
27. Anyone not paying the registration fee by 31 March will be deemed to have
withdrawn from the scheme.
a) exigido
b) cobrado
c) considerado
d) solicitado
e) requisitado
Answer: C
28. The company is reconsidering the way in which it deploys its resources.
a) economize
b) melhore
c) aumente
d) majore
e) aplique
Answer: E
29. A digest of the research findings is now available.
a) coletânea
b) gráfico
c) relatório
d) resumo
e) versão
Answer: D
30. You shouldn’t be so diffident about your achievements.
a) hesitante
b) orgulhoso
c) pedante
d) presunçoso
e) indeciso
Answer: A
31. That bank is in dire straits.
a) processo de falência
b) situação terrível
c) situação muito boa
d) moratória
e) concordata
Answer: B
32. The normally dour Mr James was photographed smiling and joking with friends.
a) presunçoso
b) arrogante
c) despretensioso
d) mal-humorado
e) sisudo
Answer: E
33. The community has dwindled to a tenth of its former size in the last two years.
a) dividiu-se
b) dobrou
c) aumentou
d) diminuiu
e) desmembrou-se
Answer: D
34. They crowded round the spokesperson, eager for any news.
a) eufóricos
b) ansiosos
c) impacientes
d) irritados
e) indóceis
Answer: B
35. Five billion dollars of this year’s budget is already earmarked for hospital
improvements.
a) investido
b) arrecadado
c) gasto
d) reservado
e) empreendido
Answer: D
36. He was a very earnest young man.
a) esforçado
b) talentoso
c) sério
d) rico
e) forte
Answer: C
37. The whole country had tried to efface the memory of the old dictatorship.
a) apagar
b) relembrar
c) homenagear
d) prestar continência
e) saudar
Answer: A
38. He had the eerie feeling that he had met this stranger before.
a) forte
b) engraçado
c) estranho
d) sinistro
e) intenso
Answer: C
39. He managed to eke out a living one summer by selling drinks on a beach.
a) ficar rico
b) ganhar um bom dinheiro
c) fazer uma pequena fortuna
d) viver com pouco dinheiro
e) abrir um empreendimento
Answer: D
40. Naturally, I embroidered the tale a little to make it more interesting.
a) enfeitei
b) fantasiei
c) melhorei
d) reduzi
e) maquiei
Answer: A
41. The festival is to encompass everything from music, theatre and ballet to literature,
cinema and the visual arts.
a) relacionar
b) misturar
c) combinar
d) enfatizar
e) abranger
Answer: E
42. He went to France as a United Nations special envoy.
a) encarregado
b) responsável
c) diretor
d) enviado
e) nomeado
Answer: D
43. He eschewed publicity and nightclubs.
a) frequentava
b) ficava longe de
c) adorava
d) odiava
e) aproveitava-se da
Answer: B
44. In this economically depressed area, evictions are common.
a) calotes
b) empréstimos
c) turbulências
d) crises
e) despejos
Answer: E
45. The dinner party conversation faltered for a moment.
a) intensificou-se
b) cessou
c) esquentou
d) perdeu o sentido
e) fugiu do foco principal
Answer: B
46. He bid us both a fond farewell.
a) felicitação
b) saudação
c) despedida
d) recepção
e) atendimento
Answer: C
47. This is a far-fetched idea.
a) muito boa
b) horrível
c) mirabolante
d) infalível
e) inalcançável
Answer: C
48. Hundreds of prisoners began a fast in protest about prison conditions.
a) jejum
b) corrida
c) revolta
d) debate
e) rebelião
Answer: A
49. She slept fitfully throughout the night and arose before dawn.
a) muito bem
b) confortavelmente
c) relaxadamente
d) irregularmente
e) aconchegadamente
Answer: D
50. It’s a competent enough piece of writing but it lacks flair.
a) um bom enredo
b) suspense
c) romance
d) empolgação
e) talento
Answer: E
51. He is always making flattering remarks about me.
a) desagradáveis
b) lisonjeiras
c) importantes
d) inteligentes
e) inesperadas
Answer: B
52. I think she just thought I was being flippant.
a) elegante
b) exibido
c) desrespeitoso
d) agradável
e) brincalhão
Answer: C
53. She spent the day fretting about what she’d said to Nicky.
a) preocupando-se
b) lembrando
c) analisando
d) considerando
e) ponderando
Answer: A
54. A group of suntanned children were frolicking on the beach.
a) nadando
b) brincando
c) correndo
d) andando
e) descansando
Answer: B
55. She frowned at me, clearly annoyed due to my report card.
a) brigou comigo
b) gritou comigo
c) franziu a testa pra mim
d) chamou minha atenção
e) sorriu para mim
Answer: C
56. The government continues to fudge the issue by refusing to give exact figures.
a) evitando
b) mentindo sobre
c) debatendo
d) adiando
e) amenizando
Answer: A
57. She started gabbling away at me in Spanish and I didn’t understand a word.
a) explicar
b) puxar conversa
c) gritar
d) xingar
e) falar depressa
Answer: E
58. He bought a pair of garish Bermuda shorts.
a) belas
b) caras
c) baratas
d) espalhafatosas
e) floridas
Answer: D
59. I thought her outfit was ghastly.
a) fantástico
b) exclusivo
c) importado
d) horrível
e) chamativo
Answer: D
60. Should I add a scarf to this jacket or would it be gilding the lily?
a) útil
b) exagero
c) quente demais
d) adequado
e) inconveniente
Answer: B
61. Detectives have given the flat a thorough going-over.
a) prisão
b) apreensão
c) batida
d) desarrumada
e) averiguação
Answer: E
62. The management tried unsuccessfully to graft new working methods onto the
existing ways of doing things.
a) adotar
b) inserir
c) adicionar
d) investir
e) criar
Answer: C
63. The children grappled for the ball.
a) lutaram
b) jogaram
c) optaram
d) lançaram
e) furaram
Answer: A
64. The aircraft’s landing gear grazed the treetops as it landed.
a) chocou-se contra
b) desviou
c) quase atingiu
d) roçou
e) enrolou-se com
Answer: D
65. They are in a financial gridlock due to high interest rates.
a) deficiência
b) débito
c) crise
d) impasse
e) colapso
Answer: D
66. The men who arrived in the guise of drug dealers were actually undercover police
officers.
a) procura
b) disfarce
c) desculpa
d) perseguição
e) investigação
Answer: B
67. There are any number of miracle cures on the market for people gullible enough to
buy them.
a) ricas
b) necessitadas
c) doentes
d) leigas
e) influenciáveis
Answer: E
68. “If you must,” came the gruff reply.
a) imediata
b) doce
c) áspera
d) autoritária
e) infame
Answer: C
69. He eventually won the match after five gruelling sets.
a) maçantes
b) estonteantes
c) emocionantes
d) exaustivos
e) longos
Answer: D
70. She’s a real guzzler!
a) beberrona
b) fanfarrona
c) comilona
d) cafajeste
e) mau-caráter
Answer: A
71. He’d been drinking the night before and was looking a bit haggard.
a) de ressaca
b) doente
c) abatido
d) enjoado
e) sonolento
Answer: C
72. He spoke quietly, in halting English.
a) hesitante
b) perfeito
c) indefectível
d) formal
e) informal
Answer: A
73. What did you hanker after most when you were in prison?
a) receava
b) sentia falta
c) fazia
d) ansiava
e) evitava
Answer: D
74. There is a great deal of interest in harnessing wind and waves as new sources of
power.
a) promover
b) enfatizar
c) ressaltar
d) aumentar
e) fazer uso de
Answer: E
75. My grandfather always says to me: “Make hay while the sun shines”.
a) Antes tarde do que nunca.
b) Nunca deixe para o amanhã o que você pode fazer hoje.
c) Deus ajuda a quem cedo madruga.
d) Aproveite enquanto é tempo.
e) A pressa é inimiga da perfeição.
Answer: D
76. A few angry locals started heckling the speaker.
a) interromper
b) espancar
c) agredir
d) maltratar
e) interrogar
Answer: A
77. Heedless destruction of the rainforests is contributing to global warming.
a) enorme
b) avassaladora
c) despretensiosa
d) precipitada
e) imprudente
Answer: E
78. In their heyday, they sold as many records as all the other groups in the country put
together.
a) estreia
b) auge
c) separação
d) declínio
e) início
Answer: B
79. Half these factories now stand idle.
a) falidas
b) prósperas
c) ociosas
d) em greve
e) em expansão
Answer: C
80. The worst of her criticism was reserved for journalists, photographers and others of
their ilk.
a) tipo
b) profissão
c) cargo
d) laia
e) área
Answer: A
81. Inasmuch as you are their commanding officer, you are responsible for the
behaviour of these men.
a) além de
b) em vez de
c) embora
d) apesar de
e) já que
Answer: E
82. The inmates are in the cafeteria now.
a) novatos
b) detentos
c) alunos
d) funcionários
e) inquilinos
Answer: B
83. You have to pay the installment today.
a) multa
b) fiança
c) pensão
d) prestação
e) indenização
Answer: D
84. The office will be issuing permits on Tuesday and Thursday mornings.
a) publicando
b) emitindo
c) divulgando
d) aplicando
e) restringindo
Answer: B
85. Invoices must be submitted by the 24th of every month.
a) faturas
b) memorandos
c) atas
d) solicitações
e) portarias
Answer: A
86. Perhaps some caviar can tempt your jaded palate.
a) aguçado
b) refinado
c) cansado
d) exigente
e) apurado
Answer: C
87. He’s been living a jarring experience.
a) fascinante
b) desagradável
c) nova
d) inesperada
e) súbita
Answer: B
88. I only said it in jest – you’re obviously not fat.
a) sem pensar
b) de propósito
c) sem querer
d) de brincadeira
e) para irritar
Answer: D
89. He works as a juggler.
a) percussionista
b) dançarino
c) equilibrista
d) malabarista
e) trapezista
Answer: D
90. He jutted his jaw out defiantly.
a) tremia
b) projetava
c) roçava
d) mordia
e) balançava
Answer: B
91. She’s a keen tennis player.
a) brilhante
b) péssimo
c) regular
d) esforçada
e) iniciante
Answer: A
92. Her imagination was kindled by the exciting stories her grandmother told her.
a) envolvida
b) desestimulada
c) aguçada
d) anestesiada
e) invadida
Answer: C
93. Different ethnic groups have different systems of kinship.
a) parentesco
b) afinidade
c) liderança
d) governo
e) casamento
Answer: A
94. There’s a knack to using this corkscrew.
a) talento
b) jeito
c) regra
d) lei
e) norma
Answer: B
95. Being an actor has a certain amount of kudos attached to it.
a) prestígio
b) contratempos
c) transtornos
d) importância
e) valor
Answer: A
96. The food was nice enough but the service was rather lackadaisical.
a) incivil
b) atabalhoado
c) indelicado
d) desastrado
e) displicente
Answer: E
97. He is always lashed out by the reporters.
a) elogiado
b) entrevistado
c) atacado
d) citado
e) enaltecido
Answer: C
98. He bought lead pipes.
a) plástico
b) borracha
c) cerâmica
d) chumbo
e) silicone
Answer: D
99. The business has liabilities of £2 million.
a) ativo
b) passivo
c) patrimônio
d) investimentos
e) lucro
Answer: B
100. That farm is his livelihood.
a) principal patrimônio
b) herança
c) meio de vida
d) riqueza
e) legado
Answer: C
101. I’m loath to spend it all at once.
a) relutante
b) a favor
c) contra
d) disposto a
e) decidido a
Answer: A
102. From an early age the brothers have loathed each other.
a) detestaram
b) amaram
c) ajudaram
d) sustentaram
e) ensinaram
Answer: A
103. The motion of the car almost lulled her to sleep.
a) levou
b) acalentou
c) fez
d) não deixou
e) tornou impraticável
Answer: B
104. My sweater got mangled in the washing machine.
a) manchado
b) desfigurado
c) mutilado
d) lavado
e) acabado
Answer: E
105. I like mellow flavours.
a) adocicados
b) fortes
c) suaves
d) apimentados
e) exóticos
Answer: C
106. She seemed so very meek and mild.
a) submissa e conformada
b) suave e frágil
c) pacífica e sutil
d) dócil e calma
e) calma e perspicaz
Answer: D
107. She has a mischievous sense of humour.
a) estranho
b) maléfico
c) perspicaz
d) malicioso
e) sarcástico
Answer: D
108. There’s no point in sitting at home and moping.
a) chorando
b) lamentando-se
c) reclamando
d) enfurnado
e) escondendo-se
Answer: B
109. He always says mordant remarks.
a) sarcásticas
b) imprudentes
c) desagradáveis
d) inteligentes
e) intrigantes
Answer: A
110. She managed to muster the courage to ask him to the cinema.
a) reunir
b) juntar
c) coletar
d) fazer
e) criar
Answer: E
111. I got sick of her constant nagging.
a) reclamações
b) espirros
c) vaciladas
d) traições
e) descuidos
Answer: A
112. After our busy day we both sat and nodded off in front of the TV.
a) jantamos
b) relaxamos
c) cochilamos
d) conversamos
e) continuamos trabalhando
Answer: C
113. Christine was completely nonplussed by his reply.
a) confusa
b) perplexa
c) ofendida
d) revoltada
e) humilhada
Answer: B
114. Some of his colleagues say that he’s obnoxious.
a) competente
b) preguiçoso
c) displicente
d) radical
e) insuportável
Answer: E
115. Fifty odd people came to the party.
a) estranhas
b) desacompanhadas
c) penetras
d) e poucas
e) estrangeiras
Answer: D
116. The engine had been making an ominous sound all the way from London.
a) estranho
b) sinistro
c) ameaçador
d) perigoso
e) espantoso
Answer: A
117. Unions are fighting a plan by universities to outsource all non-academic services.
a) reduzir
b) cortar
c) aumentar
d) terceirizar
e) restringir
Answer: D
118. Neither side in the conflict seems willing to make peace overtures.
a) acordos
b) propostas
c) convenções
d) concessões
e) comunicados
Answer: B
119. Student grants these days are paltry.
a) insignificantes
b) fartas
c) abrangentes
d) extensas
e) restritas
Answer: A
120. You have to treat your patrons well.
a) patrões
b) clientes
c) fornecedores
d) garçons
e) funcionários
Answer: B
121. It has been alleged that he received a payoff from an arms dealer.
a) ameaça
b) prazo
c) aviso
d) propina
e) chantagem
Answer: D
122. Let’s go for a pint.
a) festa
b) cigarro
c) cerveja
d) passeio
e) viagem
Answer: C
123. She asked in a pleading tone of voice.
a) arrogante
b) áspero
c) rouco
d) suplicante
e) desafiador
Answer: D
124. I spilled the juice while I was pouring it.
a) bebendo
b) preparando
c) adoçando
d) esfriando
e) servindo
Answer: E
125. The idea is preposterous!
a) fantástica
b) absurda
c) plausível
d) aceitável
e) ruim
Answer: B
126. I’ve always been prone to accidents.
a) propenso
b) medroso
c) disposto
d) receoso
e) preparado
Answer: A
127. “I don’t approve of that kind of language,” she said, pursing her lips.
a) lambendo
b) cerrando
c) fechando
d) mordendo
e) franzindo
Answer: E
128. At the end of the match, the pitch was a real quagmire.
a) bagunça
b) pântano
c) lamaçal
d) atoleiro
e) arruaça
Answer: C
129. His conviction was quashed in March 1986 after his counsel argued that the police
evidence was a tissue of lies.
a) aumentada
b) rejeitada
c) revogada
d) negada
e) adiada
Answer: C
130. I started to feel queasy as soon as the boat left the harbour.
a) mal
b) com saudade
c) com medo
d) enjoado
e) empolgado
Answer: D
131. Are you in the queue for tickets?
a) espera
b) ânsia
c) fila
d) procura
e) expectativa
Answer: C
132. We’ll have to quicken the pace if we want to keep up with him.
a) manter
b) estabilizar
c) diminuir
d) ultrapassar
e) acelerar
Answer: E
133. When asked earlier why he seemed to be so relaxed, Mr McCarthy quipped: “It’s
the drugs”.
a) gracejou
b) afirmou
c) replicou
d) admitiu
e) ratificou
Answer: A
134. There’s no point quibbling over a couple of dollars.
a) cobrar
b) não pagar
c) pechinchar
d) criar caso
e) cobrar juros
Answer: D
135. Lennie’s bottom lip quivered and tears started in his eyes.
a) franziu
b) tremeu
c) ressecou
d) umedeceu
e) foi ferido
Answer: B
136. Even at the end, when cancer racked his body, he was calm and cheerful.
a) torturava
b) corroía
c) deteriorava
d) acabava
e) definhava
Answer: A
137. The team were rather ragged in the first half of the match, but improved in the
second half.
a) indisciplinado
b) desatento
c) irregular
d) violento
e) distraído
Answer: C
138. She’s always raking up that old quarrel.
a) chorando por causa de
b) remoendo-se por conta de
c) desenterrando
d) reclamando de
e) esbravejando devido a
Answer: C
139. Rampant inflation means that our wage increases soon become worth nothing.
a) grande
b) desenfreada
c) em decadência
d) selvagem
e) causticante
Answer: B
140. She has an excellent rapport with her staff.
a) avaliação
b) rendimento
c) desempenho
d) entrosamento
e) receita
Answer: D
141. She looked ravishing!
a) encantadora
b) com raiva
c) cansada
d) indisposta
e) faminta
Answer: A
142. She was widely reckoned the best actress of her generation.
a) estimada
b) aclamada
c) proclamada
d) considerada
e) julgada
Answer: D
143. On her way to her interview she silently rehearsed what she would say.
a) arguía
b) questionava
c) declarava
d) declamava
e) ensaiava
Answer: E
144. I was told the news first and then I relayed it to the others.
a) escondi
b) omiti
c) declarei
d) comuniquei
e) repeti
Answer: D
145. Don’t let her rile you.
a) irritar
b) mentir para
c) falar mal de
d) pensar bobagens sobre
e) enganar
Answer: A
146. The speaker attempted to rouse the crowd with a cry for action.
a) acalmar
b) apaziguar
c) incitar
d) ludibriar
e) comover
Answer: C
147. He was the runner-up of the race.
a) campeão
b) bi-campeão
c) desclassificado
d) segundo colocado
e) terceiro colocado
Answer: D
148. Some people believe that to succeed in this world you have to be ruthless.
a) ambicioso
b) impiedoso
c) desonesto
d) implacável
e) insensível
Answer: B
149. He nodded his head sagely.
a) sabiamente
b) negativamente
c) positivamente
d) agitadamente
e) pacificamente
Answer: A
150. I’m already sated.
a) conformado
b) cansado
c) extenuado
d) saciado
e) sobrecarregado
Answer: D
151. I baked a huge cake this morning, and the kids scoffed the lot.
a) confeitaram
b) jogaram fora
c) deixaram cair
d) desperdiçaram
e) devoraram
Answer: E
152. We would now like to broaden the scope of the enquiry and look at more general
matters.
a) extensão
b) influência
c) repercussão
d) divulgação
e) sigilo
Answer: A
153. The poor dog – it’s shivering!
a) com fome
b) com medo
c) tremendo
d) doente
e) com frio
Answer: C
154. The American space shuttle can be used many times to put payloads in space.
a) nave espacial
b) ônibus espacial
c) estação espacial
d) foguete espacial
e) satélite
Answer: B
155. I don’t think Rick will ever manage to slake his lust for power.
a) saciar
b) diminuir
c) aumentar
d) estimular
e) conter
Answer: A
156. You may sneer, but a lot of people like this kind of music.
a) ironizar
b) detestar
c) execrar
d) ser contra
e) injuriar-se
Answer: A
157. She soothed the crying baby.
a) perdeu a paciência com
b) agrediu
c) se irritou com
d) amamentou
e) acalmou
Answer: E
158. His reputation was permanently tainted by the financial scandal.
a) agredida
b) atormentada
c) agitada
d) manchada
e) afligida
Answer: D
159. He gave me a good telling-off for forgetting the meeting.
a) conselho
b) lembrete
c) sugestão
d) bronca
e) ressalva
Answer: D
160. Allow the meat to thaw properly before cooking it.
a) ferver
b) esfriar
c) aquecer
d) derreter
e) degelar
Answer: E
161. The mayor’s political future has been hanging by a thread since the fraud scandal.
a) está um caos
b) tornou-se obscuro
c) está por um fio
d) foi decidido
e) acabou
Answer: C
162. His business thrived in the years before the war.
a) faliu
b) prosperou
c) estagnou
d) desandou
e) minguou
Answer: B
163. Several insurance companies are now touting their wares on local radio.
a) anunciando
b) vendendo
c) demonstrando
d) exibindo
e) lançando
Answer: A
164. Arrogance is a very unattractive personality trait.
a) defeito
b) qualidade
c) traço
d) falta de educação
e) modo
Answer: C
165. You need to trawl through a lot of data to get results that are valid.
a) pesquisar
b) coletar
c) reunir
d) interligar
e) anexar
Answer: A
166. Tuition fees will increase next year.
a) crédito
b) moradia
c) saúde
d) transporte
e) educação
Answer: E
167. The Swedes are not alone in finding their language under pressure from the
ubiquitous spread of English.
a) amplo
b) onipresente
c) avançado
d) desenfreado
e) exagerado
Answer: B
168. She gave an unbiased opinion about the issue.
a) errada
b) sincera
c) tendenciosa
d) imparcial
e) confusa
Answer: D
169. Such a high increase will impose an undue burden on the local tax payer.
a) moderado
b) aceitável
c) necessário
d) exagerado
e) imprescindível
Answer: D
170. His behaviour was unseemly.
a) impecável
b) indefectível
c) inadequado
d) irrepreensível
e) normal
Answer: C
171. The upshot of the discussions is that there will be no redundancies.
a) votação
b) debate
c) resultado
d) proposta
e) alvitre
Answer: C
172. She sat through the whole meeting without uttering a word.
a) proferir
b) entender
c) anotar
d) comentar
e) explicar
Answer: A
173. The vanquished army surrendered their weapons.
a) abalado
b) derrotado
c) covarde
d) inteiro
e) estremecido
Answer: B
174. She entered the vault with an armed guard.
a) caixa-forte
b) sala
c) recinto
d) prisão
e) ala
Answer: A
175. This issue looks likely to continue to vex the government.
a) assombrar
b) perseguir
c) acuar
d) irritar
e) acalmar
Answer: D
176. The two older children tend to vie with the younger one for their mother’s
attention.
a) chorar
b) agredir
c) unir-se
d) competir
e) atracar-se
Answer: D
177. As a medical examiner I can vouch from experience that his death was accidental.
a) imaginar
b) supor
c) conjeturar
d) estimar
e) garantir
Answer: E
178. The women gathered around the coffin and began to wail.
a) lamentar
b) rezar
c) cantar
d) acenar
e) aplaudir
Answer: A
179. This film is x-rated.
a) fantástico
b) obsceno
c) violento
d) agradável
e) sem graça
Answer: B
180. This was once a Roman road in days of yore.
a) guerra
b) romance
c) outrora
d) peleja
e) fome
Answer: C
181. He denied that the article had been in any way prurient.
a) lascivo
b) tendencioso
c) imparcial
d) parcial
e) injusto
Answer: A
182. Some of the arguments in favour of shutting the factory are questionable and
others downright spurious.
a) irrelevantes
b) duvidosos
c) falsos
d) imprecisos
e) equivocados
Answer: C
183. His time in the army certainly toughened him up.
a) marcou
b) empobreceu
c) enriqueceu
d) fortaleceu
e) traumatizou
Answer: D
184. The government is trying to allay public concern about the spread of the disease.
a) aumentar
b) diminuir
c) reprimir
d) suavizar
e) intensificar
Answer: B
185. Interest will accrue on the account at a rate of seven percent.
a) decorridos
b) obtidos
c) descontados
d) acumulados
e) abatidos
Answer: D
186. Police are trying to oust drug dealers from the city centre.
a) expulsar
b) prender
c) apreender
d) cercar
e) negociar com
Answer: A
187. We must cut through the red tape.
a) território inimigo
b) burocracia
c) problema
d) dificuldade
e) charada
Answer: B
188. For every study touting the benefits of hormone therapy, another warns of the
risks.
a) denunciando
b) aprimorando
c) retificando
d) condenando
e) exaltando
Answer: E
189. We plodded through the mud.
a) engatinhamos
b) afundamos
c) caminhamos com dificuldade
d) deslizamos
e) nos arrastamos
Answer: C
190. Shortages mean that even staples are difficult to find.
a) iguarias
b) importados
c) supérfluos
d) produtos básicos
e) produtos finos
Answer: D
191. In 1986 Richardson resigned as chairman, leaving the company floundering.
a) patinando na lama
b) à beira da falência
c) em uma situação confortável
d) nos trilhos
e) estável
Answer: A
192. The new model of this car just doesn’t stack up against previous models.
a) se assemelha
b) deve nada
c) supera
d) se compara
e) sofreu grandes mudanças
Answer: D
193. The insurers will need to assess the flood damage.
a) considerar
b) avaliar
c) consertar
d) arcar com
e) restaurar
Answer: B
194. Museums are trying to shake off their starchy image.
a) antiquada
b) monótona
c) desgastada
d) sombria
e) formal
Answer: E
195. The judge committed a glaring injustice.
a) irreparável
b) inexplicável
c) evidente
d) absurda
e) sem precedentes
Answer: C
196. She’s becoming more and more irascible as she grows older.
a) irritável
b) exigente
c) insuportável
d) negligente
e) doente
Answer: A
197. She walked through the city centre with its drab, grey buildings and felt depressed.
a) solitários
b) sombrios
c) monótonos
d) antiquados
e) abandonados
Answer: C
198. He had the breezy manner of a salesman.
a) irritante
b) alegre
c) atrevido
d) insistente
e) agressivo
Answer: B
199. She was not at all daunted by the size of the problem.
a) preparada
b) satisfeita
c) entusiasmada
d) desencorajada
e) intimidada
Answer: E
200. After a year spent in solitary confinement, he publicly recanted.
a) se recusou a confessar
b) se declarou inocente
c) se declarou culpado
d) se desculpou
e) se abjurou
Answer: E
3RD PART | GRAMMAR SKILLS

ARTICLES
Definite Article: The (o, a, os, as)
In English, the definite article is invariable. It does not change according to the gender or number of the
noun it refers to. For instance: the man, the woman, the cat, the dogs.
The definite article is used

i. to refer to someone/something specifically:


Did you watch the game yesterday?
Você assistiu ao jogo ontem?
I would like to know where the principal’s office is.
Eu gostaria de saber onde fica a sala do diretor.
The director of this film is a genius.
O diretor desse filme é um gênio.
I’ve bought the red shoes because they were 40% off.
Eu comprei os sapatos vermelhos porque eles estavam com 40% de desconto.
Many scientists have written about the influence of the moon upon the tides.
Muitos cientistas escreveram a respeito da influência da lua sobre as marés.
ii. before adjectives in the superlative degree and in the parallel increase:
This is the best book I’ve read recently.
Este é o melhor livro que li recentemente.
The most difficult question of the exam was about the verb tenses.
A questão mais difícil da prova era sobre os tempos verbais.
The more I read this book, the more I like it.
Quanto mais eu leio este livro, mais eu gosto dele.
The more he tried to convince me he was right, the less I believed in him.
Quanto mais ele tentava me convencer que estava certo, menos eu acreditava nele.
iii. before ordinal numbers:
He was the first to arrive.
Ele foi o primeiro a chegar.
The last edition of this book brings a biography of the author.
A última edição deste livro traz uma biografia do autor.
iv. before geographical areas, landforms, oceans etc.:
The Matterhorn is one of the most famous mountains in Swiss.
O Matterhorn é uma das montanhas mais famosas da Suíça.
My house in Seattle was near the Puget Sound.
Minha casa em Seattle era próxima do estreito de Puget.
Note: the definite article is just used before lakes if the name of the lake is not mentioned.
NASA’s scientists discovered a new form of life in Mono Lake, California.
Cientistas da NASA descobriram uma nova forma de vida no lago Mono, Califórnia.
The lake where they found a new form of life is in California.
O lago onde eles encontraram uma nova forma de vida fica na Califórnia.
v. before the name of musical instruments and dances:
Carl learned to play the piano and the drums in his teens.
Carl aprendeu a tocar piano e bateria na adolescência.
I would like to learn to dance the samba and the tango.
Eu gostaria de aprender a dançar samba e tango.
vi. with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people:
The Japanese make excellent cars.
Os japoneses fazem carros excelentes.
Many of the TV programmes are broadcast with subtitles for the deaf.
Muitos programas da TV são exibidos com legendas para os surdos.
The definite article is not used
i. before the name of cities, states, countries and continents:
Los Angeles is the most famous city in California.
Los Angeles é a cidade mais famosa da Califórnia.
Despite Amazonas is the largest Brazilian state, it is not the most populous.
Apesar do Amazonas ser o maior estado brasileiro, não é o mais populoso.
I visited England and Germany last summer.
Visitei Inglaterra e Alemanha no último verão.
Europe and South America are really very different places.
A Europa e a América do Sul são lugares realmente muito diferentes.
Note: the name of some countries receive the definite article, either because these names express union
or contain an idea of plural form. Regarding the name of cities, the Hague (in Holland) and the Vatican
(in Italy) are exceptions.
The United States’ and the Soviet Union’s armies never officially clashed directly during the Cold War.
O exército dos Estados Unidos e o da União Soviética nunca se enfrentaram oficialmente durante
a Guerra Fria.
I intend to visit the Philippines and the Bahamas.
Eu tenho a intenção de visitar as Filipinas e as Bahamas.
The Hague is the third largest city in the Netherlands.
Haia é a terceira maior cidade da Holanda.
ii. before possessives:
My car is not so expensive. But hers must have cost a pretty penny.
Meu carro não é tão caro, mas o dela deve ter custado uma fortuna.
She is trying to convince her husband to sell their old beach house.
Ela está tentando convencer o marido dela a vender a antiga casa de praia deles.
iii. before proper nouns:
Jupiter is the fifth planet in order of distance from the sun.
Júpiter é o quinto planeta na ordem de distância do Sol.
Toyota is the world’s largest automobile manufacturer by sales and production.
A Toyota é a maior montadora de automóveis do mundo em termos de vendas e produção.
Carol has been living in Germany since last year.
A Carol está morando na Alemanha desde o ano passado.
If Andrew arrives before lunch, tell him I need to talk to him.
Se o Andrew chegar antes do almoço, diga-lhe que preciso falar com ele.
Note: the definite article must be used before the name of a family.
The Kennedys were the most powerful family in the United States.
Os Kennedys foram a família mais poderosa dos Estados Unidos.
Did you invite the Coopers and the Wilsons to the party?
Você convidou os Coopers e os Wilsons para a festa?
iv. before the name of titles and professions followed by proper names:
President Obama and President Lula have not talked about the reduction of subsides.
O presidente Obama e o presidente Lula não têm conversado sobre a redução dos subsídios.
I had the opportunity to see Queen Elizabeth in my last trip to London.
Eu tive a oportunidade de ver a rainha Elizabeth em minha última viagem a Londres.
Teacher Arnold is out of town, he is visiting his parents.
O professor Arnold está fora da cidade, ele está visitando os pais.
Note: if the name is not mentioned, the article must be used.
The Brazilian President did not discuss polemic issues during the press conference.
O presidente brasileiro não discutiu questões polêmicas durante a conferência de imprensa.
The doctor advised him to stop smoking.
O médico o aconselhou a parar de fumar.
v. before the nouns hospital, school, college, university, church, prison and bed when used to what
they serve for:
Josh spent a fortnight in hospital last month.
Josh passou duas semanas no hospital no mês passado.
She has already left to school/college/university.
Ela já saiu para a escola/a faculdade/a universidade.
My mother is Catholic. She goes to church every Sunday.
Minha mãe é católica. Ela vai à igreja todo domingo.
They went to prison after the judgment.
Eles foram para a cadeia após o julgamento.
I was in bed with a fever yesterday night.
Fiquei de cama com febre ontem à noite.
Note: the article must be used when these nouns are used for different purposes.
Marla went to the hospital in order to visit her sister.
Marla foi ao hospital visitar a irmã.
Karen and Kevin decided to meet each other at the school/the college/the university.
Karen e Kevin decidiram se encontrar na escola/na faculdade/na universidade.
Let’s visit the church and take some pictures.
Vamos visitar a igreja e tirar algumas fotos.
He used to go to the prison to make community service.
Ele ia para a cadeia fazer serviço comunitário.
The girls are on the bedroom chatting on the bed.
As meninas estão no quarto conversando em cima da cama.
vi. before the names of languages:
Janet speaks English and German.
Janet fala inglês e alemão.
My favorite languages are Italian and French.
Minhas línguas favoritas são italiano e francês.
vii. before uncountable nouns:
Coffee is very appreciated around the world.
O café é muito apreciado em todo o mundo.
Peace lasted in Europe for just over 20 years after 1918 before war broke out again.
A paz durou na Europa pouco mais de 20 anos após 1918 antes da guerra acontecer novamente.
Note: however, if the uncountable noun is being used specifically, the article must come before the
noun.
The coffee they serve at this restaurant is terrific.
O café servido neste restaurante é fantástico.
In order to keep the peace, the police are acting more severely against criminals.
Para manter a paz, a polícia está agindo de forma mais severa contra os criminosos.
viii. before the names of meals:
Breakfast is my favourite meal.
O café da manhã é minha refeição predileta.
Paul always takes a nap after lunch.
Paul sempre tira um cochilo após o almoço.
Note: the article must be used if the meal is specific.
The breakfast we had together was unforgettable.
O café da manhã que tomamos juntos foi inesquecível.
I thought the dinner we had at Da Vinci’s was awesome.
Acho que o jantar que tivemos no restaurante Da Vinci’s foi fantástico.
Indefinite Article: A/An (um, uma)
Before using an indefinite article, it is important to observe the initial sound of the following word.
n A is used before: consonantal sounds (CS), semivowel sounds (SS) and the letter h (when
pronounced).
He bought a plane. (CS)
Ele comprou um avião.
We saw a whale at the beach this morning. (SS)
Nós vimos uma baleia na praia esta manhã.
Alice teaches at a university near her house. (SS)
Alice leciona em uma universidade próxima da casa dela.
John lives in a house full of leaks.
John mora em uma casa cheia de goteiras.
n An is used before: vowel sounds and the letter h (when mute).
Veronica is an opera singer.
Verônica é cantora de opera.
Matt bought an 1895 stamp to his collection.
Matt comprou um selo de 1895 para a coleção dele.
He said he was coming an hour ago. Can you call him again?
Ele disse que estava vindo há uma hora. Você pode ligar novamente para ele?
I think David is an honest man. We can blindly trust in him.
Acho que David é um homem honesto. Nós podemos confiar cegamente nele.
The indefinite article is used

i. before a noun to refer to a single thing or person that has not been previously mentioned:
Vicky has decided to buy a car.
A Vicky decidiu comprar um carro.
The CEO has decided to create a new guideline about the hiring policy of the company.
O CEO decidiu criar uma nova diretriz em relação à política de contratações da empresa.
Is that girl a friend of yours?
Aquela garota é uma amiga sua?
I heard a child crying.
Ouvi uma criança chorando.
ii. before names of jobs:
Laura is a lawyer and her husband an architect.
Laura é advogada e seu marido é arquiteto.
He intends to be a diplomat in the future.
Ele pretende ser diplomata no futuro.
iii. before nationalities and religions:
It was a Brazilian who survived to the plane crash.
Foi um brasileiro que sobreviveu ao desastre de avião.
Olivia is a devout protestant.
Olívia é uma protestante fervorosa.
Note: if the nationality or the religion works as an adjective, the indefinite article must not be used.
Is Hugh English?
O Hugh é inglês?
Although my family is Jewish, we’re not practising Jews.
Embora minha família seja judia, nós não somos judeus praticantes.
iv. with the meaning of one (referring to a single object or person):
A bat entered in our house last night.
Um morcego entrou em nossa casa na noite passada.
I want an orange juice and a hamburger with fries, please.
Eu quero um suco de laranja e um hambúrguer com fritas, por favor.
Note: the number one must be used to add emphasis or to indicate the exact quantity of something.
I have never met one woman who likes shopping alone.
Eu jamais conheci uma (única) mulher que goste de fazer compras sozinha.
The President visited our city one year ago.
O presidente visitou nossa cidade (exatamente) há um ano.
v. before a person’s name when referring to someone who you do not know:
A Wilson called you this morning.
Um tal de Wilson ligou para você esta manhã.
A Joanne wants to see you, doctor.
Uma tal de Joanne quer vê-lo, doutor.
vi. in certain constructions with the words with, without, what, such and half before ​countable nouns:
I told you to write the text first with a pencil.
Eu lhe disse para escrever o texto inicialmente a lápis.
Don’t go out without a coat. It’s very cold this morning.
Não saia sem casaco. Está muito frio esta manhã.
What a wonderful world is a famous song by Louis Armstrong.
“What a wonderful world” é uma famosa canção de Louis Armstrong.
He would never say such a thing!
Ele jamais diria tal coisa!
Go to the supermarket and buy half a dozen eggs, please.
Vá ao supermercado e compre meia dúzia de ovos, por favor.
vii. in some idiomatic expressions:
Once upon a time has become a widely accepted convention for opening narratives.
Era uma vez tornou-se uma convenção amplamente aceita para introduzir narrativas.
I was in a hurry, that’s why I couldn’t stop to talk to you.
Eu estava com pressa, por isso não pude parar para falar com você.
Susan left the classroom all of a sudden. I think she was not feeling well.
Susan saiu da sala de repente. Acho que ela não estava se sentindo bem.
The doctor said my leg should be better in a couple of days.
Meu médico disse que minha perna estaria melhor em dois dias/alguns dias.
She has visited her grandparents many a time.
Ela visitou os avós dela muitas vezes.
As a matter of fact we are not married, despite we live together.
A verdade é que nós não somos casados, apesar de morarmos juntos.
viii. in some number or amount expressions:
Unfortunately, I can’t go with you, I have a lot of documents to protocol today.
Infelizmente não posso ir com você, tenho muitos documentos para protocolar hoje.
He made me a few questions before leaving.
Ele me fez algumas perguntas antes de sair.
There’s a plethora of books about UFOs.
Há uma quantidade enorme de livros sobre OVNIs.
We will spend a good/great deal of time in Sweden.
Passaremos um bom tempo/bastante tempo na Suécia.
The burglar broke a piece of furniture in my bedroom when he broke into the house.
O ladrão quebrou um móvel em meu quarto quando ele invadiu a casa.
ix. to indicate how often something happens/costs or how much someone earns in a certain period of
time:
She goes to Europe twice a year.
Ela vai à Europa duas vezes por ano.
The doctor said you have to take this medicine four times a day.
O médico disse que você tem que tomar este remédio quatro vezes por dia.
We pay $200 a year for the fire insurance of our condo.
Nós pagamos 200 dólares por ano pelo seguro anti-incêndio do nosso condomínio/apartamento.
Richard was hired with a salary of €120,000 a year.
Richard foi contratado com um salário de 120 mil euros por ano.
x. before some uncountable nouns when you want to limit their meaning:
A love like the one I feel for her is peerless.
Um amor como o que eu sinto por ela é incomparável.
I only have a limited knowledge of German.
Eu tenho um conhecimento limitado de alemão.
Note: in general, the indefinite article must not be used before uncountable nouns (the indefinite
pronoun some is more indicated).
Sharon gave me some good advice yesterday.
Sharon me deu uns bons conselhos ontem.
Next year, I will try to invest some money in the stock market.
Ano que vem, tentarei investir algum dinheiro no mercado de ações.
Practice
1. I was watching __________ MTV show last night. What __________ wonderful clips
they exhibited!
a) the – a
b) a – a
c) an – a
d) an – *
Answer: D
2. __________ Mr. Smith called you when you were out.
a) A
b) An
c) The
d) No
Answer: A
3. Joan bought __________ 1876 stamp for __________ his collection.
a) the – the
b) no article – no article
c) an – a
d) an – no article
e) a – the
Answer: D
4. Oscar is __________ Catholic, but he seldom goes to __________ church.
a) no article – no article
b) a – the
c) a – no article
d) no article – the
e) the – a
Answer: A
5. ________ President and ________ Governor visited ________ our city ________ year
ago.
a) The – the – no article – an
b) No article – the – no article – one
c) The – no article – no article – a
d) The – the – the – one
e) The – the – no article – a
Answer: E
6. On my last vacation I visited __________ France, __________ Germany, __________
United Kingdom and __________ Netherlands.
a) the – the – the – the
b) * – * – the – the
c) the – the – * – *
d) the – * – the – *
e) * – the – * – the
Answer: B
7. __________ Lake Huron is really amazing!
a) The
b) No article
c) A
d) An
Answer: B
8. Mark the incorrect sequence:
a) An ewe.
b) A university.
c) An FBI investigation.
d) An airplane.
e) A woman.
Answer: A
9. Read the following text and fill in the gaps with the correct sequence of articles:
Despite __________ universal derision of __________ literary establishment, which could
never comprehend __________ its inherently noble spirit, Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings was
recently voted __________ greatest work of fiction of __________ 20th Century by thousands
of Waterstones’ customers.
http://library.flawlesslogic.com/tolkien.htm
a) * – the – * – the – *
b) * – the – * – a – the
c) the – the – * – the – the
d) the – the – * – a – the
e) the – * – * – the – a
Answer: C
10. I had ________ dinner with ________ old friend from school on ________ Friday
night.
a) a – an – the
b) a – an – *
c) * – * – the
d) * – an – the
e) * – an – *
Answer: E
PRONOUNS I

Subject Pronouns
Represent the person or thing which performs the action of a verb.
Singular

I (eu)
you (você)
he (ele)
she (ela)
it (ele/ela – neutral)
Plural

we (nós)
you (vocês)
they (eles/elas)
Object Pronouns
Represent a person or thing that is affected by the action of a verb.
Singular

me (me, mim)
you (você)
him (o, lhe)
her (a, lhe)
it (o, a, lhe – neutral)
Plural
us (nos)
you (vocês)
them (os, as, lhes)
I saw you running at the beach last Sunday.
Eu o vi correndo na praia domingo passado.
He invited us to his wedding.
Ele nos convidou para o casamento dele.
They met her at the airport.
Eles a encontraram no aeroporto.
She borrowed me some Money last week.
Ela me pediu um dinheiro emprestado na semana passada.
You and I will arrange the party.
Você e eu organizaremos a festa.
Notes:
i. The feminine pronouns can be used to refer to things personified as feminine, specially countries and
ships:
England is a marvelous country. She has many stunning landscapes.
A Inglaterra é um país maravilhoso. Ela tem muitas paisagens impressionantes.
After the vessel hit the iceberg, she sank very fast.
Depois que o navio atingiu o iceberg, ele afundou rapidamente.
ii. The masculine and feminine pronouns can be used to refer to pets and things we appreciate a lot:
What a lovely dog, how old is he?
Que cachorro adorável, quantos anos ele tem?
Look at my new car – isn’t she beautiful? I have just bought her.
Veja meu carro novo – não é lindo? Acabei de comprá-lo.
iii. The gender-neutral pronoun is used as the subject of impersonal constructions:
It is seven o’clock, sweetheart, time to wake up.
São sete horas, querida, hora de acordar.
We can go walking, it is just three miles to town.
Podemos ir caminhando, são apenas três milhas até a cidade.
It was foggy, that’s why I couldn’t see the dog when I hit it.
Estava nublado, por isso não consegui ver o cachorro antes de atingi-lo.
It has rained a lot this year, more than usual.
Tem chovido muito este ano, mais do que o normal.
Who’s it?
Quem é?
iv. The gender-neutral pronouns can be used to refer to the words baby and children when the sex is not
specified:
When I have a child, it will receive the best of me.
Quando eu tiver um filho, ele receberá o melhor de mim.
The child of our new upstairs neighbors was crying. It must be a newborn.
O filho dos nossos novos vizinhos do andar de cima estava chorando. Ele deve ser recém-nascido.​
v. Both the masculine and the feminine pronouns must be used if the noun gender is not specified:
If a teacher needs help, he/she should see the principal.
Se um(a) professor(a) precisa de ajuda, ele(a) deve procurar o diretor.
Whomever we elect to govern our country, he/she must respect the people above all.
Quem quer que elejamos para governar nosso país, ele(a) deve respeitar o povo acima de tudo.
vi. After prepositions, only the object pronouns must be used:
Is there one left for me?
Sobrou um para mim?
The diplomats arrived yesterday night. Some of them are still sleeping.
Os diplomatas chegaram ontem à noite. Alguns deles ainda estão dormindo.
Adjective Possessive Pronouns
Used to indicate genitive relationships such as possession, authorship, kinship, friendship etc. As they
work as modifiers, they must always come before a noun.
Singular

my (meu[s], minha[s])
your (seu[s], sua[s])
his (dele)
her (dela)
its (dele, dela – neutral)
Plural

our (nosso[s])
your (seus, suas, de vocês)
their (deles, delas)
Possessive Pronouns
Also used to indicate genitive relationships, but they can never be used before nouns.
Singular

mine (meu[s], minha[s])


yours (seu[s], sua[s])
his (dele)
hers (dela)
its (dele, dela – neutral)
Plural

ours (nosso[s])
yours (seus, suas, de vocês)
theirs (deles, delas)
I prefer the second option – its advantages are simplicity and cheapness.
Eu prefiro a segunda opção – suas vantagens são simplicidade e baixo custo.
Your hat is odd, but his is fine.
Seu chapéu é estranho, mas o dele é legal.
My parents are always traveling abroad.
Meus pais estão sempre viajando para o exterior.
Her new best-seller is confusing, but intriguing.
O novo best-seller dela é confuso, porém, intrigante.
I met your husband at the mall yesterday. He was having lunch with some friends of his.
Encontrei seu marido no shopping ontem. Ele estava almoçando com alguns amigos dele.
Notes:
i. The confusion between the possessives of 2nd and 3rd person that occurs in Portuguese does not
happen in English. Observe the translations of the following sentences:
I’ll check with Jean if he will bring his guitar to the party.
Verificarei com o Jean se ele trará seu violão para a festa. – Whose guitar?
Verificarei com o Jean se ele trará o violão dele para a festa.
Michelle said she has forgotten her coat here. Did you see it?
Michelle disse que esqueceu seu casaco aqui. Você o viu? – Whose coat?
Michelle disse que esqueceu o casaco dela aqui. Você o viu?
ii. The possessive pronouns must be used after the structure a/an + noun + of:
A friend of yours called while you were out. A Frank.
Um amigo seu ligou enquanto você estava fora. Um tal de Frank.

An acquaintance of mine died in a car crash last Sunday.


Um conhecido meu morreu em um acidente de carro no domingo passado.
iii. The possessive yours is used at the end of letters, before the name of the writer:
Yours faithfully, J. Wolowitz.
Atenciosamente, J. Wolowitz.
Yours sincerely/truly, Andrea Vegas.
Cordialmente, Andrea Vegas.
Reflexive Pronouns
Represent words that show that the person or thing that does the action is the same that is affected by
this action. They must agree with the subject of the verb and come after the verb.
Singular

myself (eu mesmo)


yourself (você mesmo)
himself (ele mesmo)
herself (ela mesma)
itself (ele[a] mesmo[a] – neutral)
Plural

ourselves (nós mesmos)


yourselves (vocês mesmos[as])
themselves (eles[as] mesmos[as])
The kids bruised themselves during the game.
Os garotos se machucaram durante o jogo.
Jackson has to shave himself every day. He is the CEO of the company and must always keep a good
looking.
O Jackson tem que se barbear todo dia. Ele é o CEO da empresa e deve sempre manter uma boa
aparência.
We promised ourselves a Thanksgiving Day in family this year, remember?
Nós prometemos a nós mesmos um Dia de Ação de Graças em família este ano, lembram-se?
The battery recharges itself.
A bateria recarrega-se por si mesma.
You should not blame yourselves. It was not your fault!
Vocês não deveriam se responsabilizar. Não foi culpa de vocês.
Notes:
i. The reflexives can also be used to emphasize the subject or object of the verb. They must agree and
be placed after the element that needs to be emphasized:
They themselves painted their new apartment.
Eles mesmos pintaram o novo apartamento deles.

They spoke to the dean herself.


Eles falaram com a própria reitora.
ii. When the preposition by is used before a reflexive, together they mean “alone”:
He lives by himself in a huge condo.
Ele mora sozinho em um condomínio/apartamento enorme.
Sue’s only three but she wrote her name all by herself.
Sue tem apenas três anos, mas ela escreveu o nome dela completamente sozinha.
Reciprocal Pronouns
Used to show that each person in a group of two or more people does something to the others.
each other | each other’s (um ao outro)
one another | one another’s (uns aos outros)
Note: the genitive forms (each other’s and one another’s) must be used before nouns.
Mike and Molly greeted each other.
Mike e Molly saudaram um ao outro.
The diplomats greeted one another before the summit.
Os diplomatas saudaram uns aos outros antes da reunião.
Otto and Ginger were embarrassed because they had forgotten each other’s names.
Otto e Ginger ficaram envergonhados porque eles esqueceram o nome um do outro.
The students were embarrassed because they had forgotten one another’s names.
Os alunos ficaram envergonhados porque eles esqueceram os nomes uns dos outros.

Note: the use of each other for a group of two elements and one another for three or more is not
considered completely right. They can be interchangeable in standard practice.
Practice
1. Read the following sentences:
I. THE TITANIC sank in the beginning of the XX century.
II. THE BABY OF OUR UPSTAIRS NEIGHBORS is crying aloud.
III. MY PET is the smartest of the neighborhood. Everybody enjoys seeing him.
Mark the option in which the sequence of pronouns can be used to replace the capital words
correctly:
a) It – She – It
b) It – She – He
c) He – She – He
d) She – He – He
e) She – It – He
Answer: E
2. The students gathered to congratulate __________ on the year’s conclusion.
a) each other’s
b) one another
c) yourselves
d) ourselves
e) themselves
Answer: B
3. Why are __________ always arguing with __________?
a) yourself – each other
b) you – each other
c) you – other each
d) yourself – one another
Answer: B
4. Did you want to talk to the chairman __________, or could __________ personal
assistant help __________?
a) himself – his – yourself
b) herself – her – you
c) himself – his – you
d) herself – her – yourself
Answer: C
5. The pronoun themselves in the sentence “They themselves had no knowledge of
what was happening” is used:
a) as the complement to the verb “had”.
b) to emphasize the subject of the verb “had”.
c) in relation to people in general.
d) to specify who is the subject of the sentence.
e) as a reciprocal pronoun.
Answer: B
6. Read the following fragment:
Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have
discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic
chemical arsenic. The microorganism substitutes arsenic for phosphorus in its cell components.
The pronoun in bold refers to:
a) Mono Lake.
b) arsenic.
c) phosphorus.
d) the microorganism.
e) cell components.
Answer: D
7. Read the following fragment:
The challenge is part of the Google Lunar X Prize, which will put $20 million into the hands of
the first privately funded team that can land a rover on the moon; have it travel on the surface
for 500 meters or more; send back data, photos and video; and do it all by December 31,
2012.
The underlined pronouns refer respectively to:
a) rover – travel on the surface for 500 meters or more; send back data, photos and video
b) the moon – travel on the surface for 500 meters or more; send back data, photos and video
c) the challenge – send back data, photos and video
d) the Google Lunar X Prize – rover
e) the first privately funded team – rover
Answer: A
8. Fill in the gaps correctly:
“Buon giorno!” an older, thin man behind the counter greeted __________, as if __________
were a regular. Moving gracefully and with precision, __________ seemed to be doing a
delicate dance as __________ ground coffee beans, steamed milk, pulled shots of espresso,
made cappuccinos, and chatted with customers standing side by side at the coffee bar.
Everyone in the tiny shop seemed to know __________, and __________ sensed that
__________ was witnessing a daily ritual.
a) him – he – he – he – one another – I – he
b) I – he – he – him – one another – he – I
c) me – I – he – he – one another – I – I
d) him – I – I – I – each other – he – he
e) me – I – he – he – each other – he – I
Answer: C
9. In the sentence “Sitting next to her is her daughter, who glances up from her novel to
warmly greet the visitor” the underlined pronouns are, respectively:
a) possessive pronoun – possessive pronoun – object pronoun
b) possessive pronoun – adjective possessive pronoun – adjective possessive pronoun
c) object pronoun – adjective possessive pronoun – object pronoun
d) object pronoun – object pronoun – adjective possessive pronoun
e) object pronoun – adjective possessive pronoun – adjective possessive pronoun
Answer: E
10. Fill in the gaps correctly:
1. The noisy passengers drew attention to __________.
2. I’m sorry about __________ leaving.
3. __________’ve lost __________ keys. __________ can’t find __________ anywhere.
a) 1. each other – 2. her – 3. I – my – I – its
b) 1. each other – 2. hers – 3. He – mine – He – them
c) 1. themselves – 2. hers – 3. I – my – I – its
d) 1. themselves – 2. hers – 3. He – mine – He – them
e) 1. themselves – 2. her – 3. I – my – I – them
Answer: E
VERB TENSES

The Simple Tenses


1. Simple Present Tense
Formation: infinitive without to
Example: to work
Singular

I work
You work
He works
She works
It works
Plural

We work
You work
They work
Notes:
i. In the third person singular (he, she and it) the verb always ends in -s.
ii. Verbs ending in -s, -sh, -ch, -x, -z and -o receive -es.
To kiss He kisses
To wash He washes
To teach She teaches
To fix She fixes
To buzz It buzzes
To do He does
iii. Verbs ending in -y may receive -s or -ies.
To fly It flies
To pray He prays
iv. The verb to have in the third person singular changes into has.
v. The verb to be in the Simple Present Tense has three forms: am, is and are.
The Simple Present Tense is used

i. to express habits:
He smokes a lot. He should try to stop it.
Ele fuma demais. Ele deveria tentar parar.
She likes to listen to music while she reads.
Ela gosta de ouvir música enquanto lê.
ii. when something happens regularly or is a permanent situation:
You quarrel a lot. Why don’t you get a divorce?
Vocês brigam demais. Por que não se divorciam?
Kim lives alone in a huge apartment in London.
A Kim mora sozinha em um apartamento em Londres.
iii. to demonstrate emotions, feelings and wishes:
I love skiing. It’s definitely my favorite hobby.
Eu amo esquiar. É definitivamente meu hobby favorito.
I want some chocolate. Do you have some?
Eu quero um chocolate. Tem algum?
iv. to show general and scientific truths:
The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.
O sol nasce no leste e se põe no oeste.
Water freezes to ice at a temperature of 0°C.
A água transforma-se em gelo a uma temperatura de 0ºC.
v. to represent future events:
Your train leaves at 7 pm. Don’t forget it!
Seu trem parte às 7 da noite. Não esqueça!
She leaves to France tomorrow morning.
Ela parte para a França amanhã de manhã.
vi. to provide instructions or directions:
You take the 305 bus to Stanley and then the 310 to Greenfield.
Você pega o ônibus 305 para Stanley e depois o 310 para Greenfield.
You mix the eggs into the flour and then you bake at 180°C for about 20 minutes.
Você mistura os ovos com a farinha e depois assa a 180°C por aproximadamente 20 minutos.
Note: the use of frequency adverbs (always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely,
never etc.) with the Simple Present Tense is very common.
I always/never give money or food to beggars.
Eu sempre/nunca dou dinheiro ou comida para pedintes.
Sometimes I eat at the Luigi’s. But I prefer the Vicenza’s. I often go there.
Às vezes, eu como no restaurante Luigi’s. Porém, eu prefiro o Vicenza’s. Eu frequentemente vou
lá.

Stevie usually/occasionally drinks wine.


Stevie normalmente/ocasionalmente bebe vinho.
They rarely/seldom travel abroad.
Eles raramente viajam para o exterior.
Emphatic, Negative and Question Forms

i. Emphatic: subject + do(es) + main verb:


She does love you. Why don’t you give her a chance?
Ela realmente ama você. Porque você não dá uma chance para ela?
Messi does play soccer terrifically well.
O Messi, de fato, joga futebol maravilhosamente bem.
ii. Negative: subject + do(es) + not + main verb:
I do not (don’t) belong to any political party.
Eu não pertenço a nenhum partido político.
She does not (doesn’t) agree with me.
Ela não concorda comigo.
iii. Interrogative: do(es) + subject + main verb:
Do you like beer?
Você gosta de cerveja?
Does she sing well?
Ela canta bem?
iv. Interrogative-Negative: do(es) + not + subject + main verb:
Don’t you want to go with us?
Não quer ir conosco?
Doesn’t she get to be approved?
Ela não consegue ser aprovada?
Note: the -s ending the main verb in the third person singular is not used in these forms.
2. Simple Past Tense
Formation: regular/irregular past forms
Example 1: to attack (regular verb)
Singular

I attacked
You attacked
He attacked
She attacked
It attacked
Plural

We attacked
You attacked
They attacked
Example 2: to leave (irregular verb)
Singular

I left
You left
He left
She left
It left
Plural

We left
You left
They left
Notes:
i. The regular verbs receive -ed to form the Simple Past Tense.
ii. Verbs ending in -e receive just -d.
To arrange arranged
To agree agreed
iii. Verbs ending in -y may receive -ed or -ied.
To delay delayed
To bury buried
iv. Verbs ending in -ic receive -k before adding -ed.
To traffic trafficked
To mimic mimicked
v. Verbs ending in CVC (Consonant – Vowel – Consonant) receive -ed, but the final consonant may be
doubled or not.
To stop stopped (monosyllable)
To regret regretted (oxytone)
To permit permitted (oxytone)
To open opened (paroxytone)
To visit visited (paroxytone)
vi. Some CVC ending verbs have different forms in American and British English.
U.S. U.K.
To travel traveled travelled
To quarrel quarreled quarrelled
To label labeled labelled
To marshal marshaled marshalled
To counsel counseled counselled
vii. For the Simple Past Tense of the irregular verbs, check the list after the Practice session.
viii. Regular and irregular verbs have the same form to singular or plural subjects. Exception: to be
(was, were).
The Simple Past Tense is used

i. to express completed actions that happened at a specific time in the past:


The British diplomat arrived this morning for the summit.
O diplomata britânico chegou esta manhã para a reunião.
I finished my graduation last year.
Terminei minha graduação ano passado.
ii. to describe actions that happened during a period of time in the past:
In high-school years, I hated Math and Physics, but loved History and Geography.
No ensino médio, eu odiava matemática e física, mas amava história e geografia.
In the nineties, I lived for three years in South Africa.
Nos anos noventa, eu morei três anos na África do Sul.
iii. to talk about habitual or repeated actions happening in the past, but not continuing into the present.
In this case, the auxiliary used to is very common:
My favourite TV series was Twilight Zone. I loved to watch it.
Minha série de TV favorita era Além da Imaginação. Eu adorava assisti-la.
I used to fish with my father in a lake near our house.
Eu pescava com meu pai em um lago próximo da nossa casa.
Note: the use of time adverbs (yesterday, on Saturday, in December, in 1990, last week/month/​year, a
week/month/year ago, finally etc.) with the Simple Past Tense is very common.
Yesterday they went to an important meeting with the board.
Ontem, eles foram a uma importante reunião com a diretoria.
The Lorrys left to China on Saturday.
Os Lorrys partiram para a China no sábado.
Chase finished his English course in December.
O Chase terminou o curso de inglês dele em dezembro.
Yuri’s sister died in 1990.
A irmã de Yuri dele morreu em 1990.
She bought her first car last week.
Ela comprou o primeiro carro dela semana passada.
He left his job a month ago.
Ele deixou o emprego há um mês.
He finally was approved at the exam.
Ele finalmente foi aprovado no exame.
Emphatic, Negative and Question Forms

i. Emphatic: subject + did + main verb:


Ronaldo did play soccer very well.
O Ronaldo realmente jogava futebol muito bem.
I did tell you the truth!
Eu realmente lhe falei a verdade!
ii. Negative: subject + did + not + main verb:
She did not (didn’t) get to be approved.
Ela não conseguiu ser aprovada.
We did not (didn’t) travel last holidays.
Nós não viajamos nas últimas férias.
iii. Interrogative: did + subject + main verb:
Did you work hard yesterday?
Você trabalhou muito ontem?
Did they go there last week?
Eles foram lá semana passada?
iv. Interrogative-Negative: did + not + subject + main verb:
Didn’t you feel ashamed?
Você não ficou envergonhada?
Didn’t they arrive yet?
Eles ainda não chegaram?
Note: the past tense of the main verb is not used in these forms.
3. Simple Future Tense
Formation: will + infinitive without to
Example: to travel
Singular

I will travel
You will travel
He will travel
She will travel
It will travel
Plural

We will travel
You will travel
They will travel
Note: despite slightly old-fashioned, the auxiliary shall can be used for the 1st person singular and
plural.

If you do that one more time, I shall be very cross.


Se você fizer isso de novo, eu ficarei bastante chateado.
We shall take the dog to the vet tomorrow.
Nós levaremos o cachorro ao veterinário amanhã.
The Simple Future Tense is used

i. to express events that are not certain to happen:


Out team will win tomorrow’s game.
Nosso time ganhará o jogo de amanhã.
I think the next American President will be a woman.
Acho que o próximo presidente norte-americano será uma mulher.
ii. to express a spontaneous decision:
I will go to the movies this afternoon.
Irei ao cinema esta tarde.
I’ll help you with this bag. It looks heavy.
Eu lhe ajudarei com sua mala. Ela parece pesada.
iii. to make invitations, polite requests, offers and suggestions:
Will you come to the ball with me?
Aceita ir ao baile comigo?
Will you close the window, please?
Pode fechar a janela, por favor?
Shall I turn off the air conditioner? It’s very cold.
Desligo o condicionador de ar? Está muito frio.
Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
Que tal um cinema hoje à noite?
Note: the use of time adverbs (tomorrow, in the following/next week/month/year, on Sunday etc.) with
the Simple Future Tense is very common.
He left to London a month ago and will come back tomorrow.
Ele partiu para Londres há um mês e voltará amanhã.
Gordon will study Arts in the following year.
Gordon estudará Artes no ano que vem.
Next week, I will make a little party at my place.
Semana que vem, farei uma pequena festa em minha casa/meu apartamento.
They’ll marry on Saturday.
Eles se casarão no sábado.
Negative and Question Forms

i. Negative: subject + will + not + main verb:


He said that he will not (won’t) do the dishes.
Ele disse que não lavará a louça.
It will not (won’t) be easy to find another assistant.
Não será fácil achar um novo assistente.
ii. Interrogative: will + subject + main verb:
Will she come to the show?
Ela virá ao show?
Will they buy that car or not?
Eles vão comprar aquele carro ou não?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: will + not + subject + main verb:
Won’t they get the money in time to pay their rent?
Eles não conseguirão o dinheiro a tempo de pagar o aluguel deles?
Won’t you arrive before noon?
Você não chegará antes do meio-dia?
Note: the construction to be (present) + going to + main verb (infinitive without to) also expresses
future events. It is used:
i. to refer to planned events and real intentions:
I’m going to go to a disco tonight with a couple of friends.
Vou a uma boate hoje à noite com dois/alguns amigos.
She is going to make a trip to abroad this semester.
Ela fará uma viagem ao exterior este semestre.
ii. to make predictions based on present evidence:
I think it’s going to rain. The clouds look ominous.
Eu acho que vai chover. As nuvens parecem ameaçadoras.
Watch out! You’re going to hit that car!
Cuidado! Você vai bater naquele carro!
4. Simple Conditional Tense
Formation: would + infinitive without to
Example: to swim
Singular

I would swim
You would swim
He would swim
She would swim
It would swim
Plural

We would swim
You would swim
They would swim
The Simple Conditional Tense is used

i. to refer to an uncertain event (future in the past actions):


He said he would come, but you know Tom, he is so undecided.
Ele disse que viria, mas você conhece o Tom, ele é tão indeciso.
I would sing at the party, however, I need to rehearse before.
Eu cantaria na festa, no entanto, preciso ensaiar antes.
ii. to make invitations, polite requests and offers:
Would you mind sharing a room with me?
Você se importaria em dividir um quarto comigo?
Would you go with me to the cinema?
Você iria comigo ao cinema?
Note: the Simple Conditional Tense is also used in combination with the Simple Past Tense to indicate
an event that would happen (or not) if another event took place (or not). This situation will be better
approached in Conditionals.
They wouldn’t say that if they had the problems we have.
Eles não diriam aquilo se tivessem os problemas que nós temos.
If Vivian got the money, she would buy that house.
Se Vivian conseguisse o dinheiro, ela compraria aquela casa.
Negative and Question Forms

i. Negative: subject + would + not + main verb:


You would not (wouldn’t) like that movie. It’s very confusing!
Você não gostaria desse filme. Ele é muito confuso!
I told you it would not (wouldn’t) be easy to find another assistant.
Eu lhe disse que não seria fácil achar um novo assistente.
ii. Interrogative: would + subject + main verb:
Would they like to travel with us?
(Será que) Eles gostariam de viajar conosco?
Would you mind stay at home tonight?
Você se importaria em ficar em casa esta noite?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: would + not + subject + main verb:
Wouldn’t you buy this car even if I made a better offer?
Vocês não comprariam este carro mesmo que eu fizesse uma oferta melhor?
Wouldn’t they come with us?
Eles não viriam conosco?
Note: the construction to be (past) + going to + main verb (infinitive without to) is used to express
planned situations that did not happen (also a kind of future in the past).
I was going to work, but I didn’t feel well and decided to come back to bed.
Eu ia trabalhar, mas não me senti bem e decidi voltar para a cama.
They were going to make a trip to abroad, but their son wasn’t approved in school.
Eles iam fazer uma viagem para o exterior, mas o filho deles não foi aprovado na escola.
The Continuous/Progressive Tenses
1. Present Continuous/Progressive Tense
Formation: to be (present) + present participle
Example: to sleep
Singular

I am sleeping
You are sleeping
He is sleeping
She is sleeping
It is sleeping
Plural
We are sleeping
You are sleeping
They are sleeping
Notes: the ING form of the verbs in the continuous/progressive tenses is called present participle. The
end of the verb determines how the suffix must be added.
i. Verbs ending in -e have the -e dropped:
To cease ceasing
To argue arguing
To give giving
To be being (exception)
ii. Verbs ending in -ie have the -ie replaced by -y:
To tie tying
To lie lying
iii. Verbs ending in -ee follow the general rule:
To agree agreeing
To flee fleeing
iv. Verbs ending in -ic and CVC follow the same patterns previously seen:
To panic panicking
To frolic frolicking
To swim swimming (monosyllable)
To commit committing (oxytone)
To admit admitting (oxytone)
To whisper whispering (paroxytone)
To render rendering (paroxytone)
U.S. U.K.
To travel traveling travelling
To quarrel quarreling quarrelling
To label labeling labelling
To marshal marshaling marshalling
To counsel counseling counselling
The Present Continuous/Progressive Tense is used

i. to express actions happening at this very moment:


I can’t speak to you now, I’m trying to solve a problem.
Não posso falar com você agora, estou tentando resolver um problema.
Be quiet, your father is sleeping.
Fique quieto, seu pai está dormindo.
ii. to describe actions that are happening, but not exactly now:
I’m reading a terrific book: The Medical Science of House, MD. Do you know it?
Estou lendo um livro fantástico: A Ciência Médica de House. Conhece?
Is Curtis still working for the same company?
O Curtis ainda está trabalhando para a mesma empresa?
iii. to represent planned future actions, normally appointments:
Joe is flying to Manhattan next month.
Joe está indo para Manhattan no mês que vem.
I’m traveling to São Paulo next July.
Vou para São Paulo no próximo mês de julho.
iv. to describe trends:
More and more people are shopping on the Internet.
É cada vez maior o número de pessoas que estão fazendo compras pela internet.
The number of vegetarians is growing steadily nowadays.
O número de vegetarianos está crescendo muito atualmente.
v. to express actions that are exceptions from a routine:
We eat pizza every Friday, but today we’re eating hot dogs.
Nós comemos pizza toda sexta-feira, mas hoje estamos comendo hot dog.
She always works during the summer, but this year she is traveling to France.
Ela sempre trabalha durante o verão, mas este ano ela está viajando para a França.
Notes:
i. Some verbs are not used in the Present Continuous/Progressive Tense: like, love, hate, want, need,
prefer, know, realize, suppose, mean, understand, believe, remember, belong, contain, consist, depend,
seem, hear, smell, taste etc. (normally used in the Simple Present Tense).
Now I understand.
Agora eu entendo/estou entendendo. – and not I’m understanding now.

I remember you.
Eu lembro/estou me lembrando de você. – and not I’m remembering you.
ii. The verbs to look and to feel may be used both in the simple and continuous/progressive tenses.
You look good today./You’re looking good today.
Você está ótima hoje.
I feel fine today./I’m feeling fine today.
Sinto-me bem hoje./Estou me sentindo bem hoje.
iii. The verb to think may be used to express not only simple but also continuous/progressive actions.
I think you’re a nice guy.
Eu acho você um cara legal.
I’m thinking about you now.
Estou pensando em você agora.
iv. The verb to see may express continuous/progressive actions when it means the same as to meet or
to visit.
I am seeing a girl from your neighborhood.
Estou me encontrando com uma garota do seu bairro.
She is seeing her grandparents at weekends.
Ela está visitando os avós aos finais de semana.
v. Some time expressions (now, right now, at the/this moment etc.) may be used with the Present
Continuous/Progressive Tense.
Dr. Jones is assisting a patient now. Would you like to leave a message?
O Dr. Jones está atendendo um paciente agora. Gostaria de deixar recado?
He is using the Internet right now.
Ele está usando a internet agora mesmo.
At the moment he is working in a project with a couple of partners.
No momento, ele está trabalhando em um projeto com dois/alguns sócios.
Negative and Question Forms

i. Negative: subject + am/is/are + not + main verb:


I am not doing anything at the moment.
Eu não estou fazendo nada no momento.
She is not (isn’t) waiting for you.
Ela não está esperando por você.
ii. Interrogative: am/is/are + subject + main verb:
Is she driving her car right now?
Ela está dirigindo o carro dela agora?
Are they preparing themselves for the meeting with the board?
Eles estão se preparando para a reunião com a diretoria?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: am/is/are + not + subject + main verb:
Aren’t they studying to the exam?
Eles não estão estudando para o exame?
Isn’t she sleeping?
Ela não está dormindo?
2. Past Continuous/Progressive Tense
Formation: to be (past) + present participle
Example: to seek
Singular

I was seeking
You were seeking
He was seeking
She was seeking
It was seeking
Plural

We were seeking
You were seeking
They were seeking
The Past Continuous/Progressive Tense is used

i. to describe an action that was happening at a particular point in time:


We were having a lot of fun yesterday at this time.
Nós estávamos nos divertindo muito ontem a esta hora.
Foreman was walking along the beach at sunrise.
Foreman estava caminhando pela praia ao nascer do Sol.
ii. to show what was happening when something happened. In this situation, the Past
Continuous/Progressive Tense must be combined with the Simple Past Tense:
They were playing basketball when their bus arrived.
Eles estavam jogando basquete quando o ônibus deles chegou.
She was taking a shower when her cell phone rang.
Ela estava tomando banho quando o celular dela tocou.
iii. to express simultaneously past actions. Is this case, both verbs must be used in the Past
Continuous/Progressive Tense:
Sue was skiing seeing that her boyfriend was drinking some beers with his friends.
Sue estava esquiando visto que seu namorado estava bebendo algumas cervejas com os amigos.
While we were studying to the proficiency exam, the girls were shopping.
Enquanto nós estávamos estudando para o exame de proficiência, as garotas estavam fazendo
compras.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + was/were + not + main verb:
He was not (wasn’t) running along the beach when I met him.
Ele não estava correndo na praia quando eu o encontrei.
The girls were not (weren’t) talking on the phone, they were chatting on the Internet.
As garotas não estavam falando ao telefone, elas estavam conversando na internet.
ii. Interrogative: was/were + subject + main verb:
Were the diplomats discussing when you entered the room?
Os diplomatas estavam debatendo quando você entrou na sala?
Were they preparing themselves for the meeting with the board?
Eles estavam se preparando para a reunião com a diretoria?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: was/were + not + subject + main verb:
Weren’t they studying to the exam?
Eles não estavam estudando para o exame?
Wasn’t she sleeping?
Ela não estava dormindo?
3. Future Continuous/Progressive Tense
Formation: to be (future) + present participle
Example: to go
Singular
I will be going
You will be going
He will be going
She will be going
It will be going
Plural
We will be going
You will be going
They will be going
The Future Continuous/Progressive Tense is used
i. to indicate actions in progress in the future:
John will be working for another company in two weeks’ time.
John estará trabalhando para outra empresa dentro de duas semanas.
At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.
À meia-noite de hoje, nós ainda estaremos passando pelo deserto.
ii. to indicate that a future action will be in progress when a present action happens:
When I arrive at the airport, she will be waiting for me.
Quando eu chegar ao aeroporto, ela estará esperando por mim.
It will probably be raining a lot when I wake up tomorrow morning.
Estará provavelmente chovendo muito quando eu acordar amanhã de manhã.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + will + not + be + main verb:
They’ll not (won’t) be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
Eles não estarão esperando por ela quando o avião dela chegar hoje à noite.
I will not (won’t) be having lunch at noon tomorrow.
Não estarei almoçando ao meio-dia amanhã.
ii. Interrogative: will + subject + be + main verb:
Will he be studying at the library this afternoon?
Ele estará estudando na biblioteca esta tarde?
Will you be already sleeping at 10 pm tonight?
Você já estará dormindo às 10 horas hoje à noite?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: will + not + subject + be + main verb:
Won’t he be celebrating his victory when we get there?
Ele não estará comemorando a vitória dele quando chegarmos lá?
Won’t the kids be studying this afternoon?
As crianças não estarão estudando esta tarde?
4. Conditional Continuous/Progressive Tense
Formation: to be (conditional) + present participle
Example: to break
Singular
I would be breaking
You would be breaking
He would be breaking
She would be breaking
It would be breaking
Plural
We would be breaking
You would be breaking
They would be breaking
The Conditional Continuous/Progressive Tense is used to indicate an event that would be in progress
(or not) if another event took place (or not).
They would be playing soccer if it weren’t raining so hard.
Eles estariam jogando futebol se não estivesse chovendo tanto.
I would be sleeping if our upstairs neighbors weren’t making so much noise.
Eu estaria dormindo se os nossos vizinhos do andar de cima não estivessem fazendo tanto barulho.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + would + not + be + main verb:
They would not (wouldn’t) be taking summer lessons if they had studied a little more.
Eles não estariam tendo aulas no verão se tivessem estudado um pouco mais.
They would not (wouldn’t) be working during the weekend if they had worked overtime.
Eles não estariam trabalhando durante o fim de semana se tivessem feito hora extra.
ii. Interrogative: would + subject + be + main verb:
Would she be living abroad if she hadn’t children?
Ela estaria morando no exterior se não tivesse filhos?
Would you be acting differently with him if he weren’t so stubborn?
Você estaria agindo de forma diferente com ele se ele não fosse tão teimoso?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: would + not + subject + be + main verb:
Wouldn’t you be jogging if it weren’t raining?
Você não estaria correndo se não estivesse chovendo?
Wouldn’t she be traveling if she had received some extra money?
Ela não estaria viajando se tivesse recebido um pouco de dinheiro extra?
The Perfect Tenses
1. Present Perfect Tense
Formation: to have (present) + past participle
Example 1: to arrive (regular verb)
Singular
I have arrived
You have arrived
He has arrived
She has arrived
It has arrived
Plural
We have arrived
You have arrived
They have arrived
Example 2: to do (irregular verb)
Singular
I have done
You have done
He has done
She has done
It has done
Plural
We have done
You have done
They have done
The Present Perfect Tense is used
i. to describe an event that started in the past and continues in the present:
They have met each other since last month.
Eles têm se encontrado desde o mês passado.
Harold and his brother have sold real estates for 10 years.
Harold e o irmão dele têm vendido imóveis há dez anos.
ii. to indicate that an action occurred in the past in a time not mentioned:
Albert has bought Angels and Demons for his private library.
Albert comprou Anjos e Demônios para a biblioteca particular dele.
Myrna and Saul have moved to a small city in the countryside.
Myrna e Saul mudaram-se para uma pequena cidade no interior.
iii. to express that the action happened in a period of time which has not ended yet:
I have done three exams this semester.
Eu fiz três provas este semestre.
He has come to my place twice this week.
Ele veio ao meu apartamento/à minha casa duas vezes esta semana.
iv. to indicate repeated actions that occurred in an unspecified period of time between the past and
now:
The Saint-Clairs have already visited Paris many times.
Os Saint-Clairs já visitaram Paris muitas vezes.
Definitely, Victor is not a good driver. He has beaten his car several times.
Definitivamente, o Victor não é um bom motorista. Ele bateu o carro dele várias vezes.
Notes: the use of the following words with the Present Perfect Tense is very common.
i. Lately | Recently
I have studied very hard lately.
Eu tenho estudado bastante ultimamente.
They told me they’ve seen good movies recently.
Eles me disseram que têm visto bons filmes recentemente.
ii. Since
England have not won the World Cup since 1966.
A Inglaterra não ganha a Copa do Mundo desde 1966.
iii. For
I’ve played chess with Jim for eight hours.
Eu joguei xadrez com o Jim por oito horas.

I haven’t traveled abroad for years.


Eu não viajo para o exterior há anos.
iv. Already | Ever
I have already fixed my car all by myself once. I can do it again.
Eu já consertei meu carro completamente sozinho antes. Posso fazer de novo.
Has he already arrived at home?
Ele já chegou em casa?
Have you ever visited The Hague?
Vocês já visitaram Haia?
I thought he was a famous actor, but none of my friends have ever heard of him.
Eu pensei que ele fosse um ator famoso, mas nenhum dos meus amigos já havia ouvido falar dele.
v. Never
I have never seen such a thing before.
Eu nunca havia visto tal coisa antes.
vi. Just
I don’t want to eat anything now. I’ve just had breakfast.
Eu não quero comer nada agora. Eu tomei café da manhã há pouco./Eu acabei de tomar café da
manhã.
vii. Yet
Have you decided where you want to go yet?
Você já decidiu para onde quer ir?
No, I haven’t decided it yet.
Não, eu ainda não decidi.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + have/has + not + main verb:
The kids have not (haven’t) taken their medicines yet.
As crianças ainda não tomaram os remédios delas.
Dr. Anne has not (hasn’t) found her new assistant yet.
A Dr. Anne ainda não achou a nova assistente dela.
ii. Interrogative: have/has + subject + main verb:
Have you seen Tracy?
Você viu a Tracy?
Has he already finished his exams?
Ele já terminou as provas dele?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: have/has + not + subject + main verb:
Haven’t you sworn not to lie anymore?
Você não jurou que não mentiria mais?
Hasn’t my client arrived yet?
Meu cliente ainda não chegou?
2. Past Perfect Tense
Formation: to have (past) + past participle
Example 1: to analyze (regular verb)
Singular
I had analyzed
You had analyzed
He had analyzed
She had analyzed
It had analyzed
Plural
We had analyzed
You had analyzed
They had analyzed
Example 2: to get (irregular verb)
Singular
I had got/gotten
You had got/gotten
He had got/gotten
She had got/gotten
It had got/gotten
Plural
We had got/gotten
You had got/gotten
They had got/gotten
The Past Perfect Tense is used
i. to express that an event happened before another in the past:
When I arrived home, my father had already left.
Quando eu cheguei em casa, meu pai havia saído.
They had understood the lesson before the teacher explained them.
Eles haviam entendido a lição antes que o professor explicasse a eles.
ii. to show how often an event took place in the past:
Brasília? I had been there so many times that I can barely remember.
Brasília? Estive lá tantas vezes que mal consigo lembrar.
I had tried to persuade him to invest in the stock market several times. Unfortunately, in vain.
Tentei persuadi-lo a investir no mercado de ações várias vezes. Infelizmente, em vão.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + had + not + main verb:
Karen hadn’t done the housework when her boss arrived.
Karen não havia feito o serviço doméstico quando o patrão dela chegou.
They still hadn’t had any news about Michael when I spoke to them yesterday.
Eles ainda não haviam tido notícias de Michael quando falei com eles ontem.
ii. Interrogative: had + subject + main verb:
Had they already arrived?
Eles já chegaram?
Had you made your mind?
Você já se decidiu?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: had + not + subject + main verb:
Hadn’t you finished the test when I got there?
Você não havia terminado o teste quando eu cheguei lá?
Hadn’t the airplane already taken off when you arrived at the airport?
O avião já não havia decolado quando você chegou ao aeroporto?
3. Future Perfect Tense
Formation: to have (future) + past participle
Example 1: to appear (regular verb)
Singular
I will have appeared
You will have appeared
He will have appeared
She will have appeared
It will have appeared
Plural
We will have appeared
You will have appeared
They will have appeared
Example 2: to begin (irregular verb)
Singular
I will have begun
You will have begun
He will have begun
She will have begun
It will have begun
Plural
We will have begun
You will have begun
They will have begun
The Future Perfect Tense is used to indicate that an action will be completed by a certain time in the
future.
By the time you arrive at home, I will have already left.
Quando você chegar em casa, eu já terei saído.
She will finally have finished her PhD thesis this time next year.
Ela terá finalmente terminado a tese de doutorado dela nesta época no ano que vem.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + will + not + have + main verb:
Rudy will not (won’t) have finished her chores before 6 pm.
Rudy não terá terminado os afazeres dele antes das 18h.
They’ll not (won’t) have corrected all the texts in time.
Eles não terão corrigido todos os textos a tempo.
ii. Interrogative: will + subject + have + main verb:
Will he have learned enough German to communicate before she moves to Berlin?
Ele terá aprendido o suficiente de alemão para se comunicar antes de se mudar para Berlin?
Will she have finished the exam by 4 pm?
Ela terá terminado o exame por volta das 16h?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: will + not + subject + have + main verb:
Won’t you have finished paying your debts until the beginning of the next semester?
Você não terá terminado de pagar suas contas até o início do próximo semestre?
Won’t the movie have already begun when we arrived at the cinema?
O filme já não terá começado quando chegarmos ao cinema?
4. Conditional Perfect Tense
Formation: to have (conditional) + past participle
Example 1: to attempt (regular verb)
Singular
I would have attempted
You would have attempted
He would have attempted
She would have attempted
It would have attempted
Plural
We would have attempted
You would have attempted
They would have attempted
Example 2: to buy (irregular verb)
Singular
I would have bought
You would have bought
He would have bought
She would have bought
It would have bought
Plural
We would have bought
You would have bought
They would have bought
The Conditional Perfect Tense is used to express an event that might have happened in the past.
I’d have called her, but I didn’t have her new cell number.
Eu teria ligado para ela, mas eu não tinha o novo número de celular dela.
We would have answered all the questions of the exam, however, we didn’t have enough time.
Nós teríamos respondido todas as perguntas da prova, no entanto, não tivemos tempo suficiente.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + would + not + have + main verb:
Leon would not (wouldn’t) have said such a thing.
Leon não deveria ter dito tal coisa.
They would not (wouldn’t) have achieved their aims without your help.
Eles não teriam alcançado os objetivos deles sem a sua ajuda.
ii. Interrogative: would + subject + have + main verb:
Would you have helped him if he weren’t so selfish?
Você o teria ajudado se ele não fosse tão egoísta?
Would they have come without you?
Eles teriam vindo sem você?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: would + not + subject + have + main verb:
Wouldn’t we have come? Why?
Não deveríamos ter vindo? Por quê?
Wouldn’t Jacob have gone without enough money?
O Jacob não teria ido sem dinheiro suficiente?
The Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tenses
1. Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Formation: to be (present perfect) + present participle
Example: to keep
Singular
I have been keeping
You have been keeping
He has been keeping
She has been keeping
It has been keeping
Plural
We have been keeping
You have been keeping
They have been keeping
The Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense is used
i. to express actions that started in the past and continues until now:
I have been rehearsing hard all day long.
Estou ensaiando intensamente o dia todo.
She’s been waiting for you for two hours.
Ela está esperando por você há duas horas.
ii. to demonstrate events that are happening in an unspecified period of time:
I’ve been thinking about getting married.
Estou pensando em me casar.
My back hurts, so I’ve been sleeping on the floor.
Minhas costas doem, então estou dormindo no chão.
iii. to refer to an action that may be finished or not, but its effects can be seen now:
Look! It’s been snowing. Let’s go outside and make a snow man.
Olhe! Esteve nevando. Vamos lá para fora e fazer um boneco de neve.
Somebody has been using my laptop. Some files were deleted.
Alguém esteve usando meu laptop. Alguns arquivos foram deletados.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + have/has + not + been + main verb:
She has not (hasn’t) been studying hard since this morning.
Ela não está estudando duro desde esta manhã.
They have not (haven’t) been discussing important issues for the last two hours.
Eles não estão discutindo assuntos importantes nas últimas duas horas.
ii. Interrogative: have/has + subject + been + main verb:
Have you been waiting here for thirty minutes?
Você está esperando aqui há trinta minutos?
Has she been working for the rival company secretly?
Ela está trabalhando para a empresa rival secretamente?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: have/has + not + subject + been + main verb:
Haven’t you been exercising lately?
Você não está se exercitando ultimamente?
Hasn’t the teacher been traveling abroad?
O professor não está viajando para o exterior?
2. Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Formation: to be (past perfect) + present participle
Example: to do
Singular
I had been doing
You had been doing
He had been doing
She had been doing
It had been doing
Plural
We had been doing
You had been doing
They had been doing
The Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense is used
i. to talk about longer events that continued until the moment in the past we are talking about:
Yesterday night his feet were aching because he had been walking all day long.
Ontem à noite, os pés dele estavam doloridos porque ele esteve caminhando o dia todo.
By the time we left Spain, we had been working for a huge company for five years.
Quando deixamos a Espanha, estivemos trabalhando para uma grande empresa por cinco anos.
ii. to indicate how long an event occurred in the past:
Jackie had been reading that book for two weeks.
Jackie leu/esteve lendo aquele livro por duas semanas.
I’d been dancing for a long time when Penny entered the room.
Eu estive dançando por um bom tempo quando a Penny entrou na sala.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + had + not + been + main verb:
Don’t lie to me! I know you had not (hadn’t) been studying for three hours.
Não mintam pra mim! Eu sei que vocês não estiveram estudando por três horas.
They had not (hadn’t) been arguing for over an hour.
Elas não estiveram discutindo por mais de uma hora.
ii. Interrogative: had + subject + been + main verb:
Had they been living here for five years?
Eles estiveram morando aqui por cinco anos?
Had they been shopping for the last three hours?
Elas estiveram fazendo compras nas últimas três horas?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: had + not + subject + been + main verb:
Hadn’t you been jogging for more than an hour before meeting me?
Você não esteve correndo por mais de uma hora antes de me encontrar?
Hadn’t they been living in the countryside?
Eles não estiveram morando no campo?
3. Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Formation: to be (future perfect) + present participle
Example: to wait
Singular
I will have been waiting
You will have been waiting
He will have been waiting
She will have been waiting
It will have been waiting
Plural
We will have been waiting
You will have been waiting
They will have been waiting
The Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense is used to express actions that will continue up until a
particular event or time in the future.
We will have been waiting for more than three hours when his plane finally arrives.
Nós teremos esperado por mais de duas horas quando o avião dela finalmente chegar.
They’ll have been studying for more than two hours until we get there.
Eles terão estudado por mais de duas horas até chegarmos lá.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + will + not + have been + main verb:
She will not (won’t) have been sleeping more than three hours.
Ela não terá dormido por mais de três horas.
I will not (won’t) have been playing chess for even half an hour when you show up there.
Eu não terei jogado xadrez nem sequer por meia hora quando você aparecer lá.
ii. Interrogative: will + subject + have been + main verb:
Will you have been studying for eight years when you graduate?
Vocês terão estudado por oito anos quando se formarem?
Will Júnior have been rehearsing for at least a month before the performance?
O Júnior terá ensaiado por pelo menos um mês antes da apresentação?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: will + not + subject + have been + main verb:
Won’t they have been practicing more than you?
Eles não terão treinado mais do que você?
Won’t you have been working for a fortnight continuously before your trip?
Você não terá trabalhado por duas semanas ininterruptamente antes de sua viagem?
4. Conditional Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Formation: to be (conditional perfect) + present participle
Example: to live
Singular
I would have been living
You would have been living
He would have been living
She would have been living
It would have been living
Plural
We would have been living
You would have been living
They would have been living
The Conditional Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense is used to express events that would be taking
place in a hypothetical past.
If he hadn’t got a good job in Las Vegas, she would have been living in the countryside yet.
Se ele não tivesse conseguido um bom emprego em Las Vegas, ele ainda estaria a morar/estaria
morando no campo.
If I hadn’t been feeling ill yesterday, I would have been traveling.
Se eu não tivesse me sentido mal ontem, eu estaria a viajar/estaria viajando.
Negative and Question Forms
i. Negative: subject + would + not + have been + main verb:
Alan would not (wouldn’t) have been sharing a condo with us even if he had money.
Alan não estaria a dividir/dividindo um apartamento conosco mesmo se tivesse dinheiro.
I would not (wouldn’t) have been driving so slowly if the brakes had been fixed.
Eu não estaria a dirigir/dirigindo tão devagar se os freios tivessem sido consertados.
ii. Interrogative: would + subject + have been + main verb:
Would you have been working with your unbearable uncle?
Você estaria a trabalhar/trabalhando com seu tio insuportável?
Would Regina have been supporting us if we had asked her?
A Regina estaria a nos apoiar/nos apoiando se nós tivéssemos pedido a ela?
iii. Interrogative-Negative: would + not + subject + have been + main verb:
Wouldn’t we have been spending our time?
Não estaríamos a perder/perdendo nosso tempo?
Wouldn’t Heather have been performing better even if she had practiced more?
A Heather não estaria a se apresentar/se apresentando melhor se tivesse ensaiado mais?
Practice
Earth Cries
By Jean “Binta” Breeze – 2000
She doesn’t cry for water
She runs rivers deep
She doesn’t cry for good
She has suckled trees
She doesn’t cry for clothing
She weaves all that she wears
She doesn’t cry for shelter
She grows thatch everywhere
She doesn’t cry for children
She’s got more than she can bear
She doesn’t cry for heaven
She knows it’s always there
You don’t know why she’s crying
When she’s got everything
How could you know she’s crying
For just one humane being
http://www.poetryarchive.org/
1. Considering the underlined verbs, mark the correct sequence of the verb tenses:
a) Simple Present – Past Perfect – Simple Present – Present Perfect – Present Continuous
b) Simple Present – Present Perfect – Simple Present – Present Perfect – Present Continuous
c) Simple Present – Present Perfect – Simple Present – Past Perfect – Present Continuous
d) Simple Past – Present Perfect – Simple Present – Present Perfect – Present Perfect Continuous
e) Present Progressive – Past Perfect – Simple Present – Past Perfect – Present Perfect Continuous
Answer: B
2. Mark the correct sequence:
a) run – ran – ran
b) grow – grew – grow
c) bear – born – born
d) weave – wove – woven
e) get – gotten – got
Answer: D
3. In the excerpt below:
President Barack Obama has approved a significant troop increase for Afghanistan, Pentagon officials
said Tuesday. The new troop deployment is expected to include 8,000 Marines from Camp Lejeune, North
Carolina, as well as 4,000 additional Army troops from Fort Lewis, Washington.
http://www.cnn.com/
a) there are two different verb tenses.
b) there is no auxiliary verb.
c) there are only regular verbs.
d) there are only irregular verbs.
e) there is only one verb tense.
Answer: A
4. Fill in the text below with the correct sequence of verb tenses:
Chelsea boss Carlo Ancelotti is ready to swoop for Brazilian ace Kaka and Liverpool’s Fernando
Torres in an amazing £ 100 million double transfer coup. The double-winning Stamford Bridge chief
__________ Roman Abramovich that he __________ to get his cheque-book out this summer for a swoop
that __________ Blues red-hot favourites for the title – and the Champions League.
Adapted from http://www.people.co.uk/
a) has persuaded – needs – make
b) has persuaded – need – will make
c) has persuaded – needs – will make
d) had persuaded – need – make
e) had persuaded – needs – will to make
Answer: C
5. Fill in the gaps correctly:
We __________ our oceans to death at taxpayers’ expense. In the wake of this unprecedented crisis,
trade ministers __________ a historic move and included fisheries subsidies on the agenda of the current
World Trade Organization’s Doha round of trade talks. This __________ the first time that conservation
concerns, specifically the problem of global overfishing and its implications on economic development
and world trade, __________ in the launch of a specific negotiation.
a) were fishing – made – represent – had resulted
b) were fishing – makes – represent – have resulted
c) are fishing – made – represents – has resulted
d) are fishing – makes – represents – have resulted
e) are fishing – made – represents – have resulted
Answer: E
6. Which option does not complete the sentence correctly?
By the time we __________ there, they __________.
a) get – will have already left
b) get – will have already gone away
c) arrive – won’t have left yet
d) show up – will have ever left
e) show up – won’t have left yet
Answer: D
7. Fill in the text with the instructions below:
I. The Simple Past Tense of to call
II. The Present Perfect Tense of to have
III. The Past Progressive Tense of to make
IV. The Past Progressive Tense of to develop
V. The Simple Conditional Tense of to make
During the same 24 hours that BenQ __________ [I] it quits on the digital camera market, Kodak _____
reportedly _____ [II] similar thoughts when eying its low-end camera lineup. According to CNET, Kodak
President Antonio Perez shared that the firm would be “abandoning the low-end of the digital camera
business” at the JPMorgan Technology Conference in Boston. He also added that while the company
“__________ [III] much money” in that segment, it __________ [IV] its own five-megapixel CMOS
sensor to be used in a (presumably mid-range) Kodak-branded digicam. More interesting, however, was
the addition that this very sensor _____ also _____ [V] its way into “several Motorola cell phones by the
end of the year.” Unsurprisingly, Mr. Perez fairly tight-lipped about any further details on the deal, but it’s
about time we saw something more advanced than a grainy 1.3-megapixel ​shooter built into mainstream
handsets.
a) called – has ... had – weren’t making – were developing – would ... make
b) called – has ... had – wasn’t making – was developing – would ... make
c) called – has ... have – wasn’t made – was developing – would ... make
d) had called – has ... had – wasn’t making – had been developing – would ... make
e) had called – has ... had – wasn’t making – was developing – would ... made
Answer: B
8. Fill in the gap meaningfully:
They __________ a baby in the spring.
a) are going to have
b) went to have
c) will have been
d) shall have
e) were having
Answer: A
9. I__________ him to move his car but he __________ he __________.
a) ask – said – wouldn’t
b) asked – said – won’t
c) asked – said – wouldn’t
d) ask – say – won’t
Answer: C
10. They __________ that new jeans, but they __________ money enough.
a) would have bought – hadn’t
b) would have bought – didn’t have
c) will have bought – didn’t have
d) would have bought – haven’t
e) will have bought – haven’t
Answer: B
11. She’s __________ all day long. Why __________ she __________ a break?
a) been working – don’t … take
b) being working – don’t … take
c) been working – doesn’t … takes
d) being working – doesn’t … take
e) been working – doesn’t … take
Answer: E
12. (ITA) A frase “I never came across such a set in all my life” foi extraída de “Three
Men in a Boat”, escrito por Jerome K. Jerome em 1889.
No seu entender:
a) A frase não apresenta restrição gramatical.
b) “I have never come across...” teria sido uma melhor opção gramatical.
c) “I have never came across...” teria sido uma melhor opção gramatical.
d) “I never come across...” teria sido uma melhor opção gramatical.
e) “I am never coming across...” teria sido uma melhor opção gramatical.
Answer: B
13. Hey, my friend. It __________ a long time.
a) been
b) has been
c) is been
d) have been
e) has being
Answer: B
14. The Present Perfect Tense is being used in:
a) They have been working hard all night long.
b) She had been cleaning the house for half an hour when we arrived.
c) I had arrived at the airport before the plane had left.
d) She had already done the exercises when the teacher asked her.
e) You look as if you’ve just seen a monster.
Answer: E
15. The sentence “Você já esteve na Holanda?” in English becomes:
a) Have you already been in the Netherlands?
b) Have you ever been to the Netherlands?
c) Had you already been in Netherlands?
d) Had you ever been in the Netherlands?
e) Would you have been to the Netherlands?
Answer: B
16. Complete the dialogue:
“Why didn’t Kyra want to go to Barcelona with you?”
“Because she __________.”
a) have already been there
b) has already been there
c) was there already
d) already gone there
e) has already gone there
Answer: B
17. __________ you open the window, please?
a) May
b) Need
c) Shall
d) Will
Answer: D
18. Whenever I see her she __________.
a) has drunk
b) drank
c) is drinking
d) was drinking
e) was drunk
Answer: C
19. Fill in the gaps correctly:
Speaking at a White House news conference, Obama __________ he __________ Japan Prime Minister
Naoto Kan that the United States is prepared to send whatever assistance Japan __________. Tsunami
waves _____ also _____ Hawaii beaches and grazed the West Coast. Obama __________ that his
administration __________ the impact of the tsunami on the U.S. closely.
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/
a) said – told – requests – have … swamped – says – is monitoring
b) told – said – requests – have … swamped – says – is monitoring
c) said – told – requests – have … swampt – says – is monitoring
d) said – said – requests – have … swamped – tells – are monitoring
e) told – said – request – have … swampt – tells – are monitoring
Answer: A
20. The underlined verb in the text of the question above is in the:
a) Simple Past Tense.
b) Present Perfect Tense.
c) Past Perfect Tense.
d) Past Participle Tense.
e) Past Progressive Tense.
Answer: B
Main Irregular Verbs List

Infinitive Translation(s) Past Simple Past Participle

Arise Surgir, levantar-se, ocorrer arose arisen

Awake Acordar, despertar, ficar consciente (de) awoke awoken

Be Ser, estar was/were been

Beat Bater, derrotar, superar beat beaten

Become Tornar-se became become

Begin Começar began begun

Bend Dobrar(-se), curvar(-se) bent bent

Bet Apostar (em) bet bet

Bid Oferecer (lance em leilão), orçar, dar preço bid bid

Bite Morder, picar bit bitten


Blow Soprar, ventar blew blown

Break Bater (recorde), quebrar(-se), romper(-se) broke broken

Bring Trazer brought brought

Broadcast Transmitir, espalhar, divulgar broadcast broadcast

Build Construir, edificar built built

Burst Estourar, rebentar, transbordar burst burst

Buy Comprar, acreditar, ir na conversa bought bought

Catch Apanhar, pegar, despertar (interesse) caught caught

Choose Escolher, preferir, decidir chose chosen

Come Vir, chegar came come

Cost Custar cost cost

Creep Rastejar, arrastar(-se), engatinhar crept crept

Cut Cortar, reduzir, magoar cut cut

Deal Negociar, distribuir, traficar dealt dealt

Dig Cavar, escavar dug dug

Do Fazer, executar, efetuar, fazer uso de did done

Draw Desenhar, tirar, sacar, atrair (interesse) drew drawn

Drink Beber drank drunk

Drive Dirigir, levar/ir (de carro) drove driven

Eat Comer, alimentar(-se) ate eaten

Fall Cair, baixar, ocorrer fell fallen

Feed Alimentar, dar de comer, suprir, fornecer fed fed

Feel Sentir(-se), achar, pensar (de) felt felt

Fight Lutar, brigar, combater, lutar contra fought fought


Find Achar, encontrar, descobrir, ficar sabendo found found

Flee Fugir (de) fled fled

Fly Voar, viajar de avião, pilotar flew flown

Forbid Proibir forbade, forbad forbidden

Forget Esquecer(-se) de forgot forgotten

Forgive Perdoar forgave forgiven

Freeze Congelar, fazer muito frio, paralisar froze frozen

Get Obter, conseguir, ganhar, chegar a, pegar got got

Give Dar, ofertar, presentear, doar, fornecer gave given

Go Ir, andar, mover(-se), sair, partir went gone/been

Grow Crescer, plantar, cultivar grew grown

Hang Pendurar, pender, ficar pendurado hung hung

Have Ter, possuir, tomar, receber had had

Hear Ouvir, escutar heard heard

Hide Esconder(-se), ocultar(-se) hid hidden

Hit Bater em, agredir, chocar-se com, atingir hit hit

Hold Segurar, manter(-se), ter, realizar held held

Hurt Machucar, ferir, magoar, causar danos a hurt hurt

Keep Manter, guardar, ficar com, cumprir kept kept

Kneel Ajoelhar-se knelt knelt

Know Saber, conhecer knew known

Lay Pôr, colocar, instalar laid laid

Lead Levar, conduzir, guiar, liderar led led

Leave Deixar, sair de, partir, largar, abandonar left left


Lend Emprestar lent lent

Let Deixar, permitir let let

Lie Deitar-se, situar-se, jazer lay lain

Light Acender(-se), iluminar(-se) lit lit

Lose Perder, não ter mais lost lost

Make Fazer, construir, fabricar, produzir, criar made made

Mean Significar, querer dizer, ter a intenção de meant meant

Meet Encontrar-se com, conhecer, reunir-se met met

Mistake Compreender mal mistook mistaken

Pay Pagar, compensar paid paid

Put Pôr, colocar, expressar, propor put put

Quit Parar de, deixar de, largar, abandonar, sair quit, quitted quit, quitted

Read Ler, estudar, descobrir o significado de read read*

Ride Montar em, andar de rode ridden

Ring Tocar, fazer soar, tilintar, ressoar rang rung

Rise Subir, aumentar, surgir, levantar-se rose risen

Run Correr, organizar, administrar, executar ran run

Say Dizer said said

See Ver, enxergar, observar, compreender saw seen

Seek Procurar, buscar, solicitar, tentar sought sought

Sell Vender, fazer aceitar sold sold

Send Enviar, mandar, remeter sent sent

Set Pôr, situar, fixar, estabelecer, marcar set set

Sew Coser, costurar sewed sewn, sewed


Shake Tremer, sacudir(-se), agitar(-se), chocar shook shaken

Shine Brilhar, reluzir, sobressair, iluminar shone shone

Shoot Atirar, disparar, balear, filmar shot shot

Show Mostrar, apresentar, exibir showed shown

Shrink Encolher(-se), diminuir, reduzir(-se) shrank, shrunk shrunk

Shut Fechar(-se) shut shut

Sing Cantar sang sung

Sink Afundar, baixar, cair, cravar, investir sank, sunk sunk

Sit Sentar(-se), situar-se, ficar, posar sat sat

Sleep Dormir, alojar slept slept

Slide Deslizar, escorregar, esgueirar-se slid slid

Speak Falar spoke spoken

Spend Gastar, passar spent spent

Spit Cuspir spat spat

Split Rachar(-se), partir(-se), dividir(-se) split split

Spread Espalhar(-se), difundir, propagar spread spread

Spring Saltar, pular, aparecer de repente sprang sprung

Stand Estar/ficar de pé, levantar-se, suportar stood stood

Steal Roubar stole stolen

Stick Furar, espetar, emperrar stuck stuck

Sting Picar, atormentar, arder, explorar stung stung

Stink Feder, cheirar mal stank, stunk stunk

Strike Bater (em), chocar-se com, fazer greve struck struck, stricken

Swear Xingar, jurar swore sworn


Sweep Varrer swept swept

Swim Nadar swam swum

Swing Balançar(-se), pender swung swung

Take Tomar, pegar, levar, aceitar, suportar took taken

Teach Ensinar, lecionar taught taught

Tear Rasgar(-se), distender, precipitar-se tore torn

Tell Dizer a, contar a told told

Think Pensar, achar, imaginar, refletir thought thought

Throw Jogar, arremessar, atirar threw thrown

Understand Entender, compreender, supor understood understood

Wake Acordar, despertar woke woken

Wear Usar, desgastar-se wore worn

Weep Chorar, prantear-se wept wept

Win Vencer, ganhar, obter won won

Write Escrever, compor wrote written


PRONOUNS II

Demonstrative Pronouns
i. this | these:
Used to indicate something near in distance.
Can you sign this contract for me?
Você pode assinar este contrato pra mim?
I think this is the most accurate watch I’ve ever worn.
Acho que este é o relógio mais preciso que eu já usei.
These are friends of mine, Johnny and Roberta.
Estes são uns amigos meus, Johnny e Roberta.
These containers are too heavy for you to carry alone, let me help you.
Estes recipientes são muito pesados para você carregá-los sozinho, deixe-me ajudá-lo.
ii. that | those:
Used to indicate something far in distance.
Is that the girl you told me about?
Aquela é a garota sobre a qual você me falou?
What’s that in your hand?
O que é isso em sua mão?
How much are those tuxedos?
Quanto custam aqueles smokings?
Bring those books over there for me, please.
Traga esses livros aí pra mim, por favor.
Notes:
i. The demonstratives can work as contextual referents.
I love Radiohead’s OK Computer. This is one of the best albums of history!
Eu adoro OK Computer do Radiohead. Este é um dos melhores álbuns da história!
The banks decided to join forces. That is an important initiative to help solving the eco​nomic crisis of
the country.
Os bancos decidiram unir forças. Essa é uma importante iniciativa para ajudar a resolver a crise
econômica do País.

ii. That may be used to emphasize the word much.


I don’t like wine that much.
Eu não gosto tanto assim de vinho.
iii. This and that may work as intensity adverbs.
She’s not that bad as you think.
Ela não é tão má quanto você acha.
Orlando has never been this late for school before.
Orlando nunca esteve tão atrasado para a escola antes.
iv. This is used to indicate the current time and the place where the speaker is located.
This year will be full of achievements.
Este ano será cheio de realizações.
This building is really very old. It needs some repairs.
Este prédio é muito velho. Ele precisa de alguns reparos.
v. The use of the demonstrative pronouns in idioms is very common.
This far
Até aqui, tão longe
This is it
Chegou a hora, é isso aí
This/that one | these/those ones
Este(s) aqui | esse(s) aqui
These days
Nos dias de hoje, atualmente
Those days
Antigamente
And that’s that
E fim de papo
That’s it
Pra mim chega
At that
Por sinal
Just like that
Assim, sem mais nem menos
So that
Para que, de modo que
That’s why
Por isso
That is
Isto é
I’ve never walked this far.
Eu nunca havia caminhado até aqui.
This is it, my plane will take off.
Chegou a hora, meu avião irá decolar.

These days we cannot go out alone anymore.


Nos dias de hoje não se pode mais sair sozinho.
She is an actress, and a very good one at that.
Ela é atriz, e muito boa por sinal.
That’s why I didn’t want to come, he is drunk again.
Por isso eu não queria vir, ele está bêbado de novo.
Interrogative Pronouns
Also known as question words, they can be the first elements of an interrogative sentence​, since they
are used before the auxiliary verbs.
What Which When
Where Who Whom
Why Whose How
What kind of music do you like?
Que tipo de música você gosta?
What happened after I left?
O que aconteceu depois que eu saí?
Which party would you prefer to go to – Anna’s or Ian’s?
A qual festa você preferiria ir – a da Anna ou a do Ian?
Which is mine? The smaller one?
Qual é o meu? O menor?
Whose is this bag?
De quem é esta bolsa?
Whose laptop is that?
De quem é esse laptop?
When are you going to leave?
Quando você irá partir?
When’s the baby due?
Para quando é o bebê?
Now where did I put my glasses?
Agora onde coloquei meus óculos?
Where’s the party being held?
Onde a festa está sendo realizada?
Why did you choose to live in London?
Por que você optou por morar em Londres?
Why wait? Let’s leave now.
Por que esperar? Vamos partir agora.
Who are all those people?
Quem são todas essas pessoas?
Who can tell what will happen now?
Quem pode dizer o que acontecerá agora?
Who/Whom are you looking at?
Para quem você está olhando?
At whom are you looking?
Para quem você está olhando?
How do we get to the town from here?
Como chegamos daqui ao centro da cidade?
How did you hear about the concert?
Como você ficou sabendo do concerto?
Notes:
i. Despite what and which have the same meaning, which must be used when there are options.
What is the best film of history for you?
Qual é o melhor filme sobre história pra você?
What DVD are you considering to buy?
Qual DVD você está pensando em comprar?
Which of those DVDs are you considering to buy?
Qual destes DVDs você está pensando em comprar?
Which one would you choose?
Qual você escolheria?
ii. What, which, who and whose may act as subjects.
What caused the accident?
O que causou o acidente?
Who came for dinner?
Quem veio para o jantar?
Whose dog barks all the time?
De quem é esse cachorro que não para de latir?
Which computer costs more, mine or yours?
Qual computador custa mais, o meu ou o seu?
iii. The structure how + adjective is widely used.
How old is your daughter?
Quantos anos sua filha tem?
How far is it from your house to the mall?
Qual a distância da sua casa ao shopping?
How tall is your brother?
Qual a altura do seu irmão?
How high is the ceiling?
Qual a altura do telhado?
How wide is the river in the city center?
Qual a largura do rio no centro da cidade?

How heavy is that box?


Qual o peso dessa/daquela caixa?
How long is this river?
Qual o comprimento deste rio?
How long are you going to be in the Netherlands?
Por quanto tempo você ficará na Holanda?
How deep is this well?
Qual a profundidade deste poço?
How much do you want to bet this time he’ll arrive late again?
Quanto você quer apostar que desta vez ele se atrasará novamente?
How many students are there in each class?
Quantos alunos há em cada sala?
iv. What and how have some applications that deserve attention.
What ... for
Para que, por que
What + be ... like
Como é
What/How about
Que tal, e quanto
How do you like
Qual a sua opinião sobre, você gostaria de
How do you do?
Como vai (você)?
What is this device for?
Para que serve este dispositivo?
What is he/she like?
Como ele(a) é?
What about a Coke?
Que tal uma Coca-Cola?
How about a cinema tonight?
Que tal um cinema hoje à noite?
I’m not surprised she shouted at you! How do you like to be pushed into a wall?
Não me surpreende ela ter gritado com você. Você gostaria de ser empurrado contra uma
parede?
How do you do? I’m John Applebee.
Como vai? Eu sou John Applebee.
v. The interrogatives are also used in indirect and embedded questions.
I wonder to know where they have been.
Gostaria de saber onde eles estiveram.
Could you tell me who your Math teacher is?
Poderia me dizer quem é seu professor de matemática?
Relative Pronouns
Used to introduce defining/restrictive and non-defining/non-restrictive relative clauses.
i. Defining/restrictive relative clauses:
Used to specify the referent of the relative pronoun.
The kids who were hurt in the accident are now in hospital.
As crianças que foram feridas no acidente estão agora no hospital.
The woman whom I saw yesterday was Mrs. Parker.
A mulher que eu vi ontem era a Sra. Parker.
The laptop which is on the desk is mine.
O laptop que está sobre a escrivaninha é meu.
My sister that lives in Mexico is named Anna.
Minha irmã que mora no México chama-se Anna.
Where is the driver whose car is blocking the entrance to the condo?
Onde está o motorista cujo carro está bloqueando a entrada do condomínio?
ii. Non-defining/non-restrictive relative clauses:
Used to give additional information about the referent of the relative pronoun. They are always
separated by comma from the main clause.
“The investments must be improved”, said Professor Gregory, who is an expert in IT.
“Os investimentos precisam ser melhorados”, disse o professor Gregory, que é especialista em TI.
The Smiths, whom I met yesterday, do volunteer work at the neighborhood.
Os Smiths, com quem eu encontrei ontem, fazem trabalho voluntário no bairro.
That book, which is the sci-fi novel I was reading, was the one I meant for you to take with you.
Aquele livro, que é o romance de ficção científica que eu estava lendo, foi o que eu mencionei para
você levar com você.
The band, whose contract will expire next month, will probably have to look for another place to
perform.
A banda, cujo contrato expirará no mês que vem, provavelmente terá que procurar outro lugar para
se apresentar.
Note: the relative pronoun that cannot be used in non-defining/non-restrictive relative clauses.
Relative Pronouns Application

i. who:
Refers to people and works as subject and object. It can be replaced by that and omitted (Ø) in
defining/restrictive relative clauses when object.
The other people who/that live in the hostel are really friendly.
As outras pessoas que moram no albergue são realmente amigáveis.
The kids who/that are in the lab are the best of our school.
Os garotos que estão no laboratório são os melhores de nossa escola.
The girl who/that/Ø he fell in love left him a few days ago.
A garota por quem ele se apaixonou o deixou há alguns dias.
The woman who/that/Ø I was sitting next to on the bus talked all the time on the cell phone.
A mulher perto da qual eu estava sentada no ônibus falava o tempo todo ao celular.
Peter, who was a friend of the family, has gone recently.
Peter, que era um amigo da família, faleceu recentemente.
Jean-Paul Sartre, who had a doctorate in philosophy, was an exponent of atheistic existentialism.
Jean-Paul Sartre, que possuía doutorado em filosofia, foi um expoente do existencialismo ateísta.
ii. whom:
Refers to people and works as object. It can be replaced by that and omitted (Ø) in defining/restrictive
relative clauses.
I told you! The man whom/that/Ø we saw yesterday was the lead singer of Snow Patrol.
Eu lhe disse! O homem que nós vimos ontem era o vocalista do Snow Patrol.
The fireman whom/that/Ø we have to interview is a local hero.
O bombeiro que nós temos que entrevistar é um herói local.
Dr. Perkins, whom we met at a conference in Canada last year, will come to lecture in our college.
O Dr. Perkins, com quem nós encontramos em uma conferência no Canadá ano passado, virá
ministrar uma palestra em nossa faculdade.
My sister, whom you once met, is visiting us next week.
Minha irmã, que você encontrou uma vez, nos visitará semana que vem.
iii. which:
Refers to things and animals, and works as subject and object. It can be replaced by that and omitted
(Ø) in defining/restrictive relative clauses when object (except in non-defining/non-restrictive relative
clauses).
Where are the hamburgers which/that were in the grill?
Onde estão os hambúrgueres que estavam no grill?
I would like to know the name of the horse which/that won the race.
Eu gostaria de saber o nome do cavalo que ganhou a corrida.
The book which/that/Ø you want is in the library.
O livro que você quer está na biblioteca.
Did you see the movie which/that/Ø I recommended?
Você viu o filme que recomendei?
The house at the end of the street, which has been empty for two years, has just been sold.
A casa do final da rua, que ficou vazia por dois anos, acaba de ser vendida.
The dog, which we fed yesterday, was run over and died.
O cachorro, que nós alimentamos ontem, foi atropelado e morreu.
iv. whose:
Refers to people, things and animals, and establishes genitive relationships (possession, authorship,
kinship, friendship etc.). It can never be replaced or omitted.
There was a picture in the paper of a woman wearing sunglasses whose face looked very familiar.
Havia uma foto no jornal de uma mulher usando óculos escuros cujo rosto era muito familiar.
The dog whose leg is broken is mine.
O cachorro cuja perna está quebrada é meu.
The band, whose album was released last week, will make a worldwide tour next semester.
A banda, cujo álbum foi lançado na semana passada, fará uma turnê mundial no semestre que vem.
The writer, whose sister has mysteriously died, became a wealthy woman.
A escritora, cuja irmã morreu misteriosamente, tornou-se uma mulher rica.
Notes:
i. After prepositions, only whom, which and whose can be used and the omission cannot be done.
The plumber for whom I was waiting didn’t show up.
O encanador pelo qual eu estava esperando não apareceu.
Politics isn’t a subject to which I devote a great deal of thought.
A política não é um assunto ao qual eu dedique muita atenção.
The painter about whose pictures we have been discussing will come to our city.
O pintor sobre cujas obras nós temos discutido virá à nossa cidade.
ii. The pronoun that is mandatorily used when the referent is: preceded by an adjective in the
superlative form or expressions as the first, the only, the one etc.; composed by person + animal/thing
or represented by temporal expressions as the day, the year, the time etc. Its omission may occur
when it acts as object.
This is the best hotel that/Ø I have ever stayed in.
Este é o melhor hotel que eu já me hospedei.
She is the only girl that deserves my eternal love.
Ela é a única garota que merece meu amor eterno.
During his career, he wrote about the things and the people that/Ø he loved.
Durante a carreira, ele escreveu sobre as coisas e as pessoas que amava.
The guard dogs and the policemen that invaded the captivity rescued the hostage.
Os cães de guarda e os policiais que invadiram o cativeiro resgataram o refém.
The last time that/Ø I saw him, he was sick.
A última vez que o vi, ele estava doente.
iii. After expressions as all of, most of, none of, some of, both of, half of, many of, one of etc. only the
pronouns whom and which may be used and the omission cannot occur.
I have three sisters, all of whom are married.
Eu tenho três irmãs, todas são casadas.
They have two grown children, both of whom are engineers.
Eles têm dois filhos já grandes, ambos são engenheiros.
iv. Other words can be used as relative pronouns: where, when, why etc.
The building where (= in which) he lives in is very old.
O prédio onde (= no qual) ele mora é muito velho.

I’ll never forget the day when (= on which) I met her.


Eu nunca esquecerei o dia quando (= no qual) eu a conheci.
The reason why (= for which/that) I didn’t write to you was that I didn’t have your e-mail address.
A razão por que (= pela qual) eu não lhe escrevi foi que eu não tinha seu e-mail.
Indefinite Pronouns
Used to talk about people, things, places or quantities not specified.
i. some:
Used in affirmatives in general and in interrogatives that express request or offer.
Here are some gadgets you may be interested in.
Aqui estão algumas engenhocas nas quais você pode se interessar.
We had some problems with our neighbors over the last few weeks.
Nós tivemos alguns problemas com nossos vizinhos durante as últimas semanas.
Could you give me some idea to my new book?
Você poderia me dar uma ideia para o meu novo livro?
Some thirty people died during the explosions.
Aproximadamente trinta pessoas morreram durante as explosões.
Note: the main compound forms are somebody, someone, something e somewhere.
Somebody must have witnessed the accident.
Alguém deve ter testemunhado o que aconteceu.
Someone in the audience shouted word orders against the mayor.
Alguém na plateia gritou palavras de ordem contra o prefeito.
There is something annoying him, I feel it.
Há algo o incomodando, eu sinto.
Would you like to go to somewhere tonight?
Você gostaria de ir a algum lugar esta noite?
ii. any:
Used in negatives, interrogatives (that do not express request or offer) and affirmatives (meaning not
important which or introduced by if or unless).
I haven’t seen any of his films.
Eu não vi nenhum dos filmes dele.
There was hardly any food left by the time we got there.
Não havia mais quase nenhuma comida quando chegamos lá.
Are you sure there isn’t any way of solving this situation?
Tem certeza de que não há outra maneira de resolver esta situação?
Any of you should be able to answer this question.
Qualquer um de vocês deveria ser capaz de responder a esta pergunta.
If any of my friends rings for me, please tell him I’ll be back at 4 o’clock.
Se algum dos meus amigos ligar, diga que estarei de volta às 4 horas.
Unless you have any news, don’t call me.
A menos que tenha alguma novidade, não me ligue.
Note: the main compound forms are anybody, anyone, anything e anywhere.
I haven’t spoken to anybody all day.
Não havia falado com ninguém o dia todo.
Was there anyone you knew at the party?
Havia algum conhecido na festa?
If he eats anything with milk in it, he gets ill.
Se ele comer qualquer coisa que contenha leite, ele adoece.
Did you go anywhere interesting this weekend?
Você foi a algum lugar interessante neste fim de semana?
iii. no:
Used in sentences in which the negative sense is attributed by the own indefinite pronoun.
There is no room for my new armchair in my hall.
Não há espaço para minha poltrona nova em minha sala.
That’s what I want for my life – work with no worries.
Isto é o que eu quero para a minha vida – trabalhar sem preocupações.
Didn’t you see the notice on the wall? It says, “No smoking”.
Você não viu o aviso na parede? Está escrito: “Proibido fumar”.
Note: the main compound forms are none, nobody, no one, nothing e nowhere.
She went to the shop in order to get some raisins but they had none (= no raisins).
Ela foi à loja para comprar algumas passas, mas eles não tinham nenhuma.
Nobody agreed with him during the summit.
Ninguém concordou com ele durante a reunião.
I’d like to go to the concert but no one else wants to.
Eu gostaria de ir ao concerto, mas ninguém queria ir.
He is very sad, nothing you could say would cheer him up.
Ele está muito triste, nada que você pudesse dizer iria alegrá-lo.
Nowadays the old people have nowhere to go.
Atualmente, os idosos não têm para onde ir.
iv. every:
Used in negative, interrogative and affirmative sentences.
His new talk-show will be broadcast every weekday between 7 and 8 pm.
O novo talk-show dele será transmitido todo dia entre 19 e 20 horas.
Every time I go to New York I get caught in a traffic jam.
Toda vez que vou a Nova Iorque fico preso no engarrafamento.
This restaurant does not open every weekend.
Este restaurante não abre todo final de semana.
Will the police want to interview every employee about the theft?
A polícia vai querer interrogar todos os empregados sobre o roubo?
Note: the main compound forms are everybody, everyone, everything e everywhere.
Everybody wants to rule the world.
Todos querem dominar o mundo.
Everyone who wishes to attend the meeting let me know by tomorrow, please.
Todos que desejam comparecer à reunião me informem até amanhã, por favor.
You can’t blame him for everything.
Você não pode culpá-lo por tudo.
Everywhere looks perfect when I’m with you.
Todos os lugares parecem perfeitos quando estou com você.
Indefinite Relative Pronouns
Work as extensions of the relative pronouns and carry a certain idea of undefinition, since the direct
referent of the pronoun is not known.
The message showed clearly what (= the things that) he was planning.
A mensagem mostrava claramente o que (= as coisas que) ele estava planejando.
She seemed to say whatever came to mind.
Ela parecia dizer tudo aquilo/qualquer coisa que viesse em mente.
Call me up whenever you need something.
Ligue-me sempre que/todas as vezes que você precisar.
With a good education in English, wherever you go, you will have good opportunities.
Com uma boa formação em inglês, em todo lugar que/onde quer que você vá, terá boas
oportunidades.
Whichever option we choose there’ll be disadvantages.
Seja qual for a opção que escolhermos, haverá desvantagens.
They gave tickets to whoever wanted them.
Eles davam ingressos para quem os quisesse. – Function: Subject
You may invite whomever you like to the party.
Você pode convidar quem você quiser para a festa. – Function: Object
You can do it however you like, it really doesn’t matter.
Você pode fazer da maneira que você preferir, isso realmente não importa.
Practice
1. (ITA) “The defenders of Normandy were not the best of Hitler’s army. Those were in
Russia and Italy, as well as in France, but on the other side of the Seine, the Pas-de-
Calais, which the Germans thought the more likely invasion target.”
O pronome demonstrativo “those” faz referência aos:
a) soldados escalados para a defesa da Normandia.
b) soldados soviéticos da Ásia Central.
c) soldados mais adestrados do exército de Hitler.
d) soldados das divisões estacionárias.
e) soldados russos, italianos e franceses.
Answer: C
2. Complete the sentence below correctly:
It was raining cats and dogs, __________ it was raining heavily.
a) this is it
b) that’s why
c) that is
d) these days
Answer: C
3. Choose the best question for this answer:
“He’s about six feet tall, has curly brown hair and weighs about 160 pounds.”
a) How is Jason?
b) What is Jason like?
c) What does Jason look like?
d) What kind of person is Jason?
Answer: B
4. Did you see the cops and the dogs __________ were outside the building?
a) who
b) whom
c) which
d) that
e) whose
Answer: D
5. If you see __________ of the students outside the classroom, bring him/her to my
office.
a) any
b) none
c) someone
d) anyone
e) no one
Answer: A
6. Mark the sentences in which the relative pronoun cannot be omitted.
a) Those were the last words that she spoke to him.
b) I saw a man who had no feet.
c) We heard about some things that you will not believe.
d) They talked about a desert which is spreading very fast.
e) Jorge Amado wrote about the people, places and things that he loved.
Answer: A-C-E
7. Tom tried on three jackets, but __________ fitted him.
a) all of which
b) none of which
c) half of which
d) many of whom
e) some of whom
Answer: B
8. Tidal waves could sweep away __________ of those small islands.
a) any
b) anyhow
c) anyway
d) anytime
e) any time
Answer: A
9. Hardly __________ understood the lecture.
a) anything
b) somebody
c) none
d) someone
e) anybody
Answer: E
10. __________ it was that knocked on the door last night must have been drunk,
because they dropped twenty dollars as they ran away.
a) Whichever
b) Wherever
c) Whatever
d) Whoever
e) Whomever
Answer: D
PREPOSITIONS

Words used before nouns, phrases or pronouns, connecting them to other words in a sentence. They
usually indicate the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of their objects (the elements introduced by
them) to the rest of the sentence.
There was much rejoicing throughout the country when the president was deposed.
Houve muita alegria em todo o país quando o presidente foi deposto.
Our team has not won this tournament since 1990.
Nosso time não ganha este torneio desde 1990.
They decided to talk with the boss about their retirement during the meeting.
Eles decidiram conversar com o chefe sobre a aposentadoria deles durante a reunião.
He did not come to the meeting because he had not prepared his presentation.
Ele não veio para a reunião porque ele não havia preparado a apresentação dele.
Ian and Chris took a romantic walk along the beach before swimming in the sea.
Ian e Chris fizeram uma romântica caminhada pela praia antes de nadar no mar.
Main Prepositions
About

Sobre, a respeito de, cerca de, mais ou menos.


We chatted about the weather.
Nós conversamos sobre o tempo.
I’ve seen a good movie about the Spanish Civil War.
Assisti a um bom filme sobre a Guerra Civil Espanhola.
Above

Acima, acima de.


There’s a Monet hanging above her couch.
Há um Monet pendurado acima do sofá dela.
Is there another classroom above ours?
Há outra sala acima da nossa?
Across

Através de, do outro lado de, por todo o.


The shopping mall is across the street and not on this side.
O shopping é do outro lado da rua e não deste lado.
The elections took place peacefully across the country.
As eleições aconteceram pacificamente por todo o país.
After

Depois de.
Turn the radio off after the news, please.
Desligue o rádio depois do noticiário, por favor.
Can we talk after the class? It’s important.
Podemos conversar depois da aula? É importante.
Against

Contra.
The sea was rough and the waves splashed violently against the rocky wall.
O mar estava agitado, e as ondas chocavam-se violentamente contra a parede rochosa.
You are always against my opinions!
Você é sempre contra as minhas opiniões!
Along

Ao longo de, por, pelo(a).


There are phone booths every 100 m along the street.
Há cabines telefônicas a cada 100 metros ao longo da rua.
That man followed me along the sidewalk.
Aquele homem me seguiu pela calçada.
Among/Amongst | Amid/Amidst

Entre, no meio de (vários).


He’s living in the jungle among/amongst the Indians.
Ele está morando na selva entre os índios.
His new film was launched amid/amidst a huge publicity.
O novo filme dele foi lançado em meio a uma enorme publicidade.
Around/Round

Ao redor de.
Phil was wearing a woollen scarf around his neck.
Phil estava usando um cachecol de lã ao redor do pescoço.
They were running round the house looking for the dog.
Eles estavam correndo ao redor da casa procurando pelo cachorro.
At

Em, no, na, a, à(s), ao(s).


We’ll meet you at the entrance.
Nós lhe encontraremos na entrada.
There’s a meeting at 2.30 this afternoon.
Há uma reunião às 14h30 esta tarde.
She smiled at me before dying.
Ela sorriu para mim antes de morrer.
Why does she ever laugh at my jokes?
Por que ela jamais ri das minhas piadas?
Iraq is a country at war.
O Iraque é um país em guerra.
I was never very good at Geography.
Eu nunca fui muito bom em geografia.
Mason was driving at 120 mph when the police stopped him.
Mason estava dirigindo a 120 milhas por hora quando a polícia o parou.
My e-mail is jfs@hotmail.com. (@ = at)
Meu e-mail é jfs@hotmail.com.
Because of/Due to/Owing to

Devido a, por causa de.


He did not go to the summit because of/due to/owing to the blizzard.
Ele não foi para a reunião devido à/por causa da nevasca.
He will not succeed in his life because of/due to/owing to his laziness.
Ele não terá sucesso na vida devido à/por causa da preguiça dele.
Before

Antes de, diante, perante.


I studied just a few minutes before the exam.
Eu estudei apenas alguns minutos antes da prova.
The police officer was just before him waiting for an answer.
O policial estava bem diante dele esperando uma resposta.
Behind

Atrás de.
There were several people behind me in the line.
Havia várias pessoas atrás de mim na fila.
I was sitting behind you during the test.
Eu estava sentado atrás de você durante o teste.
Below

Abaixo de.
The CEO’s room is just two floors below mine.
A sala do CEO é apenas dois andares abaixo da minha.
It’s too cold today. The temperature must be below 10º.
Está muito frio hoje. A temperatura deve estar abaixo de 10º.
Beneath

Abaixo de, embaixo, sob.


He was wearing a bullet proof vest beneath his jacket.
Ele estava usando um colete à prova de balas sob a jaqueta.
In the army, a major is beneath a colonel.
No exército, a patente de major fica abaixo da de coronel.
Beside

Ao lado de.
Come and sit here beside me.
Venha e sente-se aqui ao meu lado.
Our condo was built right beside the bank where they found a thief inside the safe some years ago.
Nosso condomínio foi construído bem ao lado do banco onde encontraram um ladrão dentro do
cofre há alguns anos.
Besides

Além de.
I have two cars besides three motorcycles.
Eu tenho dois carros além de três motos.
Besides Portuguese, Michel speaks English and German.
Além de português, o Michel fala inglês e alemão.
Between

Entre (dois).
The negotiations between the left and right parties have not succeeded.
As negociações entre os partidos de esquerda e direita não foram bem-sucedidas.
Between the underground garage and the 1st floor there is a ground floor.
Entre a garagem do subsolo e o 1º andar há um piso térreo.
Beyond

Além de, para lá de, fora de.


You’ll find Lahms’ farm beyond those trees.
Você encontrará a fazenda dos Lahms além daquelas árvores.
This issue is beyond comprehension.
Este assunto está além da compreensão.
By

Por, de, perto de, por volta de.


This picture was painted by Fernando.
Este quadro foi pintado pelo Fernando.
Send the documents by e-mail.
Envie os documentos por e-mail.
He never goes to work by car on Fridays.
Ele nunca vai para o trabalho de carro às sextas.
Sit by me during the ceremony.
Sente-se perto de mim durante a cerimônia.
He must arrive by Thursday.
Ele deve chegar por volta de quinta-feira.
Despite/In spite of

Apesar de.
They did not win the game, despite/in spite of their effort.
Eles não venceram o jogo, apesar do esforço deles.
The holiday was awesome, despite/in spite of the bad weather.
O feriado foi ótimo apesar do mau tempo.
During

Durante.
The diplomat will lecture during the congress.
O diplomata palestrará durante o congresso.
There were huge advances in aviation technology during the Second World War.
Houve avanços enormes na tecnologia da aviação durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.
For

Para, por, por causa de, a favor, há.


There’s a message for you in the answering machine.
Há uma mensagem pra você na secretária eletrônica.
I couldn’t see for the heavy rain.
Eu não conseguia enxergar por causa da chuva forte.
This money is for the gas bill.
Este dinheiro é para a conta de gás.
I voted for the government’s proposal.
Eu votei a favor da proposta do governo.
She has been rehearsing for hours.
Ela está ensaiando há/por horas.
From

De, a partir de.


These sunglasses are from Italy.
Estes óculos escuros são da Itália.
Take out this idea from your mind!
Tire essa ideia da cabeça!
The class is from 8 to 11 am.
A aula é de 8 às 11 da manhã.
Gas prices will rise by 5% from next Monday.
Os preços dos combustíveis aumentarão em torno de 5% a partir da próxima segunda-feira.
This mantelpiece is made from mahogany.
Este console é feito de mogno.
He suffers from heart trouble.
Ele sofre de problema cardíaco.
In

Em, no, na, dentro de, a, de.


Is Carol still in bed?
A Carol ainda está de/na cama?
How many eggs are there in the fridge?
Quantos ovos há na geladeira?
What do you have in mind for the weekend?
O que você tem em mente para o final de semana?
She looks nice in black.
Ela fica bem de preto.
Don’t write in pen, use a pencil first.
Não escreva à caneta, use um lápis inicialmente.
The documents were signed in December/in 2010.
Os documentos foram assinados em dezembro/em 2010.
The agreement will be signed in two days.
O acordo deve ser assinado em/dentro de dois dias.
Inside

Dentro de, para dentro de.


There was nobody inside the house when the fire started.
Não havia ninguém dentro da casa quando o incêndio começou.
If you leave now, you can get there inside four hours.
Se vocês saírem agora, vocês conseguirão chegar lá dentro de duas horas.
Into

Para dentro de, para.


Get into this building, it’s beginning to rain.
Entre neste prédio, está começando a chover.
Translate the following texts into English.
Traduza os textos seguintes para o inglês.
What’s 6 into 300?
Quanto dá 300 dividido por 6?
The diplomats are really into an agreement.
Os diplomatas estão realmente interessados em um acordo.
Of

De, a respeito de.


The employees of the company have started a strike.
Os empregados da empresa começaram uma greve.
Thousands of people shouted against the president’s economic measures.
Milhares de pessoas protestaram contra as medidas econômicas do presidente.
He wrote a book of tall stories.
Ele escreveu um livro de histórias fantasiosas.
Talk to that man at the end of the queue.
Fale com aquele homem no final da fila.
I’ll pay you on the first of the month.
Eu lhe pagarei no primeiro dia do mês.
I don’t like wearing blouses of silk.
Eu não gosto de usar blusas de seda.
Off

Longe de, fora de.


We’re still a long way off our destiny.
Nós ainda estamos muito distantes do nosso destino.
Cut a slice of bread off the loaf to eat.
Corte uma fatia de pão para comer.
On

Em, no, na, em cima de, sobre, a respeito de.


Your new laptop has just arrived. It is on your desk.
Seu laptop novo acabou de chegar. Ele está sobre a sua escrivaninha.
Our department will not work on Saturdays this year.
Nosso departamento não funcionará aos sábados este ano.
The teacher was born on December 20th.
O professor nasceu em 20 de dezembro.
I go home on foot/the ferry every day.
Vou a pé/de balsa para casa todo dia.
What’s on television tonight?
O que passa na televisão esta noite?
I’ve already wasted a lot of money on this lemon.
Já gastei muito dinheiro neste carro velho/imprestável.
Wally’s new enterprise is on Windsor Street.
A nova empresa de Wally fica na Rua Windsor.
Her new essay is on the current crisis in the Arab world.
O novo ensaio dela é sobre a atual crise no mundo árabe.
Raymond Jr.’s new film is based on a true story.
O novo filme de Raymond Jr. é baseado em uma história real.
There’s a spider on the wall.
Há uma aranha na parede.
Out
Fora, para fora de.
She took all her clothes out of the chest.
Ela colocou todas as roupas dela fora do baú.
Someone has called you up, but you were out.
Alguém ligou para você, mas você estava fora.
Outside

Fora de, do lado de fora de.


This information was left outside my new résumé.
Esta informação foi deixada de fora do meu novo currículo.
Shall we go outside for a walk?
Vamos lá fora para dar uma caminhada?
Over

Sobre, por cima de, mais que, durante.


A helicopter was dropping pamphlets over the city this morning.
Um helicóptero estava jogando panfletos sobre a cidade esta manhã.
My grandmother likes to wear shawls over her shoulders.
Minha avó gosta de usar xales sobre os ombros.
He had to leap over the wall in order to interview the actress.
Ele teve que pular por cima do muro para entrevistar a atriz.
Most of the books are over $10.
A maioria dos livros custa mais de 10 dólares.
I was in Japan over the earthquakes.
Eu estava no Japão durante os terremotos.
Since

Desde.
They have been working for this company since 1995.
Eles estão trabalhando nesta empresa desde 1995.
I’ve not spoken to her since she moved to Miami.
Eu não falo com ela desde quando ela se mudou para Miami.
Through

Através de, por intermédio de, pelo.


We drove through the desert without stopping.
Nós passamos pelo deserto sem parar.
They improved the quality of the food through genetic engineering.
Eles melhoraram a qualidade dos alimentos por intermédio da engenharia genética.
Throughout

Por todo o, em todo o.


People throughout the country lost their houses.
Pessoas por todo o país perderam suas casas.
I was very tired that’s why I slept throughout the lecture.
Eu estava muito cansado, por isso dormi durante toda a palestra.
To

Para, ao(s), à(s).


They went to Australia after the honeymoon.
Eles foram para a Austrália depois da lua de mel.
To be honest, I don’t like Chopin that much. I prefer Bach.
Para ser honesto, eu não gosto tanto assim de Chopin. Eu prefiro Bach.
I lent five thousand dollars to my best friend.
Eu emprestei cinco mil dólares para o meu melhor amigo.
People in Africa still starve to death.
Pessoas na África ainda morrem de fome/passam fome até morrer.
It’s almost ten seconds to midnight, let’s start the countdown!
Faltam quase dez segundos para a meia-noite, vamos começar a contagem regressiva.
Toward(s)

Em direção a, para, para com, em relação a, a favor de.


After he swerved off to the right, the car went toward the river.
Depois que ele desviou para a direita, o carro foi em direção ao rio.
That new magazine is biased toward the government.
Essa nova revista é tendenciosa a favor do governo.
They’re saving money towards a new apartment.
Eles estão economizando dinheiro para um novo apartamento.
His attitude towards women is despicable.
A atitude dele para com as/em relação às mulheres é desprezível.
Under

Sob, embaixo de, menos de, por baixo de.


The doctor put the thermometer under my armpit.
O médico colocou o termômetro embaixo da minha axila.
The tickets are under the expected.
Os ingressos custam menos do que o esperado.
When the deadline was approaching I put myself under a harder pressure.
Quando o prazo final estava se aproximando, eu me coloquei sob pressão mais intensa.
The fire is now under control.
O fogo está agora sob controle.
Chico Buarque had to release some of his compositions under false names.
Chico Buarque teve que lançar algumas de suas composições com nomes falsos.
Underneath

Sob, por baixo de, abaixo.


Underneath his roughness lies a sweet person.
Sob toda aquela aspereza, encontra-se uma pessoa doce.
The sales department is underneath the marketing staff.
O departamento de vendas é inferior ao de marketing.
The abyssal creatures live underneath the ocean.
As criaturas abissais vivem nas profundezas do oceano.
Until/Till

Até (tempo).
I was up until 1 am trying to finish my chores.
Fiquei acordado até 1 da manhã para terminar meus afazeres.
We had better wait till Suzan shows up.
É melhor esperarmos a Suzan chegar.
With

Com, de, apesar de.


Brazil has just signed a trade agreement with China.
O Brasil acabou de firmar um acordo comercial com a China.
It is almost impossible to work with all the noise you are making.
É quase impossível trabalhar com todo o barulho que vocês estão fazendo.
The main suspect is a tall man with dark hair.
O principal suspeito é um homem alto de cabelos escuros.
With all his faults, Jeremy is a good supervisor.
Apesar de todos os defeitos, Jeremy é um bom supervisor.
Within

Dentro de.
He must arrive within half an hour.
Ele deve chegar dentro de meia hora.
You have to walk within the law.
Você tem que agir dentro da lei.
There is a list of airlines banned from operating within the European Union.
Há uma lista de linhas aéreas proibidas de operar dentro da União Europeia.
Without

Sem.
I am completely without money.
Estou completamente sem dinheiro.
The Flanders get to live without buying superfluous things. Why don’t we?
Os Flanders conseguem viver sem comprar coisas supérfluas. Por que não conseguimos?
Practice
1. Which prepositions must be used to fill in the gaps in the sentences below?
The operation, unprecedented in the city’s history, began __________ around 8 am.
According to police the favela had been “conquered” __________ around 9.30 am.
a) at – by
b) at – in
c) at – on
d) on – by
e) on – at
Answer: A
2. “She is sitting among her friends now.” The underlined preposition can be replaced
by:
a) above.
b) over.
c) between.
d) amid.
e) along.
Answer: D
3. Complete this excerpt from “The Wonderful Wizard of Oz” by L. Frank Baum using
the prepositions correctly.
Toto jumped __________ of Dorothy’s arms and hid __________ the bed, and the girl started
to get him. Aunt Em, badly frightened, threw open the trap door __________ the floor and
climbed down the ladder __________ the small, dark hole. Dorothy caught Toto at last and
started to follow her aunt. When she was halfway __________ the room there came a great
shriek from the wind, and the house shook so hard that she lost her footing and sat down
suddenly upon the floor.
a) out – above – in – onto – through
b) off – under – from – into – across
c) out – under – in – into – across
d) off – below – at – onto – through
Answer: C
4. Complete the sentence below.
They decided to sign the agreement __________ the end __________ the week but
__________ discussing some important issues.
a) before – of – without
b) until – of – after
c) before – in – after
d) until – in – without
Answer: A
5. Fill in the gaps below correctly.
Mr Cameron met __________ French President Nicolas Sarkozy and US Secretary
__________ State Hillary Clinton ahead __________ a session __________ other leaders.
a) with – of – of – with
b) Ø – of – Ø – with
c) Ø – of – of – with
d) with – of – Ø – with
e) Ø – of – of – Ø
Answer: C
6. Fill in the gaps in the sentence below meaningfully.
Japan has been shaken __________ scores __________ tremors __________ 11 March –
one __________ magnitude 6.1 hit the Ibaraki area south __________ Fukushima __________
Saturday.
a) with – by – in – Ø – of – on
b) with – by – in – of – of – on
c) by – of – since – Ø – in – by
d) by – of – in – of – in – on
e) by – of – since – of – of – on
Answer: E
7. Mark the correct sequence of prepositions to fill in the gaps below:
I. __________ that shy exterior, she’s actually a very warm person.
II. The new perfume was launched __________ a fanfare of publicity.
III. There was a series of explosions and the van burst __________ flames.
IV. She didn’t succeed __________ her talent and skill.
a) I. Underneath – II. amidst – III. into – IV. with all
b) I. Below – II. amongst – III. out of – IV. above all
c) I. Under – II. between – III. from – IV. overall
d) I. Beneath – II. inside – III. of – IV. with all
e) I. Down on – II. within – III. in – IV. at all
Answer: A
8. Mark the correct sequence of prepositions to fill in the gaps in the excerpt below.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel has announced a “measured exit” __________ nuclear
power __________ response __________ the crisis affecting four reactors __________
Japan. She said the two countries had 150 years __________ diplomatic relations and called
on Germans to donate money. “This is help __________ friends,” she said.
a) for – as – for – near – on – among
b) from – in – to – in – on – among
c) in – in – for – in – of – between
d) from – in – to – in – of – between
e) for – in – to – near – of – amid
Answer: D
9. Fill in the gaps in the text below correctly.
__________ a week dominated by talk of football finance and the Old Firm heading to ​England
to maximise their revenue, I met two great Glasgow football fans who lifted my spirits and
made me remember what it is I love __________ the beautiful game. Brothers Davie and
Ronnie Jackson from Rutherglen are probably heading __________ bus pass age, but their joy
and fervour for football shone as brightly as mine the first time I was lifted __________ the
turnstiles. Both had chucked an old rucksack __________ their shoulders and took a cheap day
ticket to Dundee to have a gander __________ the two football grounds, because that’s what
football fans do.
a) In – on – toward – above – above – at
b) During – about – to – over – over – about
c) In – about – towards – over – over – at
d) During – on – to – on – on – at
e) Over – about – towards – over – above – about
Answer: C
10. Fill in the text below correctly.
Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi warned President Obama and European leaders __________
Saturday to hold back __________ enforcing a no-flight zone over Libya even as he defied their
demands for a cease-fire, with his tanks reported rolling __________ the eastern rebel
stronghold of Benghazi. His comments came one day __________ Mr. Obama ordered Colonel
Qaddafi to carry out an immediate cease-fire, withdraw his forces from rebel-held cities and
stop all attacks __________ Libyan civilians or face military action from the United States and
its allies in Europe and __________ the Arab world.
a) on – from – throughout – before – on – in
b) on – from – through – after – on – Ø
c) on – from – across – after – along – in
d) on – for – over – before – over – Ø
e) on – for – through – after – under – Ø
Answer: B
CONJUNCTIONS

Words and expressions used to connects words, phrases and clauses in a sentence.
They agreed to sign the contract. However, some changes had to be done.
Eles concordaram em assinar o contrato. No entanto, algumas mudanças tiveram que ser feitas.
She is studying English and German. Besides, she will make an Italian course next semester.
Ela está estudando inglês e alemão. Além disso, ela pretende fazer um curso de italiano no semestre
que vem.
Not only did he smashed his car, but also quarreled with his neighbors. What a bad day he is having.
Ele não apenas bateu o carro, como também brigou com os vizinhos. Que dia ruim ele está tendo.
Franchesco bought flowers this morning and gave them to his mother.
Franchesco comprou flores esta manhã e as deu para a mãe dele.
Pamela was not feeling well, even though she went to work.
Pamela não estava se sentindo bem, mesmo assim foi trabalhar.
Main Conjunctions
Although/Though

Embora, apesar de que.


She decided to leave, although I had asked her to stay.
Ela decidiu partir, embora eu tivesse pedido para ela ficar.
Though he had studied very hard, he failed the exam.
Embora ele tenha estudado bastante, ele fracassou na prova.
And
E.
She read for an hour and went to bed.
Ela leu por uma hora e foi pra cama.
He felt sick and decided to rest for a few moments.
Ele se sentiu mal e decidiu descansar por alguns momentos.
As

Já que, enquanto, como, à medida que.


She is getting more and more demanding as she gets older.
Ela está ficando cada vez mais exigente à medida que envelhece.
As you are here, let’s play chess.
Já que você está aqui, vamos jogar xadrez.
You can go home now as your job here is done. I see you tomorrow.
Você pode ir agora já que seu trabalho aqui está acabado. Vejo você amanhã.
Because

Porque, por causa de.


She can’t go with us because she didn’t finish her chores yet.
Ela não pode ir conosco porque não terminou os afazeres dela ainda.
Airports throughout the north of the country were closed because the climate changes were not
minimally satisfactory.
Aeroportos por toda a região norte do país estavam fechados porque as condições climáticas não
eram minimamente satisfatórias.
Besides

Além de/disso.
He is not a good coach. Besides, he always complains without pointing solutions to the problems of the
team.
Ele não é um bom técnico. Além disso, ele sempre reclama sem apontar soluções para os problemas
do time.
Besides selling his house, he rented his car for a month.
Além de vender a casa, ele alugou o carro dele por um mês.
But

Mas, porém.
They would have gone with you, but they had no money.
Eles teriam ido com você, mas não tinham dinheiro.
They went to the mall, but I did not want to. I’m exhausted.
Eles foram ao shopping, mas eu não quis ir. Estou exausta.
Either ... or

Ou ... ou.
We can either go to the cinema or rent some DVDs at the movie rental store.
Ou podemos ir ao cinema ou alugar alguns DVDs na locadora.
Either you leave my house immediately or I call the police!
Ou você sai da minha casa imediatamente ou eu chamo a polícia!
Even though/Even if

Muito embora, apesar de que, mesmo que, ainda que.


Even though I was extremely tired, I couldn’t sleep.
Muito embora eu estivesse extremamente cansado, eu não conseguia dormir.
Even if you invite him, he will not come.
Mesmo que você o convide, ele não virá.
For

Pois, porque, visto que.


Herman was late for he missed the train.
Herman atrasou-se porque perdeu o trem.
Adrian did not talk during the meeting for she did not understand the key issue that was being
discussed.
A Adrian não falou durante a reunião visto que não havia entendido o assunto principal que estava
sendo discutido.
However

No entanto.
Our team has not won a single game this season yet; however, they must keep trying.
Nosso time ainda não venceu um jogo sequer nesta temporada; no entanto, eles devem continuar
tentando.
Kyle is a very lazy girl; however, she always gets good grades at school.
Kyle é uma garota muito preguiçosa; no entanto, ela sempre tira boas notas na escola.
If

Se.
If Jim were not so stubborn, we could invite him to our group.
Se Jim não fosse tão teimoso, poderíamos convidá-lo para o nosso grupo.
If you go now, maybe you get to catch the 4.58 bus.
Se você for agora, talvez você consiga pegar o ônibus de 4h58.
Neither ... nor
Nem ... nem.
I neither know nor care what’s happened to Oliver.
Eu nem sei nem me importo com o que aconteceu ao Oliver.
She got neither to be approved nor classified in the exam.
Ela não conseguiu nem ser aprovada nem classificada no exame.
Nor

Nem, também não.


Kirk can’t attend the annual reunion for former students and nor can Marcia because both are out of
town.
O Kirk não pode comparecer ao encontro anual de ex-alunos, nem a Marcia porque ambos estão
fora da cidade.
I did not meet anything interesting at the mall, nor did Kyra at the street shopping.
Eu não encontrei nada interessante no shopping, nem a Kyra nas lojas da rua.
Not only ... (but) also

Não apenas ... (mas/como) também.


Not only did he arrive late, he also forgot his homework assignment.
Ele não apenas chegou atrasado, como também esqueceu sua tarefa de casa.
You have not only to listen to your parents, but also follow what they say.
Você não apenas tem que ouvir seus pais, mas também seguir o que eles dizem.
Once

Assim que, na hora em que, uma vez que.


Once we arrive in Moscow, we call you.
Assim que chegarmos a Moscou, ligamos para você.
You cannot retreat once you gave your word.
Você não pode voltar atrás uma vez que você deu sua palavra.
Or

Ou.
Be here on time, or we’ll leave without you.
Esteja aqui na hora certa, ou partiremos sem você.
Come with me or stay at home by yourself.
Venha comigo ou fique em casa sozinho.
Otherwise

Senão, do contrário.
You’d better call him now, otherwise you’ll forget it.
É melhor você ligar para ele agora, senão você esquecerá.
Use a coat; otherwise you’ll get a cold.
Use um casaco, senão você pegará um resfriado.
Rather (than)

Em vez disso (de).


Rather than complain, you should try to make changes.
Em vez de reclamar, você deveria tentar fazer algumas mudanças.
She stayed at home rather than go out last night.
Ela ficou em casa, em vez de sair ontem à noite.
Since

Já que.
Since you are busy, we can talk later.
Já que você está ocupado, nós podemos nos falar mais tarde.
Since the plane is late, let’s buy some souvenirs.
Já que o avião está atrasado, vamos comprar algumas lembranças.
So

Assim, por isso, portanto.


My leg started hurting so I decided to stop running.
Minha perna começou a doer, portanto eu decidi parar de correr.
He was very tired, so he went to bed early today.
Ele estava muito cansado, por isso ele foi pra cama cedo hoje.
Unless

A menos que, a não ser que.


Unless you need any help, don’t call me.
A menos que você precise de alguma ajuda, não me ligue.
They will not hire you unless you have a good résumé.
Eles não contratarão você a não ser que você tenha um bom currículo.
Whereas

Enquanto, ao passo que.


One of the students arrived on time, whereas the others arrived late.
Um dos alunos chegou na hora certa, enquanto os outros chegaram atrasados.
His brother is a workaholic, whereas his sister is a shopaholic.
O irmão dele é um viciado em trabalho, ao passo que a irmã é uma viciada em compras.
While

Enquanto.
While my father was reading the newspaper, I was watching TV.
Enquanto meu pai estava lendo o jornal, eu estava assistindo à TV.
I went to the Vatican while I was in Italy.
Fui ao Vaticano enquanto estava na Itália.
Yet

Mas, no entanto.
His apartment is very small; yet, it is highly cozy.
O apartamento dele é muito pequeno, mas é extremamente aconchegante.
Derek did the best he could; yet, he failed in the exam.
Derek fez o melhor que pôde, no entanto, fracassou no exame.
More Relevant Conjunctions
The girls went home by themselves, albeit they knew it was dangerous.
As garotas foram para casa sozinhas, embora soubessem que era perigoso.
They didn’t succeed despite the fact/in spite of the fact they gave their best.
Eles não obtiveram êxito apesar de ter dado o melhor deles.
He was a great politician; in fact/indeed, the most ethical of all.
Ele era um grande político; na verdade, o mais honesto de todos.
The project will not be signed before Friday; meanwhile/in the meantime, we can discuss some
technical problems.
O projeto não será assinado antes de sexta; enquanto isso, podemos discutir alguns problemas
técnicos.
His new film is terrible; moreover, it’s too long.
O novo filme dele é terrível; além disso, é longo demais.
Albert has just returned from the Netherlands; nevertheless/nonetheless/still, he does not want to see
anyone now.
Albert acabou de retornar da Holanda; no entanto, ele não quer ver ninguém agora.
I’m sure it was the same material, notwithstanding the texture seemed different.
Tenho certeza de que era o mesmo material, apesar da textura parecer diferente.
You must be there before 6 pm, or else you’ll miss the train.
Você deve chegar lá antes das 18h, do contrário, perderá o trem.
She did not study to the proficiency test; therefore/thus/hence/consequently she was not approved.
Ela não estudou para o teste de proficiência, logo não foi aprovada.
Whether/Provided (that) you finish your errands on time, I can give you a ride.
Se você terminar/Contanto que você termine seus afazeres na hora certa, eu posso lhe dar uma
carona.
Practice
1. Which option completes the sentence below correctly?
They canceled all the flights __________ it was raining a lot.
a) however
b) so
c) since
d) still
e) therefore
Answer: C
2. Fill in the gap meaningfully.
You have to study harder, __________ you will fail.
a) if
b) whether
c) otherwise
d) whereas
e) in spite of
Answer: C
3. O Sr. Arthur decidiu comprar o apartamento, embora o preço seja um pouco alto.
O termo sublinhado significa, em inglês:
a) however
b) therefore
c) besides
d) thus
e) although
Answer: E
4. You can go out tonight __________ you finish your homework.
a) provided that
b) unless
c) so that
d) in order to
e) what if
Answer: A
5. Fill in the gaps correctly.
I. Tyler decided to leave __________ stay.
II. This tablet is very fast, __________ that one not so much.
III. You must practice your pronunciation, __________ you’re going to miss it.
a) I. instead – II. whereas – III. otherwise
b) I. rather than – II. meanwhile – III. either
c) I. nevertheless – II. whereas – III. or else
d) I. rather than – II. whereas – III. otherwise
e) I. instead of – II. meanwhile – III. or else
Answer: D
6. __________ the salmon is grilled, I will have that; __________, I might have the
snapper.
The gaps in the sentence above must be filled with:
a) Unless – either
b) Unless – despite
c) If – albeit
d) If – otherwise
e) Provided that – albeit
Answer: D
7. Complete the sentence below meaningfully.
The Paralympic Games brought huge improvements to our city; __________, the biggest
legacy of the games is the new social perception __________ the physically handicapped.
a) however – towards
b) notwithstanding – in order to
c) besides – toward
d) furthermore – for
e) nevertheless – in order to
Answer: A
8. Mark the correct sequence of synonyms for the highlighted words in the sentences
below.
I. The visitors complained loudly about the heat, yet they played golf all day long.
II. She does not like to study English, therefore, she will not improve her skills.
III. I suggest we use Johnsons as our main suppliers – they’re good, furthermore they’re cheap.
a) I. still – II. despite – III. moreover
b) I. however – II. consequently – III. besides
c) I. nonetheless – II. so – III. thus
d) I. nevertheless – II. hence – III. indeed
e) I. albeit – II. whereas – III. also
Answer: B
9. Complete the following sentences using the correct conjunctions:
I. There are serious problems in our country. __________, we feel this is a good time to return.
II. The whole report is badly written. __________, it’s inaccurate.
III. __________ the smell of baking brought back memories, __________ did the taste of the cider.
IV. The evening was very pleasant, __________ a little quiet.
a) I. Nevertheless – II. Moreover – III. Just as … so also – IV. albeit
b) I. Nonetheless – II. Moreover – III. Just as … so too – IV. albeit
c) I. Nonetheless – II. Besides – III. Just … so too – IV. although
d) I. Nonetheless – II. Besides – III. Just … so too – IV. although
e) I. Nevertheless – II. Moreover – III. Just as … so also – IV. although
Answer: B
Double or single scoop? Cone or cup? However you take it, all frozen desserts have one thing in
common. Nothing tastes better on a summer afternoon than an ice-cold, sweet treat.
Frozen yogurt is fairly new to the world of sweets. It was introduced in the 1970s under the name
Frogurt, and in the 1980s sales skyrocketed.
The word yogurt, however, dates back to 1625. It is a mispronunciation of the Turkish word yogurt, in
which the “g” is pronounced with a soft sound. The root yog means to “to condense.”
10. The word however (1st and 3rd paragraph) is equivalent in meaning to:
a) nevertheless – howbeit
b) regardless of – despite this
c) still – notwithstanding
d) withal – yet
Answer: B
4TH PART | PRACTICE MORE

Text for questions from 1 to 3.


TEXT 1
Most of the recent scholarly works on the evolution of diplomacy highlight the added complexity in
which “states and other international actors communicate, negotiate and otherwise interact” in the 21st
century. Diplomacy has to take into account “the crazy-quilt nature of modern interdependence”.
Decision-making on the international stage involves what has been depicted as “two level games” or
“double-edged diplomacy”. With accentuated forms of globalization the scope of diplomacy as the
“engine room” of International Relations has moved beyond the traditional core concerns to encompass a
myriad set of issue areas. And the boundaries of participation in diplomacy – and the very definition of
diplomats – have broadened as well, albeit in a still contested fashion. In a variety of ways, therefore, not
only its methods but also its objectives are far more expansive than ever before.
Yet, while the theme of complexity radiates through the pages of this book, changed circumstances and
the stretching of form, scope, and intensity do not only produce fragmentation but centralization in terms of
purposive acts. Amid the larger debates about the diversity of principals, agents, and intermediaries, the
space in modern diplomacy for leadership by personalities at the apex of power has expanded. At odds
with the coun​ter-image of horizontal breadth with an open-ended nature, the dynamic of 21st --century
diplomacy remains highly vertically oriented and individual-centric.
To showcase this phenomenon, however, is no to suggest ossification. In terms of causation, the
dependence on leaders is largely a reaction to complexity. With the shift to multi-party, multi-channel,
multi-issue negotiations, with domestic as well as international interests and values in play, leaders are
often the only actors who can cut through the complexity and make the necessary trade-offs to allow
deadlocks to be broken. In terms of communication and other modes of representation, bringing in leaders
differentiates and elevates issues from the bureaucratic arena.
In terms of effect, the primacy of leaders reinforces elements of both club and network diplomacy. In its
most visible manifestation via summit diplomacy, the image of club diplomacy explicitly differentiates the
status and role of insiders and outsiders and thus the hierarchical nature of diplomacy. Although “large
teams of representatives” are involved in this central form of international practice, it is the “organized
performances” of leaders that possess the most salience. At the same time, though, the galvanizing or
catalytic dimension of leader-driven diplomacy provides new avenues and legitimation for network
diplomacy, with many decisions of summits being outsourced to actors who did not participate at the
summit but possess the technical knowledge, institutional credibility, and resources to enhance results.
Andrew F. Cooper. The changing nature of diplomacy. In: Andrew F. Cooper and Jorge Heine. The
Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 36 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2015) In reference to the text, decide whether the following statements are
right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The hierarchical structure of the diplomatic services in the 21st century is remarkably different from
that prevalent in the previous centuries.
( ) In the first paragraph, the author presents the main ideas he collected from “Most of the recent
scholarly works” (l. 1) on which his argument is built along the text.
( ) The text presents an opposition between club diplomacy and network diplomacy, which are different
and irreconcilable ways of settling international conflicts.
( ) Discussions about inclusiveness and diversity in diplomatic circles have led to the expansion of the
power of some countries.
Answer: E,C, E, E
2. (IRBr – 2015) In relation to the content and the vocabulary of the text, decide whether
the following statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) From the third paragraph, it is correct to infer that the more complex the diplomatic scenario, the
more necessary the presence of leaders is.
( ) As far as textual unity is concerned, “Yet” provides a transition from the first to the second
paragraphs, and establishes a contrast between the ideas in each of them.
( ) The expressions “two level games” (l. 9) and “double-edged diplomacy” (l. 10) refer to a kind of
diplomacy characterized by the presence of two types of actors: political leaders and technical
diplomats.
( ) The idea expressed by the fragment “diversity of principals, agents, and intermediaries” (l. 27 and
28) stands in sharp contrast to the one introduced by “horizontal breadth with an open-ended nature”
(l. 31 and 32).
Answer: C, C, E, E
3. (IRBr – 2015) Each of the fragments from the text presented below is followed by a
suggestion of rewriting. Decide whether the suggestion given maintains the meaning,
coherence and grammar correction of the text (C) or not (E).
( ) “At odds with” (l. 30): As bizarre as
( ) “make the necessary trade-offs to allow deadlocks to be broken” (l. 43 and 44): strike a compromise
as a way out of an impasse
( ) “to encompass a myriad set of issue areas” (l. 14 and 15): to comprise a vast range of fields of
interest
( ) “To showcase this phenomenon, however, is no to suggest ossification” (l. 35 and 36): Highlighting
this fact does not amount to acknowledging stagnation
Answer: E, C, C, anulado
Text for questions from 1 to 4.
TEXT 2
Barbara Dawson, director of the Hugh Lane Gallery in Dublin, remembers very clearly the day in 1997
when she climbed the steep stairs and entered Francis Bacon’s studio at 7 Reece Mews, South
Kensington. It had been left the way it was when he passed away, on April 28 1992, and it was a chaos of
slashed canvases, paint-splashed walls, cloths, brushes, champagne boxes, and a large mirror. She stood
and stared for a long time, in a kind of incredulity, “and actually it became quite beautiful”. She began to
see “paths cut through it,” and details. “The last unfinished painting was on the easel when I went in there,
and on the floor underneath the easel was a short article on George Michael, the singer, about how he
liked to be photographed from one side. It was like looking into somebody’s mind”.
7 Reece Mews was tiny, and apart from the studio consisted of two rooms – a kitchen that contained a
bath, and a living room that doubled as a bedroom. The studio had one skylight, and Bacon usually
worked there in the mornings. He tried to paint elsewhere – in South Africa, for example, when he was
visiting family, but couldn’t. (Too much light, was the rather surprising objection.) He liked the size and
general frugality, too.
Dawson recognised that the studio was the making of Bacon’s art in a more profound sense than just
being a comfortable space to paint in, and determined that it should not be dismantled. John Edwards, to
whom Bacon had bequeathed Reece Mews, felt similarly, and after months of painstaking cataloguing by
archaeologists, conservators and photographers, the Hugh Lane Gallery took delivery of the studio, in
1998. It was opened to the public in 2001.
What is visible now, in a climate-controlled corner of the gallery, a gracious neo-classical building on
Parnell Square in Dublin, is in fact a kind of faithful “skin” of objects; the tables and chairs have all been
returned to their original places, the work surfaces seem as cluttered as they were – but the deep stuff, the
bedrock, has been removed and is kept in climate-controlled archival areas. In the end, there were 7,500
items – samples of painting materials, photographs, slashed canvasses, umpteen handwritten notes,
drawings, books, champagne boxes.
Bacon was homosexual at a time when it was still illegal, and while he was open about his sexuality,
his notes for prospective paintings refer to “bed[s] of crime]”, and his homosexuality was felt as an
affliction, says Dawson. It wasn’t easy. The sense of guilt is apparent in his work, as well as his
fascination with violence. “His collections of pictures, dead bodies, or depictions of violence – he’s not
looking at violence from the classic liberal position”. It was all, concedes Dawson, accompanied by
intellectual rigour, and an insistent attempt at objectivity – “he’s trying to detach from himself as well.”
Everything was grist, and in his studio even his own art fed other art. He returned to his own work
obsessively, repeating and augmenting. And of course, he responded negatively – and violently – as well
as positively; a hundred is a lot of slashed canvasses to keep around you when you’re working, especially
when they are so deliberately slashed. In a way, all this might serve as a metaphor for the importance of
our understanding of his studio as a whole.
Aida Edemarian. Francis Bacon: box of tricks.
Internet: <www.theguardian.com> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2015) Decide whether the statements below are right (C) or wrong (E)
according to the ideas and facts mentioned in the text.
( ) The two driving forces behind the Hugh Lane Gallery project were Dawson and Edwards.
( ) Bacon left part of his properties to Edwards.
( ) The author of the text claims that the fact that George Michael liked having his profile photographed
revealed a lot about his personality.
( ) Bacon believed that his inability to work in South Africa was due to the visits of his relatives.
Answer: C, C, E, E
2. (IRBr – 2015) According to the text and in reference to Bacon’s studio, decide
whether the statements below are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) Bacon’s original studio was transplanted and reassembled in the Irish capital city.
( ) The studio at 7 Reece Mews will soon provide an invaluable and lasting wealth of information and
enjoyment for experts on Bacon’s art.
( ) The interior of Bacon’s studio is in sharp contrast to Hugh Lane Gallery’s front façade.
( ) Bacon’s studio was rather small but its living room was twice the size of the bedroom.
Answer: C, E, C, E
3. (IRBr – 2015) According to the information given in the text about Bacon’s personal
life, his relationship with art, and his work, decide whether the statements below are
right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) Heinous crimes provided the seeds for Bacon’s major works.
( ) Bacon makes a deliberate effort not to allow his personal life to take central stage in his art.
( ) Bacon objected to the manner in which artists from the classical period approached violence as a
subject matter.
( ) The fact that Bacon ripped a considerable number of paintings is consistent with his personality but
plays a minor role in understanding his art.
Answer: E, C, E, E
4. (IRBr – 2015) About the vocabulary the author uses in his text, decide whether the
statements below are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) “umpteen” (l. 52 and 53) could be correctly replaced by torn.
( ) “cluttered” (l. 47) is synonymous with scratched.
( ) “prospective paintings” (l. 57 and 58) can be understood as paintings about which Bacon was still
thinking or planning.
( ) “took delivery” (l. 38) means received something that has already been paid for.
Answer: E, E, C, C
Text for questions from 1 to 4.
TEXT 3
He – for there could be no doubt of his sex, though the fashion of the time did something to disguise it –
was in the act of slicing at the head of an enemy which swung from the rafters. It was the colour of an old
football, and more or less the shape of one, save for the sunken cheeks and a strand or two of coarse, dry
hair, like the hair on a coconut. Orlando’s father, or perhaps his grandfather, had struck it from the
shoulders of a vast Pagan who had started up under the moon in the barbarian fields of Africa; and now it
swung, gently, perpetually, in the breeze which never ceased blowing through the attic rooms of the
gigantic house of the lord who had slain him.
Orlando’s fathers had ridden in fields of asphodel, and stony fields, and fields watered by strange
rivers, and they had struck many heads of many colours off many shoulders, and brought them back to hang
from the rafters. So too would Orlando, he vowed. But since he was sixteen only, and too young to ride
with them in Africa or France, he would steal away from his mother and the peacocks in the garden and
go to his attic room and there lunge and plunge and slice the air with his blade. (…) His fathers had been
noble since they had been at all. They came out of the northern mists wearing coronets on their heads.
Were not the bars of darkness in the room, and the yellow pools which chequered the floor, made by the
sun falling through the stained glass of a vast coat of arms in the window? Orlando stood now in the midst
of the yellow body of a heraldic leopard. When he put his hand on the window-sill to push the window
open, it was instantly coloured red, blue, and yellow like a butterfly’s wing. Thus, those who like
symbols, and have a turn for the deciphering of them, might observe that though the shapely legs, the
handsome body, and the well-set shoulders were all of them decorated with various tints of heraldic light,
Orlando’s face, as he threw the window open, was lit solely by the sun itself. A more candid, sullen face
it would be impossible to find. Happy the mother who bears, happier still the biographer who records the
life of such a one! Never need she vex herself, nor he invokes the help of novelist or poet. From deed to
deed, from glory to glory, from office to office he must go, his scribe following after, till they reach
whatever seat it may be that is the height of their desire. Orlando, to look at, was cut out precisely for
some such career. The red of the cheeks was covered with peach down; the down on the lips was only a
little thicker than the down on the cheeks. The lips themselves were short and slightly drawn back over
teeth of an exquisite and almond whiteness. Nothing disturbed the arrowy nose in its short, tense flight; the
hair was dark, the ears small, and fitted closely to the head. But, alas, that these catalogues of youthful
beauty cannot end without mentioning forehead and eyes. Alas, that people are seldom born devoid of all
three; for directly we glance at Orlando standing by the window, we must admit that he had eyes like
drenched violets, so large that the water seemed to have brimmed in them and widened them; and a brow
like the swelling of a marble dome pressed between the two blank medallions which were his temples.
Directly we glance at eyes and forehead, thus do we rhapsodize. Directly we glance at eyes and forehead,
we have to admit a thousand disagreeables which it is the aim of every good biographer to ignore.
Virginia Woolf. Orlando – A biography, 1928 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2015) According to the text, decide whether the following statements are right
(C) or wrong (E).
( ) Lunging, plunging and slicing the air with a blade were activities with which Orlando engaged as
some sort of rehearsal for the roles he believed he would eventually play.
( ) Orlando acquired, from an early age on, a disconcerting habit of cross-dressing.
( ) One could find some live animals up in the attic of Orlando’s house.
( ) Orlando cut a striking figure.
Answer: C, E, E, C
2. (IRBr – 2015) In relation to Orlando’s family, decide whether the following statements
are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) Orlando’s family have enjoyed their title from time immemorial.
( ) Orlando’s mother was a victim of his, because he would make off with her money while she was
busy in the garden.
( ) Orlando’s father or his grandfather traversed vast expanses of land beheading people of different
races along the way.
( ) His mother, when pregnant, foresaw a life of success for Orlando, a life which would make her
happy.
Answer: C, E, C, E
3. (IRBr – 2015) As far as Orlando’s physical features are concerned, decide whether the
follow​ing statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) His eyes and brow were his most striking facial features.
( ) Orlando’s lips and cheeks had a sweet fragrance reminiscent of fresh fruit.
( ) There was some fine, silky, soft hair both on his lips and cheeks.
( ) His teeth were not perfectly aligned and had the colour of nuts.
Answer: C, E, C, E
4. (IRBr – 2015) In reference to the content of the text, its vocabulary and syntactic
structure, decide whether the following statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The use of the words “dome” (l. 65) and “temples” (l. 66) has the effect of creating a faint aura of
saintliness and religiousness about Orlando.
( ) By being informed that Orlando had a “sullen face” (l. 47), the reader learns that Orlando was a
serious and grave young man.
( ) In lines 5, 10 and 12, although with different syntactic functions, the word it refers to the same thing:
“the head of an enemy which swung from the rafters” (l. 4 and 5).
( ) The repetition of single words and of phrases results in a tiresome text, one in which the author tries
to tell a story but is stuck in descriptive language.
Answer: E, C, C, E
Text for questions 1 and 2.
TEXT 4
When Memory Banda’s younger sister was forced to marry at just 11 years old, Memory became
determined to ensure that no more girls had to experience her sister’s fate. Since then, this remarkable
young woman from rural Malawi has helped to persuade her government to raise the minimum age of
marriage across her country, and is blazing a trail for girls that we all should follow.
Memory’s sister became pregnant during a traditional sexual “cleansing ceremony”, a rite of passage in
some parts of Malawi that is supposed to prepare pubescent girls for womanhood and marriage. She was
forced to marry the father of her unplanned child, a man in his early 30s, and was burdened with all the
responsibilities of adulthood. Now 16, she is raising three children alone; she has been unable to return to
school.
The incident inspired Memory to push for a better future for girls. She became involved with a local
grassroots group, Girls Empowerment Network, joining other young women and civil-society groups
across Malawi to urge village authorities and parliamentary ministers to put an end to child marriages.
Last month, Memory’s efforts – along with those of thousands of others – paid off, when Malawi’s
government enacted a new law that sets the minimum age for marriage at 18.
Memory’s achievement is an important one. Every year, some 15 million girls are married before the
age of 18, and their plight is all too often ignored. A girl forced into marriage typically faces pressure to
bear children before she is physically or emotionally ready to do so. And the result can be deadly. Girls
who give birth before they turn 15 are five times more likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth than women
in their 20s.
The consequences of child marriage are lifelong. Child brides typically drop out of school, losing the
chance to acquire the skills and knowledge needed to lift themselves and their families out of poverty.
Like Memory’s sister, they often are married to older men – a situation that leaves them less able to
ensure that they are treated well.
Education for girls is crucial to ending child marriage. The transition from primary school to secondary
school is particularly important, as it usually coincides with adolescence, a period in a girl’s life that lays
the foundation for success and wellbeing in womanhood. Girls with secondary education are up to six
times less likely to marry early compared to girls with little or no education.
Girls must be convinced and assured of their worth, but they should not be left to end child marriage on
their own. Families, communities, and societies share a joint responsibility to end it. Governments need
to adopt legislation that sets 18 as the minimum age for marriage – leaving no room for exceptions such as
traditional practices or parental consent – the same way that fathers, brothers, and male leaders must be
engaged to care for and empower girls.
It is up to all of us to serve as role models for the girls in our lives. We have all benefited from the
wisdom of our parents, partners, colleagues, and mentors. It is now up to us to nourish and nurture girls’
ambitions. Let girls be girls, not brides.
Mabel van Oranje and Graça Machel. Girls, not brides. Apr. 22nd 2015. Internet: <www.project-
syndicate.org> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2015) In reference to the ideas presented in the text, decide whether the
statements below are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) Programs and campaigns to end child marriage should focus on girls who are already attending
secondary school.
( ) The authors regard Memory Banda’s efforts as successful because she was able to get her young
sister divorced from her older husband.
( ) The text reveals two elements of child marriage which work together to disempower women: gender
and age difference.
( ) One can correctly deduce from the text that Memory’s sister became pregnant with the complicity of
those involved in her cleansing ceremony.
Answer: E, E, C, C
2. (IRBr – 2015) In reference to the linguistic features of the text, decide whether the
following statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) In the sentence “Since then (...) should follow” (l. 5 to 9), the reference to Memory’s sister is based
on the fragment “this remarkable young woman” and the two occurrences of “her”.
( ) By using the expression “blazing a trail” (l. 8 and 9), the authors inform the reader that Memory has
opened a glowing and intense path as a result of her work.
( ) The adjective “grassroots” (l. 22) indicates that Memory became involved with an elite group from
rural areas of Malawi.
( ) The meaning and the grammar correction of the extract “Every year (…) often ignored” (l. 33 to 35)
are maintained if this sentence is replaced by: Annually circa 15 million girls marry before turning 18,
but their predicament is ignored by all more often than not.
Answer: E, C, E, E
TEXT 5: Book Review 1 – Karachi: ordered disorder and the struggle for the city
With an official population approaching fifteen million, Karachi is one of the largest cities in the world.
It is also the most violent. Since the mid-1980s, it has endured endemic political conflict and criminal
violence, which revolve around control of the city and its resources (votes, land and bhatta – “protection”
money). These struggles for the city have become ethnicized. Karachi, often referred to as a “Pakistan in
miniature”, has become increasingly fragmented, socially as well as territorially.
Despite this chronic state of urban political warfare, Karachi is the cornerstone of the economy of
Pakistan. Gayer’s book is an attempt to elucidate this conundrum. Against journalistic accounts describing
Karachi as chaotic and ungovernable, he argues that there is indeed order of a kind in the city’s permanent
civil war. Far from being entropic, Karachi’s polity is predicated upon organisational, interpretative and
pragmatic routines that have made violence “manageable” for its populations. Whether such “ordered
disorder” is viable in the long term remains to be seen, but for now Karachi works despite – and
sometimes through – violence.
By Laurent Gayer
Source: <www.amazon.com>. Retrieved on: March 2, 2014.
TEXT 6: Book Review 2 – The China-Pakistan axis: Asia’s new geopolitics
The Beijing-Islamabad axis plays a central role in Asia’s geopolitics, from India’s rise to the prospects
for a post-American Afghanistan, from the threat of nuclear terrorism to the continent’s new map of mines,
ports and pipelines. China is Pakistan’s great economic hope and its most trusted military partner;
Pakistan is the battleground for China’s encounters with Islamic militancy and the heart of its efforts to
counter-balance the emerging US-India partnership. For decades, each country has been the other’s only
“all-weather” friend. Yet the relationship is still little understood. The wildest claims about it are widely
believed, while many of its most dramatic developments are hidden from the public eye. This book sets
out the recent history of Sino-Pakistani ties and their ramifications for the West, for India, for Afghanistan,
and for Asia as a whole.
It tells the stories behind some of its most sensitive aspects, including Beijing’s support for Pakistan’s
nuclear program, China’s dealings with the Taliban, and the Chinese mil​itary’s planning for crises in
Pakistan. It describes a relationship increasingly shaped by Pakistan’s internal strife, and the dilemmas
China faces between the need for regional stability and the imperative for strategic competition with India
and the USA.
By Andrew Small
Source: <www.amazon.com>. Retrieved on: March 2, 2014.
1. (IRBr – 2014) Based on the information conveyed by the two book reviews, judge the
items right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The first review implies that the book author’s point of view is explicit in the narrative, whereas the
second indicates the bookpresents an impartial account of the state of affairs.
( ) Though based on real facts, both books belong to the fiction genre.
( ) The two books approach political issues in Pakistan from an international perspective.
( ) The books are connected inasmuch as the issues discussed in the first one influence Pakistan’s
international relationships.
Answer: C, E, E, C
2. (IRBr – 2014) Based on Book Review 1, judge the items right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The conflicts and violence in Karachi contrast with what happens in the country as a whole.
( ) The book tries to clarify Karachi’s enigmatic situation.
( ) The book shows a view of the city of Karachi that is different from the media’s.
( ) Karachi has become ungovernable due to its warfare constant condition.
Answer: E, C, C, E
3. (IRBr – 2014) Based on Book Review 2, judge the items right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The word “wildest” (l. 14) indicates that the claims the reviewer refers to lack basis or evidence.
( ) Mutual interests between China and Pakistan include economic as well as military issues.
( ) The book scrutinizes the relationship between China and Pakistan as well as some of their internal
issues.
( ) The book explains the military and political tensions between China and Pakistan on one side, and
India and the USA on the other.
Answer: C, C, C, E
Text for questions from 1 to 3.
TEXT 7
In addition to her impending, and no doubt ultimately successful, quest for Senate confirmation, Janet
Yellen will have a lot on her plate in the coming months. Now that House Republicans and Senate
Democrats have come to yet another temporary agreement on the budget and debt ceiling, there still exists
another threat to the economy: The Federal Reserve’s temptation to pursue an overly ambitious monetary
policy aimed at offsetting the damage to the economy arising from poorly conducted fiscal policy. Now
that President Obama’s Fed Chairman nominee has been announced, the Fed needs to shift its focus from
wondering who will lead it to what its realistic goals can be. Substantially different views are held by
Fed hawks and doves.
The economy is still on uncertain footing, and public frustration with the Fed is increasing, especially
since the May taper into September-no-taper serious misstep. The Fed seems to be making up policy as it
goes along. It has become distracted with trying to fix problems it is not well-equipped to handle,
including sustained lower unemployment and a faster pace of growth than is obtainable during a period of
fiscal consolidation and weak global growth.
The Fed’s post-financial crisis mission creep, since 2008, has fueled an unhealthy codependence
between it and the market, akin to the infamous pre-crisis “Greenspan put,” whereby the Greenspan Fed
was expected to – and did – step in to support financial markets whenever there arose a threat to rising
asset markets. Markets assume the Fed can and will fix any problems, such as the latest episode of
Washington’s fiscal policy bungling, that might harm the economy or depress stock prices. Once
necessary, but now dangerous, improvisations of monetary policy – quantitative easing and forward
guidance in particular – have become alternately ineffective and counterproductive, as the recent tapering
trauma has shown. Yellen, as the primary author of the Fed’s new communication strategy, needs to
identify ways to improve the Fed’s communication with markets and the public.
The Fed has come a long way since its founding one hundred years ago. Its original role was to be the
lender of last resort in a financial crisis. That role, as a temporary emergency supplier of liquidity in a
panic, has continued and should continue going forward. But in the post-financial crisis period, the Fed
has been forced to accommodate the extra cash demands of households and firms confronting a world of
elevated uncertainty about the direction and conduct of monetary and fiscal policy. That is because higher
uncertainty has forced firms and wealthy households to self-insure against possible bad outcomes and to
preserve optionality in the face of unforeseen shocks and opportunities.
Failure by the Fed to satisfy higher cash demands worsened the Great Depression in the United States
and the deflationary lost decade in Japan. These elevated, postcrisis cash needs explain why the Fed’s
rapid additions to the monetary base through quantitative easing have been followed by disinflation, not
inflation, as many have predicted. Chairman Yellen will have to be vigilant to avoid tightening too soon,
while uncertainty remains high.
Makin, John H. The challenge of a lifetime. In: The international economy. Fall 2013, p. 10-11.
Available at: <http://www.internationaleconomy.com>. Adapted. Retrieved on: March 1, 2014.
1. (IRBr – 2014) Based on the article (text 3), decide if the items are right (C) or wrong
(E).
( ) According to Makin, Americans are dissatisfied with the Federal Reserve because of its inability to
cater for unemployment and slow economic growth.
( ) Fed members differ as to what the goals for the Federal Reserve shall be from now on.
( ) The author compares the Federal Reserve’s post-financial crisis policy with the pre-financial policy
which consisted of supporting asset markets financially whenever they were at risk.
( ) Despite the wrong decisions taken by the Federal Reserve, the US economy is heading to stability.
Answer: E, C, C, E
2. (IRBr – 2014) Considering the information about the Federal Reserve conveyed in the
article (text 3), decide if the items are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) It played an important role to lessen the disastrous effects during both the Great Depression and the
Lost Decade in Japan.
( ) The tapering changes made in 2013 showed the Federal Reserve is acting according to a global plan
of financial restructuring.
( ) Its procedures to counterbalance the consequences of the government’s fiscal policy are a threat to
the country’s economy.
( ) It has moved away from its sole original mission of supporting the financial system in times of crisis.
Answer: E, E, C, E
3. (IRBr – 2014) Based on the article (text 3), decide if the items are right (C) or wrong
(E).
( ) The word “creep” (l. 30) refers to widening of the Federal Reserve’s mission in the post-financial
crisis.
( ) By saying that Janet Yellen “will have a lot on her plate in the coming months” (l. 3-4), the author
implies she will have too many issues to worry about or deal with during her chairmanship.
( ) The use of “hawks and doves” (l. 17) to refer to the Fed members illustrates the extent of the
divergence between the two opposing groups in the organization.
( ) “Bungling” (l. 38) can be replaced by recovery without changes in the original meaning of the
sentence.
Answer: C, C, C, E
Text for questions from 1 to 3.
TEXT 8
Bertrand Russell once predicted that the socialization of reproduction – the supersession of the family
by the state – would “make sex love itself more trivial,” encourage “a certain triviality in all personal
relations,” and “make it far more difficult to take an interest in anything after one’s own death”. At first
glance, recent developments appear to have refuted the first part of this prediction. Americans today
invest personal relations, particularly the relations between men and women, with undiminished
emotional importance. The decline of childrearing as a major preoccupation has freed sex from its
bondage to procreation and made it possible for people to value erotic life for its own sake. As the family
shrinks to the marital unit, it can be argued that men and women respond more readily to each other’s
emotional needs, instead of living vicariously through their offspring. The marriage contract having lost
its binding character, couples now find it possible, according to many observers, to ground sexual
relations in something more solid than legal compulsion. In short, the growing determination to live for
the moment, whatever it may have done to the relations between parents and children, appears to have
established the preconditions of a new intimacy between men and women.
This appearance is an illusion. The cult of intimacy conceals a growing despair of finding it. Personal
relations crumble under the emotional weight with which they are burdened.
The inability “to take an interest in anything after one’s own death,” which gives such urgency to the
pursuit of close personal encounters in the present, makes intimacy more elusive than ever. The same
developments that have weakened the tie between parents and children have also undermined relations
between men and women. Indeed the deterioration of marriage contributes in its own right to the
deterioration of care for the young.
This last point is so obvious that only a strenuous propaganda on behalf of “open marriage” and
“creative divorce” prevents us from grasping it. It is clear, for example, that the growing incidence of
divorce, together with the ever-present possibility that any given marriage will end in collapse, adds to
the instability of family life and deprives the child of a measure of emotional security. Enlightened
opinion diverts attention from this general fact by insisting that in specific cases, parents may do more
harm to their children by holding a marriage together than by dissolving it. More often the husband
abandons his children to the wife whose company he finds unbearable, and the wife smothers the children
with incessant yet perfunctory attentions.
This particular solution to the problem of marital strain has become so common that the absence of the
father impresses many observers as the most striking fact about the contemporary family. Under these
conditions, a divorce in which the mother retains custody of her children merely ratifies the existing state
of affairs — the effective emotional desertion of his family by the father. But the reflection that divorce
often does no more damage to children than marriage itself hardly inspires rejoicing.
Christopher Lasch. The cult of narcissism. Abacus, Londres, 1980,
p. 320-322 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2014) Based on the text, decide if the following statements about the author’s
assessment of the family situation in America are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) Engaging in sexual intercourse exclusively for pleasure enhances mutual affection between
individuals thus creating a healthier relationship not only between the couple but also between them
and their children.
( ) It is an oversimplification to attribute the destruction of the basic fabric of the traditional family to
the search for sex for its own sake and to the increasing growth of the rate of divorce.
( ) The seeds of the destruction of the family in America can be ultimately found in people’s inability to
rise above the trivialization of personal relations.
( ) The emergence of the nuclear family is the product of recent developments in social behavior.
Answer: E, E, C, E
2. (IRBr – 2014) Based on the text, decide if the following statements are right (C) or
wrong (E).
( ) Living one’s children’s lives and dreams used to be a far more widespread feature of traditional
families in the US than it is nowadays.
( ) Men and women in the US have become increasingly aware that it takes money to improve their
personal relations.
( ) The fewer children a couple has, the less binding the nature of their marriage vows becomes.
( ) The less emphasis Americans place on the procreative role of sex, the more likely they are to
succeed in enjoying playful sex.
Answer: C, E, E, C
3. (IRBr – 2014) Based on the text, decide if the following statements about the author’s
position about the trivialization of personal relations are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) He is non-committal about it, assuming this is an inescapable trend in contemporary American life.
( ) He is critical of it because he believes it led to the loosening of the bond between parents and
children.
( ) He is receptive to it for he believes traditional child raising consumes a disproportionate amount of
a couple’s efforts and energy.
( ) He has mixed feelings about it.
Answer: E, C, E, E
Text for questions from 1 to 4.
TEXT 9
In the pre-dawn of June 16th, a lone voice broke the stillness. The mullahs summoned the men to
prayers; for two hours the priests called and the men responded in a gathering rhythmic crescendo to
psych them up to fight and die. The defenders crouched behind their makeshift barricades, listening to the
eerie chants rising and falling in the darkness beyond. La Vallete had sent reinforcements across and the
defenders, if already weary, were well ordered. Each man had his duty and his post. They were grouped
in threes: one arquebusier to two pikemen. Large quantities of fire weapons had been stock piled, rocks
gathered, and quantities of bread soaked in wine. Barrels of water stood behind the parapets into which
men torched by adhesive fire could hurl themselves.
As the sun rose, there was a searching barrage of fire “so that the earth and the air shook”, and then
Mustapha signalled the advance along a huge crescent. Suleiman’s imperial standard was unfurled; a
turban was hoisted on a spear, farther down the line there was an answering puff of smoke. An
extraordinary array of banners and shields were visible surging forward, “painted with extraordinary
designs; some with devices of different birds, some with scorpions and with Arab lettering”.
In the front rank men ran wildly towards the walls, calling out the name of Allah in a crescendo of
shouts. From the battlements came the Christian counter calls: Jesus, Mary, St Michael, St James and St
George – “according to the devotion of each man”. There was a furious push towards the bridge; scaling
ladders were put to the walls and battle was joined. The whole front was a struggling mass of humanity
fighting hand to hand.
Roger Crowley. Empires of the sea: the final battle for the Mediterranean, 1521-1580, Faber and
Faber, 2008, p. 1-2.
1. (IRBr – 2014) Based on the text, decide if the following statements concerning the
author’s intentions are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) He describes in detail the high standards the military had attained in the fields of war tactics and
weaponry by the time of the Crusades.
( ) He aims mainly at creating an atmosphere that brings to his readers’ minds all the colours, sounds,
smells and actions of a particular event.
( ) He describes some of the build-up to a battle between adherents of Islam and Christians.
( ) He expresses strong criticism of both Christians and Muslims’ bigotry and religious fanaticism.
Answer: E, E, C, E
2. (IRBr – 2014) Decide if the statements about the following sentence are right (C) or
wrong (E): “Barrels of water stood behind the parapets into which men torched by
adhesive fire could hurl themselves” (l. 16-18).
( ) Even in a situation of conflict, water is essential for soldiers’ personal hygiene.
( ) Soldiers would pour boiling water on their enemies if they tried to climb up the walls of their
fortress.
( ) Men who had been set fire to needed water badly to relieve the pain caused by burns.
( ) Soldiers needed this water to quench their thirst since this battle probably took place in a dry place.
Answer: E, E, C, E
3. (IRBr – 2014) Based on the text, decide if the following statements about the battle
ground are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) Christian soldiers, unlike their Muslim counterparts, adopted a clearly syncretic approach as they
sought divine protection.
( ) Standards and banners were not key items in the war paraphernalia Christians had at their disposal
in medieval times.
( ) The actual fight in the battlefield erupted only when daylight broke.
( ) Mustapha is probably one of Suleiman’s generals.
Answer: E, E, C, C
4. (IRBr – 2014) Concerning the battle proper, decide based on the text if the following
statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The Muslim preference for animals such as birds and scorpions suggests that they are wild warriors.
( ) At the time of the battle described, there was a widely held belief among catholics that female saints
were of little avail in war.
( ) The Muslims seemed to be defending a fortified building.
( ) Both groups sought spiritual and psychological support in their respective religions to engage in
warfare.
Answer: E, E, E, C
This text refers to questions from 1 through 4.
TEXT 10
It is one of the most pressing questions of our time: what is the relationship between financial and
environmental meltdown? Are the two crises the same thing, needing to be dealt with together? Or do we,
as even some business leaders suggest, have to fix the environment before we can fix the economy? A
slew of books, ebooks, pamphlets and journals are tackling this thorny question.
You might expect a strong “yes” from the greens to fixing the environment ahead of the economy. And in
“The Environmental Debt: the hidden costs of a changing global economy”, long-time Greenpeace activist
Amy Larkin does make a cogent argument for this. The high costs of coping with extreme weather,
pollution and declining resources are, she says, catching up with capitalism. Our carefree attitude to the
“externalities” of wealth generation has run up an environmental debt that is loading unsustainable
financial debt on us all.
But environmentalists are not the only ones making the link. In Wall Street and the City, there is similar
talk that the worst fears of environmentalists are coming to pass. As shortages of natural resources push
up prices, a looming resource crunch is manifested in market meltdown.
Paul Donovan and Julie Hudson, economists for the Swiss bank UBS, agree. They argue that “there is a
second credit crunch”, an environmental one. By ransacking global resources and enfeebling ecosystems,
the authors say, we are drawing down environmental credit as surely as reckless spending on a credit
card draws down financial credit. The two crunches have “a symbiotic relationship”, they argue: “The
party has to stop”.
The synergies between financial and environmental crunches may be complex, but at root, many
economists argue that reckless consumption, driven by easy credit, helped fuel financial crisis.
Environmentalists agree that the same consumer binge drove up environmental debt.
F. Pearce. What do we fix first – environment or economy? New Scientist. July 8th, 2013 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2013) According to the text:
a) both environmentalists and economists agree that consumption is at the heart of the current financial
and environmental crises.
b) the need to understand the current capitalist crisis is urging environmentalists and economists to
launch publications on the issue.
c) financial and environmental debts have been primarily affecting wealthy countries due to their
reckless consumption attitude.
d) business and finance experts had warned Greenpeace activists about the financial consequences of
natural resource shortages.
e) the synergetic link between economy and environment points to the need to tackle financial issues
ahead of environmental ones.
Answer: Item anulado
2. (IRBr – 2013) Based on the text, choose the correct answer.
a) The expression “consumer binge” (l. 45) is used as an antonym for the expression “reckless
consumption” (l. 42-43).
b) The word “cogent” (l. 15) suggests that the argument put forward by Amy Larkin is ill-founded.
c) If the verb “catching up with” (l. 18) is replaced by stemming from, the meaning of the sentence
remains unaltered.
d) The word “looming” (l. 28) is used as a synonym for unlikely.
e) The words “crunch” (l. 28) and “crunches” (l. 38) are used as synonyms for crisis and crises,
respectively.
Answer: E
3. (IRBr – 2013) The sentence “By ransacking global (…) credit card draws down
financial credit” (l. 33-37) means that:
a) by ignoring the need to protect the environment, our society is increasingly focused on profit rather
than quality of life.
b) due to our reckless behavior towards the environment, less financial support has been assigned to
nature-saving projects.
c) due to the scarcity of environmental fund-raising actions, mankind is making the exploitation of
natural resources financially unviable.
d) by tampering with the world biomass, we are affecting investments in the area as much as economic
problems affect us.
e) by destroying nature, we are reducing our environmental funds just like too many debts reduce our
financial credibility.
Answer: E
4. (IRBr – 2013) Based on the text, judge if the items below are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) Wall Street and the City experts foresee a complete market breakdown.
( ) As far as the main issue of the text is concerned, the two economists of the Swiss bank are of the
same opinion as the ecologist-author.
( ) Several bank owners claim the economic crisis should be solved first.
( ) Amy Larkin believes the worldwide scarcity of resources is affecting the world’s economy.
Answer: E, item anulado, E, C
This text refers to questions 1 and 2.
TEXT 11
The leaders of the G8 are convening in Northern Ireland for the 39th G8 Summit. The backdrop for this
two-day meeting of the globe’s preeminent economic powers is a world facing multiple global crises, all
of which demand that summit participants engage in constructive dialogue that leads to measurable
progress. Despite that need, the annual G8 Summits are known more for eliciting empty political promises
and saddling host cities with exorbitant costs.
The baby boomer generation presidents and prime ministers at the G8 Summit are facing increasingly
frustrated populations. With economic instability entrenching in the West, a still teetering world financial
order, and escalating tensions in the Middle East, an entire generation of young people is growing up
without opportunity, and with few prospects for change. But persistent unemployment, declining standards
in health care and education, and environmental degradation are also driving growing numbers of young
people to demand sophisticated and coordinated global action.
From this mess, two significant questions arise: are the boomer generation leaders simply incapable of
consensus-driven international cooperation, one that sets aside national interests for the collective good
of humanity? And if this is the case, are tomorrow’s Facebook generation leaders doomed to inherit the
quagmire of their political predecessors?
R. Onley. The future of global diplomacy. June 17th, 2013 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2013) Based on the text, choose the correct statement.
a) The cities that host G8 summits generally profit from the presence of presidents and ministers.
b) The reasons for young people’s frustrations include political, financial and economic issues.
c) In the 39th G8 Summit meeting, empty promises will give room to debates on the global crises.
d) Young people are planning demonstrations to show their dissatisfaction to the G8 Summit leaders.
e) The actions taken for international cooperation are condemned by the new Facebook generation
leaders.
Answer: B
2. (IRBr – 2013) In the text, “that need” (l. 8) refers to:
a) convening in Ireland.
b) measuring progress.
c) engaging in dialogue.
d) facing global crises.
e) making promises.
Answer: C
This text refers to questions 1 and 2.
TEXT 12
The Oxford Learner’s Dictionary defines diplomacy as “(…) the management of relations between
countries (…) art of or skill in dealing with people; tact (…)”. Indeed it is the art of convincing others to
perceive things your way, or at least to have second thoughts about theirs. It is the combination of logic
and science on the one hand with the gift of proper language packaging and presentation necessary to
convince others.
The power of language rests on the fact that it contains ideas: and ideas are, according to Plato, more
enduring, indeed more permanent than matter. Ideas can be suppressed, or go underground but unlike a
statue or any other material things they cannot be shattered. They can only be met and dealt with by other
ideas. Historically it is the magic of words that bewitched, enthralled and sometimes intoxicated people
and led them to great or mean deeds. The language of diplomacy, often like poetry, has the ability to move
people from mood to mood.
Whether demagogy or whether giving expression to noble ideologies, theories, or even religious creeds,
ordinary language or that of diplomacy has a momentum and an inner driving force that is ageless.
K.S. Abu Jaber. Language and diplomacy. In: J. Kurbalija; H. Slavi (Eds.). Language and diplomacy.
Malta: DiploProjects, 2001, p. 53.
1. (IRBr – 2013) According to the author:
a) common language opposes poetry.
b) diplomacy is related to persuasion.
c) ideas last less than material things.
d) language is a demagogical expression.
e) ideologies require a proper language.
Answer: B
2. (IRBr – 2013) In relation to the pronouns shown in bold in the text above, judge if the
items below are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The pronoun “that” (l. 27) refers to “language” (l. 26).
( ) The pronoun “theirs” (l. 7) refers to “others” (l. 5).
( ) The pronoun “It” (l. 7) refers to “diplomacy” (l. 2).
( ) The pronoun “they” (l. 16) refers to “Ideas” (l. 14).
Answer: E, E, C, C
This text refers to questions from 1 through 3.
TEXT 13
Taking a Cue from Bernanke a Little Too Far Financial advisers have been fielding calls from shaken
investors in recent weeks, particularly retirees, who are nervous that a bond market crash is on the
horizon.
You can hardly blame them. Investors have been fleeing bonds in droves; a record ​$ 76.5 billion poured
out of bond funds and exchange-traded funds since June. That exceeds the previous record, according to
TrimTabs, when $ 41.8 billion streamed out of the funds in October 2008 and the financial crisis was in
full force.
But the rush for the exits really means one thing: investors are betting that interest rates are about to
begin their upward trajectory, something that’s been expected for several years now.
Their cue came from the Federal Reserve chairman, Ben Bernanke, who recently suggested that the
economic recovery might allow the central bank to ease its efforts to stimulate the economy. That includes
scaling back its bond-buying program beginning later this year.
So the big fear is that interest rates are poised to rise much further, driving down bond prices; the two
move in opposite directions.
A Barclays index tracking a broad swath of investment-grade bonds lost 3.77 percent from the beginning
of May through Thursday, according to Morningstar. United States government notes with maturities of 10
years or longer, however, lost an average of 10.8 percent over the same period.
Making a bet on interest rates is no different from trying to predict the next big drop in stocks, or
jumping into the market when it appears to be poised to surge higher. These sort of emotional moves are
exactly why research shows that investors’ returns tend to trail the broader market.
And it’s also why many financial advisers suggest ignoring the noise, as long as you have a smart
assortment of bond funds that will provide stability when stocks inevitably tumble once again.
“It’s a futile game to base portfolio moves on interest rate guesses,” said Milo Benningfield, a financial
adviser in San Francisco. “We don’t have to look any further than highly regarded Pimco manager Bill
Gross, whose horrible interest rate bet against Treasuries in 2011 landed him in the bottom 15 percent of
fund managers in his category that year. Investors should take a strategic approach designed around the
reason they hold bonds – and then sit tight whenever hedge funds and other institutions shake the ground
around them.”
The main reason longer-term investors hold bonds, of course, is to provide a steadying force. And
though today’s lower yields provide less of a cushion – the 10-year Treasury is yielding about 2.5 percent
– bonds still remain the best, if imperfect, foil to stocks.
“The role of bonds in a portfolio has always been to be a ballast or a diversifier to equity risk,” said
Francis Kinniry, a principal in the Vanguard Investment Strategy Group. “And that is very true today.
Yields are low, but this is what a bear market in bonds looks like.”
Internet: <www.nytimes.com> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2013) The words “poised” (l. 27) and “yields” (l. 62 and 70) mean,
respectively:
a) etiolated and profits.
b) shaken and gains.
c) ready and risks.
d) bolstered and outlay.
e) on the verge and returns.
Answer: E
2. (IRBr – 2013) According to the text, judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong
(E).
( ) According to at least one financial adviser, it’s naïve to correlate bonds with interest rates.
( ) The main contention of the article is that investors should be skeptical about Bernanke’s remark in
relation to the effects of the American economic recovery.
( ) The bond market is in such a predicament due to misjudgment on the part of the American central
bank’s chairperson.
( ) In general, bonds provide stability to an investor’s portfolio.
Answer: E, E, E, C
3. (IRBr – 2013) Regarding the text, judge if the items below are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The word “from” in the excerpt “Making a bet on interest rates is no different from trying to predict
the next big drop in stocks, or jumping into the market when it appears to be poised to surge higher” (l.
36-39) may be replaced by the word then with no interference in the grammar correction of the
sentence.
( ) In the sentence “Their cue came from the Federal Reserve chairman, Ben Bernanke, who recently
suggested that the economic recovery might allow the central bank to ease its efforts to stimulate the
economy” (l. 19-23), the relative pronoun “who” may be replaced by whom in more formal contexts.
( ) In the sentence “That includes scaling back its bond-buying program beginning later this year” (l. 23-
25), the pronoun “its” refers to “economy”, in the previous sentence.
( ) In the sentence “United States government notes with maturities of 10 years or longer, however, lost
an average of 10.8 percent over the same period” (l. 32-35), the adverb “however” may be moved to
the beginning of the sentence without interfering in the meaning.
Answer: E, E, E, C
This text refers to the next question.
TEXT 14
(…) But the devotion of Minor’s whole strength was beginning to prove taxing. His kindly friend
Doctor Nicholson retired in 1895 – still in pain from being attacked by a patient six years earlier, who hit
him on the head with a brick concealed in a sock. He was replaced by Doctor Brayn, a man selected (for
more than his name alone, one trusts) by a Home Office that felt a stricter regime needed to be employed
at the asylum. 10
Brayn was indeed a martinet, a jailer of the old school who would have done well at any prison farm.
But he did as the government required: There were no escapes during his term of office (there had been
several before, causing widespread alarm), and in the first year two hundred thousand hours of solitary
confinement were logged by the more fractious inmates. He was widely feared and loathed by the patients
– as well as by Doctor Murray, who thought he was treating Minor heartlessly. 21
(…)
One curious snippet of information came from the United States later that same year, when it was noted
rather laconically that two of Minor’s family had recently killed themselves – the letter going on to warn
the staff at Broadmoor that great care should be taken lest whatever madness gripped their patient turned
out to have a hereditary nature. But even if the staff thought Minor a possible suicide risk, no restrictions
were placed on him as a result of the American information. 32
Some years before he had asked for a pocket knife, with which he might trim the uncut pages of some of
the first editions of the books he had ordered: There is no indication that he was asked to hand it back,
even with the harsh Doctor Brayn in charge. No other patient was allowed to keep a knife, but with his
twin cells, his bottles, and his books, and with his part-time servant, William Minor seemed still to
belong to a different category from most others in Broadmoor at the time. 44
In the year following the disclosure about his relatives, the files speak of Minor’s having started to take
walks out on the Terrace in all weathers, angrily denouncing those who tried to persuade him to come
back in during one especially violent snowstorm, insisting in his imperious way that it was his business
alone if he wished to catch a cold. He had more freedom of choice and movement than most. 54
(…)
Simon Winschester. The professor and the madman: a tale of murder, insanity, and the making of the
Oxford English Dictionary. Harper Perennial, 2005, p. 182-3 (adapted).
(IRBr – 2013) Each of the options below presents an excerpt taken from the text and a
version of the same excerpt. Choose the one which has retained most of the original
meaning found in the text.
a) “In the year following the disclosure about his relatives, the files speak of Minor’s having started to
take walks out on the Terrace in all weathers, angrily denouncing those who tried to persuade him to
come back in…” (l. 45-49) / In the year after the revelation about his relatives, the archives
show that Minor had started to take walks out on the Terrace during any kind of weather,
angrily extolling people who tried to convince him to come back in…
b) “He was replaced by Doctor Brayn, a man selected (…) by a Home Office that felt a stricter regime
needed to be employed at the asylum.” (l. 6-10) / He was substituted by Doctor Brayn, a man
picked over (…) by a Home Office who believed a more rigid regimen needed to be established
at the asylum.
c) “Brayn was indeed a martinet, a jailer of the old school who would have done well at any prison
farm.” (l. 11-13) / Brayn was really punctilious, a traditional jailer who would have been
successful working at any prison farm.
d) “There were no escapes during his term of office (…), and in the first year two hundred thousand
hours of solitary confinement were logged by the more fractious inmates.” (l. 14-19) / No one
escaped while he was in office (…), and in the first year of his mandate two hundred thousand
hours of solitary confinement were registered by the more ingratiating prisoners.
e) “One curious snippet of information came from the United States later that same year, when it was
noted rather laconically that two of Minor’s family had recently killed themselves…” (l. 22-26) / One
odd piece of information came from the United States later that same year, when it was noted
rather verbosely that two of Minor’s relatives had recently killed themselves…
Answer: C
This text refers to questions from 1 through 3.
TEXT 15: Godzilla’s grandchildren
In Japan there is no kudos in going to jail for your art. Bending the rules, let alone breaking them, is
largely taboo. That was one reason Toshinori Mizuno was terrified as he worked undercover at the
Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear-power plant, trying to get the shot that shows him in front of the mangled third
reactor holding up a referee’s red card. He was also terrified of the radiation, which registered its highest
reading where he took the photograph. The only reason he did not arouse suspicion, he says, is because he
was in regulation radiation kit. And in Japan people rarely challenge a man in uniform.
Mr. Mizuno is part of ChimPom, a six-person collective of largely unschooled artists who have spent a
lot of time getting into tight spots since the disaster, and are engagingly thoughtful about the results.
It is easy to dismiss ChimPom’s work as a publicity stunt. But the artists’ actions speak at least as loudly
as their images. There is a logic to their seven years of guerrilla art that has become clearer since the
nuclear disaster of March 11th 2011. In fact, Noi Sawaragi, a prominent art critic, says they may be hinting
at a new direction in Japanese contemporary art.
Radiation and nuclear annihilation have suffused Japan’s subculture since the film Gojira (the Japanese
Godzilla) in 1954. The two themes crop up repeatedly in manga and anime cartoons.
Other young artists are ploughing similar ground. Kota Takeuchi, for instance, secretly took a job at
Fukushima Dai-ichi and is recorded pointing an angry finger at the camera that streams live images of the
site. Later he used public news conferences to pressure Tepco, operator of the plant, about the conditions
of its workers inside. His work, like ChimPom’s, blurs the distinction between art and activism.
Japanese political art is unusual and the new subversiveness could be a breath of fresh air; if only
anyone noticed. The ChimPom artists have received scant coverage in the stuffy arts pages of the national
newspapers. The group held just one show of Mr. Mizuno’s reactor photographs in Japan. He says: “The
timing has not been right. The media will just want to make the work look like a crime.”
Internet: <www.economist.com> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2012) According to the text, judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong
(E).
( ) Toshinori Mizuno was more concerned with the radiation he was exposed to while he was at the
nuclear-power plant than with the fact that his art challenged the Japanese established rules.
( ) Some Fukushima Dai-ichi employers have turned into political activists after the accident of 2011.
( ) The Japanese in general are enthusiastic about artists who get in trouble for breaking the traditional
dogmas prevalent in the artistic milieu.
( ) Mr. Mizuno believes the radiation kit protected him from more than the radiation in the area.
Answer: E, E, E, C
2. (IRBr – 2012) The words “mangled” (l. 7) and “suffused” (l. 30) mean respectively:
a) ruined and permeated.
b) mutilated and obscured.
c) subdued and covered.
d) humongous and imbued.
e) torn and zeroed in on.
Answer: A
3. (IRBr – 2012) Based on the text, it is correct to say that ChimPom:
a) adopts some artistic-political stance which is being largely ignored by the Japanese media
nationwide.
b) produces art which is dissonant with its members’ attitudes.
c) is unique in mixing art with political protest.
d) is a large group of untrained artists whose work blend art and political activism.
e) creates art which is avant-garde, and is setting the path of modern art in Japan.
Answer: A
This text refers to questions from 1 through 3.
TEXT 16: Can a planet survive the death of its sun? Scientists find two that did.
Natalie Batalha has had plenty of experience fielding questions from both layfolk and other scientists
over the past couple of years – and with good reason. Batalha is the deputy principal investigator for the
spectacularly successful Kepler space telescope, which has found evidence of more than 2,000 planets
orbiting distant stars so far – including, just last week, a world almost exactly the size of Earth.
But Kepler is giving astronomers all sorts of new information about stars as well, and that’s what an
European TV correspondent wanted to know about during an interview last year. Was it true, she asked,
that stars like the sun will eventually swell up and destroy their planets? It’s a common question, and
Batalha recited the familiar answer, one that’s been in astronomy textbooks for at least half a century: Yes,
it’s true. Five or six billion years from now, Earth will be burnt to a cinder. This old news was apparently
quite new to the European correspondent, because when she reported her terrifying scoop, she added a
soupçon of conspiracy theory to it: NASA, she suggested, was trying to downplay the story.
It was not a proud moment for science journalism, but unexpectedly, at about the same time the European
correspondent was reporting her nonbulletin, Kepler scientists did discover a whole new wrinkle to the
planet-eating-star scenario: it’s apparently possible for planets to be swallowed up by their suns and live
to tell the tale. According to a paper just published in Nature, the Kepler probe has taken a closer look at
a star called KOI 55 and identified it as a “B subdwarf”, the red-hot corpse of a sunlike star, one that
already went through its deadly expansion. Around it are two planets, both a bit smaller than Earth – and
both so close to their home star that even the tiniest solar expansion ought to have consumed them whole.
And yet they seem, writes astronomer Eliza Kempton in a Nature commentary, “to be alive and well.
Which begs the question, how did they survive?”
How indeed? A star like the sun takes about 10 billion years to use up the hydrogen supply. Once the
hydrogen is gone, the star cools from white hot to red hot and swells dramatically: in the case of our solar
system, the sun’s outer layers will reach all the way to Earth. Eventually, those outer layers will waft
away to form what’s called a planetary nebula while the core shrinks back into an object just like KOI 55.
If a planet like Earth spent a billion years simmering in the outer layers of a star it would, says
astronomer Betsy Green, “just evaporate. Only planets with masses very much larger than the Earth, like
Jupiter or Saturn, could possibly survive.”
And yet these two worlds, known as KOI 55.01 and KOI 55.02, lived through the ordeal anyway. The
key to this seeming impossibility, suggest the astronomers, is that the planets may have begun life as gas
giants like Jupiter or Saturn, with rocky cores surrounded by vast, crushing atmospheres. As the star
expanded, the gas giants would have spiraled inward until they dipped into the stellar surface itself. The
plunge would have been enough to strip off their atmospheres, but their rocky interiors could have
survived – leaving, eventually, the bleak tableau of the naked cores of two planets orbiting the naked core
of an elderly star.
Internet: <www.time.com> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2012) Based on the text, judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The recent discovery of a planet with some features very similar to those of the Earth is one of the
interesting finds of the Kepler space telescope.
( ) The European TV correspondent reported a scientific find that had been long known as if it were a
recent breakthrough.
( ) The researchers seem baffled by the recent find of the probe, since they did not expect planets to
survive their sun’s expansion and subsequent shrinkage.
( ) The article mocks the European TV correspondent’s disinformation about astronomy.
Answer: E, C, C, E
2. (IRBr – 2012) According to the text, judge if the items below about Natalie Batalha are
right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) She is the chief researcher of the space project that involves the Kepler telescope.
( ) She was taken aback by the European TV correspondent’s ignorance about the natural process of a
star’s living cycle.
( ) Natalie Batalha demonstrated how planets can survive the death of the star they orbit.
( ) Natalie Batalha is used to talking about her research to specialists and non-specialists alike.
Answer: E, E, E, C
3. (IRBr – 2012) Each of the options below presents a sentence of the text and a version
of this sentence. Choose which one has retained most of the original meaning found in
the text.
a) “A star like the sun takes about 10 billion years to use up the hydrogen supply” (l. 46-48) / It would
take a sunlike star around 10 billion years to supply the necessary hydrogen.
b) “Eventually, those outer layers will waft away to form what’s called a planetary nebula while the
core shrinks back into an object just like KOI 55” (l. 52-55) / Eventually, those outer layers will
spew away to shape what’s called a planetary nebula while the core shrinks back into an object
just like KOI 55.
c) “Natalie Batalha has had plenty of experience fielding questions from both layfolk and other
scientists over the past couple of years – and with good reason” (l. 1-4) / Natalie Batalha was quite
adept at discerning which questions were made by layfolk or by other scientists over the past
couple of years – and with good reason.
d) “at about the same time the European correspondent was reporting her nonbulletin, Kepler scientists
did discover a whole new wrinkle to the planet-eating-star scenario” (l. 27-31) / at about the same
time the European correspondent was reporting her nonbulletin, Kepler scientists did stumble
upon a whole new crease to the planet-eating-star scene.
e) “This old news was apparently quite new to the European correspondent, because when she reported
her terrifying scoop, she added a soupçon of conspiracy theory to it” (l. 20-24) / This old news was
apparently quite new to the European correspondent, because when she reported her terrifying
scoop, she added a dab of conspiracy theory to it.
Answer: E
This text refers to questions from 1 through 3.
TEXT 17
While on their way, the slaves selected to go to the great House farm would make the dense old woods,
for miles around, reverberate with their wild songs, revealing at once the highest joy and the deepest
sadness. (...) They would sing, as a chorus, to words which to many would seem unmeaning jargon, but
which, nevertheless, were full of meaning to themselves. I have sometimes thought that the mere hearing
of those songs would do more to impress some minds with the horrible character of slavery, than the
reading of whole volumes of philosophy on the subject could do.
I did not, when a slave, understand the deep meaning of those rude and apparently incoherent songs. I
was myself within the circle; so that I neither saw nor heard as those without might see and hear. They
told a tale of woe which was then altogether beyond my feeble comprehension; they were tones loud,
long, and deep; they breathed the prayer and complaint of souls boiling over with the bitterest anguish.
Every tone was a testimony against slavery, and a prayer to God for deliverance from chains. The hearing
of those wild notes always depressed my spirit, and filled me with ineffable sadness. I have frequently
found myself in tears while hearing them. The mere recurrence to those songs, even now, afflicts me; and
while I am writing these lines, an expression of feeling has already found its way down my cheek. To
those songs I trace my first glimmering conception of the dehumanizing character of slavery. I can never
get rid of that conception. Those songs still follow me, to deepen my hatred of slavery, and quicken my
sympathies for my brethren in bonds. If any one wishes to be impressed with the soul-killing effects of
slavery, let him go to Colonel Lloyd’s plantation, and, on allowance-day, place himself in the deep pine
woods, and there let him, in silence, analyze the sounds that shall pass through the chambers of his soul,
and if he is not thus impressed, it will only be because “there is no flesh in his obdurate heart”.
Frederick Douglass. Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave. Charleston (SC):
Forgotten Books, 2008, p. 26-7 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2012) To state that the songs “told a tale of woe” (l. 18-19) means that the
songs:
a) were accounts of intertribal warfare.
b) were hyms praising God.
c) were delusions of grandeur of an African idyllic time.
d) had to do with grief and sorrow.
e) had the purpose of keeping slaves’ minds away from their hard work.
Answer: D
2. (IRBr – 2012) Based on the text, judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The music produced by the slaves had the power to incite them to rebel against their appalling
condition.
( ) The author of the text ascribes his nascent political awareness regarding slavery to the tunes he
heard the slaves sing.
( ) The narrator believes that his fellow slaves managed to translate their dire predicament into moving
tunes.
( ) To outsiders, the music sung by the slaves would probably sound like babbling.
Answer: E, C, C, C
3. (IRBr – 2012) Regarding the text, judge if the items below are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The fragment “quicken my sympathies for my brethren in bonds” (l. 37-38) means that the narrator is
fast when it comes to forging emotional and spiritual bonds with his own real family through music.
( ) In “than the reading of whole volumes” (l. 12-13), the omission of the definite article would not
interfere with the grammar correction of the sentence.
( ) The relationship the word “within” (l. 16) bears with “without” (l. 18) is one of opposition.
( ) Although the slaves’ songs touched the narrator’s heart, the uncultured quality of their music
sometimes annoyed him, as shown in the fragment “The hearing of those wild notes always depressed
my spirit” (l. 25-26).
Answer: E, E, C, E
This text refers to questions from 1 through 3.
TEXT 18: Darkness and light
Caravaggio’s art is made from darkness and light. His pictures present spotlit moments of extreme and
often agonized human experience. A man is decapitated in his bedchamber, blood spurting from a deep
gash in his neck. A woman is shot in the stomach with a bow and arrow at point-blank range.
Caravaggio’s images freeze time but also seem to hover on the brink of their own disappearance. Faces
are brightly illuminated. Details emerge from darkness with such uncanny clarity that they might be
hallucinations. Yet always the shadows encroach, the pools of blackness that threaten to obliterate all.
Looking at his pictures is like looking at the world of flashes of lightning.
Caravaggio’s life is like his art, a series of lightning flashes in the darkness of nights. He is a man who
can never be known in full because almost all that he did, said and thought is lost in the irrecoverable
past. He was one of the most electrifying original artists ever to have lived, yet we have only one solitary
sentence from him on the subject of painting – the sincerity of which is, in any case, questionable, since it
was elicited from him when he was under interrogation for the capital crime of libel.
When Caravaggio emerges from the obscurity of the past he does so, like the characters in his own
paintings, as a man in extremis. He lived much of his life as a fugitive, and that is how he is preserved in
history – a man on the run, heading for the hills, keeping to the shadows. But he is caught, now and again,
by the sweeping beam of a searchlight. Each glimpse is different. He appears in many guises and moods.
Caravaggio throws stones at the house of his landlady and sings ribald songs outside her window. He has
a fight with a waiter about the dressing on a plate of artichokes. His life is a series of intriguing and vivid
tableaux – scenes that abruptly switch from low farce to high drama. Andrew Graham-Dixon. Caravaggio:
a life sacred and profane.
New York – London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2012) Based on the text, judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) In the second paragraph, the author suggests that information collected under duress is not reliable.
( ) The text is built on images associated with darkness, which suggests that Caravaggio’s life, as well
as the quality of his art, was shadowy and shady.
( ) The author provides the opening paragraph with a cinematic quality for he attempts to create
dynamic scenes.
( ) From the passage “He is a man who can never be known in full because almost all that he did, said
and thought is lost in the irrecoverable past.” (l. 18-21) it can be correctly inferred that the author is of
the opinion that the study of history is a futile attempt to reconstruct events from the past.
Answer: C, E, C, E
2. (IRBr – 2012) In line 7, “at point-blank range” means:
a) in a cold-blooded manner.
b) summarily.
c) without intention.
d) fatally.
e) within a short distance.
Answer: E
3. (IRBr – 2012) In the last paragraph of the text, the cause for Caravaggio’s
disagreement with the waiter was:
a) the sauce served with the artichokes.
b) the inartistic appearance of the food.
c) the unaffordable price of the plate.
d) the frugality of the dish.
e) the lack of freshness of the artichokes.
Answer: A
This text refers to questions from 1 through 3.
TEXT 19
Nobel was an ardent advocate of arbitration, though not of disarmament, which he thought a foolish
demand for the present. He urged establishment of a tribunal and agreement among nations for a one-year
period of compulsory truce in any dispute. He turned up in person, though incognito, at a Peace Congress
in Bern in 1892 and told Bertha von Suttner that if she could “inform me, convince me, I will do
something great for the cause”. The spark of friendship between them had been kept alive in
correspondence and an occasional visit over the years and he now wrote her that a new era of violence
seemed to be working itself up: “one hears in the distance its hollow rumble already”. Two months later
he wrote again, “I should like to dispose of my fortune to found a prize to be awarded every five years” to
the person who had contributed most effectively to the peace of Europe. He thought that it should
terminate after six awards, “for if in thirty years society cannot be reformed we shall inevitably lapse into
barbarism”.
Nobel brooded over the plan, embodied it in a will drawn in 1895 which allowed man a little longer
deadline, and died the following year.
Barbara Tuchman. The proud power. MacMillan Company, 1966, p. 233 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2011) Based on the text, judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) It can be inferred from the text that Nobel did a dramatic volte-face concerning his stance on peace
or disarmament.
( ) Nobel predicted that peace would only last thirty years, because violence in Europe was increasing.
( ) Nobel suggested that ominous signs of impending violence could be discerned in the offing.
( ) The author puts forward a tentative suggestion that Nobel’s continued commitment to the cause of
arbitration rendered him impervious to the idea of disarmament.
Answer: C, E, C, E
2. (IRBr – 2011) In the text:
( ) “brooded over” and “will”, lines 25 and 26, mean respectively pondered and an official statement
disposing of a person’s property after his or her death.
( ) the pronoun “it” (l. 21) refers to Nobel’s fortune.
( ) the word “for” (l. 22) can be replaced by since with no change in the original meaning of the
sentence.
( ) the term “spark” (l. 11) is used in its connotative meaning.
Answer: C, E, E, C
3. (IRBr – 2011) Which of the following statements about the verbs in the text is correct?
a) The forms “brooded” (l. 25), “embodied” (l. 25) and “died” (l. 27) can be replaced, respectively, by
has brooded, has embodied and has died without effecting a significant change in the original meaning
of the text.
b) In “The spark of friendship between them had been kept alive” (l. 11-12), the use of the form “had
been” implies the connection between Von Suttner and Nobel took place after the Peace Congress.
c) The verbal form “should” (l. 17) could be replaced by would without effecting a significant change
in the meaning of the text.
d) The use of the form “to be awarded” (l. 18-19) directs the focus of the sentence to those who award
the prize.
e) In “I will do something great” (l. 10), the use of “will” conveys the idea of imposition.
Answer: C
This text refers to questions from 1 through 5.
TEXT 20
It may not stir up international outrage like its semi-namesake WikiLeaks, but Wikipedia sparks debate.
The free online encyclopedia, which celebrates its tenth birthday on January 15th, is a symbol of unpaid
collaboration and one of the most popular destinations on the Internet, attracting some 400m visitors a
month. It also faces serious charges of elitism.
Wikipedia offers more than 17m articles in 247 languages. Every day thousands of people edit entries or
add new ones in return for nothing more than the satisfaction of contributing to the stock of human
knowledge. Wikipedia relies on its users’ generosity to fill its coffers as well as its pages. Recent visitors
to the website were confronted with images of Jimmy Wales, a co-founder, and a request for donations.
The campaign was annoying but effective, raising $16m in 50 days. With its emphasis on bottom-up
collaboration and the broad dissemination of knowledge, the online encyclopedia is in many ways an
incarnation of the fundamental values of the web. But Wikipedia also reveals some of the pitfalls of the
increasingly popular “crowdsourcing” model of content creation. One is maintaining accuracy. On the
whole, Wikipedia’s system of peer reviewing does a reasonable job of policing facts. But it is vulnerable
to vandalism.
Several politicians and TV personalities have had their deaths announced in Wikipedia while they were
still in fine fettle.
Some observers argue the site should start paying expert editors to produce and oversee content, and
sell advertising to cover the cost. Problems with accuracy “are an inevitable consequence of a free-
labour approach”, ​argues Alex Jannykhin, of WikiExperts, which advises organisations on how to create
Wikipedia articles (the very existence of such outfits hints at Wikipedia’s importance, as well as its
susceptibility to outside influence). The encyclopedia’s bosses retort that such concerns are overblown
and that taking advertisers would dent its appeal to users.
Wikipedia. The promise and perils of crowdsourcing content.
In: The Economist, January 15th-21st , 2011, p. 69 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2011) Based on the text, judge if the items below are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The basic concepts behind Wikipedia are inconsistent with the usefulness of unhindered access to
the Internet.
( ) It is possible to deduce from the text that Wikipedia resorted to an appeal for public monetary
contributions.
( ) One of the major concerns regarding the content of the online encyclopedia is its vulnerability to
inclusion of imprecise information.
( ) Not all articles in Wikipedia must be submitted by personal individual collaborators.
Answer: E, C, C, C
2. (IRBr – 2011) According to the text, judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong
(E).
( ) On line 33, “while they were still in fine fettle” can be correctly rewritten as even before their
bodies could be prepared for burial, without change in meaning.
( ) On lines 29-30, “But it is vulnerable to vandalism” can be correctly replaced by Furthermore, it
falls prey to vandalism, without change in meaning.
( ) From the last paragraph, it is correct to infer that volunteer work is inherently slovenly and
deceptive.
( ) The terms “stir up” (l. 1) and “sparks” (l. 3) bear a semantic relationship to the verb to fuel.
Answer: E, E, E, C
3. (IRBr – 2011) According to what the text states, choose the correct option.
a) Underlying the idea of Wikipedia is the premise of a profitable approach to the compilation and
diffusion of human values and customs.
b) Contributions to Wikipedia come both in the form of spontaneous inclusion and reviewing of texts as
well as of gifts of money.
c) Advertising would increase the reliability and acceptance of Wikipedia, according to its owners.
d) The bulk of Wikipedia articles deliberately misguide its users as to the actual death of some
celebrities.
e) Wikipedia is not free of charge, for it launches aggressive worldwide fund-raising campaigns.
Answer: B
4. (IRBr – 2011) In the text, the word “overblown” (l. 45) is synonymous with:
a) excessive.
b) widespread.
c) fundamental.
d) grave.
e) mounting.
Answer: A
5. (IRBr – 2011) In the text, the expression “peer reviewing” (l. 28) refers to:
a) a thorough check of facts and figures carried out by individuals who have spotless academic
reputations.
b) an enforcement of rules similar to that performed by police officers.
c) the system used by Wikipedia to minimize the publication of false information.
d) the mounting pressure brought to bear on an individual by his or her colleagues.
e) a friendly way of going over factual research.
Answer: C
This text refers to questions from 1 through 4.
TEXT 21
Remembrance of things past is often dearest to those who are bored or driven to despair by the world
around them. To these the contemplation of times gone by brings surcease from current burdens too heavy
to bear. “Take not away from me” implored the Emperor Julian, world-weary monarch in another age of
disenchantment, “this mad love for that which no longer is. That which has been is more splendidly
beautiful than all that is…” To others, concerned as watchers and movers with the challenge of today and
the promise or menace of tomorrow, the tale of many yesterdays, reconstructed by the history and the
science of living men and women, has another meaning.
By revealing what has gone before, it illumines the act of the human adventure now being played and
suggests the pattern of acts to come. The drama of earthborn and earthbound humanity, despite all its
crises and intermissions, is a continuous story. All the characters are prisoners of time. All the problems
of the now are forever shaped by the experiences of a then which extends back in unbroken sequence to
the origins of life. Each generation has freedom to choose among alternative designs for destiny, and
opportunity to win some measure of mastery over its fate, only to the extent of its comprehension of where
it stands in the cavalcade of years, decades, centuries, and millennia ticked off by the spinning planet.
Frederick L. Schuman. International politics: the destiny of the Western state system. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1948, p. 1 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2011) Based on the text, judge if the items below are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) One can infer from the text that backward or nostalgic views of the world have existed for more than
a thousand years.
( ) According to the text, although past events should be taken into consideration, humankind can choose
its future and destiny freely.
( ) The author of the text suggests that nostalgia is the preserve of desperate people.
( ) The author’s clear intention in the first paragraph is to rightly extol the virtues of extreme political
reactionarism.
Answer: C, E, C, E
2. (IRBr – 2011) As far as the semantic and grammar features of the text are concerned,
judge if the following items are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) The word “and” (l. 20) is used as a stylistic device to bring together two synonymous words,
“earthborn” and “earthbound”.
( ) The pronoun “it” (l. 17) refers to “another meaning” (l. 16).
( ) A more up-to-date manner to convey the notion expressed by “illumines” (l. 17-18) is sheds light
on.
( ) The expression “watchers and movers” (l. 11-12) refers to people who play clearly distinct roles as
far as political action is concerned.
Answer: E, E, C, C
3. (IRBr – 2011) Still in the fields of semantics and grammar of the text, judge if the
items below are right (C) or wrong (E).
( ) If “ticked off” and “spinning” (l. 32-33) were replaced respectively by marked off and rotating,
there would occur no grammar mistakes in the sentence.
( ) The words “crises” (l. 21) and “millennia” (l. 32), as well as theses and fulcra, can only be found
in their plural forms.
( ) In the fragment “All the problems of the now are forever shaped by the experiences of a then” (l. 23-
25), the words “now” and “then” can be replaced respectively by here and there without effecting
changes in the meaning and the grammatical correction of the passage.
( ) In the first paragraph, the words “world-weary” (l. 7) and “disenchantment” (l. 8) establish a
semantic relation which reveals the pessimism which was felt by the “monarch” (l. 7) and
characterized his “age” (l. 8).
Answer: C, E, E, C
4. (IRBr – 2011) The particle “as” (l. 11) is used in the text:
a) to express the idea of in the same way.
b) to describe the purpose or quality of someone or something.
c) to express the idea of because.
d) to express the idea of while.
e) in a comparison to refer to the degree of something.
Answer: B
This text refers to questions 1 to 4.
TEXT 22: Oriana, the agitator
Oriana Fallaci, the Italian writer and journalist best known for her abrasive tone and provocative
stances, was for two decades, from the mid-nineteen-sixties to the mid-nineteen-eighties, one of the
sharpest political interviewers in the world. Her subjects were among the world’s most powerful figures:
Yasser Arafat, Golda Meir, Indira Ghandi, Haile Selassie, Deng Xiaoping. Henry Kissinger, who later
wrote that his 1972 interview with her was “the single most disastrous conversation I have ever had with
any member of the press,” said that he had been flattered into granting it by the company he’d be keeping
as part of Fallaci’s “journalistic pantheon”. It was more like a collection of pelts: Fallaci never left her
subjects unskinned.
Her manner of interviewing was deliberately unsettling: she approached each encounter with studied
aggressiveness, made frequent nods to European existentialism (she often disarmed her subjects with bald
questions about death, God, and pity), and displayed a sinuous, crafty intelligence. It didn’t hurt that she
was petite and beautiful, with perfect cheekbones, straight, smooth hair that she wore parted in the middle
or in pigtails; melancholy blue-grey eyes, set off by eyeliner; a cigarette-cured voice; and an adorable
Italian accent. During the Vietnam War, she was sometimes photographed in fatigues and a helmet; her
rucksack bore handwritten instructions to return her body to the Italian Ambassador “if K.I.A.” In these
images she looked slight and vulnerable as a child. Her essential toughness never stopped taking people –
men, especially – by surprise.
Fallaci’s journalism was infused with a “mythic sense of political evil”, an almost adolescent aversion
to power, which suited the temperament of the times. “Whether”, she would say, “it comes from a
despotic sovereign or an elected president, from a murderous general or a beloved leader, I see power as
an inhuman and hateful phenomenon… I have always looked on disobedience towards the oppressive as
the only way to use the miracle of having been born.” In her interview with Kissinger, she told him that he
had become known as “Nixon’s mental wet nurse,” and lured him into boasting that Americans admired
him because he “always acted alone” – like “the cowboy who leads the wagon train by riding ahead alone
on his horse, the cowboy who rides all alone into the town.” Political cartoonists mercilessly lampooned
this remark, and, according to Kissinger’s memoirs, the quote soured his relations with Nixon (Kissinger
claimed that she had taken his words out of context). But the most remarkable moment in the interview
came when Fallaci bluntly asked him, about Vietnam, “Don’t you find, Dr. Kissinger, that it’s been a
useless war?”, and he began his reply with the words, “On this, I can agree.”
Internet: <www.newyorker.com> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2010) From the previous text, it can be inferred that Oriana Fallaci:
a) seemed at times defenceless, vulnerable, and child-like.
b) had just quit smoking cigarettes.
c) tried deliberately to use the music-like quality of her mother tongue to lure her interviewers.
d) grew tired of the Vietnam War.
e) had become a close friend of the Italian Ambassador in Hanoi at the time of the war.
Answer: A
2. (IRBr – 2010) In the fragment, “lured him into boasting that Americans admired him”
(l. 52-53), the words lured and boasting mean, respectively:
a) pressed and stating.
b) tempted and denying.
c) enticed and bragging.
d) challenged and acknowledging.
e) coerced and showing off.
Answer: C
3. (IRBr – 2010) Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) The highly professional sense of Fallaci as a journalist in search of truth made her avoid any sort of
tricks in approaching her interviewees, both powerful figures and common people.
( ) Fallaci had either been a heavy smoker or had smoked for a long time.
( ) Fallaci exploited Kissinger’s somewhat big ego to trick him into making some public statements he
would later regret.
( ) Kissinger seems to suggest that Fallaci was not entirely professionally ethical or honest when
dealing with the interview he had granted her.
Answer: E, C, C, C
4. (IRBr – 2010) Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) the following items.
( ) Although fascinated by power, Fallaci was more lenient with democratically elected politicians.
( ) Fallaci, in her interview with Kissinger, praised President Nixon to constraint Kissinger.​
( ) Kissinger believed he rightfully belonged to the very select group of world politicians Fallaci had
already interviewed.
( ) One of the basic criteria Fallaci adopted to handpick her interviewees was gender-based: half of
them had to be necessarily women politicians.
Answer: E, E, C, E
This text refers to questions 1 to 4.
TEXT 23: Amartya Sen
Freedom, in the eyes of Amartya Sen, the famous Indian economist and philosopher, does not consist
merely of being left to our own devices. It also requires that people have the necessary resources to lead
lives that they themselves consider to be good ones. The focus on the individual has led some critics to
accuse Sen of “methodological individualism” – not a compliment. Communitarian opponents, in
particular, think that he pays insufficient regard to the broader social group. In response, he – usually an
unfailingly courteous writer – becomes a bit cross, pointing out that “people who think, choose and act”
are simply “a manifest reality in the world”. Of course communities influence people, “but ultimately it is
individual valuation on which we have to draw, while recognising the profound interdependence of the
valuations of people who interact with each other”.
Nor is Sen easily caricatured as an egalitarian: “capabilities”, for example, do not have to be entirely
equal. He is a pluralist, and recognises that even capabilities cannot always trump other values. Liberty
has priority, Sen insists, but not in an absurdly purist fashion that would dictate “treating the slightest gain
of liberty – no matter how small – as enough reason to make huge sacrifices in other amenities of a good
life – no matter how large”.
Throughout, Sen remains true to his Indian roots. One of the joys of his recently published book entitled
The Idea of Justice is the rich use of Indian classical thought – the debate between 3rd-century emperor
Ashoka, a liberal optimist, and Kautilya, a downbeat institutionalist, is much more enlightening than, say,
a tired contrast between Hobbes and Hume.
Despite these diverting stories, the volume cannot be said to fall into the category of a “beach read”:
subtitles such as “The Plurality of Non-Rejectability” provide plenty of warning. But for those who like
their summer dinner tables to be filled with intelligent, dissenting discourse, the book is worth the weight.
There is plenty here to argue with. Sen wouldn’t have it any other way.
Internet: <http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2010) Based on the text above, it can be said that the relationship established
between the ideas of “unfailingly courteous” (l. 12) and “cross” (l. 13) is one of:
a) contrast.
b) reiteration.
c) inclusion.
d) result.
e) addition.
Answer: A
2. (IRBr – 2010) In the fragment, “even capabilities cannot always trump other values”
(l.24-25), the verb “trump” means:
a) to be bracketed with.
b) to foster.
c) to vie against.
d) to prevail over.
e) to hold on to.
Answer: D
3. (IRBr – 2010) According to the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) South-east Asian classical economics rather than European philosophy laid the main theoretical and
practical foundation for Sen’s theses.
( ) Communitarian opponents make up the largest and most vocal group of Sen’s critics.
( ) Sen’s work, although focused on the individual and on the idea of liberty, does not lose sight of the
inherent dynamics of the different communities.
( ) Sen dismisses out of hand the ideas advanced by English philosophers of the XVII and XVIII
centuries.
Answer: E, E, C, E
4. (IRBr – 2010) Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following items.
( ) Communitarians’ major objection against Sen is based on his vigorous defence of unmitigated
individualism.
( ) Sen finds the theses put forward by Ashoka and Kautilya to be more ground-breaking and insightful
than those proposed by some major Western philosophers 14 or 15 centuries later.
( ) Even Sen’s followers resent the sheer lack of purism in his championing of freedom.
( ) Despite having a usually gentle disposition, Sen often flies into a nasty temper whenever any of his
ideas are challenged.
Answer: E, E, E, E
This text refers to questions 1 to 4.
TEXT 24
“For heaven’s sake,” my father said, seeing me off at the airport, “don’t get drunk, don’t get pregnant –
and don’t get involved in politics.” He was right to be concerned. Rhodes University in the late 1970s,
with its Sir Herbert Baker-designed campus and lush green lawns, looked prosperous and sedate. But the
Sunday newspapers had been full of the escapades of its notorious drinking clubs and loose morals; the
Eastern Cape was, after the riots of 1976, a place of turmoil and desperate poverty; and the campus was
thought by most conservative parents to be a hotbed of political activity.
The Nationalist policy of forced removals meant thousands of black people had been moved from the
cities into the nearby black “homelands” of Transkei and Ciskei, and dumped there with only a standpipe
and a couple of huts for company; two out of three children died of malnutrition before the age of three. I
arrived in 1977, the year after the Soweto riots, to study journalism. Months later, Steve Biko was
murdered in custody. The campus tipped over into turmoil. There were demonstrations and hunger strikes.
For most of us, Rhodes was a revelation. We had been brought up to respect authority. Here, we could
forge a whole new identity, personally and politically. Out of that class of 1979 came two women whose
identities merge with the painful birth of the new South Africa: two journalism students whose journey
was to take them through defiance, imprisonment and torture during the apartheid years.
One of the quietest girls in the class, Marion Sparg, joined the ANC’s military wing, Umkhonto we
Sizwe (MK), and was eventually convicted of bombing two police stations. An Asian journalist, Zubeida
Jaffer, was imprisoned and tortured, yet ultimately chose not to prosecute her torturers. Today you can
trace the footprints of my classmates across the opposition press in South Africa and the liberal press in
the UK – The Guardian, The Observer and the Financial Times. Even the Spectator (that’s me). Because
journalism was not a course offered at “black” universities, we had a scattering of black students. It was
the first time many of us would ever have met anyone who was black and not a servant. I went to hear Pik
Botha, the foreign minister, a Hitlerian figure with a narrow moustache, an imposing bulk and a posse of
security men. His reception was suitably stormy, even mocking – students flapping their arms and saying,
“Pik-pik-pik-P-I-I-I-K!”, like chattering hens.
But students who asked questions had to identify themselves first. There were spies in every class. We
never worked out who they were, although some of us suspected the friendly Afrikaans guy with the
shark’s tooth necklace.
Janice Warman. South Africa’s Rebel Whites. In: The Guardian Weekly, 20/11/2009 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2010) Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items below.
( ) Of the three journalism students mentioned in the text, it can be said that the most self-effacing and
reserved of them all turned out to be the one to deliver a most violent blow against the apartheid
security apparatus.
( ) The university the author attended can be described as a place where neither the teaching staff nor
school officials exacted blind obedience from students.
( ) The author clearly underscores the striking resemblance the Nationalist Party of South Africa bears
to its Nazi counterpart.
( ) Students decided to burlesque Botha’s performance as an ineffectual and chicken-hearted foreign
minister by doing a ludicrous and crude imitation of a bird.
Answer: C, C, E, E
2. (IRBr – 2010) The author creates in the reader’s mind the distinct impression that her
father was:
a) an overprotective and controlling individual who wanted to be an integral part in all aspects of his
daughter’s life.
b) prudish parent who persistently demanded that his daughter be or appear to be very prim, proper,
modest and righteous at all times.
c) a paranoid father who refused to let go, and clamped her down with hard and fast rules and strict
discipline.
d) a doting father whose motto could very well be “Spare the rod, spoil the child”.
e) a caring parent who was well-aware of the peculiar atmosphere that pervaded college campuses in
the late 70’s: permissive, in a state of constant political unrest, and overindulgent in terms of drinking.
Answer: E
3. (IRBr – 2010) The overall view the author outlines of late 70’s South Africa is:
a) unduly optimistic, coloured by the typically unattainable idealism of young people.
b) predictably hopelessly distorted by the author’s white middle-class background and petit bourgeois
values.
c) inherently flawed and, therefore, pointless for it fails to place the country in a broader regional,
African, or world context.
d) basically descriptive and provides information about a politically, socially, and racially unequal and
unfair society poised on the verge of momentous changes.
e) oddly detached and unemotional due, perhaps, to the fact that she can only sympathize with the
oppressed black population’s plight up to a point.
Answer: D
4. (IRBr – 2010) In the text:
( ) “hotbed” (l. 13) is synonymous with breeding ground.
( ) “tipped over” (l. 25) can be replaced by was plunged.
( ) “scattering” (l. 49) can be paraphrased as an unruly mob.
( ) “posse” (l. 55) and entourage are interchangeable.
Answer: C, C, E, C
This text refers to questions 1 to 4.
TEXT 25
Fundamentalism has one interesting insight. It perceives the science-based, libertarian, humanist culture
of the modern era as being itself a kind of new religion – and its deadly enemy. We fail to see this because
we are immersed in it, it dominates more than nine-tenths of our lives, and it is so amorphous. It has no
officially recognised scriptures, creeds, prophets or organisation. Rather, it is a loose coalition of many
different forces, kept on the move and in constant self-criticism and self-correction by an active and
striving ethic derived from Protestantism. So far as this new faith – if that is what it is – has theologians,
priests and prophets, they are, respectively, the scientists and scholars whose business it is to criticise
and increase knowledge, the artists who refine our perceptions and open up new life-possibilities, and the
armies of idealistic campaigners who urge us to become active in hundreds of good causes.
So seductive and compelling is this new faith that it is somehow impossible to avoid adopting its
language and its way of thinking. They are everywhere, and irresistible. That is what makes it like a
religion: once we are in the midst of it and do not appreciate how strong and distinctive a flavour it has,
we are largely unaware of its awesome, unstoppable, disruptive evangelistic power.
Don Cuppitt. The sea of faith. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1985, p. 181 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2009) It can be concluded from the text that:
a) fundamentalism is more intuitively perceptive than secular culture.
b) scientists and scholars act the same way as theologians, priests and prophets.
c) modern humanist culture is subliminally pervasive.
d) idealism compels people to join good causes.
e) Protestantism is the backbone of modern humanist culture.
Answer: C
2. (IRBr – 2009) Judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following items with reference to
the text.
( ) The pronoun “its” (l. 4) refers to “humanist culture” (l. 3).
( ) The word “Rather” (l. 9) means more or less.
( ) In context, the expression “So far as” (l. 13) means as though.
( ) The word “business” (l. 16) could be appropriately replaced by concern.
Answer: E, E, E, C
3. (IRBr – 2009) Indicate which of the following words or phrases would not be an
appropriate synonym for the word “once” in the phrase “once we are in the midst of it”
(l. 26-27).
a) because
b) since
c) as
d) whenever
e) inasmuch as
Answer: D
4. (IRBr – 2009) In the phrase “That is what makes it like a religion” (l. 25-26), the word
“That” refers to:
a) the fact that one cannot avoid adopting its language and rationale.
b) the language and way of thinking being everywhere.
c) the pervasiveness of modern humanist culture.
d) the seductiveness of science-based thinking.
e) the ubiquitousness of the new faith.
Answer: A
This text refers to questions 1 to 4.
TEXT 26
German scientists have reconstructed an extraordinarily detailed picture of the domestic life of Martin
Luther, the 16th-century reformer and father of Protestantism, by trawling through his household waste
uncovered during archaeological digs on sites where he used to live.
Despite the widespread belief that Luther lived in poverty, evidence suggests he was a well-fed man –
weighing in at a hefty 150 kg when he died in 1546 at the age of 63.
Even Luther’s claim that he came from humble circumstances has been dismissed. New evidence has
shown that his father owned land and a copper mill besides lending money for interest. His mother
meanwhile was born into an upper middle-class family and it is unlikely, as Luther suggested, that she
“carried all her wood on her back”.
Extensive research carried out at the family home in Wittenberg showed that Luther wrote his celebrated
texts with goose quills under lamps lit by animal fat, in a heated room which overlooked the River Elbe.
It obviously suited him because he churned out 1,800 pages a year. It debunks something of the Luther
myth to know he wrote the 95 theses on a stone toilet, which was dug up in 2004.
But the claim by historians which will arguably be most upsetting for followers is the 28 recently
uncovered written evidence that it was not, as thought, a lightning bolt which led to the then 21-year-old’s
spontaneous declaration he wanted to become a monk. Rather, it was his desperation to escape an
impending arranged marriage.
Kate Connolly. History digs up the dirt on Martin Luther. In: The Guardian, Monday, 27 Oct./2008.
Internet: <www.guardian.co.uk> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2009) According to the text, recent archaeological finds:
a) have revealed that Luther was not truly religious.
b) have supplemented and adjusted the portrait of Luther.
c) have perturbed Lutherans’ beliefs.
d) have proven that Luther misrepresented his parents’ financial status.
e) date back to the year 2004.
Answer: B
2. (IRBr – 2009) Indicate which of the following statements is not consistent with
information the text provides.
a) Luther’s weight belies his supposed poverty.
b) Luther’s parents were relatively well-off.
c) Luther lived in reasonable comfort at his home in Wittenberg.
d) Luther’s mother probably did not carry “all her wood on her back”.
e) Luther’s religious calling was not genuine.
Answer: E
3. (IRBr – 2009) The word “digs” (l. 6) is:
a) a noun referring to accommodation.
b) a noun referring to excavation.
c) a verb referring to mocking.
d) a verb referring to accommodation.
e) part of an adjectival phrase qualifying sites.
Answer: B
4. (IRBr – 2009) Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following items.
( ) The aim of describing Luther as “weighing in at a hefty 150 kg when he died” (l. 9-10) is to suggest
a humorous comparison with a heavy-weight boxer.
( ) The phrase “churned out 1,800 pages a year” (l. 25) suggests that Luther was a careless writer.
( ) Luther’s father indulged in usury.
( ) The reference to a “lightning bolt” (l. 32) was meant to allude to putative divine intervention in
Luther’s calling.
Answer: C, E, C, C
This text refers to questions 1 to 4.
TEXT 27
It’s cold and early and Detlef Fendt repeats a morning ritual, heaving himself onto the side of his 28-
year-old BMW motorbike and jumping with all his might on the kick-start. It takes a few goes, but
eventually the bike roars into life. After all, this is the sort of solid reliable machine that makes German
goods a household name for quality. It’s that good name that means Germany is the world’s top exporter.
China may take the title soon, but for the moment Germany is still a world-beater.
Detlef is part of that success story. For the last 40 years he’s made machine tools for Daimler cars at the
Berlin plant. He started work when he was 16 and 13 is now the plant’s main union representative for IG
Metall. But this year, thanks to the world credit crunch, he’ll be getting an unwanted seasonal break from
his early morning ritual. The plant is closing down for an extra-long Christmas break, from mid-
December to mid-January, because of falling orders. He tells me: “At the moment we are in a distribution
crisis – the automobile industry is not selling enough cars and lorries”.
Consumer confidence was dented in Germany long before the credit crunch, and despite his union’s
recent deal it is not returning.
Germany is now in recession and the figures have been worse than economists were predicting. Equally
bad statistics for the whole of the European Union are expected today. While consumers in America feel
cowed, while Asia is jittery, the rest of Europe watches fearfully as the biggest economy in Europe
continues to shrink.
Mark Mardell. Germany loses revs. BBC World News. At: <www.bbc.co.uk> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2009) Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following items.
( ) Fendt’s motorbike starts up immediately because it is a reliable machine.
( ) German manufactures are renowned for their quality and durability.
( ) Fendt is being made redundant.
( ) IG Metall is a subsidiary of BMW.
Answer: E, C, E, E
2. (IRBr – 2009) Judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following items with reference to
the text.
( ) In context, the phrase “household name” (l. 8) could be appropriately replaced by synonym.
( ) “After all” (l. 6) is equivalent to Eventually.
( ) The Berlin factory is closing temporarily owing to a slump in demand.
( ) The word “dented” (l. 26) suggests an acute effect.
Answer: C, E, C, E
3. (IRBr – 2009) In the phrase “consumers in America feel cowed, while Asia is jittery” (l.
33-34), the most appropriate synonyms for “cowed” and “jittery” are respectively:
a) bovine and aggressive.
b) herded and troubling.
c) confined and alacritous.
d) threatened and apprehensive.
e) bent over and trembling.
Answer: D
4. (IRBr – 2009) In context, “might” (l. 4) and “kick-start” (l. 4-5) are respectively:
a) a conditional verb and a noun.
b) a noun and a verb.
c) an auxiliary verb and a transitive verb.
d) an auxiliary verb and a noun.
e) a noun and a noun.
Answer: E
Text for questions from 1 through 3.
TEXT 28: European energy
The European Union (EU) revealed on January 23rd, 2008, how it plans to save the world. A mammoth
climate-change plan spells out in detail how much pain each of its 27 members will have to bear if the EU
is to meet ambitious targets set by national leaders last March.
The aim is to cut greenhouse-gas emissions by 2020 by at least a fifth, and more than double to 20% the
amount of energy produced from renewable sources such as wind or wave power. If fuel from plants
proves green enough, 10% of the fuel used in transport must come from biofuels by the same date. The
new plan turns these goals into national targets. Cue much grumbling, and no doubt months of horse-
trading, as the European Commission’s recommendations are turned into binding law by national
governments and the European Parliament.
Countries with greenery in their veins are being asked to take more of the burden than newer members.
Sweden, for example, is being invited to meet 49% of its energy from renewables. At the other end, Malta
gets a renewables target of just 10%. It is a similar story when it comes to cutting greenhouse gases: by
2020, Denmark must cut emissions by 20% from 2005 levels; Bulgaria and Romania, the newest
members, may let their emissions rise by 20%.
EU leadership on climate change will not come cheap. The direct costs alone may be i60 billion ($87
billion), or about 0.5% of total EU GDP, by 2020, said the commission’s president, José Manuel Barroso.
But this is still presented as a bargain compared with the cost of inaction, which Mr. Barroso put at ten
times as high. Oh, and leading the world in the fight against climate change need not cost jobs, even in the
most heavily polluting branches of heavy industry. “We want to keep our industry in Europe”, insisted Mr.
Barroso.
Internet: <www.economist.com> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2008) Based on the text, it can be concluded that:
( ) the targets thought of were set up last year.
( ) the European Union plans to save the world from gas emissions is an easy task.
( ) greenhouse-gas emissions can be reduced as much as a fifth by 2020 and, along the same period,
energy produced from renewable sources should more than double.
( ) “mammoth” (l. 3) means huge.
Answer: C, E, C, C
2. (IRBr – 2008) Considering the text above, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items
below.
( ) 10% of the fuel used in transport ought to come from plants in twelve years’ time.
( ) Newer members are now being requested to place more of the burden on themselves.
( ) National Governments won’t easily endorse the European Commission’s recommendations.
( ) The word “Cue” (l. 16) means queue.
Answer: E, E, C, E
3. (IRBr – 2008) Based on the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following items.
( ) The problem with renewables is the same as that of greenhouse gases.
( ) The cost of inaction is ten times as high as the expenses arisen from the climatic control.
( ) The highest polluting offices will have to dismiss their employees.
( ) In the text, “need not cost” (l. 41) can be correctly replaced by does not need to cost.
Answer: E, item anulado, E, C
Text for questions from 1 through 3.
TEXT 29
Two weeks after the Islamists of Hamas toppled the border fence, letting hundreds of thousands of
inhabitants of the Gaza Strip spill briefly into Egypt, the situation appears to have returned to what counts
as normal. But normal is not good.
Gaza’s 1.5 million people remain besieged, generally unable to leave, and with imports restricted to
minimal amounts of staple food and fuel. The Hamas militants who have run Gaza since ousting their
secular-minded Fatah rivals last summer have continued to fire rockets and mortars into Israeli towns and
farms.
As a possible harbinger of more violence to come, Hamas has also taken again to sending suicide
bombers into Israel. In the first such Hamas operation since blowing up two buses in Beersheba in 2004,
a pair of suicide bombers, reportedly former inmates of Israeli prisons from Hebron in the West Bank,
killed a 73-year-old woman in the southern Israeli town of Dimona on February 4th, 2008. Israel
responded the same day with new missile attacks, killing nine armed Hamas men.
Now, a fortnight since Hamas forces engineered the Gaza break-out, the Egyptian authorities have
resealed and reinforced the border, some 12 km (7.5 miles) long, with thick coils of razor wire and
hundreds of extra troops; they say they will resist another attempt to knock a hole in it.
Their will was tested this week, when Egyptian security forces clashed with stone-throwing
Palestinians.
Internet: <www.economist.com> (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2008) According to the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the following
items.
( ) The Hamas militants joined the Fatah rivals to fire rockets and mortars into Israeli urban and rural
areas.
( ) Gaza’s inhabitants can only have access to basic foods which come from abroad.
( ) The most recent Hamas suicide operation resulted in the blowing up of two buses.
( ) The word “harbinger” (l. 14) means: a sign that something will happen soon, often something bad.
Answer: E, item anulado, E, C
2. (IRBr – 2008) In accordance with the text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – the items
below.
( ) The two suicide bombers were kept in ordinary prisons.
( ) It took Israel a lot of time to launch a counterattack which killed nine Hamas militants.
( ) After a fortnight period the situation in Gaza Strip seems to have become what can be considered as
normal.
( ) In the text, “besieged” (l. 7) means surrounded.
Answer: E, E, C, C
3. (IRBr – 2008) Based on the text, it can be deduced that:
( ) the border between the Gaza strip and Egypt is about 12 km in length.
( ) the Egyptian authorities and Hamas forces both have the same position regarding Egyptian people
who want to cross the border to go to Gaza strip.
( ) a possible title for this article could be: Back to abnormal.
( ) the word “clashed” (l. 33) is synonymous with fought, in the context.
Answer: C, E, C, C
Text for questions from 1 through 3.
TEXT 30
Nationalisation is becoming rather fashionable. State bailouts of banks are all the rage too. There is just
one snag: western institutions are not getting their cash from ministers in London or Washington, but from
functionaries in Beijing.
While Britain’s chancellor still balks at taking Northern Rock into public ownership, his counterparts in
China have no qualms about investing state money in the private sector. This week Beijing bought a 10%
stake in the Wall Street blue chip Morgan Stanley; in May it took a slab of the private-equity giant
Blackstone. Those two deals, worth just over £4bn, were made by the China Investment Corporation
(CIC), a fund set up and run by the government. With over £100bn to burn, it is bound to make more big
deals – and big headlines – over the coming year. CIC is one of a new breed of sovereign wealth funds
(SWFs) created by nations awash with excess cash from exporting goods or oil. Most oil-producing Arab
countries have one, as do Russia, Korea and Singapore, and the funds are estimated to be worth a total of
a trillion pounds. The logic behind them is simple: if energy-rich Russia is earning around £425m from
exports every day, it naturally wants to invest that money for a higher return.
But the impact of these new vehicles is far less straightforward, and it has largely been left to
economics wonks to worry about them (even now, a Google search for “SWFs” brings up page after page
about some graphic-design software). At last, however, they are entering political debate. The IMF is
working on a code of conduct for the funds, while the rich nations’ club, the OECD, is coming up with
guidelines for recipients. Such users’ manuals have their place, but on their own they are not an adequate
answer to the issues raised by SWFs.
At their most basic level, these funds (which are projected to be worth £7.5 trillion within a decade)
embody a shift of economic power from Europe and America to China, Russia and elsewhere. They sum
up one of the global economy’s problems too: the west is consuming far more than it is producing. SWFs
are also a new and very different kind of investor.
From The Guardian Weekly, 4/1/2008 (adapted).
1. (IRBr – 2008) According to the text, it can be said that:
a) China would never invest money in dubious bargains.
b) CIC spent a lot more than £4bn on Morgan Stanley and Blackstone.
c) SWFs were created to avoid exporting excess of goods or oil.
d) most probably, China will put more money in bigger deals.
e) Russia’s everyday export earnings are saved so as to be better invested in the long run.
Answer: D
2. (IRBr – 2008) Taking the text into consideration, it can be deduced that:
a) the new economic trends have long been IMF concern.
b) the influence of new economic features has almost completely been left to those who work or study
too much this subject.
c) OECD issued rules to be followed by recipient countries.
d) SWFs most probably will follow the guidelines established by OECD.
e) the west is producing more than it is consuming, whereas in the east it is the other way.
Answer: B
3. (IRBr – 2008) A suitable title for this text can be:
a) When Beijing goes lending.
b) When Beijing goes selling.
c) When Beijing goes wasting.
d) When Beijing goes sparing.
e) When Beijing goes buying.
Answer: E
Text for questions from 1 through 6.
TEXT 31: No burqa bans
Why is it nearly always wrong to outlaw the wearing of the Muslim veil?
What you wear is a statement of who you are. From the old man’s cardigan and frayed tie to the
youngster’s torn jeans plus lip-stud, dress stands for identity. For that reason laws on clothing should be
avoided unless there is a compelling case for them. There is no such case for the Dutch government’s plan
to outlaw the wearing in all public places of the face-covering burqa and niqab by Muslim women.
As it happens, the plan’s announcement by Rita Verdonk, the hardline Dutch immigration minister, was a
political stunt aimed at reviving her party’s flagging fortunes before this week’s election. But a new Dutch
government, when one is eventually formed, may still adopt it. And the proposed ban follows a big debate
about the Muslim veil in many other European countries.
In 2004 France passed a law to stop the wearing of the Muslim hijab (headscarf) by girls in state
schools. Several German states have banned teachers from wearing the headscarf. One Belgian town has
outlawed the burqa and niqab from its streets. Recently a former British foreign secretary, Jack Straw,
caused a row by inviting his Muslim constituents to remove their veils when they met him; and a lawsuit
confirmed that British schools could sack teachers who wore face-covering garments. Turkey, a mostly
Muslim country, has banned the wearing of the veil in public buildings ever since Ataturk established the
modern republic in the 1920s.
Those who favour such bans put forward four main arguments. First, the veil (especially the burqa and
niqab) shows a refusal by Muslims to integrate into broader society; Britain’s Tony Blair called it a
“mark of separation”. Second, such clothing is testimony to the oppression of Muslim women; they are
said to don veils largely at the behest (or command) of their domineering menfolk. Third, the display of
religious symbols is an affront to secular societies (this line resonates especially in France and Turkey).
And fourth, there are settings – the schoolroom, the courthouse – in which the wearing of Muslim veils
can be intimidating or off-putting to pupils or juries.
Some of these arguments are stronger than others. But none supports a blanket Dutch-style ban. Muslim
dress can indeed appear as a mark of separation, but racial and sectarian discrimination surely counts far
more – and bans on religious clothing are likely to aggravate it. Oppression of female Muslims is
regrettably common, and should be resisted; but many women choose to wear the veil for cultural reasons,
and others do so (as they do in Arab countries) as a sign of emancipation, or even as a fashion statement.
France and Turkey have fiercely secular traditions that can be interpreted to justify restrictions on
religious symbols; but such restrictions are best applied sparingly, and only in state offices, not in the
streets. Similarly, decisions to bar the wearing of Muslim dress __________ courts or by teachers and
pupils are surely better left __________ local discretion than imposed nationally.
Adapted from No burqa bans. In: The Economist, Nov. 25th, 2006, p. 15.
1. (IRBr – 2007) According to the previous text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) – each
item below.
( ) The Dutch government’s introduction of the ban on the wearing of the burqa and niqab in all public
places has had a disastrous impact on the local Muslim community.
( ) The Dutch immigration minister has exploited the ban on the Muslim veil for political gain.
( ) Turkey is the only Muslim country where women have never been allowed to wear veils in public.
( ) The idea conveyed by the proverb in English Clothes make men can be found in this text.
Answer: E, C, E, C
2. (IRBr – 2007) In accordance with the previous text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) –
each statement below.
( ) One of the arguments offered by supporters of the ban on veils is that women are forced by their
male relatives to wear them.
( ) One of the arguments offered by the opponents of the ban on veils is that women are forced by their
male relatives to wear them.
( ) The idea that Muslim women are said to don veils largely at the behest (or command) of their
domineering menfolk can be summarized as: authoritarian men force their female relatives to cover
their heads and faces.
( ) The wearing of the veil is an unequivocal and universal symbol of female oppression.
Answer: C, E, C, E
3. (IRBr – 2007) The last sentence of the text has been left with two blank spaces.
Choose the option below that contains the correct sequence of prepositions that fill in
the blanks.
“Similarly, decisions to bar the wearing of Muslim dress __________ courts or by teachers and
pupils are surely better left __________ local discretion than imposed nationally.”
a) from – to
b) to – for
c) on – for
d) in – to
e) inside – up
Answer: D
4. (IRBr – 2007) In the fragment “Recently a former British foreign secretary” (l. 25-26),
the antonym of “former” is:
a) latter.
b) current.
c) actual.
d) chief.
e) previous.
Answer: B
5. (IRBr – 2007) In accordance with the previous text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) –
each item below.
( ) In the text, “constituents” (l. 27-28) means the same as components.
( ) In the text, “constituents” (l. 27-28) means the same as voters.
( ) In the text, “secular” (l. 62) is the same as centuries-old.
( ) In the text, “secular” (l. 62) is the same as non-religious.
Answer: E, C, E, C
6. (IRBr – 2007) In the sentence “But none supports a blanket Dutch-style ban” (l. 51-52)
the word “blanket” can be replaced, with no change in the meaning, by:
a) partial.
b) unlimited.
c) warm.
d) protective.
e) temporary.
Answer: B
Text for questions from 1 through 4.
TEXT 32
Unlike Pombal, who had used the power of the state to ruthlessly force through a crash program of
modernization, Salazar froze Portugal’s economic and social patterns. “We are antiparliamentarians,
antidemocrats, antiliberals”, Salazar said in 1936. “We are opposed to all forms of internationalism,
communism, socialism, syndicalism.” To govern, he said, without apology, “is to protect the people from
themselves”.
Yet Salazar enjoyed sizable support. He had rooted his regime sufficiently in Portuguese social realities
to garner for it a small measure of popular approbation. The church and the small landholders of the
heavily Catholic north backed him. So did the latifundiários, the owners of big farming estates in the
central and southern regions who feared a loss of their holdings if the left took power. The outlawed
Portuguese Communist Party, formed in 1921, was especially strong in the south.
But Salazar could not freeze the world. In 1961, India seized Goa from a 3,500-man Portuguese garrison
that had been ordered to “conquer or die”. In Africa, as the French and British were freeing their
colonies, African nationalist guerrillas rose up against the Portuguese in Angola (1961), Guinea (1962),
and Mozambique (1964).
Portugal was the last European power in Africa to cling tenaciously to the panoply of formal
domination. This was no accident. For a long time Portugal very successfully disguised the nature of her
presence __________ a skilful amalgam of historical mythmaking, claims __________ multiracialism,
and good public relations.
Adapted from Kenneth Maxwell. The making of
Portuguese democracy. CUP, 1997, p. 18-9.
1. (IRBr – 2007) In accordance with the previous text, judge – right (C) or wrong (E) –
each item below.
( ) The setting free of the French and British colonies took place approximately at the same time as the
fight for political freedom in some of the Portuguese African dominions.
( ) Land owners feared Salazar would freeze their properties.
( ) Salazar’s support in the south of Portugal derived from the fact that landowners believed that if
communists came to power they would confiscate their land.
( ) The word “Unlike” (l. 1) introduces the notion that Pombal’s and Salazar’s view on progress
differed.
Answer: C, E, C, C
2. (IRBr – 2007) In the sentence “He had rooted his regime sufficiently in Portuguese
social realities to garner for it a small measure of popular approbation” (l. 11-14),
“rooted” and “to garner” mean, respectively:
a) planted and to mirror.
b) sowed and to avoid.
c) established and to gather.
d) approached and to save.
e) viewed and to reject.
Answer: C
3. (IRBr – 2007) The last sentence of the text has been left with two blank spaces.
Choose the option below that contains the correct sequence of words that fill in the
blanks, keeping the main ideas of the text.
“For a long time Portugal very successfully disguised the nature of her presence __________ a
skilful amalgam of historical mythmaking, claims __________ multiracialism, and good public
relations.”
a) in – with
b) behind – of
c) in – for
d) with – in
e) behind – for
Answer: B
4. (IRBr – 2007) In the second line of the text, the word “crash” means:
a) quick and complete.
b) strong and efficient.
c) unexpected and notorious.
d) partial and questionable.
e) modern and efficient.
Answer: A
5TH PART | TRANSLATION SKILLS

Translate the following texts into Portuguese.


TEXT 1: King George VI’s speech
In this grave hour, perhaps the most fateful in history, I send to every household of my peoples, both at
home and overseas, this message, spoken with the same depth of feeling for each one of you as if I were
able to cross your threshold and speak to you myself.
For the second time in the lives of most of us, we are at war.
Over and over again, we have tried to find a peaceful way out of the differences between ourselves and
those who are now our enemies; but it has been in vain.
We have been forced into a conflict, for which we are called, with our allies to meet the challenge of a
principle which, if it were to prevail, would be fatal to any civilized order in the world.
It is a principle which permits a state in the selfish pursuit of power to disregard its treaties and its
solemn pledges, which sanctions the use of force or threat of force against the sovereignty and
independence of other states.
Such a principle, stripped of all disguise, is surely the mere primitive doctrine that might is right, and if
this principle were established through the world, the freedom of our own country and of the whole
British Commonwealth of nations would be in danger.
But far more than this, the peoples of the world would be kept in bondage of fear, and all hopes of
settled peace and of security, of justice and liberty, among nations, would be ended.
This is the ultimate issue which confronts us. For the sake of all that we ourselves hold dear, and of the
world order and peace, it is unthinkable that we should refuse to meet the challenge.
It is to this high purpose that I now call my people at home and my peoples across the seas, who will
make our cause their own.
I ask them to stand calm and firm and united in this time of trial.
The task will be hard. There may be dark days ahead, and war can no longer be confined to the
battlefield, but we can only do the right as we see the right, and reverently commit our cause to God. If
one and all we keep resolutely faithful to it, ready for whatever service or sacrifice it may demand, then
with God’s help, we shall prevail.
May He bless and keep us all.
Adapted from http://birdflu666.wordpress.com/2011/01/31/the-kings-speech-george-vi-and-ciceros-
theory-of-the-just-war/
Translation:
Discurso do Rei George VI
Nesta hora difícil, talvez a mais fatídica da história, eu envio a cada lar do meu povo, tanto para os que
estejam em nossa casa como no exterior, esta mensagem, proferida com a mesma profundidade de
sentimento para cada um de vocês como se eu pudesse entrar em suas casas e falar com vocês
pessoalmente.
Pela segunda vez na vida da maioria de nós, estamos em guerra.
De maneira incessante, tentamos encontrar uma saída pacífica para as diferenças entre nós e aqueles
que agora são nossos inimigos, mas foi em vão.
Fomos forçados a entrar em um conflito, para o qual fomos chamados, com os nossos aliados, para
enfrentar o desafio de um princípio que, se fosse prevalecer, seria fatal para qualquer ordem civilizada
do mundo.
É um princípio que permite a um Estado, na busca egoísta pelo poder, desconsiderar seus tratados e
suas promessas solenes, e que sanciona o uso da força ou a ameaça da força contra a soberania e a
independência de outros Estados.
Tal princípio, despojado de todos os disfarces, é seguramente a mera doutrina primitiva de que o poder
está certo, e, se esse princípio fosse estabelecido em todo o mundo, a liberdade de nosso próprio país e
de toda a Comunidade Britânica de nações estaria em perigo.
Mas, muito mais do que isso, os povos do mundo seriam mantidos no domínio do medo, e todas as
esperanças de paz estável e de segurança, de justiça e de liberdade, entre as nações, estariam terminadas.
Esta é a questão derradeira que nos confronta. Por causa de tudo o que nós mesmos prezamos, e da
ordem e da paz mundiais, é impensável que devemos nos recusar a enfrentar o desafio.
É para este elevado propósito que eu agora convoco o meu povo em casa e o meu povo além dos
mares, que farão da nossa causa a sua própria.
Peço-lhes para ficar calmos e firmes e unidos neste momento de provação.
A tarefa será difícil. Pode haver dias sombrios pela frente, e a guerra já não pode mais ficar confinada
ao campo de batalha, mas só podemos fazer o certo quando presenciamos o certo e, reverentemente,
comprometer a nossa causa a Deus. Se individualmente e em conjunto continuarmos resolutamente fieis a
ela (a tarefa), prontos para qualquer empreitada ou sacrifício que ela pode exigir, então, com a ajuda de
Deus, nós prevaleceremos.
Que Ele abençoe e guarde a todos nós.
TEXT 2: EU lawmakers pass new rules for expelling illegals
Strasbourg, France – Europe’s hardening attitudes toward immigration found a voice in the EU
Parliament Wednesday, as legislators passed controversial new rules for expelling illegals amid a
widening crackdown in the United States.
As the global economy slows, governments in rich countries are coming under increased pressure to act
tough on immigration. While the European rules do not lay the groundwork for workplace raids like in
America, they do contain contentious measures such as providing for long detention periods.
The wealthy European Union has seen a spike in tensions with immigrants: Italians blame foreigners for
a rise in crime, France is grappling with violence in immigrant-heavy communities, and Belgium has
come under criticism for its treatment of foreigners in detention centers.
The EU says the vast majority of the immigrants come to Europe from North Africa, former Soviet
countries and the Balkans. For instance, 24,000 sub-Saharan African immigrants were caught trying to
reach Spain in 2006 and 10,000 in 2007. In an indication of their desperation, more than 1,000 African
immigrants also are believed to have died at sea trying to reach Spain in 2007.
Until now, there has been no common EU policy on expelling illegal immigrants, and detention periods
varied from 32 days in France to indefinite custody in Britain, the Netherlands and five other countries.
Under the new guidelines, already approved by EU governments, illegal immigrants can be held in
specialized detention centers – not jails – for up to 18 months before being expelled. But EU countries
must provide detained migrants basic rights, including access to free legal advice, and unaccompanied
children or families with children should be held only as a last resort.
Following apprehension, immigrants will be given the opportunity to leave voluntarily within 30 days.
If there is a flight risk or they do not comply, they can be put in custody for up to six months while their
deportation is processed.
A 12-month extension would be possible in specific cases, such as when illegal immigrants do not
cooperate with authorities or when their identity must be verified with their home country. A re-entry ban
of up to five years may be imposed on expelled immigrants who do not cooperate or are deemed a threat.
“Europe has made it clear that it is not tolerating any form of illegal status,” said German Christian
Democrat Manfred Weber, who steered the bill through Parliament.
The EU estimates there could be up to 8 million illegal immigrants in the 27-nation bloc, many of them
living in squalid conditions and engaged in the black market economy. This compares to roughly 11
million illegals in the United States.
Almost one million migrants were turned away at EU borders in 2006, half a million were caught inside
the bloc and 200,000 of those deported, mostly from southern European countries such as Spain, Italy and
Greece.
The United States sent home a record 273,000 people in 2007 after staging high-profile workplace raids
nationwide, arresting both illegal immigrants and those who hire them. Local police have helped fill
detention centers with undocumented migrants stopped for traffic violations.
While the EU says its new law – a set of rules on how to handle the expulsion of illegal immigrants –
will not lead to mass raids, it has followed the U.S. in beefing up border security to help stem the flow of
migrants from the south and the east.
The law took more than two years to draft due to differing positions among the EU’s 27 members, and
governments will have two years to implement it. The rules are part of efforts to create a common EU
asylum and immigration policy by 2010.
Amnesty International condemned the deal, saying it does not guarantee the return of migrants in safety
and dignity.
“An excessive period of detention of up to 1.5 years as well as an EU-wide re-entry ban for those
forcibly returned risk lowering existing standards in the member states and set an extremely bad example
to other regions in the world,” the human rights watchdog said.
But Immigration Minister Brice Hortefeux of France, which grapples with up to 400,000 illegal
immigrants, rejected that criticism, saying that standards