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COMPARISON OF ANSI/AISC 360-05 TO 1999 LRFD SPECIFICATION

This document summarizes the revisions made to the LRFD provisions contained in the
2005 AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-05) compared
to the 1999 Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel
Buildings.

CHAPTER A-GENERAL PROVISIONS

A1. SCOPE
The scope has been expanded to include “other structures” and no longer refers to
Allowable Stress Design (ASD) because it is included in this specification. The
specifications for single angles and hollow structural sections (HSS) have been
combined in this specification and no longer needs to comply with the
Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Single-Angle Members
(LRFD) and Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Steel Hollow
Structural Sections.
A1.1. Low-Seismic Applications has been added to clarify the seismic
response modification coefficient, R, and qualifies the building to
the Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. The cutoff
for the seismic response modification coefficient is three, which
determines Low-Seismic Applications or High-Seismic
Applications.
A1.2. High-Seismic Applications has been added to clarify the seismic
response modification coefficient, R, and qualifies the building to
the Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. The cutoff
for the seismic response modification coefficient is three, which
determines Low-Seismic Applications or High-Seismic
Applications.
A1.3 Nuclear Applications has been added to give the proper reference
to specifications for nuclear facilities.

A2. REFERENCED SPECIFICATIONS, CODES AND STANDARDS


This section has been renamed and moved from old Section A6. Titles of ASTM
and AWS standards are now included.

A3. MATERIAL
A3.1. Structural Steel Materials adds that material testing reports shall be
provided to show the furnished structural steel meets the specific
grade requirements.
A3.1a. ASTM Designations are now separated into categories of hot-
rolled structural shapes, structural tubing, pipe, plates, bars, and
sheets. Material testing reports have been removed and placed in
A3.1.
A3.1b. Unidentified Steel remains unchanged except for the removal of
surface condition requirements.
A3.1c. Rolled Heavy Shapes has been split into Rolled Heavy Shapes and
Built-Up Heavy Shapes. The Charpy V-notch impact test
exceptions were removed.
A3.1d. Built-Up Heavy Shapes has been renamed and moved from old
Section A3.1c. The section has been condensed to omit repetition.
A3.2. Steel Castings and Forgings now conform to ASTM A216/A21M,
Gr. WCB with Supplementary Requirement S11, and Steel
Forgings ASTM A668/A668M.
A3.3. Bolts, Washers, and Nuts is now separated into categories of Bolts,
Nuts, Washers, and Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension
Indicators. The permitted use of A449 bolts under certain
conditions has been removed from this section.
A3.4. Anchor Rods and Threaded Rods has been simplified and
reorganized. A User Note has been added stating that F1554 is the
preferred material specification for anchor rods.
A3.5. Filler Metal and Flux for Welding has been simplified and
reorganized.
A3.6. Stud Shear Connectors has been simplified and reorganized. A
User Note has been added specifying the material for aluminum
stud shear connectors.

A4. STRUCTURAL DESIGN DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS


This section has been moved from old Section A7 and states that drawings and
specs shall meet the requirements of the Code of Standard Practice for Steel
Buildings and Bridges (COSP). The COSP is referenced directly rather than
repeating the design requirements.

CHAPTER B-DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

B1. GENERAL PROVISIONS


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification which states the design must be
consistent with the intended behavior of the framing system and the assumptions
made in the structural analysis. Lateral load resistance and stability may be
provided by any combination of members and connections unless restricted by the
applicable building code.

B2. LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS


This section has been moved from old Section A4. A User Note has been added
to clarify that SEI/ASCE 7 and Section 2.3 applies for LRFD design.

B3. DESIGN BASIS


This section has been moved from old Section A5.
B3.1. Required Strength has been moved from old Section A5.1.
Provisions for designing using inelastic or plastic analysis are now
stipulated in Appendix 1.1. Plastic analysis design for steels with
specified minimum yield stresses is now in Appendix 1.2.
Moment redistribution is now in Appendix 1.3.
B3.2. Limit States has been moved from old Section A5.2 and been
shortened to say neither strength nor serviceability limit states can
be exceeded.
B3.3. Design for Strength Using Load and Resistance Factor Design has
been moved from Section A5.3 and has changed to explain the
relationship between required strength and design strength in
equation form for LRFD.
B3.4. Design for Strength Using Allowable Strength Design is not
included in the 1999 Specification. This Section explains the
relationship between required strength and design strength in
equation form for ASD.
B3.5. Design for Stability has moved from old Section B4 and now
refers to Chapter C.
B3.6. Design of Connections has been partially taken from old Section
A2. A User Note has been added making reference to the COSP
for the communication necessary for connection design.
B3.6a. Simple Connections terminology has changed from “simple
framing” to “simple connections.” Simple connections are defined
as connections that transmit negligible moment across the
connection. Simple framing is defined as when connection
restraint is ignored.
B3.6b. Moment Connections fully explains restrained and partially
restrained moment connections expanding on the definitions.
B3.7. Design for Serviceability has been moved from old Section A5.4.
B3.8. Design for Ponding has been moved from old Section K2 and now
references Appendix 2. A specific roof slope is now given stating
the roof system must be analyzed unless the roof slope is a ¼ inch
per foot or greater.
B3.9. Design for Fatigue has been moved from old Section K3 and the
sentence which considers the fatigue due to cranes and machinery
support has been removed.
B3.10. Design for Fire Conditions is a new section in the 2005
Specification.
B3.11. Design for Corrosive Effects has been moved from old Section L5.
B3.12. Design Wall Thickness for HSS is taken from the LRFD for
Hollow Structural Steel Sections. The advantage of using
submerged-arc-welded HSS has also been noted.
B3.13a. Gross Area has been moved from old Section B1 and is simplified
by stating the gross area of a member is the total cross-sectional
area.
B3.13b. Net Area has been moved from old Section B2 and added how to
determine the net area for a slotted HSS welded to a gusset plate.

B4. CLASSIFICATION OF SECTIONS FOR LOCAL BUCKLING


This section has been renamed and moved from old Section B5.
B4.1. Unstiffened Elements has been excerpted from old Section B5 and
makes reference to Table B4.1 for graphical representations.
B4.2. Stiffened Elements has been excerpted from old Section B5 and
makes reference to Table B4.1 for graphical representations.
Table B4.1. Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements has
been moved from old Table B5.1. Case numbers have been
included in the table and graphical representations have been
added. For Unstiffened Elements, Case 6 for flexure in legs of
single angles has been changed from stems of tees and in Case 1,
the equation for limiting width-thickness ratio for a noncompact
section has been revised. For Stiffened Elements, descriptions and
equations have been revised.

B5. FABRICATION, ERECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification making reference to Chapter M,
Fabrication, Erection, and Quality Control.

B6. EVALUATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification making reference to new
Appendix 5, old Chapter N.

CHAPTER C – STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

C1. STABILITY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


C1.1. General Requirements has been moved from old Section B4 and is
expanded. The acceptable stability design methods are now
included. The Direct Analysis Method which is introduced in
Appendix 7 will satisfy these requirements. Elastic Design is
permitted based on Section C2.2 and the connection design
requirements. Inelastic (Plastic) Design must follow Appendix 1.
C1.2. Member Stability Design Requirements have been moved from old
Section C3.1. They have been changed to state the member
stability meets requirements if Chapters E, F, G, H, and I are
satisfied. If elements are to function as braces they must meet
requirements found in Appendix 6 (Old Sections C3.3 and C3.4
have been moved there).
C1.3. System Stability Design Requirements is a new section in the 2005
Specification and states that lateral stability shall be provided by a
lateral load resisting system. Effects of overturning drift, gravity
loads, force sharing and force are considered.
C1.3a. Braced-Frame and Shear-Wall Systems is taken from old Section
C2.1 and reworded. This section maintains that K=1 barring more
in depth analysis. Plastic analysis has been moved to Appendix 1
from old Section C2.1a.
C1.3b. Moment-Frame Systems has been renamed and has been moved
from old Section C2.2. The section states that moment frames
must meet requirements of C2. Plastic analysis has been moved to
Appendix 1 from old Section C2.2a.
C1.3c. Gravity Framing Systems is a new section in the 2005
Specification. This section states that analysis of gravity framing
should be based on actual lengths and second order effects should
be transferred to the lateral load resisting system.
C1.3d. Combined Systems is a new section in the 2005 Specification and
states that combined systems shall meet the requirements of their
respective systems.

C2. CALCULATION OF REQUIRED STRENGTHS


C2.1. Methods of Second-Order Analysis states that second-order
analysis must conform to this section.
C2.1a. General Second-Order Elastic Analysis is a new section in the
2005 Specification and states that any second-order elastic analysis
that considers P-Δ and P-δ effects is acceptable.
C2.1b. Second-Order Analysis by Amplified First-Order Elastic Analysis
has been moved from old Section C1.2. User Notes have been
added to better define variables. This section has been expanded
for use in systems where axial load is predominant.
C2.2. Design Requirements is a new section in the 2005 Specification
and states that if the first-order drift over second-order drift is less
than 1.5, then first-order and second-order analysis are applicable.
If the ratio is larger, then Direct Analysis Method must be used.
C2.2a. Design by Second-Order Analysis is a new section in the 2005
Specification and further explains and sets requirements for
Section C2.1.
C2.2b. Design by First-Order Analysis is acceptable if the structure
satisfies the limitations in this section.

CHAPTER D-DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR TENSION

D1. SLENDERNESS LIMITATIONS


This section has been renamed and moved from old Section B7. The section has
been reduced to only include members designed in tension.

D2. TENSILE STRENGTH


This section has been renamed and moved from old Section D1. The limit state of
fracture has been changed to tensile rupture in D2.(b).

D3. AREA DETERMINATION


D3.1. Gross Area has been moved from old Section B1 and is simplified
by stating the gross area of a member is the total cross-sectional
area.
D3.2. Net Area has been moved from old Section B2 and now includes
how to determine the net area for a slotted HSS welded to a gusset
plate. A User Note has been added specifying the maximum net
area for splice plates with holes and makes reference to Section
J4.1(b).
D3.3. Effective Net Area has been moved from old Section B3 and is
simplified. The section refers to Table D3.1 to determine the shear
lag factor when calculating the effective area of tension members.
Table D3.1. Shear Lag Factors for Connections to Tension Members is a new
table in the 2005 Specification with content from old Section B3.
The table has element descriptions, shear lag equations, and
graphical representations. Additional elements which have been
added include round HSS members with a single concentric gusset
plate, rectangular HSS members, and single angles.

D4. BUILT-UP MEMBERS


This section has been moved from old Section D2 and the content has not been
changed.

D5. PIN-CONNECTED MEMBERS


D5.1. Tensile Strength has been moved from old Section D3.1a and lists
the limit states of tensile rupture, shear rupture, bearing making
reference to Section J7, and yielding making reference to Equation
D2-1.
D5.2. Dimensional Requirements has been renamed and moved from old
Section D3.1b. The content has not been changed.

D6. EYEBARS
D6.1. Tensile Strength has been moved from old Section D3.2a and the
available tensile strength of eyebars shall be determined in
accordance with Section D2.
D6.2. Dimensional Requirements has been renamed and moved from old
Section D3.2b. The content has not been changed.

CHAPTER E-DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMPRESSION

E1. GENERAL PROVISIONS


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification and states the design compressive
strength shall be the lowest value obtained from the limit states of flexural
buckling, torsional buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. The resistance factor
has been increased from 0.85 to 0.90.
E2. SLENDERNESS LIMITATIONS AND EFFECTIVE LENGTH
This section has been moved from old Section E1.1 and the effective length factor
shall be determined in accordance with Chapter C. A User Note was added
stating the slenderness ratio from members designed in compression should
preferably not exceed 200 which comes from old Section B7.

E3. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR FLEXURAL BUCKLING OF MEMBERS


WITHOUT SLENDER ELEMENTS
This section has been renamed and moved from old Section E2. Limits to
determine the flexural buckling stress have been modified for determining which
equation is appropriate to use. User Notes have been added for clarification.

E4. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR TORSIONAL AND FLEXURAL-


TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF MEMBERS WITHOUT SLENDER ELEMENTS
E4.(a). This section has been moved from old Section E3 and the content
has not been changed.
E4.(b). The section has been moved from old Appendix E. A User Note
has been added specifying an equation for the warping constant for
doubly symmetric I-shaped sections. Also, the User Note specifies
to omit the warping constant when computing Fez for tees and
double angles.

E5. SINGLE ANGLE COMPRESSION MEMBERS


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. For further reference, see the
2000 LRFD Single Angle Specification.

E6. BUILT-UP MEMBERS


E6.1. Compressive Strength has been renamed and moved from old
Section E4.1. The section now has two intermediate sections,
shapes that are interconnected by bolts or welds and shapes that are
at least one open side interconnected by perforated cover plates or
lacing with tie plates.
E6.2. Dimensional Requirements has been renamed and moved from old
Section E4.2. User Notes were added to this section for
clarifications concerning the design of a bolted end connection for
a built-up compression member and that the limiting
width/thickness ratio for Case 14 in Table B4.1 is conservative.

E7. MEMBERS WITH SLENDER ELEMENTS


This section has been moved from old Appendix E3 and now references equations
for calculating Fe rather than repeating the equations.
E7.1. Slender Unstiffened Elements has been moved from old Appendix
B5.3a.
E7.2. Slender Stiffened Elements has been moved from old Appendices
B5.3b and B5.3c. The constant in the reduced effective width
equation, be, has been increased from 1.91 to 1.92. The reduced
effective width cannot exceed the actual width when using the
equations. A User Note has been added specifying the computed
elastic compressive stress, f, can be taken equal to yield stress, Fy,
for a conservative estimate of column capacity.

CHAPTER F – DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR FLEXURE


This chapter has been reorganized and the introduction has been expanded to show the
chapter organization. In addition, Table User Note F1.1 has been added that references
the section in the new chapter that deals with each different member design for flexure.

F1. GENERAL PROVISIONS


The 1999 LRFD Specification referenced each limit state in old Section F1 and
had special cases for different sections. In the 2005 Specification each section
references every limit state for various section types. The general provisions now
list the load reduction factor as well as defining other variables used throughout
this chapter.

F2. DOUBLY SYMMETRIC COMPACT I-SHAPED MEMBERS AND


CHANNELS BENT ABOUT THEIR MAJOR AXIS
F2.1. Yielding has been moved from old Section F1.1.
F2.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling is now explained specifically this
member type. These equations, although presented in a different
form, are identical to the corresponding equations in Section F1 of
the 1999 LRFD Specification. The only exception is that the
interface between inelastic and elastic buckling has been changed
from Fy-Fr to 0.7 Fy.

F3. DOUBLY SYMMETRIC I-SHAPED MEMBERS WITH COMPACT WEBS


AND NONCOMPACT OR SLENDER FLANGES BENT ABOUT THEIR
MAJOR AXIS
F3.1. Lateral-Torsional Buckling uses the same provisions as F2.2.
F3.2. Compression Flange Local Buckling has been moved from old
Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1 under flange local buckling of
channels and doubly and singly symmetric I-shaped beams
(including hybrid beams) bent about their major axis.

F4. OTHER I-SHAPED MEMBERS WITH COMPACT OR NONCOMPACT


WEBS BENT ABOUT THEIR MAJOR AXIS
F4.1. Compression Flange Yielding is a new section in the 2005
Specification.
F4.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling is derived from Appendix F1, Table A-
F1.1 with many changes to the specification.
F4.3. Compression Flange Local Buckling comes from old Appendix F1,
Table A-F1.1 under flange local buckling of channels and doubly
and singly symmetric I-shaped beams (including hybrid beams)
bent about the major axis.
F4.4. Tension Flange Yielding is a new section in the 2005
Specification.

F5. DOUBLY SYMMETRIC AND SINGLY SYMMETRIC I-SHAPED MEMBERS


WITH SLENDER WEBS BENT ABOUT THEIR MAJOR AXIS
F5.1. Compression Flange Yielding is a new section in the 2005
Specification.
F5.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling has been rearranged with similar
equations to those found in old Appendix G3. Rather than
calculating only Fcr, the nominal flexural strength is calculated.
F5.3. Compression Flange Local Buckling comes from old Appendix
G2. The hybrid girder factor has been removed. The Fcr equation
has been rearranged.
F5.4. Tension flange yielding is derived from old Appendix G2. The
hybrid girder factor has been removed.

F6. I-SHAPED MEMBERS AND CHANNELS BENT ABOUT THEIR MINOR


AXIS
F6.1. Yielding has been moved from old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1.
F6.2. Flange Local Buckling comes for old Appendix F1 and Table A-
F1.1. A User Note has been added stating shapes with compact
flanges.

F7. SQUARE AND RECTANGULAR HSS AND BOX-SHAPED MEMBERS


Note: Much of this section can be found in the 2000 HSS Specification.
F7.1. Yielding is included in old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1.
F7.2. Flange Local Buckling has been rewritten from the 1999 LRFD
Specification.
F7.3. Web Local Buckling has been rewritten from the 1999 LRFD
Specification.

F8. ROUND HSS


Note: Much of this section can be found in the 2000 HSS Specification.
F8.1. Yielding is included in old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1.
F8.2. Local Buckling is the only limit state outside of yielding to be
checked. This check comes directly from old Appendix F1, Table
A-F1.1.

F9. TEES AND DOUBLE ANGLES LOADED IN THE PLANE OF SYMMETRY


F9.1. Yielding is included in old Chapter F. The limit for stems in
tension has increased from 1.5My to 1.6My.
F9.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling comes directly from old Section F1.2c.
F9.3. Flange Local Buckling of Tees is new to the 2005 Specification
and applies for noncompact or slender sections.
F10. SINGLE ANGLES
Note: Much of this section can be referenced in the 2000 LRFD Single Angle
Specification.
F10.1. Yielding is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
F10.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling is a new section in the 2005
Specification.
F10.3. Leg Local Buckling is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

F11. RECTANGULAR BARS AND ROUNDS


F11.1. Yielding is derived from old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1. The
calculation is equivalent although the section has been rewritten
removing variables.
F11.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling is derived from old Appendix F1,
Table A-F1.1. The equations have been rearranged but are
identical in value. For rounds or rectangular bars bent about the
minor axis this step is not required.

F12. UNSYMMETRICAL SHAPES


Note: This section is for any shape not falling into the specification of the
previously described shapes.
F12.1. Yielding is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
F12.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling is a new section in the 2005
Specification.
F12.3. Local Buckling is a new in the 2005 Specification.

F13. PROPORTIONS OF BEAMS AND GIRDERS


F13.1. Hole Reductions contain the same limiting equation. The Yt factor
has been added which has been reduced from the 1999 LRFD
Specification. In addition, a calculation for the maximum moment
in the tension flange has been added.
F13.2. Proportioning Limits for I-Shaped Members has been taken
directly from old Appendix G1. A requirement for singly
symmetric I-shaped members has been added.
F13.3. Cover Plates is taken directly from old Section B10. There are two
added paragraphs discussing the use of high strength bolts or welds
in the connection of built up elements. Limits are applied to the
amount of longitudinal spacing allowed in the beam.
F13.4. Built-Up Beams is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

CHAPTER G-DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR SHEAR

G1. GENERAL PROVISIONS


This section has been renamed and moved from old Section F2. The resistance
factor is given for the entire chapter in this section.

G2. MEMBERS WITH UNSTIFFENED OR STIFFENED WEBS


G2.1. Nominal Shear Strength has been moved from old Section F2,
Appendix F2, and Appendix G3. In part (a), shear for webs of
rolled I-shaped members has been added and the resistance factor
has been increased from 0.90 to 1.0.
G2.2. Transverse Stiffeners has been moved from Appendix F2.3. The
constant in the equation specifying when transverse stiffeners are
not required has been increased from 2.45 to 2.46.

G3. TENSION FIELD ACTION


G3.1. Limits on the Use of Tension Field Action has been moved from
Appendix G3. Parts (c) and (d) are new criteria for when tension
field action consideration are not permitted. For these cases,
nominal shear strength shall be determined by using Section G2.
G3.2. Nominal Shear Strength with Tension Field Action has been
moved from Appendix G3 and the content has not been changed.
G3.3. Transverse Stiffeners have been moved from Appendix G4. A
new limitation for transverse stiffeners subject to tension field
action has been added.

G4. SINGLE ANGLES


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. For further reference, see the
2000 LRFD Single Angle Specification.

G5. RECTANGULAR HSS AND BOX MEMBERS


This section has been moved from old Section F2 and the area calculation for
determining the nominal shear strength has been changed to be rectangular HSS
and box member specific.

G6. ROUND HSS


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

G7. WEAK AXIS SHEAR IN SINGLY AND DOUBLY SYMMETRIC SHAPES


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

G8. BEAMS AND GIRDERS WITH WEB OPENINGS


This section has been moved from old Section F4 and the content has not been
changed.

CHAPTER H-DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION


H1. DOUBLY AND SINGLY SYMMETRIC MEMBERS SUBJECT TO FLEXURE
AND AXIAL FORCE
H1.1. Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members Subject to Flexure and
Axial Force has been moved from old Section H1.2 and the
interaction equations have been rewritten in a general format with
general variable descriptions. Specific variable descriptions for
LRFD and ASD have been added. The resistance factor for
compression, φc , for LRFD has been increased from 0.85 to 0.90.
H1.2. Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members in Flexure and Tension
has been moved from old Section H1.1 and the general interaction
equations have been removed. Specific variable descriptions have
been added for LRFD and ASD. The Cb value for doubly
symmetric members may now be increased for axial tension that
acts concurrently with flexure.
H1.3. Doubly Symmetric Members in Single Axis Flexure and
Compression is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

H2. UNSYMMETRIC AND OTHER MEMBERS SUBJECT TO FLEXURE AND


AXIAL FORCE
This is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

H3. MEMBERS UNDER TORSION AND COMBINED TORSION, FLEXURE,


SHEAR AND/OR AXIAL FORCE
H3.1. Torsional Strength of Round and Rectangular HSS is a new section
in the 2005 Specification.
H3.2. HSS Subject to Combined Torsion, Shear, Flexure and Axial Force
is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
H3.3. Strength of Non-HSS Members under Torsion and Combined
Stress has been renamed and moved from old Section H2. The
equations have been modified to account for LRFD and ASD. The
resistance factor for the limit state of buckling has been increased
from 0.85 to 0.90.

CHAPTER I-DESIGN OF COMPOSITE MEMBERS

I1. GENERAL PROVISIONS


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
I1.1. Nominal Strength of Composite Sections is a new section in the
2005 Specification.
I1.1a. Plastic Stress Distribution Method is a new section in the 2005
Specification.
I1.1b. Strain-Compatibility Method is a new section in the 2005
Specification.
I1.2. Material Limitations has been moved from old Section I2.1. The
specified concrete compressive strength for normal weight
concrete has been increased from nor more than 8 ksi to nor more
than 10 ksi. For lightweight concrete, the specified compressive
strength has been increased from 4 ksi to 6 ksi. The specified
minimum yield stress of structural steel and reinforcing bars for
calculating the strength of a composite column has been increased
from 60 ksi to 75 ksi.
I1.3. Shear Connectors have been moved from old Section I5.1. The
aggregate requirements and the concrete unit weight requirement
have been removed.

I2. AXIAL MEMBERS


I2.1. Encased Composite Columns
I2.1a. Limitations has been moved from old Section I2.1. The
requirement for the cross-sectional area of the steel core has been
decreased from 4 percent to 1 percent. The minimum transverse
reinforcement requirement has been increased from 0.007 to 0.009
inches squared per inch of tie spacing. A minimum reinforcement
ratio for continuous longitudinal reinforcing has been added and
shall be 0.004.
I2.1b. Compressive Strength has been renamed and moved from old
Section I2.2. The resistance factor has been decreased from 0.85
to 0.75. The equations are now listed and have been modified to
be more general rather than shape specific.
I2.1c. Tensile Strength is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
I2.1d. Shear Strength is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
I2.1e. Load Transfer has been moved from old Section I2.4. The
maximum connector spacing and how the connectors shall be
placed in a symmetrical configuration has been removed and
placed in Section I2.1f.
I2.1f. Detailing Requirements has been moved from old Sections I2.1,
I2.3, I2.4, and I5.6. There must be at least four continuous
longitudinal reinforcing bars in composite columns and the
transverse reinforcement requirements changed from not greater
than 2/3 of the least dimension of the composite cross-section to
the smallest of 16 longitudinal bar diameters, 48 tie bar diameters
or 0.5 times the least dimension. Shear connectors must now be
distributed along the length of the member at a distance of at least
2.5 times the depth of the encased composite column above and
below the load transfer region.
I2.1g. Strength of Stud Shear Connectors has been moved from old
Section I5.3. This section has been generalized to a shear
connector imbedded in solid concrete from a shear connector
embedded in a solid concrete slab.
I2.2. Filled Composite Columns
I2.2a. Limitations has been moved from old Section I2.1. The
requirement for the cross-sectional area of the steel HSS has been
decreased from 4 percent to 1 percent. A maximum b/t ratio for a
rectangular HSS has been added and shall be equal to 2.26 E / Fy .
A maximum D/t ratio for a round HSS has been added and shall be
0.15( E / Fy ) .
I2.2b. Compressive Strength has been moved from old Section I2.2. The
resistance factor has been decreased from 0.85 to 0.75. The C2
value has been increased for circular sections from 0.85 to 0.95.
The C3 value has been changed from a constant into a general
equation for rectangular and circular HSS members.
I2.2c. Tensile Strength is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
I2.2d. Shear Strength is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
I2.2e. Load Transfer has been moved from old Section I2.4. Force
transfer mechanisms including direct bond interaction, shear
connection, or direct bearing that provides the largest nominal
strength may be used to transfer an external force applied to either
the steel or concrete core.
I2.2f. Detailing Requirements has been moved from old Section I2.4.
Shear connectors shall be distributed along the length of the
member transferring the required shear force at a distance of at
least 2.5 times the width of a rectangular HSS or 2.5 times the
diameter of a round HSS above and below the load transfer region.

I3. FLEXURAL MEMBERS


I3.1. General
I3.1a. Effective Width has been moved from old Section I3.1 and the
content has not been changed.
I3.1b. Shear Strength is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
I3.1c. Strength during Construction has been moved from old Section
I3.4 and the content has not been changed.
I3.2. Strength of Composite Beams with Shear Connectors
I3.2a. Positive Flexural Strength has been renamed and moved from old
Section I3.2. The resistance factor has been increased from 0.85 to
0.90 when Mn shall be determined from the plastic stress
distribution on the composite section.
I3.2b. Negative Flexural Strength has been renamed and moved from old
Section I3.2. The resistance factor has been increased from 0.85 to
0.90.
I3.2c. Strength of Composite Beams with Formed Steel Deck has been
moved from old Sections I3.5, I3.5b, and I3.5c. The stud shear
connectors shall have at least ½ inch concrete cover above the top
of the connectors. The steel deck shall be anchored to the
supporting members at a spacing not less than 18 inches.
I3.2d. Shear Connectors has been moved from old Sections I5.2, I5.3,
I5.4, and I5.6. The Strength of Shear Connectors section has a
revised upper limit for the nominal strength for one shear stud. A
User Note has been added for the new values in the upper limit for
several cases.
I3.3. Flexural Strength of Concrete-Encased and Filled Members has not
been moved and the content has not been changed.

I4. COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND FLEXURE


This section has been renamed and the nominal strength of a composite member
of the cross section shall be determined using the plastic stress distribution
method or the strain-compatibility method. Length effects on the axial strength
shall be determined using Section I2. The resistance factor for compression has
been increased from 0.75 to 0.85 and the resistance factor for flexure is now 0.90.

I5. SPECIAL CASES


This section has moved from old Section I6 and the content has not been changed.

CHAPTER J – DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS

J1. GENERAL PROVISIONS


J1.1. Design Basis has been reworded and a statement about the effects
of connection eccentricity has been added.
J1.2. Simple Connections contents has not been changed.
J1.3. Moment Connections contents remains unchanged and a User Note
has been added.
J1.4. Compression Members with Bearing Joints has been reorganized
such that splices need to be the less of 50 percent of the required
compressive strength or the moment and shear resulting from a
transverse load is equal to 2 percent of the required compressive
strength.
J1.5. Splices in Heavy Sections has been rewritten. Mandates for
backing bars and weld tab removal have been deleted. The
reference to ASTM A6/A6M Group 4 and 5 has been removed
since they can now be referenced in the manual. The section no
longer covers the use of built up sections.
J1.6. Beam Copes and Weld Access Holes has been expanded. Special
attention has been given to the production of notches made by the
access holes and rules about the slope have been made.
J1.7. Placement of Welds and Bolts has been moved directly from old
Section J1.8.
J1.8. Bolts in Combination with Welds removes the use of A307 bolts.
For the case of bolts in a slip critical connection in conjunction
with welds when only half of the sharing of the load can be
distributed to the weld has been revised.
J1.9. High-Strength Bolts in Combination with Rivets has been moved
from old Section J1.10 and the content has not been changed.
J1.10. Limitations on Bolted and Welded Connections has been moved
from old Section J1.11. The height of columns requiring pretension
or slip critical joints or welds has been reduced to 125 feet. The
statements about column splices for buildings 100-200 feet tall and
tier buildings over 125 feet have been removed. The paragraph
defining the height of a tier has been removed.

J2. WELDS
J2.1. Groove Welds
J2.1a. Effective Area remains the same as the previous edition except the
effective length of a groove weld has been removed.
J2.1b. Limitations has been rewritten and the minimum weld size is now
determined by the thickness of the thinner plate and Table J2.3.
J2.2. Fillet Welds
J2.2a. Effective Area has changed its definition and no longer refers to
AWS. A statement about using increased throat thickness after
testing has been performed has been added.
J2.2b. Limitations has been slightly rewritten. The statement about
flange-web and similar welds and their use of Table J2.4 has been
removed. The limitation in fillet weld terminations under cyclic
forces has been removed.
J2.3. Plug and Slot Welds
J2.3a. Effective Area contents has not been changed.
J2.3b. Limitations contents has not been changed.
J2.4. Strength has expanded significantly. The design strength equations
are a new addition to this section. The loading of welds in different
configurations such as through the center of gravity, eccentrically,
and on both transverse and longitudinal welds has been moved
from old Appendix J2.4.
J2.5. Combination of Welds contents has not been changed.
J2.6. Filler Metal Requirements has been renamed and the content has
not been changed. A User Note has been added summarizing AWS
D1.1.
J2.7. Mixed Weld Metal contents has not been changed.

J3. BOLTS AND THREADED PARTS


J3.1. High-Strength Bolts has been reworded for clarity. Clarification
has been added for the use of non-standard bolts. The use of bolts
other than ASTM A325 or A490 in slip critical connections will
require matching proportions.
J3.2. Size and Use of Holes contents has not been changed.
J3.3. Minimum Spacing contents has not been changed.
J3.4. Minimum Edge Distance adds a User Note to remind the Engineer
that J3.10 and J4 must be satisfied.
J3.5. Maximum Spacing and Edge Distance contents has not been
changed.
J3.6. Tension and Shear Strength of Bolts and Threaded Parts has been
reworded and the equation will yield the same result.
J3.7. Combined Tension and Shear in Bearing-Type Connections has
been rewritten such that the equation is in more general form than
in the old Table A-J3.1.
J3.8. High-Strength Bolts in Slip-Critical Connections has been
expanded. The limit state of slip is now considered a serviceability
limit state. The old Section J3.8a has been combined with this
section. The design strength has changed. A factor, Du, has been
added to reflect the mean over the specified value of pretension. A
hole size factor, hsc, has also been added.
J3.9. Combined Tension and Shear in Slip-Critical Connections has
been reworded but the reduction factor remains the same.
J3.10. Bearing Strength at Bolt Holes contents has not been changed.
J3.11. Special Fasteners is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
J3.12. Tension Fasteners is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

J4. AFFECTED ELEMENTS OF MEMBERS AND CONNECTING ELEMENTS


J4.1. Strength of Elements in Tension is a new section with excerpts
from old Sections J4.2 and J5.2. The calculated design strength
will remain unchanged using either edition.
J4.2. Strength of Elements in Shear is a new section with excerpts from
old Sections J4.1 and J5.3. The calculated design strength will
remain unchanged using either edition.
J4.3. Block Shear Strength has been rewritten and includes an additional
factor to account for uniform stresses.
J4.4. Strength of Elements in Compression is a new section in the 2005
Specification.

J5. FILLERS
This section has been moved from old Section J6 and the content has not been
changed.

J6. SPLICES
This section has been moved from old Section J7 and the content has not been
changed.

J7. BEARING STRENGTH


This section has been moved from old Section J8 and the content has not been
changed.

J8. COLUMN BASES AND BEARING ON CONCRETE


This section has been moved from old Section J9 and the content remain has not
been changed.

J9. ANCHOR RODS AND EMBEDMENTS


This section has been modified from old Section J10 and expanded. The use of
oversized holes and horizontal forces in the base plates are now discussed.

J10. FLANGES AND WEBS WITH CONCENTRATED FORCES


J10.1. Flange Local Buckling has been moved from old Section K1.2 and
reworded. The placement and method of attaching the transverse
stiffeners has been omitted.
J10.2. Web Local Yielding has been moved from old Section K1.3 and
reworded. The placement and method of attaching the transverse
stiffeners or doubler plates is omitted.
J10.3. Web Crippling has been moved from old Section K1.4 and
reworded. The method of attaching the transverse stiffeners or
doubler plates has been omitted.
J10.4. Web Sidesway Buckling has been moved from old Section K1.5
and reworded. The placement and method of attaching the
transverse stiffeners or doubler plates is omitted. A User Note has
been added referring to Appendix 6 for adequate restraint
determination.
J10.5. Web Compression Buckling has been moved from old Section
K1.6 and reworded. The placement and method of attaching the
transverse stiffeners or doubler plates is omitted.
J10.6. Web Panel Zone Shear has been moved from old Section K1.7 and
reworded. The placement and method of attaching the diagonal
stiffeners or doubler plates has been omitted.
J10.7. Unframed Ends of Beams and Girders has been moved from old
Section K1.8. The content has not been changed.
J10.8. Additional Stiffener Requirements for Concentrated Forces are
derived from old Section K1.9 and includes much of the sizing and
connecting criteria that has been omitted in the previous sections.
Stiffeners for tensile forces now must comply with Chapter D and
stiffeners under compressive forces shall meet requirements of
Sections E6.2 and J4.4. An additional requirement for the length of
transverse stiffeners has been added.
J10.9. Additional Doubler Plate Requirements for Concentrated Forces
comes from old Section K1.10 and includes much of the sizing and
connecting criteria that has been omitted in the previous sections.
Stiffeners for tensile, compression and shear forces should meet
requirements in Chapters E, D, and G respectively.

CHAPTER K-DESIGN OF HSS AND BOX MEMBER CONNECTIONS


This Chapter is new to the 2005 Specification and outlines the design of HSS and box
member connections. For further reference, see the 2000 HSS Specification.

CHAPTER L-DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY


L1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
This section has been moved from the old Chapter L Introduction. A User Note
has been added stating additional information on serviceability limit states can be
found in ASCE 7, Appendix B, and the Commentary.

L2. CAMBER
This section has been moved from old Section L1. The material has been
shortened and generalized. A User Note has been added making reference to the
Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges for camber
recommendations.

L3. DEFLECTIONS
This section has been moved from old Section L3.1. A User Note has been added
stating conditions that need to be considered and additional considerations for
composite members.

L4. DRIFT
This section has moved from old Section L3.3. Drift is evaluated using the
service loads and includes the integrity of interior partitions and exterior cladding.

L5. VIBRATION
This section has been renamed and moved from old Section L3.2. The material
has been generalized and sources of vibrations that need to be considered are now
included.

L6. WIND-INDUCED MOTION


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

L7. EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION


This section has been moved from old Section L2 and now expands on if the
exterior cladding is damaged due to expansion and contraction where water can
penetrate and lead to corrosion.

L8. CONNECTION SLIP


This section has been moved from old Section L4. The effects of connection slip
have been included relating to the serviceability of the structure. A User Note has
been added referencing the RCSC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM
A325 or A490 Bolts.

CHAPTER M-FABRICATION, ERECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL

M1. SHOP AND ERECTION DRAWINGS


This section has been renamed and now includes information on erection
drawings as in when they need to be prepared and what information is needed.
M2. FABRICATION
M2.1. Cambering, Curving and Straightening contents has not been
changed.
M2.2. Thermal Cutting information has been expanded to be more
specific to include beam copes that are to be galvanized, beam
flanges not exceeding 2 inches, curved parts of access holes, and
material that needs to be inspected for cracking.
M2.3. Planing of Edges contents has not been changed.
M2.4. Welded Construction contents has not been changed.
M2.5. Bolted Construction states bolt holes shall now comply with the
provisions of the RCSC Specification for Structural Joints Using
ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts, Section 3.3 and thermally cut holes
shall be permitted with a surface roughness profile not greater than
1,000 μin.
M2.6. Compression Joint contents has not been changed.
M2.7. Dimensional Tolerances contents has not been changed.
M2.8. Finish of Column Bases contents has not been changed.
M2.9. Holes for Anchor Rods is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
M2.10. Drain Holes is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
M2.11. Requirements for Galvanized Members is a new section in the
2005 Specification.

M3. SHOP PAINTING


M3.1. General Requirements contents has not been changed.
M3.2. Inaccessible Surfaces contents has not been changed.
M3.3. Contact Surfaces contents has not been changed.
M3.4. Finished Surfaces contents has not been changed.
M3.5. Surfaces Adjacent to Field Welds contents has not been changed.

M4. ERECTION
M4.1. Alignment of Column Bases contents has not been changed.
M4.2. Bracing contents has not been changed.
M4.3. Alignment has not moved and the content has not been changed.
M4.4. Fit of Column Compression Joints and Base Plates contents has not
been changed.
M4.5. Field Welding contents has not been changed.
M4.6. Field Painting contents has not been changed.
M4.7. Field Connections contents has not been changed.

M5. QUALITY CONTROL


M5.1. Cooperation contents has not been changed.
M5.2. Rejections contents has not been changed.
M5.3. Inspection of Welding contents has not been changed.
M5.4. Inspection of Slip-Critical High-Strength Bolted Connections
contents has not been changed.
M5.5. Identification of Steel section now omits the capability of the
identification method such as material specification designation,
heat number, and material test reports.

APPENDIX 1-INEALSTIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

1.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS


This is a new section to the 2005 Specification which discusses the permitted use
of Inelastic (Plastic) analysis.

1.2. MATERIALS
This is a new section to the 2005 Specification which states that the minimum
specified yield stress shall not exceed 65 ksi.

1.3. MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION


This is a new section to the 2005 Specification although; the principals of this
section have been in the elastic design portions of the specification.

1.4. LOCAL BUCKLING


This section is taken in part from old Section B5.2. In addition the equations to
check lateral torsional buckling are presented here.

1.5. STABILITY AND SECOND-ORDER EFFECTS


This section is newly written for the 2005 Specification, but maintains the old
Section C1.1 requirement that second-order inelastic analysis must be performed.
1.5.1. Braced Frames is a new section in the 2005 Specification.
1.5.2. Moment Frames is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

1.6. COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS


This section is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

1.7. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS


Has been taken from old Chapter F1.3 and rewritten. The provisions remain the
same.

1.8. MEMBERS UNDER COMBINED FORCES


This section is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

1.9. CONNECTIONS
This section is a new section in the 2005 Specification and states that connections
must have sufficient strength and ductility.

APPENDIX 2-DESIGN FOR PONDING


2.1. SIMPLIFIED DESIGN FOR PONDING
This section has been moved from old Section K2 and rewritten but, the equations
and requirements remain unchanged.

2.2. IMPROVED DESIGN FOR PONDING


This section is has been moved from old Appendix K2 and rewritten. The
procedure remains the same.

APPENDIX 3-DESIGN FOR FATIGUE

3.1. GENERAL
This section is taken directly from old Appendix K3.1.

3.2. CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM STRESSES AND STRESS RANGES


This section is taken directly from old Appendix K3.2.

3.3. DESIGN STRESS RANGE


This section is taken from old Appendix K3.3. The slight reorganization includes
metric reduction factors that were not included in the 1999 Specification.

3.4. BOLTS AND THREADED PARTS


This section is taken directly from old Appendix K3.4.

3.5. SPECIAL FABRICATION AND ERECTION REQUIREMENTS


This section is taken directly from old Appendix K3.5.

APPENDIX 4-STRUCTURAL DESIGN FOR FIRE CONDITIONS


This section is new to the 2005 Specification and provides criteria for the design and
evaluation of structural steel component, systems and frames for fire conditions.

APPENDIX 5-EVALUATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES

5.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS


This section has been moved from old Section N1 and the content has not been
changed.

5.2. MATERIAL PROPERTIES


5.2.1. Determination of Required Tests has been moved from old Section
N2.1 and the content has not been changed.
5.2.2. Tensile Properties has been moved from old Section N2.2 and the
content has not been changed.
5.2.3. Chemical Composition has been moved from old Section N2.3 and
the content has not been changed.
5.2.4. Base Metal Notch Toughness has been moved from old Section
N2.4 and the content has not been changed.
5.2.5. Weld Metal has been moved from old Section N2.5 and the content
has not been changed.
5.2.6. Bolts and Rivets has been moved from old Section N2.6 and the
content has not been changed.

5.3. EVALUATION BY STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS


5.3.1. Dimensional Data has been moved from old Section N3.1 and the
content has not been changed.
5.3.2. Strength Evaluation has been moved from old Section N3.2 and
the content has not been changed.
5.3.3. Serviceability Evaluation has been moved from old Section N3.3
and the content has not been changed.

5.4. EVALUATION BY LOAD TESTS


5.4.1. Determination of Load Rating by Testing has been moved from old
Section N4.1 and the content has not been changed.
5.4.2. Serviceability Evaluation has been moved from old Section N4.2
and the content has not been changed.

5.5. EVALUATION REPORT


This section has been moved from old Section N5 and the content has not been
changed.

APPENDIX 6-STABILITY BRACING FOR COLUMNS AND BEAMS

6.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS


This section has been renamed and moved from old Section C3.1. The content
has not been changed.

6.2. COLUMNS
This section has been moved from old Section C3.3 and the content has not been
changed.
6.2.1. Relative Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.3a and the
equations have been rewritten in a general form to account for both
LRFD and ASD.
6.2.2. Nodal Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.3b and the
equations have been rewritten in a general form to account for both
LRFD and ASD.

6.3. BEAMS
This section has been moved from old Section C3.4 and the content has not been
changed.
6.3.1. Lateral Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4a and the
content has not been changed.
6.3.1a. Relative Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4a.(a) and
the equations have been rewritten in a general form to account for
both LRFD and ASD.
6.3.1b. Nodal Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4a.(b) and the
equations have been rewritten in a general form to account for both
LRFD and ASD.
6.3.2. Torsional Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4b and the
content has not been changed.
6.3.2a. Nodal Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4b.(a) and the
equations have be rewritten in a general form to account for both
LRFD and ASD.
6.3.2b. Continuous Torsional Bracing has been moved from old Section
C3.4b.(b) and the content has not been changed.

APPENDIX 7-DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

7.1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

7.2. NOTIONAL LOADS


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

7.3. DESIGN-ANALYSIS CONSTRAINTS


This is a new section in the 2005 Specification.