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Vol No. 4, Issue No. 1, 092 - 096

Tuned PID Controller

K. Anil Naik1 and P. Srikanth1

1

Department of Electrical Engineering,

NIT Hamirpur, Hamirpur, H.P., India

email: anilnaik205@gmail.com

Abstract— In this paper PID controller with Internal Model lot of research is done along the conventional PID controller

Control (IMC) tuning method for the DC motor is presented for design [13]. A recent development of modern control system

robust operation. The IMC has a single tuning parameter to enables us to combine the PID controller with various simple

adjust the performance and robustness of the controller. The control algorithms in a quick and easy manner to enhance the

proposed tuning method is very efficient in controlling the control performance. However, the classic tuning methods

overshoot, stability and the dynamics of the speed-control system

involved in PID controller suffers with a few systematic

of the DC motor. The results of the IMC tuning method have

been compared in the midst of controller with singular frequency design problems.

(SF) based tuning and Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) closed loop tuning. Hence, in order to compensate these internal design problems,

A remarkable improvement in stability of the system has been internal model control (IMC) based tuning approach has been

observed with IMC tuning justifying its applicability. Simulated developed. Due to its simplicity, robustness, and successful

results given in the paper show the feasibility and versatility of practical applications it gained a widespread acceptance in

the IMC tuning technique in the DC motor. designing the PID controller in process industries [14-18]. The

analytical method based on IMC principle for the design of

Index Terms—Controller, Internal Model Control, DC motor, PID controller is also developed [19-20]. The resulting

Speed, Stability, Tuning. structure of the control system is capable of controlling a fast

dynamic process by integral control, which results in a striking

improvement in performance. Its advantage is even being

I. INTRODUCTION implemented in many of the industries. However, it has been

area for a long time, because they have many good

characteristics, for example: high start torque characteristic,

found from the literature that the IMC-PID controller has not

yet been implemented in the DC motor speed control system.

Consequently, the present work is a step towards

high response performance, easier to be linear control…etc.[1- implementing an IMC tuning based PID controller in DC

2]. The different control approach depends on the different motor. The results with IMC tuned controller have been found

performance of motors. Because the peripheral control devices to outperform the SF and Z-N tuned PID controllers.

are enough, there is the more extensive application in the The paper is organized as fallows simple model of DC

industry control system. Therefore, the DC motor control is motor is provided in section II. The IMC-PID controller is

riper than other kinds of motors. Different types of controller explained in section III. Results and different plots (frequency

have been using in DC motors such as PI and PID controllers. and time domain plots) are given in section IV. Finally

The main disadvantage of PI controller is steady state error is conclusions are drawn in section V.

more. And the most popular controllers used in industrial

processes is the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) II. SIMPLE MODEL OF A DC MOTOR

controller [3]. The real strength of this kind of controller is its A simple model of DC motor as shown in Fig. 1. In this

simplicity to understand, explain and implement them [4]. model, the dynamics of the motor itself are idealized; for

The proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is the instance, the magnetic field is assumed to be constant. The

most common form of feedback in the control systems. PID resistance of the circuit is denoted by R and the self-

control is also an important ingredient of a distributed control inductance of the armature by L. With this simple model and

system and as such these controllers come in different forms basic laws of physics, it is possible to develop differential

[5-7]. And also due to its efficient and robust performance equations that describe the behavior of this electromechanical

with a simple algorithm, the PID (proportional, integral, and system. The relationships between electric potential and

derivative) controllers have been widely accepted in most of mechanical force are Faraday's law of induction and Ampere’s

the industrial applications [8-12]. Ziegler and Nichols have law for the force on a conductor moving through a magnetic

field.

K. Anil Naik et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Vol No. 4, Issue No. 1, 092 - 096

R K

b 1

d i L L i

v (8)

dt K m K f L app ( t )

0

J J

i

y (t ) 0 1

[0]vapp (t ) (9)

Fig. 1 A simple model of a DC motor driving an inertial load

from state space model and given in eqn. (10)

The torque seen at the shaft of the motor is proportional to Km

2 (10)

the current i induced by the applied voltage, LJs ( RJ LK f ) s ( RK f K m K b )

(t ) K mi (t ) (1)

Where, K m the armature constant, is related to physical III. IMC-PID CONTROLLER

properties of the motor, such as magnetic field strength, the Equivalent the typical internal model structure to a single loop

number of turns of wire around the conductor coil, and so on. PID control structure, as Fig. 2. Where P(s) is the actual

process object being controlled, M(s) refer to the model of the

The back (induced) electromotive force, ve.m. f is a voltage process, and G(s) is the IMC primary controller, u refer to

proportional to the angular rate seen at the shaft, output of internal model controller, r, y and d refer to the

ve.m. f (t ) Kb (t ) (2) input, the output and load disturbances, respectively, and

Gc(s) is the controller which can get the result of internal

where , K b the emf constant, also depends on certain physical model controlling structure after varying equivalently.

properties of the motor. Designed the IMC controller as eqn. (11),

The mechanical part of the motor equations is derived using

1

Newton's law, which states that the inertial load J times the G( s) M ( s) f ( s) (11)

derivative of angular rate equals the sum of all the torques

about the motor shaft. The result is this equation,

1

d Where f (s) is the realizable factor.

J i K f (t ) K mi (t ) (3) s 1

dt

Where K f is a linear approximation for viscous friction. G( s) 1

Gc ( s ) K c (1 Td s ) (12)

Finally, the electrical part of the motor equations can be 1 G( s) M ( s) Ti

described by

di

vapp (t ) vemf (t ) L Ri (t ) (4)

dt

or, solving for the applied voltage and substituting for the back

emf,

vapp (t ) L di Ri (t ) Kb (t ) (5)

dt

This sequence of equations leads to a set of two differential

equations that describe the behavior of the motor, the first for

the induced current, Fig.2 Equivalent the IMC to general control structure

di R K 1

i (t ) b (t ) vapp (t ) (6) Consider the plant model M(s) as a DC motor transfer function

dt L L L then

and the second for the resulting angular rate

Km

d 1 1 M (s) 2 (13)

K f i (t ) K mi (t ) (7) LJs ( RJ LK f ) s ( RK f K m K b )

dt J J

State-Space Equations for the DC Motor given the two Substitute eqn. (13) in eqn. (12) and IMC- PID tuning

differential equations derived in the last section, now develop parameter are given as

a state-space representation of the DC motor as a dynamic RJ LK f RK f Km Kb LJ

KP , KI and K D

system. The current i and the angular rate are the two states K m K m K m

of the system. The applied voltage, vapp , is the input to the

system, and the angular velocity is the output.

K. Anil Naik et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Vol No. 4, Issue No. 1, 092 - 096

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The step response of the PID controller system with

A standard test model as considered is taken for stability singular frequency tuning in time domain analysis is given in

study of DC motor with IMC tuning controller. The test model Fig. 5. The whole simulation is done for 50s. The rise time Tr

below shown is completely designed in SISO tool. Fig. 3 = 9.87s, peak time and settling time Ts =15s for this case are

shows the block diagram of DC motor driving an inertial load. obtained.

The DC motor representation includes R= 2.0 Ohms, L= 0.5

Henrys, Km = 0.015 torque constant, Kb = 0.01 emf constant,

Kf = 0.2Nms and J= 0.02 kg.m^2.

To show the robustness of the DC motor speed controller Fig. 5 Responses of the system to a step input with Singular frequency

system with IMC tuning controller, various cases as given based design tuning

below have been considered. The cases considered have been

simulated and verified in SISO tool MATLAB/SIMULINK B. Ziegler-Nichols closed loop design tuning

ver 7.6 [21]. To achieve such a system of speed controller PID

Case a: Singular frequency based design tuning system, the Fig. 3 is simulated in SISO tool. For this system

Case b: Ziegler-Nichols closed loop design tuning also the frequency response is computed using the linear

Case c: IMC based design tuning approximation (Bode plot). The magnitude and phase as a

It is mentioned here that the designed values are taken same as function of frequency are plotted and is as shown in Fig. 6.

have been provided in [21]. From Fig. 6, it is determined that gain crossover frequency gc

A. Singular frequency based design tuning is 0.821rad/sec and phase crossover frequency pc is

To get the singular frequency based design tuning the Fig. 7.45rad/sec for this case. The gain and phase margins are Gm =

3 is simulated in SISO tool. The frequency response for such a

system is computed using the linear approximation (Bode 27.3dB and m = 74.7deg. Since, gc is less than pc and

plot). The magnitude and phase as a function of frequency of hence in this case also the DC motor speed control system is

such a system are plotted in Fig. 4. From the plotted graph the stable.

gain crossover frequency gc is 0.188rad/sec and phase

crossover frequency pc is 0.988 rad/sec. The gain and phase

margins are Gm = 12.5dB and m = 72.8deg, gc is less than

pc since gc should not be greater than pc for stability of

the system. The speed controller of DC motor system with

singular frequency based design tuning is stable.

design tuning

time domain analysis is as given in Fig. 7. The whole

simulation is done for 50s. Rise time Tr =8.89s, and settling

Fig. 4 Frequency response for Singular frequency based design tuning time Ts =16.3s are obtained.

K. Anil Naik et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Vol No. 4, Issue No. 1, 092 - 096

Fig.7 Responses of the system to a step input with Ziegler-Nichols Fig. 9 Responses of the system to a step input with IMC based

closed loop based design tuning design tuning

A. Internal Model Control (IMC) based design tuning Time and frequency domain responses have been

This tuning design can be obtained when the Fig. 3 is determined to investigate the effectiveness of the PID

simulated in SISO tool. The magnitude and phase as a controller in IMC design tuning. It has been determined that

function of frequency for this case are plotted in Fig. 8. It is the IMC tuning with controller provides the required stability

seen from the figure that gain crossover frequency gc is and performance specifications. The results show that the gain

and phase margins are significantly improved with 36.2dB

0.224rad/sec and phase crossover frequency pc is 6.44rad/sec.

gain margin and 85.5o phase margin. These are obtained from

The gain and phase margins are Gm = 36.2dB and m = the frequency response of the open-loop system and are as

given in Fig.8. It is found from Fig. 8 that the phase margin is

85.5deg. Since gc is less than pc (phase crossover

significantly improved at the critical frequency of inter-area

frequency) then the magnitude and phase values of the bode modes between 0.224rad/sec and 6.44rad/sec. On the other

plot are more and positive. In this case the gain margin and hand, 12.5dB and 27.3dB gain margins for the Singular

phase margin are more than SF and Z-N tuning methods and Frequency and Ziegler-Nichols tuning controllers are obtained

hence the speed controller of DC motor system with IMC which are quite low compared with the IMC tuning controller.

tuning is more stable. Detailed results are as summarized in Table I.

The time domain results for closed loop system are

presented in Table II. Improved results have been obtained

with IMC design tuning controller. Generally, a lower rise

time and settling time are preferred for the better performance

of the system. From the Table II it has been seen that for SF

based tuning rise time is 9.78s and settling time is 15s, for Z-N

based tuning rise time is 8.89s and settling time is 16.3s and

for IMC tuning rise time is 1.89s and settling time is 3.34s.

From the above it is observed that when compare to SF and Z-

N tuning methods IMC tuning method obtained better settling

time and peak rise time, thereby justifying the suitability of the

IMC tuning for PID control DC motor speed system. Time

domain responses of all types of tuning methods PID

controllers with DC motor speed governing system

Fig. 8 Frequency response for IMC based design tuning

comparison are as shown in Fig. 10 for a step set-point speed

signal change.

The step response of the IMC based design tuning in time

domain analysis is as shown in Fig. 9. For which the rise time

Tr = 1.89s, there is no peak time and peak overshoot %M p = 0

and settling time Ts =3.34s. In this case compare to SF and Z-

N tuning methods rise time and settling time are improved.

K. Anil Naik et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Vol No. 4, Issue No. 1, 092 - 096

REFERENCES

.

[1] Wang, J. B., Control of Electric Machinery. Gau Lih Book co., Ltd,

Taipei Taiwan, 2001.

[2] G. Haung and S. Lee, “PC based PID speed control in DC motor,”

IEEE Conf. SALIP-2008, pp. 400-408, 2008.

[3] Visioli A., "Tuning of PID controllers with fuzzy logic,” in IEE

Proceedings - Control Theory and Applications, 2001, Volume 148,

Issue 1, pp. 1-8.

[4] Zhang J., “Structural research of fuzzy PID controllers,” in Proc.

International Conference on Control and Automation, ICCA2005,

Northeastern University, Qinhuangdao Hebei China. 2005.

[5] D. Vrancic, B. Kristiansson, S. Strmcnik, and P. M. Oliveira, “Improving

performance/activity ratio for PID controllers,” Int. Conf. Control and

Automation, 2005, pp. 834-839.

[6] P. Kundur, Power system stability and control, McGraw-Hill, 1994.

[7] A. Khodabakhshian and M. Edrisi, “A new robust PID load frequency

controller,” Control Engg. Practice, vol. 16, pp. 1069-1080, 2008.

Fig.10 Responses of the system to a step input with all tuning algorithm [8] K. J. Astrom, H. Panagopoulos, and T. Hagglund, “Design of PI

controllers controllers based on non-convex optimization” Automatica, vol 34. pp.

585-601, 1998.

TABLE I [9] D. E. Seborg, T. F. Edgar, and D. A. Mellichamp, “Process dynamics

FREQUENCY DOMAIN RESULTS and control” John Wiley & Sons, Second edition, New York, 2004.

[10] S. Skogestad and I. Postlethwaite, “Multivariable feedback control

S F Based Z-N Closed IMC analysis and design” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996.

Specifications

Tuning loop Tuning Based Tuning [11] C. L. Smith, A. B. Corripio, and J. J. Martin, “Controller tuning from

simple process models” Instrumentation Technological, vol. 22, pp. 39-

Gain Margin 12.5 27.3dB 36.2dB

45, 1975.

[12] J. G. Ziegler and N. B. Nichols, “Optimum settings for automatic

Gain crossover controller, Transactions ASME, vol. 64, pp. 759-766, 1942.

0.188r/s 0.821r/s 0.224r/s

Frequency [13] O. Montiel, R. Sepúlveda, P. Melin and O. Castillo, “ Performance of a

simple tuned Fuzzy controller and a PID controller on a DC motor,”

Phase margin 72.8o 74.7o 85.5 o Procee. of IEEE (FOCI 2007), pp. 531-538, 2007.

[14] I. L. Chien, and Fruehauf, “Consider IMC tuning to improve controller

Phase crossover performance” Chemical Engineering Program, vol. 86, pp. 33-38,

0.988r/s 7.45r/s 6.44r/s 1990.

Frequency

[15] O. Aidan and Dwyer, “Handbook of PI and PID controller tuning rules”

Imperial College Press, London, 2003.

[16] I. G. Horn, J. R. Arulandu, J. G. Christopher, J.G. VanAntwerp, and R.

D. Braatz, “Improved filter design in internal model control”

TABLE II

Industrial Engineering Chemical Research, vol. 35, pp. 33-37, 1996.

TIME DOMAIN RESULTS

[17] Y. Lee, S. Park, and M. Lee, “Consider the generalized IMC-PID

method for PID controller tuning of time-delay processes”

S F Based Z-N Closed IMC Hydrocarbon Processing, 2006, pp. 87-91.

Specifications

Tuning loop Tuning Based Tuning [18] Y. Lee, S. Park, M. Lee, and C. Brosilow, “PID controller tuning for

desired closed-loop responses for SISO systems” AICHE Journal, vol

Rise time 9.78s 8.89s 1.89s 44, pp. 106-115, 1998.

[19] M. Morari and E.Zafiriou, “Robust Process Control” Prentice Hall,

Settling time (1%) 15s 16.3s 3.34s Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989.

[20] D. E. Rivera, M. Morari, and S. Skogestad, “Internal model control, 4.

PID controller design” Industrial Engineering Proceeding Design Deu.

vol. 25, pp. 252-258, 1986.

[21] MATLAB/SIMULINK ver. 7.6

V. CONCLUSIONS

A new robust IMC tuning based PID controller is proposed

for DC motor control system. The proposed tuning method

has been found to enhance the stability of the DC motor

system. Different cases have been considered and compared to

justify the suitability of the IMC tuning PID controller. From

Table I it is found that the gain margins IMC tuning controller

is 23.7dB higher compared with SF tuning controller and

8.9dB higher when compared with Z-N tuning controller,

similarly, rise time and settling time has improved with IMC

tuning controller.

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