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K. Anil Naik et al.

/ (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES


Vol No. 4, Issue No. 1, 092 - 096

Stability Enhancement of DC Motor using IMC


Tuned PID Controller
K. Anil Naik1 and P. Srikanth1
1
Department of Electrical Engineering,
NIT Hamirpur, Hamirpur, H.P., India
email: anilnaik205@gmail.com

 implemented and published their classical methods and also a


Abstract— In this paper PID controller with Internal Model lot of research is done along the conventional PID controller
Control (IMC) tuning method for the DC motor is presented for design [13]. A recent development of modern control system
robust operation. The IMC has a single tuning parameter to enables us to combine the PID controller with various simple
adjust the performance and robustness of the controller. The control algorithms in a quick and easy manner to enhance the
proposed tuning method is very efficient in controlling the control performance. However, the classic tuning methods
overshoot, stability and the dynamics of the speed-control system
involved in PID controller suffers with a few systematic
of the DC motor. The results of the IMC tuning method have
been compared in the midst of controller with singular frequency design problems.
(SF) based tuning and Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) closed loop tuning. Hence, in order to compensate these internal design problems,
A remarkable improvement in stability of the system has been internal model control (IMC) based tuning approach has been
observed with IMC tuning justifying its applicability. Simulated developed. Due to its simplicity, robustness, and successful
results given in the paper show the feasibility and versatility of practical applications it gained a widespread acceptance in
the IMC tuning technique in the DC motor. designing the PID controller in process industries [14-18]. The
analytical method based on IMC principle for the design of
Index Terms—Controller, Internal Model Control, DC motor, PID controller is also developed [19-20]. The resulting
Speed, Stability, Tuning. structure of the control system is capable of controlling a fast
dynamic process by integral control, which results in a striking
improvement in performance. Its advantage is even being
I. INTRODUCTION implemented in many of the industries. However, it has been

T HE DC motors have been popular in the industry control


area for a long time, because they have many good
characteristics, for example: high start torque characteristic,
found from the literature that the IMC-PID controller has not
yet been implemented in the DC motor speed control system.
Consequently, the present work is a step towards
high response performance, easier to be linear control…etc.[1- implementing an IMC tuning based PID controller in DC
2]. The different control approach depends on the different motor. The results with IMC tuned controller have been found
performance of motors. Because the peripheral control devices to outperform the SF and Z-N tuned PID controllers.
are enough, there is the more extensive application in the The paper is organized as fallows simple model of DC
industry control system. Therefore, the DC motor control is motor is provided in section II. The IMC-PID controller is
riper than other kinds of motors. Different types of controller explained in section III. Results and different plots (frequency
have been using in DC motors such as PI and PID controllers. and time domain plots) are given in section IV. Finally
The main disadvantage of PI controller is steady state error is conclusions are drawn in section V.
more. And the most popular controllers used in industrial
processes is the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) II. SIMPLE MODEL OF A DC MOTOR
controller [3]. The real strength of this kind of controller is its A simple model of DC motor as shown in Fig. 1. In this
simplicity to understand, explain and implement them [4]. model, the dynamics of the motor itself are idealized; for
The proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is the instance, the magnetic field is assumed to be constant. The
most common form of feedback in the control systems. PID resistance of the circuit is denoted by R and the self-
control is also an important ingredient of a distributed control inductance of the armature by L. With this simple model and
system and as such these controllers come in different forms basic laws of physics, it is possible to develop differential
[5-7]. And also due to its efficient and robust performance equations that describe the behavior of this electromechanical
with a simple algorithm, the PID (proportional, integral, and system. The relationships between electric potential and
derivative) controllers have been widely accepted in most of mechanical force are Faraday's law of induction and Ampere’s
the industrial applications [8-12]. Ziegler and Nichols have law for the force on a conductor moving through a magnetic
field.

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K. Anil Naik et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 4, Issue No. 1, 092 - 096

 R K 
  b 1
d i   L L i  
  v (8)
dt    K m K f     L  app ( t )
  0
 
 J J 
i 
y (t )  0 1
   [0]vapp (t ) (9)

The transfer function model of the DC motor can be derived


Fig. 1 A simple model of a DC motor driving an inertial load
from state space model and given in eqn. (10)
The torque  seen at the shaft of the motor is proportional to Km
2 (10)
the current i induced by the applied voltage, LJs  ( RJ  LK f ) s  ( RK f  K m K b )
 (t )  K mi (t ) (1)
Where, K m the armature constant, is related to physical III. IMC-PID CONTROLLER
properties of the motor, such as magnetic field strength, the Equivalent the typical internal model structure to a single loop
number of turns of wire around the conductor coil, and so on. PID control structure, as Fig. 2. Where P(s) is the actual
process object being controlled, M(s) refer to the model of the
The back (induced) electromotive force, ve.m. f is a voltage process, and G(s) is the IMC primary controller, u refer to
proportional to the angular rate  seen at the shaft, output of internal model controller, r, y and d refer to the
ve.m. f (t )  Kb (t ) (2) input, the output and load disturbances, respectively, and
Gc(s) is the controller which can get the result of internal
where , K b the emf constant, also depends on certain physical model controlling structure after varying equivalently.
properties of the motor. Designed the IMC controller as eqn. (11),
The mechanical part of the motor equations is derived using
1
Newton's law, which states that the inertial load J times the G( s)  M ( s) f ( s) (11)
derivative of angular rate equals the sum of all the torques
about the motor shaft. The result is this equation,
1
d Where f (s)  is the realizable factor.
J    i   K f  (t )  K mi (t ) (3) s  1
dt
Where K f  is a linear approximation for viscous friction. G( s) 1
Gc ( s )   K c (1   Td s ) (12)
Finally, the electrical part of the motor equations can be 1  G( s) M ( s) Ti
described by
di
vapp (t )  vemf (t )  L  Ri (t ) (4)
dt
or, solving for the applied voltage and substituting for the back
emf,
vapp (t ) L di  Ri (t ) Kb (t ) (5)
dt
This sequence of equations leads to a set of two differential
equations that describe the behavior of the motor, the first for
the induced current, Fig.2 Equivalent the IMC to general control structure

di R K 1
  i (t )  b  (t )  vapp (t ) (6) Consider the plant model M(s) as a DC motor transfer function
dt L L L then
and the second for the resulting angular rate
Km
d 1 1 M (s)  2 (13)
  K f i (t )  K mi (t ) (7) LJs  ( RJ  LK f ) s  ( RK f  K m K b )
dt J J
State-Space Equations for the DC Motor given the two Substitute eqn. (13) in eqn. (12) and IMC- PID tuning
differential equations derived in the last section, now develop parameter are given as
a state-space representation of the DC motor as a dynamic RJ  LK f RK f  Km Kb LJ
KP  , KI  and K D 
system. The current i and the angular rate  are the two states K m K m K m
of the system. The applied voltage, vapp , is the input to the
system, and the angular velocity  is the output.

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K. Anil Naik et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 4, Issue No. 1, 092 - 096

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The step response of the PID controller system with
A standard test model as considered is taken for stability singular frequency tuning in time domain analysis is given in
study of DC motor with IMC tuning controller. The test model Fig. 5. The whole simulation is done for 50s. The rise time Tr
below shown is completely designed in SISO tool. Fig. 3 = 9.87s, peak time and settling time Ts =15s for this case are
shows the block diagram of DC motor driving an inertial load. obtained.
The DC motor representation includes R= 2.0 Ohms, L= 0.5
Henrys, Km = 0.015 torque constant, Kb = 0.01 emf constant,
Kf = 0.2Nms and J= 0.02 kg.m^2.

Fig. 3 Block diagram of DC motor speed control system

To show the robustness of the DC motor speed controller Fig. 5 Responses of the system to a step input with Singular frequency
system with IMC tuning controller, various cases as given based design tuning
below have been considered. The cases considered have been
simulated and verified in SISO tool MATLAB/SIMULINK B. Ziegler-Nichols closed loop design tuning
ver 7.6 [21]. To achieve such a system of speed controller PID
Case a: Singular frequency based design tuning system, the Fig. 3 is simulated in SISO tool. For this system
Case b: Ziegler-Nichols closed loop design tuning also the frequency response is computed using the linear
Case c: IMC based design tuning approximation (Bode plot). The magnitude and phase as a
It is mentioned here that the designed values are taken same as function of frequency are plotted and is as shown in Fig. 6.
have been provided in [21]. From Fig. 6, it is determined that gain crossover frequency  gc
A. Singular frequency based design tuning is 0.821rad/sec and phase crossover frequency  pc is
To get the singular frequency based design tuning the Fig. 7.45rad/sec for this case. The gain and phase margins are Gm =
3 is simulated in SISO tool. The frequency response for such a
system is computed using the linear approximation (Bode 27.3dB and m = 74.7deg. Since, gc is less than  pc and
plot). The magnitude and phase as a function of frequency of hence in this case also the DC motor speed control system is
such a system are plotted in Fig. 4. From the plotted graph the stable.
gain crossover frequency  gc is 0.188rad/sec and phase
crossover frequency  pc is 0.988 rad/sec. The gain and phase
margins are Gm = 12.5dB and m = 72.8deg,  gc is less than
 pc since  gc should not be greater than  pc for stability of
the system. The speed controller of DC motor system with
singular frequency based design tuning is stable.

Fig. 6 Frequency response for Ziegler-Nichols closed loop based


design tuning

The step response of the Ziegler-Nichols design tuning in


time domain analysis is as given in Fig. 7. The whole
simulation is done for 50s. Rise time Tr =8.89s, and settling
Fig. 4 Frequency response for Singular frequency based design tuning time Ts =16.3s are obtained.

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K. Anil Naik et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 4, Issue No. 1, 092 - 096

Fig.7 Responses of the system to a step input with Ziegler-Nichols Fig. 9 Responses of the system to a step input with IMC based
closed loop based design tuning design tuning

A. Internal Model Control (IMC) based design tuning Time and frequency domain responses have been
This tuning design can be obtained when the Fig. 3 is determined to investigate the effectiveness of the PID
simulated in SISO tool. The magnitude and phase as a controller in IMC design tuning. It has been determined that
function of frequency for this case are plotted in Fig. 8. It is the IMC tuning with controller provides the required stability
seen from the figure that gain crossover frequency  gc is and performance specifications. The results show that the gain
and phase margins are significantly improved with 36.2dB
0.224rad/sec and phase crossover frequency  pc is 6.44rad/sec.
gain margin and 85.5o phase margin. These are obtained from
The gain and phase margins are Gm = 36.2dB and m = the frequency response of the open-loop system and are as
given in Fig.8. It is found from Fig. 8 that the phase margin is
85.5deg. Since  gc is less than  pc (phase crossover
significantly improved at the critical frequency of inter-area
frequency) then the magnitude and phase values of the bode modes between 0.224rad/sec and 6.44rad/sec. On the other
plot are more and positive. In this case the gain margin and hand, 12.5dB and 27.3dB gain margins for the Singular
phase margin are more than SF and Z-N tuning methods and Frequency and Ziegler-Nichols tuning controllers are obtained
hence the speed controller of DC motor system with IMC which are quite low compared with the IMC tuning controller.
tuning is more stable. Detailed results are as summarized in Table I.
The time domain results for closed loop system are
presented in Table II. Improved results have been obtained
with IMC design tuning controller. Generally, a lower rise
time and settling time are preferred for the better performance
of the system. From the Table II it has been seen that for SF
based tuning rise time is 9.78s and settling time is 15s, for Z-N
based tuning rise time is 8.89s and settling time is 16.3s and
for IMC tuning rise time is 1.89s and settling time is 3.34s.
From the above it is observed that when compare to SF and Z-
N tuning methods IMC tuning method obtained better settling
time and peak rise time, thereby justifying the suitability of the
IMC tuning for PID control DC motor speed system. Time
domain responses of all types of tuning methods PID
controllers with DC motor speed governing system
Fig. 8 Frequency response for IMC based design tuning
comparison are as shown in Fig. 10 for a step set-point speed
signal change.
The step response of the IMC based design tuning in time
domain analysis is as shown in Fig. 9. For which the rise time
Tr = 1.89s, there is no peak time and peak overshoot %M p = 0
and settling time Ts =3.34s. In this case compare to SF and Z-
N tuning methods rise time and settling time are improved.

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K. Anil Naik et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 4, Issue No. 1, 092 - 096

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[21] MATLAB/SIMULINK ver. 7.6
V. CONCLUSIONS
A new robust IMC tuning based PID controller is proposed
for DC motor control system. The proposed tuning method
has been found to enhance the stability of the DC motor
system. Different cases have been considered and compared to
justify the suitability of the IMC tuning PID controller. From
Table I it is found that the gain margins IMC tuning controller
is 23.7dB higher compared with SF tuning controller and
8.9dB higher when compared with Z-N tuning controller,
similarly, rise time and settling time has improved with IMC
tuning controller.

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