Você está na página 1de 28

DESSERTATION REPORT

ON

STUDY OF NUTRACEUTICAL MARKET PRODUCT

(CH-BALANCE) IN MEERUT and BULANDSHAHAR

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF


DEGREE OF
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

SUBMITTED BY: Samiullah Khan

UNDER MENTORSHIP OF: Dr.Reshma Nasreen

MBA (PHRMA) 4th SEM


DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT, FMIT
JAMIA HANDARD
NEW DELHI
LIST OF CONTENTS

• ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

• DECLARATION

• EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

• INTRODUCTION

• LITRATURE REVIEW

• RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

• DATA COLLECTION

• QUESTIONNAIRE

• DATA INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS

• LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

• CONCLUSION OF THE STUDY

• RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY

• BIBILOGRAPHY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank my mentor Dr.Reshma Nasreen for all the help rendered to me during

the project work and going out of way to help me with each and every aspect of project.

I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. V. K. Arora, Regional Sales Manager , Sritech

Pharma for his valuable guidance and suggestions which has saved me from many pitfalls

during the course of my study.

I would like to thank all PHYSICIANS for their support and help which made whole project

the learning experience of life time.

I would also like to thank my Family for their moral as well as financial support during the

study.
DECLARATION

The Project entitled “Prescription Pattern of General Physician in Western Uttar

Pradesh’’ is an original piece of work and which was carried out under the supervision of

Mr. V. K. Arora, Regional Sales Manager , Sritech Pharma and under the guidance of

Dr.Reshma Nasreen , Department of Management ,Jamia Hamdard .

I further declare that this project work is based on my original work and no part of this
project has been published or submitted to anybody.

SAMIULLAH KHAN
MBA (PM) 4th SEM
D/O MANAGEMENT
JAMIA HAMDARD
NEW DELHI - 110062
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry today is in the front rank of India’s science-based
industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and
technology. It ranks very high in the third world, in terms of technology, quality and range of
medicines manufactured. From simple headache pills to sophisticated antibiotics and
complex cardiac compounds, almost every type of medicine is now made indigenously.

Indian Pharma Industry boasts of quality producers and many units approved by
regulatory authorities in USA and UK. International companies associated with this sector
have stimulated, assisted and spearheaded this dynamic development in the past 53 years and
helped to put India on the pharmaceutical map of the world.

Cholesterol is a waxy steroid of fat that is manufactured in the liver or intestines to produce
hormones and cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all mammals. It is an
essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, where it is required to
establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition, cholesterol is an important
component for the manufacture of bile acids, steroid hormones, and Vitamin D. Cholesterol
is the principal sterol synthesized by animals, but small quantities are synthesized in
other eukaryotes, such as plants and fungi. It is almost completely absent among prokaryotes,
which include bacteria. Although cholesterol is an important and necessary molecule for
mammals, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can clog arteries and potentially is linked to
diseases such as heart disease

The research was conducted on GENERAL PHYSICIAN in Meerut and Bulandshahar. The
research was conducted on 20 Physicians in the two cities .The questionnaire mainly
includes the questions related to prescribing behavior of Cardiologist and factors affecting
their prescription pattern. Most of the Cardiologist were overloaded with work and
participated casually in the research work. The Cardiologist use to attend between 20-40
everyday. The Patients suffered from various factors and cholesterol is one of the major
sources of diseases. Around 35%-60% of the cardiac patients suffered problem due to
cholesterol. Rosuvas was most prescribed anti-cholesterol drug among cardiologist. Regular
detailing of drugs by Medical Representatives and better quality Products plays an important
role in shifting brand loyalty of Cardiologist. Most of the Cardiologist did not trust Herbal
Drugs. Only few of them trust herbal substitute for cholesterol. Cardiologists were not aware
of the ch-balance of Amway.
The anti-cholesterol drugs have very huge market and its herbal substitute can be money
making machine if proper strategies are employed.
Introduction
Cholesterol is a waxy steroid of fat that is manufactured in the liver or intestines to produce
hormones and cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all mammals.[2] It is an
essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, where it is required to
establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition, cholesterol is an important
component for the manufacture of bile acids, steroid hormones, and Vitamin D. Cholesterol
is the principalsterol synthesized by animals, but small quantities are synthesized in
other eukaryotes, such as plants and fungi. It is almost completely absent among prokaryotes,
which include bacteria. Although cholesterol is an important and necessary molecule for
mammals, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can clog arteries and potentially is linked to
diseases such asheart disease.
The name cholesterol originates from the Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), and
thechemical suffix -ol for an alcohol. François Poulletier de la Salle first identified
cholesterol in solid form in gallstones, in 1769. However, it was only in 1815 that
chemist Eugène Chevreulnamed the compound "cholesterine"
Since cholesterol is essential for all animal life, it is primarily synthesized from simpler
substances within the body. However, high levels in blood circulation, depending on how it
is transported within lipoproteins, are strongly associated with progression of atherosclerosis.
For a person of about 68 kg (150 pounds), typical total body cholesterol synthesis is about 1
g (1,000 mg) per day, and total body content is about 35 g. Typical daily additional dietary
intake in the United States is 200–300 mg. The body compensates for cholesterol intake by
reducing the amount synthesized.
Cholesterol is recycled. It is excreted by the liver via the bile into the digestive tract.
Typically about 50% of the excreted cholesterol is reabsorbed by the small bowel back into
the bloodstream. Phytosterols can compete with cholesterol reabsorption in the intestinal
tract, thus reducing cholesterol reabsorption.
Function
Cholesterol is required to build and maintain membranes; it modulates membrane
fluidity over the range of physiological temperatures. The hydroxyl group on cholesterol
interacts with the polar head groups of the membrane phospholipids and sphingolipids, while
the bulky steroid and the hydrocarbon chain are embedded in the membrane, alongside
the no polar fatty acid chain of the other lipids. In this structural role, cholesterol reduces the
permeability of the plasma membrane to protons (positive hydrogen ions) and sodium ions.
Within the cell membrane, cholesterol also functions in intracellular transport, cell signaling
and nerve conduction. Cholesterol is essential for the structure and function of
invaginated caveolae and clathrin-coated pits, including caveola-dependent and clathrin-
dependent endocytosis. The role of cholesterol in such endocytosis can be investigated by
using methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) to remove cholesterol from the plasma membrane.
Recently, cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, assisting in the
formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. In many neurons, a myelin sheath, rich in
cholesterol, since it is derived from compacted layers of Schwann cell membrane, provides
insulation for more efficient conduction of impulses.
Within cells, cholesterol is the precursor molecule in several biochemical pathways. In the
liver, cholesterol is converted to bile, which is then stored in the gallbladder. Bile contains
bile salts, which solubilize fats in the digestive tract and aid in the intestinal absorption of fat
molecules as well as the fat-soluble vitamins, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E,
and Vitamin K. Cholesterol is an important precursor molecule for the synthesis of Vitamin
D and the steroid hormones, including the adrenal glandhormones cortisol and aldosterone as
well as the sex hormones progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone, and their derivatives.
Some research indicates that cholesterol may act as an antioxidant.
Dietary sources
Animal fats are complex mixtures of triglycerides, with lesser amounts of phospholipids and
cholesterol. As a consequence, all foods containing animal fat contain cholesterol to varying
extents. Major dietary sources of cholesterol include cheese, egg yolks, beef, pork,poultry,
and shrimp.
Human breast milk also contains significant quantities of cholesterol.
The amount of cholesterol present in plant-based food sources is generally much lower than
animal based sources. In addition, plant products such as flax seeds and peanuts contain
cholesterol-like compounds called phytosterols, which are suggested to help
lower serumcholesterol levels.
Total fat intake, especially saturated fat and trans fat, plays a larger role in blood cholesterol
than intake of cholesterol itself. Saturated fat is present in full fat dairy products, animal fats,
several types of oil and chocolate. Trans fats are typically derived from the partial
hydrogenation of unsaturated fats, and do not occur in significant amounts in nature. Trans
fat is most often encountered in margarine and hydrogenated vegetable fat, and consequently
in many fast foods, snack foods, and fried or baked goods.
A change in diet in addition to other lifestyle modifications may help reduce blood
cholesterol. Avoiding animal products may decrease the cholesterol levels in the body not
only by reducing the quantity of cholesterol consumed but also by reducing the quantity of
cholesterol synthesized. Those wishing to reduce their cholesterol through a change in diet
should aim to consume less than 7% of their daily caloriesfrom animal fat and fewer than
200 mg of cholesterol per day.
It is debatable that a diet, changed to reduce dietary fat and cholesterol, can lower blood
cholesterol levels, (and thus reduce the likelihood of development of, among others, coronary
artery disease leading to coronary heart disease), because any reduction to dietary cholesterol
intake could be counteracted by the organs compensating to try to keep blood cholesterol
levels constant. Also pointed out is the experimental discovery that in the diet, ingested
animal protein can raise blood cholesterol more than the ingested saturated fat or any
cholesterol. Moreover, the benefits of a diet supplemented with plant sterol esters has been
questioned.
Synthesis
All animal cells manufacture cholesterol with relative production rates varying by cell type
and organ function. About 20–25% of total daily cholesterol production occurs in the liver;
other sites of higher synthesis rates include the intestines, adrenal glands, and reproductive
organs. Synthesis within the body starts with one molecule of acetyl CoA and one molecule
of acetoacetyl-CoA, which are dehydrated to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-
CoA). This molecule is then reduced to mevalonate by the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase.
This step is the regulated, rate-limiting and irreversible step in cholesterol synthesis and is
the site of action for the statin drugs (HMG-CoA reductase competitive inhibitors).
Mevalonate is then converted to 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate in three reactions that
require ATP. This molecule is decarboxylated toisopentenyl pyrophosphate, which is a key
metabolite for various biological reactions. Three molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate
condense to form farnesyl pyrophosphate through the action of geranyl transferase. Two
molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate then condense to form squalene by the action
of squalene synthase in the endoplasmic reticulum. Oxidosqualene cyclase then cyclizes
squalene to formlanosterol. Finally, lanosterol is then converted to cholesterol.
Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1964
for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid
metabolism.
Regulation of cholesterol synthesis
Biosynthesis of cholesterol is directly regulated by the cholesterol levels present, though
the homeostatic mechanisms involved are only partly understood. A higher intake from food
leads to a net decrease in endogenous production, whereas lower intake from food has the
opposite effect. The main regulatory mechanism is the sensing of intracellular cholesterol in
the endoplasmic reticulum by the protein SREBP(sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1
and 2).In the presence of cholesterol, SREBP is bound to two other proteins: SCAP (SREBP-
cleavage-activating protein) and Insig1. When cholesterol levels fall, Insig-1 dissociates
from the SREBP-SCAP complex, allowing the complex to migrate to the Golgi apparatus,
where SREBP is cleaved by S1P and S2P (site-1 and -2 protease), two enzymes that are
activated by SCAP when cholesterol levels are low. The cleaved SREBP then migrates to the
nucleus and acts as a transcription factor to bind to the SRE (sterol regulatory element),
which stimulates the transcription of many genes. Among these are the low-density
lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and HMG-CoA reductase. The former scavenges circulating LDL
from the bloodstream, whereas HMG-CoA reductase leads to an increase of endogenous
production of cholesterol. A large part of this signaling pathway was clarified by Dr. Michael
S. Brown and Dr.Joseph L. Goldstein in the 1970s. In 1985, they received the Nobel Prize in
Physiology or Medicine for their work. Their subsequent work shows how the SREBP
pathway regulates expression of many genes that control lipid formation and metabolism and
body fuel allocation.
Cholesterol synthesis can be turned off when cholesterol levels are high, as well. HMG CoA
reductase contains both a cytosolic domain (responsible for its catalytic function) and a
membrane domain. The membrane domain functions to sense signals for its degradation.
Increasing concentrations of cholesterol (and other sterols) cause a change in this domain's
oligomerization state, which makes it more susceptible to destruction by the proteosome.
This enzyme's activity can also be reduced by phosphorylation by an AMP-activated
proteinkinase. Because this kinase is activated by AMP, which is produced when ATP is
hydrolyzed, it follows that cholesterol synthesis is halted when ATP levels are low. Plasma
transport and regulation of absorption

Cholesterol is only slightly soluble in water; it can dissolve and travel in the water-based
bloodstream at exceedingly small concentrations. Since cholesterol is insoluble in blood, it is
transported in the circulatory system within lipoproteins, complex discoidal particles which
have an exterior composed of amphiphilic proteins and lipids whose outward-facing surfaces
are water-soluble and inward-facing surfaces are lipid-soluble; triglycerides and cholesterol
esters are carried internally. Phospholipids and cholesterol, being amphipathic, are
transported in the surface monolayer of the lipoprotein particle.
In addition to providing a soluble means for transporting cholesterol through the blood,
lipoproteins have cell-targeting signals that direct the lipids they carry to certain tissues. For
this reason, there are several types of lipoproteins within blood called, in order of increasing
density,chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density
lipoprotein (IDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The
more cholesterol and less protein a lipoprotein has the less dense it is. The cholesterol within
all the various lipoproteins is identical, although some cholesterol is carried as the "free"
alcohol and some is carried as fatty acyl esters referred to as cholesterol esters. However, the
different lipoproteins contain apolipoproteins, which serve as ligands for specific receptors
on cell membranes. In this way, the lipoprotein particles are molecular addresses that
determine the start- and endpoints for cholesterol transport.
Chylomicrons, the least dense type of cholesterol transport molecules, contain apolipoprotein
B-48, apolipoprotein C, and apolipoprotein E in their shells. Chylomicrons are the
transporters that carry fats from the intestine to muscle and other tissues that need fatty acids
for energy or fat production. Cholesterol which is not used by muscles remains in more
cholesterol-rich chylomicron remnants, which are taken up from the bloodstream by the
liver.
VLDL molecules are produced by the liver and contain excess triacylglycerol and cholesterol
that is not required by the liver for synthesis of bile acids. These molecules
contain apolipoprotein B100 and apolipoprotein E in their shell. During transport in the
bloodstream, the blood vessel cleave and absorb more triacylglycerol from IDL molecules,
which contain an even higher percentage of cholesterol. The IDL molecules have two
possible fates: Half are into metabolism by HTGL, taken up by the LDL receptor on the liver
cell surfaces and the other half continue to lose triacylglycerols in the bloodstream until they
form LDL molecules, which have the highest percentage of cholesterol within them.
LDL molecules, therefore, are the major carriers of cholesterol in the blood, and each one
contains approximately 1,500 molecules of cholesterol ester. The shell of the LDL molecule
contains just one molecule of apolipoprotein B100, which is recognized by the LDL
receptorin peripheral tissues. Upon binding of apolipoprotein B100, many LDL receptors
become localized in clathrin-coated pits. Both the LDL and its receptor are internalized
by endocytosis to form a vesicle within the cell. The vesicle then fuses with a lysosome,
which has an enzyme called lysosomal acid lipase that hydrolyzes the cholesterol esters.
Now within the cell, the cholesterol can be used for membrane biosynthesis or esterified and
stored within the cell, so as to not interfere with cell membranes.
Synthesis of the LDL receptor is regulated by SREBP, the same regulatory protein as was
used to control synthesis of cholesterol de novo in response to cholesterol presence in the
cell. When the cell has abundant cholesterol, LDL receptor synthesis is blocked so that new
cholesterol in the form of LDL molecules cannot be taken up. On the converse, more LDL
receptors are made when the cell is deficient in cholesterol. When this system is deregulated,
many LDL molecules appear in the blood without receptors on the peripheral tissues. These
LDL molecules are oxidized and taken up by macrophages, which become engorged and
form foam cells. These cells often become trapped in the walls of blood vessels and
contribute to artherosclerotic plaque formation. Differences in cholesterol homeostasis affect
the development of early atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness). These plaques are
the main causes of heart attacks, strokes, and other serious medical problems, leading to the
association of so-called LDL cholesterol (actually a lipoprotein) with "bad" cholesterol.
Also, HDL particles are thought to transport cholesterol back to the liver for excretion or to
other tissues that use cholesterol to synthesize hormones in a process known as reverse
cholesterol transport (RCT). Having large numbers of large HDL particles correlates with
better health outcomes. In contrast, having small numbers of large HDL particles is
independently associated with atheromatous disease progression within the arteries.
Metabolism, recycling and excretion
Cholesterol is susceptible to oxidation and easily forms oxygenated derivatives known
as oxysterols that can be formed by three different mechanisms, autoxidation, oxidation
secondary to lipid peroxidation and by cholesterol metabolizing enzymes. A great interest in
oxysterols arose when it was shown that they exerted inhibitory actions on cholesterol
biosynthesis, a finding that subsequently became known as the “oxysterol hypothesis”.
Additional roles for oxysterols in human physiology include their participation in bile acid
biosynthesis, their function as transport forms of cholesterol and as regulators of gene
transcription.
Cholesterol is oxidized by the liver into a variety of bile acids.[30] These in turn
are conjugated with glycine, taurine, glucuronic acid, or sulfate. A mixture of conjugated and
non-conjugated bile acids along with cholesterol itself is excreted from the liver into the bile.
Approximately 95% of the bile acids are reabsorbed from the intestines and the remainder
lost in the feces. The excretion and reabsorption of bile acids forms the basis of
the enterohepatic circulation which is essential for the digestion and absorption of dietary
fats. Under certain circumstances, when more concentrated, as in the gallbladder, cholesterol
crystallises and is the major constituent of most gallstones,
although lecithin and bilirubin gallstones also occur less frequently

Treatment
There are several types of lipid lowering drugs. Some are better at lowering LDL cholesterol,
some at reducing triglyceride levels and some help raise HDL cholesterol, the good
cholesterol.

Statins
Statins are also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. They are the most effective drugs
in lowering LDL cholesterol. They inhibit HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-
methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase) an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cholesterol,
especially in the liver. Decreased cholesterol production leads to an increase in the number of
LDL membrane receptors, which increases clearance of LDL cholesterol from circulation.

Brand Name Generic Name

Altocor, Mevacor lovastatin

Crestor rosuvastatin

Lescol fluvastatin

Lipitor atorvastatin

Pravachol pravastatin

Zocor simvastatin

Baycol (withdrawn August 2001) cerivastatin

Fibrates
Fibrates are regarded as broad-spectrum lipid lowering drugs. Their main action is to
decrease triglyceride levels but they also tend to reduce LDL cholesterol and help to raise
HDL cholesterol. Mechanism of action is not well established. Apparently it decreases
plasma levels of triglycerides by decreasing their synthesis. Also reduces plasma levels of
VLDL cholesterol by reducing its release into the circulation and increasing catabolism.
Brand Name Generic Name

Antara, Lipofen, Tricor,Triglide fenofibrate

Atromid-S clofibrate

Lopid gemfibrozil

Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors


This is a new class of antihyperlipidemic drugs. It works by reducing the absorption of dietary cholesterol,
through the intestines.

Brand Name Generic Name

Zetia ezetimibe

Bile Acid Sequestrants (also known as Anion-Exchange Resins)


Bile acid sequestrants reduce serum cholesterol levels. They cause no change or sometimes
even cause a slight increase in trigylceride concentrations and are therefore not suitable for
patients with elevated triglyceride levels. After oral administration, they are not absorbed but
bind to bile acids in the intestine and prevent their reabsorption. The bound complex is
insoluble and is excreted in the faeces. Decrease in bile acid leads to an increase in hepatic
synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol. Depletion of cholesterol from the liver increases
LDL receptor activity, which removes LDL cholesterol from the blood.

Brand Name Generic Name

Colestid, Flavored Colestid colestipol

Questran, Questran Light cholestyramine

Welchol colesevelam

Nicotinic Acid Group


Niacin (also known as Nicotinic acid) is limited by its side effects especially vasodilatation.
In doses of 1.5 to 3 g daily it lowers both cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by
inhibiting synthesis. It also increases HDL cholesterol.

Brand Name Generic Name


Niacor niacin

Fish Oil
Fish oil preparations are used to lower very high triglyceride levels in the blood.

Brand Name Generic Name

Lovaza, Omacor omega-3-acid ethyl esters

Combination Drug Therapy


Niacin and ezetimibe are available in combination with statins, as single dose forms.

Brand Name Generic Name

Advicor niacin/lovastatin

Simcor niacin/simvastatin

Brand Name Generic Name

Vytorin ezetimibe/simvastatin

Other Drugs
Ispaghula Husk, a form of soluble fibre, can be used as an adjunct to a lipid lowering diet in
patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. It probably acts by reducing
reabsorption of bile acids: plasma triglycerides remain unchanged.

Probucol, has been shown to reduce both LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. It is not
available in U.S. but is available in Canada under the following brand names, Bifenabid,
Lesterol, Lorelco, Lurselle, Panesclerina, and Superlipid.

Outlook (Prognosis)
If you are diagnosed with high cholesterol, you will probably need to continue lifestyle
changes and drug therapy throughout your life. Periodic monitoring of your blood levels is
necessary. Reducing high cholesterol levels will slow the progression of atherosclerosis.
Possible Complications
Possible complications of high cholesterol include:

• Atherosclerosis
• Coronary artery disease
• Stroke
• Heart attack or death

Lipitor
In 2006, Pfizer’s Lipitor (atorvastatin) generated global revenues of $13.6bn, making it the
best selling drug in pharmaceutical history. The blockbuster medicine has single-handedly
driven the overall revenue margins of the cardiovascular segment, as this area continues to
dominate the pharmaceutical market. Despite the maturing status of Lipitor, the drug has
repeatedly maintained steady growth over the past 5 years, crowding out the yearly revenues
of other lipid-regulating blockbuster drugs: Merck& Co’s Zocor and Zetia, Astrazeneca’s
Crestor, Abbott’s Tricor and Bristol Myers Squibb’s Pravacol.

However, as Lipitor’s blockbuster revenue is seriously threatened by imminent patent


expiration in some of the drug’s largest markets such as the US, Japan and the UK, there is
significant unrest between Pfizer’s key stakeholders about the future of the drug. Principally,
amongst the heightened Lipitor topics are the imminent exposure of the $1 billion annual
drug sales or more, as well as the fast expanding generic market in which India’s Ranbaxy is
a dominant force.

Off the immediate entry of Ranbaxy’s generic Lipitor, in key markets, the legal challenges
surrounding the number one drug have set a new benchmark for pharmaceutical companies
protecting branded products. Industry observers predict that Pfizer’s crises are far from over,
as the high revenue streams of Lipitor will experience significant challenges before the
commencement of the next decade.

Moreover, Pfizer’s lack of success to replace Lipitor with Torcetrapib has escalated the
company’s near-term battles besides the ever-tighter regulatory hurdles, reduced R&D
efficiency and increased competition, creating formidable therapeutic challenges as
healthcare payers influence pricing. Nevertheless, there are strong drivers of growth
including unmet therapeutic needs, the rising incidence of multiple diseases, ageing
populations, the rising living standards and fast-developing geographical markets. The future
of Lipitor is therefore vitally important to Pfizer, especially in this uncertain period of
economic changes and pressures.

This report includes detailed five-year forecasts over the period 2008-2013, and features 10
and 15-year forecasts to help you understand the medium-term prospects for these markets.

Literature review
1. Drugs for cholesterol

Author: Hans.A.Mathew

Publication: Gield&van publication, 2006

Finding of this report states that


• Statins are the most preferred anti –cholesterol drugs.

• Statins are combined with other drugs

• Statins are followed by Fibrates as anti- cholesterol drugs.

2. Hidden truth about cholesterol lowering drugs

Author: Sidney M. Wolfe, Larry D. Sasich, Rose-Ellen Hope

Publication: inset Publication

Finding of this report states that

• Prescription drugs are not only way to lower cholesterol.

• There are many ways to control cholesterol apart from FDA approved
drugs.

• Diet control and proper exercise regime can also help in reducing
cholesterol.

3. Lipitor , the thief of memory

Author: Duane Graveline


Publication: jack Publication

Finding of this report states that

• The author has discussed about the memory loss and other problems
faced by user of Lipitor and other statins.

• The author has discussed in detail about all the harmful effects of
statins.

• The author has emphasized about a herbal replacement of statins.

• The author has backed most of his claims with the help of relevant
data.

4. Amway : The cult of free enterprises

Author: Duane Graveline

Publication: jack Publication

Finding of this report states that

• The history of Amway


• The brief description about its competitor and strategies.
• The detail about its products.

Research Methodology
STUDY REQUIREMENT – The product research of CH-balance in Meerut and
Bulandshahar

OBJECTIVE
 To study the ground realities of nutraceutical business in semi urban cities.
 To study the nutraceutical prescribing Pattern of physicians in Meeerut and
buandshahar (U.P.)
 To study the details of marketing strategies employed by different
nutraceutical companies in order to tap the urban market.

SUB OBJECTIVE

To study and observe the different aspects of nutraceutical marketing in


India.
To study and analyze the different marketing trends in semi urban
market.
To study and observe the psychological aspect of prescribing behavior of
General Physicians..

Scope of the research

The research will provide an in-depth analysis of existing trends in


nutraceutical business.
The research will provide different aspects of prescribing behavior of
General Physicians in terms of nutraceuticals.
It will help neutraceutical marketers to design new marketing model and
strategies to penetrate Pharma market.

Research Design
There is a huge array of alternative research designs that can satisfy research objectives. The
key is to create a design that enhances the value of the information obtained, whilst reducing
the cost of obtaining it.

Marketing research can be classified one of three categories:

1. Exploratory research
2. Conclusive research :
a) Descriptive research
b) Causal research

These classifications are made according to the objective of the research. In some cases the
research will fall into one of these categories, but in other cases different phases of the same
research project will fall into different categories.

1. Exploratory research has the goal of formulating problems more precisely, clarifying
concepts, gathering explanations, gaining insight, eliminating impractical ideas, and
forming hypotheses. Exploratory research can be performed using a literature search,
surveying certain people about their experiences, focus groups, and case studies.
When surveying people, exploratory research studies would not try to acquire a
representative sample, but rather, seek to interview those who are knowledgeable and
who might be able to provide insight concerning the relationship among variables.
Case studies can include contrasting situations or benchmarking against an
organization known for its excellence. Exploratory research may develop hypotheses,
but it does not seek to test them. Exploratory research is characterized by its
flexibility.
2. Conclusive research is the research design which leads us to conclusion. It is
classified into:
a) Descriptive research.
b) Causal research

a) Descriptive research is more rigid than exploratory research and seeks to


describe users of a product, determine the proportion of the population that uses a
product, or predict future demand for a product. As opposed to exploratory
research, descriptive research should define questions, people surveyed, and the
method of analysis prior to beginning data collection. In other words, the who,
what, where, when, why, and how aspects of the research should be defined. Such
preparation allows one the opportunity to make any required changes before the
costly process of data collection has begun.There are two basic types of
descriptive research: longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal
studies are time series analyses that make repeated measurements of the same
individuals, thus allowing one to monitor behavior such as brand-switching.
However, longitudinal studies are not necessarily representative since many
people may refuse to participate because of the commitment required. Cross-
sectional studies sample the population to make measurements at a specific point
in time. A special type of cross-sectional analysis is a cohort analysis, which
tracks an aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same
time interval over time. Cohort analyses are useful for long-term forecasting of
product demand.

b) Causal research seeks to find cause and affect relationships between variables. It
accomplishes this goal through laboratory and field experiments.

Research Design Used in the Project-


Descriptive format of conclusive research.

Data Collection
Sampling Procedure: 350 General Physician Practitioners

Primary data: It was collected through well structured questionnaire from General
Medical Practitioners. The questionnaire design was such that it
Motivated the respondents to cooperate, become involved, and provide complete,
Honest and accurate answers.

Secondary Data: it includes information obtained from literature


review, articles in the Newspapers, magazines and internet.

Data Presentation-it is based on statistical analysis of the feedbacks obtained.

DATA ANALYSIS

How Many numbers of cardiac patients are attended by you everyday?


Findings:
1. About half of the Cardiologist admitted examining up to 20 patients daily.

2. Around 40% of the Cardiologist admitted examining between 20-40 patients.

3. Only 14% of them said their patients number exceeds 40 per day.

How many percentage of heart patients have cholesterol related problems?


Findings:
1. Above 40%of the cardiologist admitted that more then 60% of heart patients have
cholesterol related problems.

2. It shows that cholesterol is the major problem behind heart problems.

Which drugs among you prescribe for cholesterol?


Findings:

1. The market in meerut and bulandshahar was dominated by ranbaxys rosuvas.

2. It was followed by world famous , Pfizers LIPITOR

3. Hamdards lipo tab and Himalayas shuddha gugglu was least prescribed in this catogery.

Your opinion about Herbal drugs for cholesterol control?


Findings:

1. Only 12% of the cardiologist admitted prescribing herbal medicines for cholesterol
control and find them good as compare to conventional alternatives.

2. Around 1/3 of doctors interviewd said that the herbal cholesterol drugs are of average
quality and they prescribe them some times.

3. Majority of them admitted not prescribing herbal drugs.

5. Do you prescribe CH-Balance for cholesterol reduction?


Findings:

1. Only 12% of the cardiologist admitted they know ch balnce and use it some time.

2. Around 24% admitted knowing ch-balance but did not prescribe them.

3. Majority of them admitted not knowing the product.


Conclusion of the study

• Indian nutraceutical market is growing @ 40%


• The prescribing behavior of General Physician plays an important role in
Nutraceutical Marketing.

• Most of the doctors use to attend up to 20 patients.

• The patients were mainly suffered from complications related to cholesterol.

• The doctors were prescribing the Rosuvas of Ranbaxy,followed by pfizers star


product Lipitor.

• The herbal and nutraceutical market covers very less percentage of anti cholesterol
drugs.

• Most of the cardiologist didn’t prescribe herbal substitute of rosuvas because of fear
of quality of herbal products.

• Ch – Balance is the product of Amway.

• Amway is world famous network marketing company.

• Ch- balance has very little penetration in anti-cholesterol market.

• Only few doctors know the product and very few of them try to prescribe it.

• Internet Promotion of Ch-balance can be used as a powerful tool for promoting


Pharma Products.

• The nutraceutical marketing in semi – urban cities has huge potential and will be
money making machines for pharmaceutical & other marketing companies if proper
strategies and marketing model is employed.
Limitations of the study

• India is inhabited by people of different culture, religion and traditions.


• The language and tradition changes here after every 10 km.
• Any kind of research on Indian population and its buying behavior cannot be accurate
because of its diverse population with more diverse living style and culture.
• This is the reason why many market model and strategies employed by several
companies in India did not yield expected result.
• The Product research on the Ch balance was done on cardiologist from Meerut ,
Bulandshahar (Uttar Pradesh).
• The culture and tradition of western U.P may match the tradition and culture of other
Hindi speaking state but it differs from south India or north east states or other non-
Hindi states.
• So, the conclusion or findings of research may vary if done on a district of south India
or any non-Hindi state.
• The questionnaire does not include any question to measure the psychological
behavior of rural practitioner.
• So, the result may not be as accurate due to lack of measurement of psychological
behavior of rural prescriber.
• The findings of the research are not sufficient to formulate any new rural marketing
model or strategy because :
a) The questionnaire is only confined to prescribing aspect of
rural practitioner.
b) The questionnaire does not include any question to measure
the psychological aspect of rural practitioners.
c) The questionnaire does not include any question related to
demography of region.
d) The samples of the research were confined to one region of
country.
Bibliography
1. Pradhan, B.Suresh (2001). Nutraceutical Marketing. First Edition, Sage
Publication: New Delhi

2. Lambert M Surhone, Miriam T Timpledon, Susan F Marseken (2010).


Herbal & natural products Marketing , DMS Publication 4th Volume : 1123-
1149
3. E. M. Kolassa (2007). Elements of Pharmaceutical Pricing, GMV Publication

: 212-276

4. Stuart .P.Slatter (1992).Compettition and Marketing Strategies in


Nutaceutical Industry , CBS Publication : 34-22

5. Eric Laat, Frank A. G. Windmeijer, Rudy C. Douven, Netherlands. Centraal


Planbureau (2003) : How does Nutraceutical Marketing influence doctors
Prescribing behavior ,Memade Publication : 346-389

6. Aslam .siraj (2009) : Prescribing pattern and Drug usuage : DMV


Publication

: 12-99
7. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutraceutical

8. www.parrynutraceuticals.com/

9. www.divisnutraceuticals.com

10. naturalsecrets.com