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# AE 429 - Aircraft Performance and

Flight Mechanics

## Range and Endurance

Definitions
– Range
Total ground distance traversed on a full tank of fuel --
Anderson book
Distance an airplane can fly on a given amount of fuel --
alternative definition
– Endurance
Total time an airplane stays in the air on a full tank of fuel
-- Anderson book
Time an airplane can fly on a given amount of fuel --
alternative definition
– Specific fuel consumption
Weight of fuel consumed per unit power per unit time

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Range and Endurance
Propeller-Driven Airplane
Generalized endurance parameters
– Specific fuel consumption (SFC or c) LBS FUEL
– Weight (W) lbs BHP − HR
– Time (t) secs or hrs
– Engine power (P) hp
– Airplane gross weight (W 0) lbs
– Airplane empty weight (W 1) lbs
weight of airplane without fuel W = W1 + W f
Endurance calculation
dW f Wf
– Fuel flow rate w f = - c P (lbs fuel/unit time) = c=−
dt P
– Differential fuel burned dW f = dW = −c Pdt
– Solving for time and integrating
E W1 dW f W0 dW
E= dt = − =
0 W0 cP W1 cP

## Range and Endurance

Propeller-Driven Airplane
Generalized Range Equation
dW
– Multiply V∞ by dt = − to get differential air distance
cP
covered dW
ds = V∞dt = −V∞
cP
– The total distance covered during a range flight is the
integral of this expression
R W1 V∞dW W0 V∞dW
R= ds = − =
0 W0 cP W1 cP

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Range and Endurance
Propeller-Driven Airplane

## Breguet Range Equation

– In level flight cruise (no acceleration), the throttle is set to
maintain constant airspeed
PA = PR = DV∞
P DV∞
Shaft HP = P = A =
η η
– Substituting into the general range equation for propeller
airplanes
W V dW W V ηdW W ηdW
R= 0 ∞ = 0 ∞ = 0
W1 cP W1 cDV W1 cD

– Multiplying by W / W and using L= W for equilibrium cruise
flight (level and unaccelerated)
W0 η W dW W0 η L dW
R= =
W1 c W D W1 c D W

## Range and Endurance

Propeller-Driven Airplane

## Breguet Range Equation (continued)

Assume
h is constant throughout flight
L/D is constant throughout flight
c is constant throughout flight
Then, we can integrate
η L W0 dW η L W0
R= R= ln
c D W1 W c D W1
Because of the assumptions listed, the Breguet
approximation is valid only for small dW
– Angle of attack changes over a weight change as large as
– If weight changes significantly, L/D changes

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Range and Endurance
Propeller-Driven Airplane
Breguet Endurance Equation
Using the same assumptions (L = W and PA = PR = DV∞ )
W0 dW W0 η dW W0 η L dW
E= = =
W1 cP W1 c DV∞ W1 c DV∞ W
Since 1 2W
L =W = ρ∞V∞2 SCL , V∞ =
2 ρ∞ SCL
and W0 η CL ρ∞ SCL dW
E=
W1 c CD 2 W 3/ 2
If we assume CL , CD , η , c, and ρ∞ are all constant

η CL3/ 2 1 1
E= 2 ρ∞ S −
c CD W1 W0
in using this equation, E must be in seconds and c must be in ft-1

## Importance of the Ratios C L C D ,C L

3/ 2
CD , C1/L 2 CD

CL
Max Range for reciprocating engine/propeller airplanes
CD max

CL3 / 2
CD Max Endurance for reciprocating engine/propeller
max

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Range and Endurance
Jet-powered airplane
General endurance equation
– Specific fuel consumption is based on thrust, not power output
lbs of fuel consumed
TSFC ≡ ct
lb of thrust produced − sec
– Again, let dW be the differential change in aircraft weight as fuel is
burned in dt dW
Wf dW = −ctTAdt dt = −
ct = − ctTA
TA
E W1 dW W0 dW
– Integrating: E= dt = − =
0 W0 ctTA W1 ctTA

## – Recalling that L = W and TA = TR = D

W 1 L dW
E= 0
W1 ct D W
– Assuming constant ct and L/D
– The Breguet approximation is:
1 L W0
E≅ ln
ct D W1

## Range and Endurance

Jet-powered airplane
To maximize endurance
– Reduce thrust specific fuel consumption, TSFC
– Use a turbofan engine
– Fly at an altitude where the engine is efficient (high, but not too
high)
– increase fuel fraction, W f/ W 0 , to increase W 0/ W 1
– Use drop tanks
– maintain L/Dmax
– Loiter at velocity for L/Dmax (where CD,0 = CDi)
– Cruise climb
– Notice that a jet airplane has best endurance at this velocity for
L/Dmax, while a propeller-driven airplane gets best range at this
true airspeed

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Range and Endurance
Jet-powered airplane
general range equation
– going back to the differential time expression and multiplying by V
V dW
ds = V∞dt = − ∞
ctTA
– of course, ds is the differential distance traveled by the jet
during time dt
– s = 0 when w = w0
– s = R when w = w1
R W V dW
– integrating to get range R = ds = − 1 ∞
0 W0 ctTA

W
– for steady, unaccelerated level flight: TA = TR = L
D

W0 V∞ CL dW
R=
W1 ct CD W

## Range and Endurance

Jet-powered airplane
general range equation (continued)
– since , R becomes W0 2 1 CL dW
2W R=
V∞ =
ρ∞ SCL W1 ρ∞ S ct CD W
Breguet approximation
– if we assume constant ct, CL, CD, and ρ

2 1 CL
R=2
ρ∞ S ct CD
( W0 − W1 )
– for maximum range
– reduce TSFC, ct
– fly at low density (high altitude) CL1/ 2
– use a true airspeed to maximize
CD

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Range and Endurance
Jet-powered airplane

Cruise for
Max range
– Fly at
CL
CD
max

Speed for
This optimum
Speed gives
CD,0 = 3Cdi

## Importance of the Ratios

3/ 2
C L C D ,C L CD , C1/L 2 CD

CL
Max Endurance for jet-propelled airplanes
CD max

C1/
L
2

## Max Range for jet-propelled airplanes

CD max

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Range and Endurance
Summary

## Relationship of CD,0 and CDi

– At L/Dmax CL CL
CL2 =
Using CD = CD ,0 +
πeAR CD CL2
CD ,0 +
πeAR
Differentiating with respect to CL and setting to zero

d
CL CL2 CL
CD ,0 + − CL 2
CD πeAR πeAR
= 2
=0
dCL
CL2
CD ,0 +
πeAR
CL2 CL2 CL2
CD ,0 + −2 =0 CD ,0 =
πeAR πeAR πeAR
CL
CD ,0 = CD ,i FOR
CD max

Summary

## Relationship of CD,0 and CDi

– Similar developments show:

CL
CD ,0 = 3CD ,i FOR
CD
max

## Applies to maximum range for a jet airplane

CL3
3CD ,0 = CD ,i FOR
CD
max
Applies to maximum endurance for a propeller-driven airplane

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