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# SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT MAIT

Q.1: How you define a Beam, and about Shear force & bending moment diagrams?
Solution:
A beam is a structural member whose longitudinal dimensions (width) is large compared to the
transverse dimension (depth). The beam is supported along its length and is acted by a system
of loads at right angles to its axis. Due to external loads and couples, shear force and bending
moment develop at ant section of the beams. For the design of bea beam,
shear force and bending moment is desired.

## Shear Force (S.F.):

The algebraic sum of all the vertical forces at any section of a beam to the right or left of the
section is known as shear force.

## Bending Moment (B.M.):

The algebraic sum of all the moment of all the forces acting to the right or left of the section is
known as bending Moment.

## Shear Force (S.F.) and Bending Moment (B.M.) Diagrams

Diagrams:
A S.F. diagram is one, which shows the variation of the shear force along the length of the
beam. And a bending moment diagram is one, which shows the variation of the bending
moment along the length of the beam.
Before drawing the shear force and bending moment diagrams, we must know the different
types of beam, load and support.

## Q.2: How many types of load are acting on a beam?

Solution:
A beam is normally horizontal
rizontal and the loads acting on the beams are generally vertical. The
following are the important types of load acting on a beam.

A concentrated load is one, which is considered to act at a point, although in practical it must
really be distributed over a small area.
(UDL):
A UDL is one which is spread over a beam in such a manner that rate of loading 'w' is uniform
along the length (i.e. each unit length is loaded to the same rate). The rate of lloading
expressed as w N/m run. For solving problems, the total UDL is converted into a point load,
acting at the center of UDL.

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SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT MAIT

A UVL is one which is spread over a beam in such a manner that rate of loading varies from
point to point along the beam, in which load is zero at one end and increase uniformly to the
other end. Such load is known as triangular load. For solving problems the total load is equal to
the area of the triangle and this total load is assumed to be ac
acting
ting at the C.G. of the triangle i.e.
at a distance of 2/3rd of total length of beam from left end.

Q.3: What sign convention is used for solving the problems of beam?
Solution:
Although different sign conventions many be used, most of the engineers use the following sign
conventions for shear forces and bending moment.
(i) The shear force that tends to move left portion upward relative to the right portion
shall be called as positive shear force.

(ii) The bending moment that is trying to sag (Concave upward) th thee beam shall be taken
as positive bending moment. If left portion is considered positive bending moment
comes out to be clockwise moment.

To decide the sign of moment due to a force about a section, assume the beam is held tightly at
that section and observe the deflected shape. Then looking at the shape sign can be assigned.
The shear force and bending moment vary along the length of the beam and this variation is
represented graphically. The plots are known as shear force and bending moment diagrams. In
these diagrams, the abscissa indicates the position of section along the beam, and the ordinate
represents the value of SF and BM respectively. These plots help to determine the maximum
value of each of these quantities.

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SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT MAIT
Q. 4: What is the relation between load intensity, shear force and bending moment?
Solution:

Consider a beam subjected to any type of transverse load of th thee general form shown in above
figure. Isolate from the beam an element of length dx at a distance x from left end and draw its
free body diagram as shown in fig figure.. Since the element is of extremely small length, the
loading over the beam can be considered to be uniform and equal to w KN/m. The element is
subject to shear force F on its left hand side. Further, the bending moment M acts on the left
side of the element and it changes to (M + dM) on the right side.
Taking moment about point C on the right side,
∑ MC = 0
M – (M + dM) + F X dx – (W X dx) X dx/2 = 0
The UDL is considered to be acting at its C.G.
dM = Fdx – [W(dx)2]/2 = 0
The last term consists of the product of two differentials and can be neglected
DM = Fdx, or
F = dM/dx
Thus the shear force is equal to the rate of change of bending moment with respect to x.
Apply the condition ∑V = 0 for equilibrium, we obtain
F – Wdx – (F + dF) = 0
Or W = dF/dx
That is the intensity of loading is equal to rate of change of bending moment with respect to x.
F = dM/dx
And W = dF/dx = dM2/dx2

Q.5: Define the nature of shear force and bending moment under load variation.
Solution:
The nature of SF and BM variation under two
load region is given in the table below
BETWEEN TWO POINTS, IF S.F.D B.M.D
UDL Inclined Linear Parabolic
UVL Parabolic Cubic

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SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT MAIT
Q.6: Define point of contraflexure or point of inflexion. Also define the point of zero shear
force?
Solution:
The points (other than the extreme ends of a beam) in a beam at which B.M. is zero, are called
points of contraflexure or inflexion.
The point at which we get zero shear force, we get the maximum bending moment of that
section/beam at that point.

Q.7: How can you draw a shear force and bending moment diagram.
Solution:
In these diagrams, the shear force or bending moment are represented by ordinates whereas
the length of the beam represents abscissa. The following are the important points for drawing
shear force and bending moment diagrams:
1. Consider the left or right side of the portion of the section.
2. Add the forces (including reaction) normal to the beam on one of the portion. If right
portion of the section is chosen, a force on the right portion acting downwards is
positive while force acting upwards is negative.
3. If the left portion of the section is chosen, a force on the left portion acting upwards is
positive while force acting downwards is negative.
4. The +ive value of shear force and bending moment are plotted above the base line, and
-ive value below the base line.
5. The S.F. diagram will increase or decrease suddenly i.e. by a vertical straight line at a
section where there is a vertical point load.
6. In drawing S.F. and B.M. diagrams no scale is to be chosen, but diagrams should be
proportionate sketches.
7. For drawing S.F. and B.M. diagrams, the reaction of the right end support of a beam
need not be determined. If however, reactions are wanted specifically, both the
reactions are to be determined.
8. The Shear force between any two vertical loads will remain constant. Hence the S.F.
diagram will be horizontal. The B.M. diagram will be inclined between these two loads.
9. For UDL S.F. diagram will be inclined straight line and the B.M. diagram will be curve.
10. The bending moment at the two supports of a simply supported beam and at the free
end of a cantilever will be zero.
11. The B.M. is maximum at the section where S.F. changes its sign.
12. In case of overhanging beam, the maximum B.M. will be least possible when +ive max.
B.M. is equal to the -ive max. B.M.
13. If not otherwise mentioned specifically, self-weight of the beam is to be neglected.
14. Section line is draw between that points on which load acts.