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Introduction to Democracy

Government

○ A system that controls the country


○ Makes plans for the future (e.g. Economy)
○ Organizes society

Why do we need government?

○ Protection
> From other and other nations
○ Provide stability
> Less conflict
○ Provide services
> Infrastructure
○ Organization

Democracy
A system of government in which people rule

Direct Democracy
A government system in which people make decisions directly

Indirect (Representative) Democracy


A government system in which people elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf

Parliamentary Democracy
An indirect democracy in which the head of government is often called a prime minister and must be an elected member of the l egislature
> Based on British system

Republic
A country in which a monarch is not the head of state (may not be democratic)

Monarchy
A government system headed by a king or queen

Constitutional Monarchy
A government system headed by a king or queen whose powers are limited by a constitution

Oligarchy
A government system in which many are ruled by the few (elites). e.g. Hamburg, Florence

Theocracy
A government ruled by or subject to religious authority

Authoritarian
A system in which complete obedience to the will of the ruler is required; no individual freedom is allowed

Totalitarian
An extreme form of authoritarianism in which the government tightly controls social, political, and economic spheres of life (e.g. Fascism and communism)

 Anarchy is the belief that no government is required

Introduction
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Custom- an unwritten rule that governs the behaviour of people in society. e.g. Kissing on both cheeks to greet someone

Authoritarian Democratic
Leaders are self-appointed Leaders are elected by citizens
Leaders cannot usually be replaced Leaders' term in office is limited
Citizens cannot question or speak out against leaders' actions Citizens can question and speak out against leaders' actions

 Monarchs believed they were born with the divine right of king, and believed that they were sent to represent god to the peop le. Anyone who questioned the king, was considered to be
questioning god. This is what legitimized their power.

 Magna Carta was important to the development of democracy because it limited the monarch's power over subjects, and assured t hey exercised their powers fairly. It also stated that the king had
to respect certain rights and laws of citizens.
> Forcing widows to remarry
> Forcing villagers to build bridges over rivers

House of Lords House of Commons


- Earls, dukes, barons - Chosen by a few elites
- Inherited title and their seat - Commoners; people who had not inherited a title

 Serfs and peasants had no political power

 There was a civil war in England in 1642 because supports of the king and supporters of parliament fought for their beliefs. The king believed in divine right of king, but
members of parliament did not.
> Oliver Cromwell and his supporters won the war
> King was put on trial, convicted for treason, and beheaded
> Cromwell ruled for 11 years
> England became a republican oligarchy because there was no king; the elite ruled and there was no king

 After the death of Cromwell, England became a monarchy again. The new king was Charles II, who was followed by James II

 There was another dispute between parliament and the monarch because the monarch wanted to limit the decision -making powers of Parliament. The king wanted to
declare Catholicism; Protestant members of the House of Commons and House of Lords wanted to replace him with a Protestant mo narch

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> James II was removed from the throne and replaced by his daughter Mary who was a Protestant, and was married to Prince Willia m of Orange
> They ruled together
> James II lived the rest of his life in exile in the Netherlands

 This was important to the development of democracy because:


> People were finally taking a stand against the monarch and voicing their opinions
> The Bill of Rights extends the Magna Carta
> King loses right to enforce taxes; only parliament can tax people; still exists today

John Locke American Revolution


Born with rights - American colonists= British citizens
- British had a Bill of Rights

Consent to rule granted by the people - American colonists didn't have the right to vote
- British Parliament doesn't have the consent of the American colonists (can't vote), yet the Parliament is passing taxes
colonists must pay; "No taxation without representation"

Reason for government; protect peoples' - Colonists asked the British king to give them the vote; he refused
rights
If ruler breaks contracts, people have the - Since the ruler broke the contract, he lost the right to rule
right to a revolution ○ Colonists fight the revolution to end the abuse of power
- When they win the war, they write a constitution that limits the power of government and has a Bill of Rights

 The US had a republican government


 An amendment is a change; the first 10 amendments were known as the Bill of Rights

 Locke's contract stated that rulers cannot use force upon the people without authority. If the ruler abuses power, the people have the right to select a new leader by means
of a revolution.
Locke excluded poor people, women, children, and non-Europeans from decision-making because he believed that they did not have time, education, or common sense to
decide how they should be governed.

Value- the beliefs that govern the behaviour and choices of the citizens who belong to society

Values of Canada's Democracy

Rule of Law - Governed by laws that apply to everyone


- No one is above the law
- Laws made by elected representatives; can only be changed if discussed and voted for by other elected representatives
Common Good - Refers to best interest of people
○ Peace, justice, safety, economic stability
Majority Rule - What most people want, will prevail
○ Largest shared view is the one that rules when decisions are made
Minority Rights - Members of groups who do not share the same views as majority, still enjoy the same right to legal, economic and social stabi lity

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