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Name of disease/ Incubation Confirmatory

Etiologic Agent Pathognomonic Sign Medical Management Drug of Choice Nursing Management
other name Diagnostic Test
AIDS (Acquired 7-12 years Retrovirus opportunistic and AIDS Drugs are AZT ; zidovudine Western BLot 1. Health
Immune Deficiency malignant medicines used to treat Analysis Education. The health
Syndrome manifestations, T4 but not to cure HIV worker must:
below 200/dl infection. These drugs a. Know
are sometimes referred the patient
to as “anteroviral drugs”. b. Avoid
There are two grups of fear tactics
anteroviral drugs c. Avoid
REVERSE judgmental and
TRANSCRIPTASE moralistic
INHIBITORS- they messages
inhibt the enzyme called d. Be
reverse transcriptase consistent and
which is needed to copy concise
information for the virus e. Use
to replicate positive statement
a. Retivir f. Give
b. Havid practical advice
c. Zerit 2. Practice
d. Epivir universal/ standard
e. Viramune precaution
f. Videx a.There is a need for
PROTEASE a thorough medical
INHIBITORS- they hand washing after
work by inhibiting the every contact with
enzyme protease which patient and after
are needed for the removing the gown
assembly of viral and gloves, and
particles before leaving the
a. Invarase room of an AIDS
b. Norvir suspect or unknown
c. Crixivan AIDS patient
b. Use of
universal barrier of
personal protective
equipment is very
necessary
3. Prevention
a.Care should be
taken to avoid
accidental pricks
from sharp
instruments
contaminated with
potentially infectious
materials from AIDS
patient
b. Gloves should
be worn when
handling blood
specimens and other
body secretions as
well as surfaces,
materials and objects
exposed to them.
c.Blood and other
specimens should be
labeled with special
warning “AIDS
Precaution.”
d. Blood spills
should be cleaned
immediately using
common household
disinfectants, like
“chlorox”
e.Needles should not
be bent after use, but
should be disposed
into a puncture-
resistant container
f. Personal articles,
like razor or blade,
toothbrush, should
not be shared with
other members of the
family
g. Patients with
active AIDS should
be isolated
The 4 C’s in the
management of
HIV/AIDS
a.Compliance
b. Counseling/edu
cation
c.Contact tracing
d. Condoms
Amoebiasis Severe- 3days Entamoeba bloody mucoid stool • Metronidazole Metronidazole Stool exam 1. Observe
(Amoebic Dysentery) Average- 3-4 Histolytica • Tetracycline isolation and enteric
weeks • Ampicillin, precaution
quinolones, 2. Provide health
sulfadiazine education and instruct
• Streptomycin patient to
• Lost fluid and • Avoid
electrolytes should be washing food from
replaced open drum or pail
• Cover
leftover food
• Wash
hands after
defecation or
before eating
• Avoid
ground
vegetables(lettuce,
carrots, and the
like)
ASCARIASIS 4-8 weeks Ascaris vomiting, passing out • Albendazole or Albendazole Microscopic 1.
lumbricoides of worm Mebendazole identification of Isolation is not needed
• Piperazine Citrate eggs in the stool 2.
Preventive measures in
each home and in
the community
should be enforced
3.
All members of the
family must be
taught of health
matter – must be:
• trained
to wash their
hands before
handling food
• taught
to wash
thoroughly all
fruits and
vegetables eaten
raw
• taught
about effective
sewage disposal
4.
Availability of toilet
facilities must be
ensured
5.
Importance of personal
hygiene should be
explained
BACILLARY 7hrs-7days Shigella Bloody mucoid stool • Antibiotics are Ampicillin, Culture-based 1. Maintain fluid
DYSENTERY Average-3-5 question in the Chloramphenicol, detection and and electrolyte
(Shigellosis/ Bloody days treatment, however, tetracycline confirmation of balance to prevent
Flux) Ampicillin, Shigella profound
Tetracycline and dehydration
Cotrimoxazole maybe 2. Restrict food
useful in severe cases until nausea and
• IV might be infused vomiting subsides
with normal saline to 3. Isolation can be
prevent dehydration carried out through
• Low residue diet is medical aseptic
recommended technique
• Anti diarrheal drug 4. Personal
are contraindicated hygiene must be
because they delay maintained
fecal excretion that 5. Excreta must be
can lead to prolong properly disposed
fever 6. Concurrent and
terminal disinfection
should be employed
CANDIDIASIS Usually seven Candida white cheesy • Nystatin - for oral fluconasole Immunodiffusio 1. It is important to
days (range odorless vaginal thrush n test take a high vaginal
3-21 days) discharges • Clitrimasole, swab for culture from
fluconasole, women with recurrent
ketoconasole – for infections of what
mucous membrane appear to be thrush in
and vaginal infection order to confirm that
• Fluconasole or the infection is, indeed,
Amphotericine for thrush.
systemic infection
2. A full history should
also be taken, and
consideration given to
the possibility of an
underlying condition,
such as diabetes.
3. Urinalysis for sugar
is normally
recommended, but a
random blood sugar
test using a blood
glucose monitor may
be an easier and more
accurate investigation
to carry out in order to
exclude diabetes.
4. Health education
regarding the possible
factors that contribute
to thrush and ways to
avoid them may
prevent recurrence.
Some women may
benefit from home
remedies and self-help
advice.
5. Patients with
recurrent thrush should
be referred to a doctor,
who may prescribe
intermittent oral
antifungal therapy or
topical therapy
CHANCROID 1-14 days Haemophilus painful chancres • Azithromycin Ceftriaxone Serologic test 1. Standard
(Soft Chancre/ Soft discreyi • Erythromycin precaution should be
Sore/ Sulcus Mole) Average- 3-5 • Ceftriaxone practiced
days 2. Check for drug
allergy
3. Lotion, cream
or oil should be
applied on lesion
4. Instruct the
patient to abstain
from sexual contact
until healing is
complete (two
weeks)
5. The patient
should wash his/her
genitalia daily with
soap and water
CHLAMYDIAL 1-3 weeks. Chlamydia milky discharge and • Doxycycline oral for 7 Azithromycin, nucleic acid 1. Practice
INFECTION trachomatis dysuria days Doxycycline amplification test universal precaution
• Azithromycin in 2. Suggest that
single dose both partners should
submit for HIV
testing
3. Check newborn
for signs of
chlamydial infection
CHICKEN POX 10-21 days Herpesvirus vesiculopopular • Zoverax acyclovir Culture 1. Respiratory Isolation
(Varicella) varicellae lesions • Oral acyclovir Serology is a must until all
• Oral Antihistamine vesicles have crusted
• Calamine lotion 2. prevent secondary
• Antipyretic infection of the skin
lesion through
hygienic care of the
patient
3. Linens must be
disinfected under the
sunlight or through
boiling
4. Cut finger nails
short and wash
hands more often
5. provide activities to
keep child occupied
to lessen pruritus
CHOLERA 1-3 days Vibrio Cholerae/ Rice water stool • Intravenous treatment Doxycycline Slide 1. Medical
(El tor) Vibrio coma/ And washer- • Oral therapy agglutination test aseptic protective
Cholera Vibrio woman’s-hand rehydration care must be
• Maintenance of the provided
volume of fluid and 2. Enteric
electrolyte lost after isolation must be
rehydration observed
• Antibiotics 3. Vital
• Tetracycline signs must be
recorded accurately
• Furazolidone
4. Intake
• Chloramphenicol and output must be
• Cotrimoxazole accurately measured
5. A
thorough and careful
personal hygiene
must be provided
6. Excreta
must be properly
disposed of
7. Concurr
ent disinfection must
be applied
8. food
must be properly
prepared
9. Environ
mental sanitation
must be observed
DENGUE 3-14 days Flavivirus Herman’s sign. It There is no effective Paracetamol Platelet count 1. Patient should
(Breakbone fever, commonly- 7- 1,2,3,4 and appears on the upper antiviral therapy for (decreased) be kept in mosquito-
hemorrhagic fever, 10days Arboviruses and lower dengue fever. Treatment free environment to
dandy fever, extremities, purplish is entirely symptomatic. void further
Infectious or violaceous red • Analgesic drugs transmission of
thrombocytopenic with blanched areas except aspirin to relief infection
purpura ) about 1 cm or less in headache, ocular pain 2. Keep patient at
size and myalgia rest during bleeding
• Intravenous infusion episodes
to prevent dehydration 3. Vital signs must
and replacement of be promptly
plasma monitored
• Blood transfusion 4. For nose
indicated for pt. with bleeding, maintain
severe bleeding patient’s position in
• Oxygen therapy elevated trunk, apply
indicated to all pt. in ice bag to the bridge
shock of nose and to the
• Sedatives maybe forehead
needed to allay 5. Observe signs
anxiety and of shock, such as
apprehension slow pulse, cold
clammy skin,
prostration, and fall
of blood pressure
6. Restore blood
volume by putting
the patient in
Trendelenberg
position to provide
greater blood
volume to the head
part
DIPHTHERIA 2-5 days Corynebacterium pseudomembrane, a Specific treatment of Erythromycin, Culture 1. Patient must be
diphtheriae localized diphtherias is determined Penicillin G Toxigenicity advised to take
inflammatory by the physician based testing absolute bed rest for
process; Grayish- on: at least two weeks.
white, leathery • Overall health and Patient must not be
consistency medical history permitted to bathe
• Extent of the by himself. The
condition patient must avoid
• Tolerance foe specific exertion during
medications, defecation in order
procedures and to conserve energy
therapies and decrease
a. Penicillin is workload of the
usually effective heart
in treating 2. For the patient’s
respiratory diet, soft is
diphtheria before recommended.
it releases toxin Small frequent
in the blood feeding is advised.
b. Antitoxin can be 3. Patient must be
given in encouraged to drink
combination with fruit juice rich in
penicillin vitamin C to
c. Erythromycin maintain the
d. Supportive alkalinity of the
therapy blood and to
• Maintenance of increase the
adequate nutrition resistance of the
• Maintenance of patient
adequate fluid and 4. Ice collar must be
electrolyte balance applied to the neck
5. Nose and throat
• Bed rest must be taken care
• Oxygen inhalation of
• In presence of
laryngeal obstruction
tracheostomy is
usually done
ENCEPHALITIS 5-15days Arboviruses Nuchal rigidity • Treatment must be Acyclovir Serologic test 1. Convulsion
( Brain Fever ) Specifically the symptomatic and must be controlled
Culex group supportive 2. Nose and throat
secretions should be
sanitarily disposed
of
3. TSB or alcohol
sponges maybe
given if the
temperature is
excessively high
4. Unless patient
is comatose, oral
fluid should be
encouraged
5. Oral care
should strictly be
done
6. A mouth gag
and protective
devices, such as
bedrails, should be
available in case
convulsions occur
7. Intake and
output records
should be closely
monitored
8. Patients should
be observed for
neurologic signs
involving speech,
swallowing
difficulty, twitching,
eye movements and
indications of
paralysis
9. The beginning,
duration and
frequency all
convulsions should
be carefully
observed and
recorded
FILARIASIS 8 to 16 Wuchereria Elephantiasis • Ivermectin, Hetrezan criticism Blood test 1. Elephantiasis of
(Elephantiasis ) months Bancrofi albendazole, or the legs can also be
diethylcarbamazine eased by elevating
(DEC) are used to the legs and
treat by: a. eliminating providing support
the larvae, b. with elastic
impairing the adult bandages
worms’ ability to
reproduce, c. by
actually killing the
adult worms in low
doses to prevent
reaction caused by
large numbers of
dying parasites
• Surgery maybe used
to remove surplus
tissue and provide a
way to drain the fluid
and to minimize
massive enlargement
of the scrotum
• DEC-fortified salt is
helpful
GERMAN 14-21 days Rubella virus Forscheimer’s spots, Very little treatment is Erythromycin Paired sera for 1. The patient should
MEASLES a mild enanthem of necessary; it is IgG be isolated
(Rubella/ Three-day petechial lesions symptomatic IgM 2. should be advised to
measles) rest in bed until
Culture fever subsides
3. Patient’s room must
be darkened to avoid
photophobia
4. must take mild
liquid but nourishing
diet
5. patient’s eyes should
be irrigated with
warm normal saline
to relieve irritation
GONORRHEA 3-21days Neisseria thick purulent • Ceftriaxone – for Ceftriaxone, nucleic acid 1. All information
(Clap/Flores Average- 3-5 gonorrheae discharge uncomplicated Ciprofloxacin, amplification test concerning the
Blancas/Gleet) days gonorrhea in adults Gatifloxacin, patient is considered
• Ceftriaxone and Moxifloxacin, confidential
Erythromycin – for Levofloxacin 2. Patient should
pregnant women be isolated until
• Aqueous procaine he/she recovers from
Penicillin the disease
• Direct fluorescent 3. Infants born to
antibody test mothers positive of
gonorrhea should be
instilled with
ophthalmic
prophylaxis into
both eyes at the time
of birth
HEPATITIS A 3-5 weeks Hepatitis A virus Icteric sclera • There is no specific emetine IgM anti-HAV 1. The patient
(Infectious Hepatitis/ treatment although (positive) must be isolated
Catarrhal jaundice) bed rest is essential (enteric isolation)
• Diet must be high in 2. Patient should
carbohydrate, low in be encouraged to
fat and low in protein rest during acute or
• Patient must take symptomatic phase
vitamin supplement 3. Improve
especially the B nutritional status
complex group 4. Utilize
• Intravenous therapy is appropriate
occasionally measures to
necessary minimize spread of
• Isoprinosine the presence of
(methisopresol) may blood
enhance the cell- 5. Provide
mediated immunity of optimum skin and
the T-lymphocytes oral care
• Alkalies, belladonna, 6. Increase in
and anti-emetics ability to carry out
should be activities:
administered to a.Encourage the
control dyspepsia and patient to limit
malaise activity when
fatigued
IgM anti-HBc b. Assist
(acute infection) the client in
telbivudine HBsAg (acute or planning periods
HEPATITIS B 50-189 days/ Hepatitis B virus chronic infection of rest and activity
( Serum Hepatitis ) 2-5months c.Encourage gradual
resumption of
activities and mild
exercise during
recovery
HERPES SIMPLEX 4 to 5 days Herpes Simplex painful vesicles on • Oral anti-viral drugs Acyclovir
virus genitalia such as acyclovir,
famiciclovir or Direct
valacyclovir Fluorescent
• Personal hygiene Antibody
(DFA)
HERPES ZOSTER Unknown; it Varicella Zoster lesions follow • Symptomatic Viral culture 1. Put patient on
(Shingles, Acute believes to be Virus peripheral nerve • Antiviral drugs strict isolation
posterior 13-17 days pathway • Analgesics to control 2. Apply cool, wet
ganglionitis) pain dressings with
• Anti-inflammatory NSS to pruritic
lesions
3. Efforts should be
made to prevent
secondary
infection
4. Prevent entrance
of microorganism
into lesions
especially if they
break
INFLUENZA 24-48 hours Myxoviruses absence of pain at Until recently there has Oseltamivir, Tamiflu Culture 1. Isolate patient to
( La Grippe ) the skin been no specific and Relenza Antigen detection decrease risk of
treatment for Influenza, (EIA, IFA, EM) infecting others
so the best thing to do is: Serology (respiratory
• Stay at home PCR isolation)
• Increased fluid intake 2. Limit strenuous
• Take the following to activity specially in
relieve fever and children
headache: 3. Watch out for
• Paracetamol complications
• Aspirin; unless especially among
contraindicated; people at risk
should not o be
given to children
below 16 years of
age
• Ibuprofen or other
anti-inflammatory
drugs
• Sponge down with
tepid water
BIRD’S FLU VIRUS 3-5 days Avian Influenza absence of pain at • Antibiotics do not treat Oseltamivir, Tamiflu Rapid testing 1. Cover your
( Avian Influenza) Virus the skin viral pneumonia. and Relenza nose and mouth with
Medication only works a tissue when
against influenza coughing or
pneumonia. These sneezing.
medications are called 2. Wash hands
antivirals. regularly with soap
• Treatment may also and water, especially
involve: after you cough or
• Increased fluids sneeze. Alcohol-
• Oxygen based hand cleaners
• Use of are also effective.
humidified air 3. Avoid close
• A hospital stay may contact with sick
be necessary to people.
prevent dehydration and 4. If sick, self-
to help with breathing if monitor and stay
the infection is serious. home from work or
school and limit
contact with others.
5. Consult your
doctor immediately
should signs and
symptoms of flu
persist.

LEPROSY 5- ½ months Mycobacterium Leonine • Sulfone therapy Dapsone Kveim test 1. If the patient is
(Hansen’s disease, to 8 yrs Leprae facies (thickened • Multiple Drug admitted to the
Hansenosis) lion-like facial skin) Therapy ( MDT) hospital, isolation
• Rehabilitation, and medical asepsis
recreational and should be carried
occupational therapy out
2. Moral support and
encouragement are
necessary
LEPTOSPIROSIS 6-15days Leptospira orange eyes • Penicillin G Na Penicillin screening with 1. Isolate the
(Weil’s disease, Interrogans • Tetracycline rapid test patient, urine must
Canicola Fever, • Peritoneal dialysis be properly disposed
Hemorrhagic • Administration of of
Jaundice, Mud fever, fluid and electrolyte 2. Keep patient
Swine herd disease ) and blood as indicated under close
surveillance
3. For home care,
dirty places, pools
and stagnant water
must be cleaned
4. Eradicate rats
and rodents
MALARIA P.falciparum- Plasmodia Stepladder fever • Anti- malarial drugs Depends on which Polymerase 1. The patient
( Ague ) 12days • Chloroquine ( all drugs the parasites in Chain Reaction must be closely
P.vivax and species except for P. the area are resistant (PCR) monitored
ovale- 14 malariae) 2. Intake and
days • Quinine output should be
P. malariae- • Sulfadoxine for the closely monitored to
30 days resistant P. prevent pulmonary
falciparum edema
• Primaquine for • Daily monitoring
relapse of P. vivax of patient’s serum
and ovale bilirubin, BUN
• Erythrocyte exchange creatinine and
transfusion for rapid parasitic count
production of high • If the patient
levels of parasites in exhibits
the blood respiratory and
renal symptoms,
determine the
arterial blood gas
and plasma
electrolyte
3. During the
febrile stage, tepid
sponges, alcohol
rubs, and ice cap on
the head will help
bring the
temperature down
4. Application of
external heat and
offering hot drinks
during chilling stage
is helpful
5. Provide
comfort and
psychological
support
6. Encourage the
patient to take plenty
of fluids
7. As he
temperature falls and
sweating begins,
warm sponge baths
maybe given
8. The bed and
clothing should be
kept dry
9. Watch for
neurologic toxicity
(from quinine
infusion) like
muscular twitching,
delirium, confusion,
convulsion and
coma
10. Evaluate the
degree of anemia
11. Watch for any
signs especially
abnormal bleeding
12. Considered
severe malaria as
medical emergency
that requires close
monitoring of vital
signs
MEASLES 10-12 days Morbillivirus Koplik’s spots, little • Anti-viral drugs Swarn Makshik IgM 1. Isolation of the
(Rubeola, Morbilli) spots inside the (Isoprenosine) Bhasma Paired sera for patient is necessary
mouth. The spots • Antibiotics if with IgG (the room must be
look like a tiny complication quiet, well
grains of white sand, • Supportive Therapy ventilated, and must
each surrounded by a (oxygen inhalation, IV have subdued light)
red ring. They are fluids) 2. Control the
found especially on patient’s high
the inside of the temperature with
cheek (the buccal warm or tepid
mucosa) opposite the sponges
1st and 2nd upper 3. Skin care is
molars utmost. The patient
should have a daily
cleansing bed bath.
The water should be
comfortably warm
4. Oral and nasal
hygiene is a very
important aspect of
nursing care of
patient with measles
5. Care of the eyes
is necessary. The
patient is sensitive to
light, therefore,
position the patient
where a direct glare
of light is avoided.
Keep eyes free of
secretions
6. Care of the ears
is important. Careful
attention should be
given to the ears. It
is the responsibility
of the nurse to be on
the alert for any
signs of early
mastoid infection
7. Daily
elimination is
important. This can
be accomplished by
mild laxative or as
prescribed by the
physician
8. During the
febrile stage, limit
the diet to fruit
juices in small
amounts and more
frequently
9. Patient’s
position should be
changed every three
to four hours
10. Penicillin or
other prescribed
medication, is
usually given in
cases where there is
complication
MENINGITIS 1-10days Neisseria nucchal rigidity, • If Meningitis is left penicillin G CSF culture 1. Assess
(Cerebrospinal Fever) Meningitides Kernig's untreated it has a neurologic signs
(meningococcus) sign and Brudzinski's mortality rate of 70- often. Observe he
sign 100% patient’s level of
• Treatment includes consciousness and
appropriate antibiotic check for increased
therapy and vigorous intra-cranial
supportive care pressure(ICP)
• Usually IV antibiotics (plucking at
are given for two bedcovers, vomiting,
weeks and are seizures, change in
followed by oral motor functions and
antibiotics such as: vital signs)
• Digitalis glycoside 2. Watch for the
(digoxin) is deterioration of the
administered to patient’s condition,
control arrhythmias which may signal an
• Manitol is given to impending crisis
decrease cerebral 3. Monitor fluid
edema balance. Maintain
adequate fluid intake
• Anticonvulsant or
to avid dehydration,
sedative is needed to
but avoid fluid
reduce restlessness
overload because of
and convulsions the danger of
• Acetaminophen is cerebral edema.
helpful to relieve Measure central
headache and fever venous pressure and
intake and output
4. Watch for
adverse reaction of
antibiotics and other
drugs. Avoid
infiltration and
phlebitis
5. Position the
patient carefully to
prevent joint
stiffness an neck
pain. Turn the
patient often to
avoid pressure sores
and respiratory
complications.
Assist with ROM.
6. Maintain
adequate nutrition
and elimination
7. Ensure patient’s
comfort
8. Provide
reassurance and
support to the patient
and the family
9. Follow strict
aseptic technique
when treating
patients with head
wounds or skull
fractures
10. Isolation is
necessary especially
id nasal culture is
positive
MUMPS 14-25days Paramyxovirus swollen parotid • Anti-viral drugs Penicillin Culture 1. Medical aseptic
(Infectious Parotitis, glands • Relief of pain from IgM protective care
Epidemic Parotitis) parotid swelling can be IgG a.Patient should be
afforded by the cared for in a single-
application of hot or occupancy room
cold, whichever is b. Suscepti
preferred by the patient. ble individuals must
use mask and must
wash hands
regularly
c.Terminal
disinfection is
desirable
d. Oral
care and personal
hygiene is a must.
2. General
management of the
disease
a.Bed rest is
encouraged by some
physicians to avoid
complication
b. Diversional
activities are
recommended for the
less ill patient
3. Diet
a. No restriction
of food is necessary
except during the
acute stage when
the patient may find
it very difficult and
painful to chew
b. Soft and
semisolid food is
easily managed
c. Acid foods, like
fruit juices, may
increase discomfort.
PERTUSSIS 7-14days Bordetella paroxysmal coughs • Supportive Therapy Erythromycin Nasopharyngeal The major objective is
(whooping Cough) Pertussis ending with whoop • Fluid and electrolyte culture to prevent
replacement PCR complications,
• Adequate nutrition therefore the following
• Oxygen therapy nursing management
• Antibiotics, such as could be beneficial:
erythromycin and 1. Isolation and
Ampicillin, are medical asepsis
helpful to eliminate should be carried out
infection and to 2. During
shorten the period of paroxysm, the
communicability patient should not be
left alone, and
• Hyperimmune
suctioning
convalescent serum or
equipment should be
gamma-globulin are
ready at all times for
found effective
emergency use to
avoid obstruction of
airway
3. Sunshine and
fresh air are
important, but the
patient should be
protected from draft
4. The child
should be kept as
quiet as possible
since activity and
excitement
precipitate paroxysm
5. Provide warm
baths, keep the bed
dry and free from
soiled linens
6. Intake and
output should be
closely monitored
POLIOMYELITIS 7-21days Legio debilitans flaccid paralysis, • Analgesics are helpful Analgesic Culture-from 1. Carry out enteric
(Infantile Paralysis, weakness or to ease headache, back stool, pharynx, isolation.
Heine- Medin paralysis and pain and leg spasm. or CSF 2. Observe the patient
Disease) reduced muscle tone Morphine is carefully for signs of
without other contraindicated paralysis and other
obvious cause (e.g., because of the danger neurologic damage.
trauma) of additional 3. Perform a
respiratory neurologic assessment
suppression. at least once a day,
• Moist heat application but don’t demand any
may reduce muscle vigorous muscular
spasm and pain. activity.
• Bed rest is necessary 4. Check blood
• Paralytic polio pressure regularly
requires rehabilitation especially in bulbar
using physical poliomyelitis
therapy, braces, 5. Watch for signs of
corrective shoes, and fecal impaction due to
in some cases, dehydration and
orthopedic surgery immobility. To
prevent this, give
sufficient fluids to
ensure an adequate
daily output.
6. Prevent the
occurrence of
pressure sores.
Provide good skin
care. Reposition the
patient frequently, and
keep the bed dry.
7. To prevent the
spread of the disease,
wash hands after
every contact with
patient.
8. Apply hot packs to
affected limb to
relieve pain and
muscle shortening.
9. Dispose excreta and
vomitus properly.
10. Provide
emotional support
both in patient and
family
11. Maintain good
personal hygiene,
particularly oral care
and skin care.
RABIES 10days-15 Rhabdovirus hydrophobia, a • Thoroughly wash the Amoxicillin/ Presence of negri 1. Isolate the
(hydrophobia, Lyssa) years morbid fear of water. wound from the bite Clavulante bodies in the patient
The name and scratches of dog dog’s brain 2. Give emotional
hydrophobia comes with soap and running and spiritual support
from the fact that water for at least three 3. Provide
animals and people minutes optimum comfort
with rabies get • Check the patient’s 4. Darken the
spasms in their throat immunization status. room and provide a
muscles that are so Give Tetanus toxoid if quiet environment
painful that they needed 5. Patient should
cannot eat or drink, • Give tetanus not be bathed and
and so will refuse antiserum infiltrated there should not be
water in spite of around the wound – or any running water in
being very thirsty given intramuscularly the room or within
after a negative skin the hearing distance
test of the patient
• Give anti-rabies 6. If IV has to be
vaccine, both passive given it should be
and active, depending wrapped and needle
upon the site and should be secured
extensiveness of the anchored in the vein
bite as well as the to avoid dislodging
health condition of the in times of
biting animal restlessness
7. Concurrent and
terminal disinfection
should be carried out
SCHISTOSOMIASIS At least 2 Schistosoma Swimmer’s itch Treatment is effective Praziquantel (COPT) Cercum If the patient continues
(Bilharziasis, Snail months japonicum only when given early in Ova Precipetin to live in the endemic
Fever) the course of the disease Test area, he frequently gets
• Praziquantel reinfected and has to be
• Fuadin retreated
SYPHILIS 10-90 days Treponema painless chancre or • For early treatment Penicillin VDRL 1. Stress to the
(Lues Venereal, Pallidum ulceration administration of client the importance
Morbus Gallicus) Ave. 3 wks penicillin G of completing the
Benzathine IM treatment even after
• Syphilis of more than the symptoms
a year’s duration is subside
treated ih penicillin G 2. Instruct those
Benzathine 2.4 infected to inform
million units/week for their partners that
three weeks they should be
• Nonpregnant patients tested, and if
who develop allergy necessary, treated
in penicillin may 3. Practice
treated with oral universal precaution
Tetracycline or 4. In secondary
Doxycycline for 15 syphilis, keep the
days for early syphilis lesions dry as much
and for 30 days for as possible. If they
late infections. are draining ,
Tetracycline is dispose
contraindicated for contaminated
pregnant women materials properly
• Patients who are 5. In
receiving treatment cardiovascular
must abstain from syphilis, check for
sexual contact until signs of decreased
syphilis source is cardiac output
completely healed ( decreased urine
output , hypoxia and
decreased
sensorium) and
pulmonary
congestion
6. In
neurosyphilis,
regularly check the
level of
consciousness, mood
and coherence.
Watch for signs of
ataxia
7. Encourage
patient to undergo
VDRL testing after
3,6,12,and 24
months to detect any
possible relapse
8. Be sure to
report all cases of
syphilis to local
public health
authorities. Refer the
patient and sexual
partner for HIV
testing
TETANUS 3-5wks in Clostridium locked jaw or Specific Metronidazole, There are no lab 1. Maintain
(lockjaw) adult tetani trismus/ risus • Within 72 hours after Penicillin G, findings adequate airway
sardonicus a punctured wound, Azithromycin characteristic of 2. Provide cardiac
3-30 days in the patient should tetanus monitoring
neonate receive ATS, TAT or 3. Maintain an IV
TIG especially if the line for medication
patient does not have and emergency care
any previous if necessary
immunization 4. Carry out
• Tetanus toxoid, 0.5cc efficient wound care
IM give in standard 5. Avoid
schedule stimulant; warn
• Pen G Na to control visitors not to upset
infection or overly stimulate
• Muscle relaxant to the patient
decreased muscle 6. Avoid
contractures and
rigidity and spasm pressure sores
7. Watch out for
Nonspecific urinary retention
• Oxygen inhalation 8. Close
• Feed thru NGT monitoring of vital
• Tracheostomy signs and muscle
• Adequate fluid, tone
electrolyte and caloric 9. Provision of
intake optimum comfort
measures
TUBERCULOSIS 2-10wks Mycobacterium Hemoptysis and low • Short course Rifampicin Sputum analysis 1. Maintain
( koch’s disease, tuberculosis grade fever in the chemotherapy may be Isoniazid for AFB respiratory isolation
Phthisis, consumption afternoon given through a six- Pyrazinamide intil patient responds
Disease) month treatment with Ethambutol to treatment or until
INH, Rifampicin, the patient is no
PZA and Ethambutol longer contagious
• Patients with drug 2. Administer
resistance may be medicines as ordered
given with second line 3. Always check
drugs such as sputum for blood or
Capreomycin, purulent
streptomycin, expectoration
cycloserine, amikacin 4. Encourage
and quinolone drugs questions and
• WHO recommended conversation so that
“Direct Observed the patient can air
Treatment” (DOT) to his/ her feelings
prevent 5. Teach or
noncompliance. The educate the patient
health worker insures all about PTB
that the patient takes 6. Encourage the
his/her drugs patient to stop
• If the medicine is smoking
taken incorrectly, the 7. Teach the
patient becomes patient to cough or
resistant to anti-TB sneeze into tissue
drugs and this is very paper and dispose
dangerous because if secretion properly
8. Advise patient
the disease recurs it to have plenty of rest
becomes hard to treat and eat balanced
the second time meals
around 9. Be alert for
• Relapsing patients signs of drug
usually become reaction
resistant to individual 10. If the patient is
drugs. They are given receiving
the combination of the Ethambutol, watch
above- mentioned for optic neuritis. If
drugs it develops,
discontinue the drug
11. If the patient
receives Rifampicin,
watch out for
hepatitis and
purpura. Also
observe the patient
for other
complications like
hemoptysis
12. Emphasize the
importance of
regular follow-up
examination and
instruct the patient
and his family about
the signs and
symptoms of
recurring TB
TYPHOID FEVER 5-40days Salmonella — 3 cardinal signs: • Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol Typhidot 1. Maintain or
typhosa/typhi ladderlike fever, rose • Ampicillin restore fluid and
spots, spleenomegaly • Co-trimoxazole electrolyte balance
• Ciprofloxacin or 2. Monitor
Ciftriaxone patient’s vital sings
• If patient does not 3. Prevent further
respond to injury (fall) of
Chloramphenicol, 3rd patient with typhoid
psychosis
and 4th generation 4. Maintain good
drugs are administered personal hygiene
and mouth care
5. Cooling
measure are
necessary during
febrile state
6. Watch for signs
of intestinal bleeding