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Vitamin 1

Vitamin

The chemical structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of


vitamin A

A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism.[1] In other words, an
organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in
sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. Thus, the term is conditional both on the
circumstances and on the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but
not for most other animals, and biotin and vitamin D are required in the human diet only in certain circumstances. By
convention, the term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids,
or essential amino acids (which are needed in larger amounts than vitamins), nor does it encompass the large number
of other nutrients that promote health but are otherwise required less often.[2] Thirteen vitamins are presently
universally recognized.
Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Thus, each "vitamin" refers to a
number of vitamer compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin. Such a set of
chemicals is grouped under an alphabetized vitamin "generic descriptor" title, such as "vitamin A", which includes
the compounds retinal, retinol, and four known carotenoids. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form
of the vitamin in the body, and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another, as well.
Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral
metabolism (e.g., vitamin D), or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (e.g., some forms of vitamin
A). Others function as antioxidants (e.g., vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C).[3] The largest number of vitamins
(e.g., B complex vitamins) function as precursors for enzyme cofactors, that help enzymes in their work as catalysts
in metabolism. In this role, vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: For example,
biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. Vitamins may also be less tightly bound to enzyme catalysts
as coenzymes, detachable molecules that function to carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules. For
example, folic acid carries various forms of carbon group – methyl, formyl, and methylene – in the cell. Although
these roles in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions are vitamins' best-known function, the other vitamin functions are
equally important.[4]
Until the mid-1930s, when the first commercial yeast-extract and semi-synthetic vitamin C supplement tablets were
sold, vitamins were obtained solely through food intake, and changes in diet (which, for example, could occur during
a particular growing season) can alter the types and amounts of vitamins ingested. Vitamins have been produced as
commodity chemicals and made widely available as inexpensive semisynthetic and synthetic-source multivitamin
dietary supplements, since the middle of the 20th century.
The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine," a combination word made up by Polish scientist Casimir Funk from
vital and amine, meaning amine of life, because it was suggested in 1912 that the organic micronutrient food factors
that prevent beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency diseases might be chemical amines. This proved
Vitamin 2

incorrect for the micronutrient class, and the word was shortened to vitamin.

History

The discovery dates of the vitamins and their sources

Year of discovery Vitamin Food source

1913 Vitamin A (Retinol) Cod liver oil

1910 Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Rice bran

1920 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Citrus, most fresh foods

1920 Vitamin D (Calciferol) Cod liver oil

1920 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Meat, eggs

1922 Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Wheat germ oil, unrefined vegetable oils

1926 Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins) liver, eggs, animal products

1929 Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) Leafy green vegetables

1931 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) Meat, whole grains,


in many foods

1931 Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Meat, dairy products, eggs

1934 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Meat, dairy products

1936 Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Meat, eggs, grains

1941 Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Leafy green vegetables

The value of eating a certain food to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. The
ancient Egyptians knew that feeding liver to a patient would help cure night blindness, an illness now known to be
caused by a vitamin A deficiency.[5] The advancement of ocean voyages during the Renaissance resulted in
prolonged periods without access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and made illnesses from vitamin deficiency common
among ships' crews.[6]
In 1749, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly
disease in which collagen is not properly formed, causing poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums, severe pain,
and death.[5] In 1753, Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy, which recommended using lemons and limes to
avoid scurvy, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy. This led to the nickname Limey for sailors of that
organization. Lind's discovery, however, was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic
expeditions in the 19th century, where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good
hygiene, regular exercise, and maintaining the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh
food.[5] As a result, Arctic expeditions continued to be plagued by scurvy and other deficiency diseases. In the early
20th century, when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic, the prevailing medical theory was
that scurvy was caused by "tainted" canned food.[5]
During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the use of deprivation studies allowed scientists to isolate and identify
a number of vitamins. Lipid from fish oil was used to cure rickets in rats, and the fat-soluble nutrient was called
"antirachitic A". Thus, the first "vitamin" bioactivity ever isolated, which cured rickets, was initially called "vitamin
A"; however, the bioactivity of this compound is now called vitamin D.[7] In 1881, Russian surgeon Nikolai Lunin
studied the effects of scurvy while at the University of Tartu in present-day Estonia.[8] He fed mice an artificial
mixture of all the separate constituents of milk known at that time, namely the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and
salts. The mice that received only the individual constituents died, while the mice fed by milk itself developed
normally. He made a conclusion that "a natural food such as milk must therefore contain, besides these known
Vitamin 3

principal ingredients, small quantities of unknown substances essential to life."[8] However, his conclusions were
rejected by other researchers when they were unable to reproduce his results. One difference was that he had used
table sugar (sucrose), while other researchers had used milk sugar (lactose) that still contained small amounts of
vitamin B.
In east Asia, where polished white rice
was the common staple food of the
middle class, beriberi resulting from
lack of vitamin B1 was endemic. In
1884, Takaki Kanehiro, a British
trained medical doctor of the Imperial
Japanese Navy, observed that beriberi
was endemic among low-ranking crew
who often ate nothing but rice, but not
among officers who consumed a
Western-style diet. With the support of
the Japanese navy, he experimented
using crews of two battleships; one
The Ancient Egyptians knew that feeding a patient liver (back, right) would help cure
crew was fed only white rice, while the
night blindness. other was fed a diet of meat, fish,
barley, rice, and beans. The group that
ate only white rice documented 161 crew members with beriberi and 25 deaths, while the latter group had only 14
cases of beriberi and no deaths. This convinced Takaki and the Japanese Navy that diet was the cause of beriberi, but
mistakenly believed that sufficient amounts of protein prevented it.[9] That diseases could result from some dietary
deficiencies was further investigated by Christiaan Eijkman, who in 1897 discovered that feeding unpolished rice
instead of the polished variety to chickens helped to prevent beriberi in the chickens. The following year, Frederick
Hopkins postulated that some foods contained "accessory factors" — in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats, et
cetera — that are necessary for the functions of the human body.[5] Hopkins and Eijkman were awarded the Nobel
Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for their discovery of several vitamins.[10]

In 1910, the first vitamin complex was isolated by Japanese scientist Umetaro Suzuki, who succeeded in extracting a
water-soluble complex of micronutrients from rice bran and named it aberic acid (later Orizanin). He published this
discovery in a Japanese scientific journal.[11] When the article was translated into German, the translation failed to
state that it was a newly discovered nutrient, a claim made in the original Japanese article, and hence his discovery
failed to gain publicity. In 1912 Polish biochemist Casimir Funk isolated the same complex of micronutrients and
proposed the complex be named "vitamine" (a portmanteau of "vital amine").[12] The name soon became
synonymous with Hopkins' "accessory factors", and, by the time it was shown that not all vitamins are amines, the
word was already ubiquitous. In 1920, Jack Cecil Drummond proposed that the final "e" be dropped to deemphasize
the "amine" reference, after researchers began to suspect that not all "vitamines" (in particular, vitamin A) has an
amine component.[9]
In 1931, Albert Szent-Györgyi and a fellow researcher Joseph Svirbely suspected that "hexuronic acid" was actually
vitamin C, and gave a sample to Charles Glen King, who proved its anti-scorbutic activity in his long-established
guinea pig scorbutic assay. In 1937, Szent-Györgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his
discovery. In 1943, Edward Adelbert Doisy and Henrik Dam were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure. In 1967, George Wald was awarded the Nobel
Prize (along with Ragnar Granit and Haldan Keffer Hartline) for his discovery that vitamin A could participate
directly in a physiological process.[10]
Vitamin 4

In humans
Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E,
and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and, in
general, are readily excreted from the body, to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin
consumption.[13] Because they are not readily stored, consistent daily intake is important.[14] Many types of
water-soluble vitamins are synthesized by bacteria.[15] Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract
with the help of lipids (fats). Because they are more likely to accumulate in the body, they are more likely to lead to
hypervitaminosis than are water-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamin regulation is of particular significance in
cystic fibrosis.[16]

List of vitamins
Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions, and, therefore, most have multiple functions.[17]

Vitamin Vitamer chemical Solubility Deficiency disease Overdose disease


Recommended Upper Intake
generic name(s) (list not dietary Level
descriptor complete) [18]
allowances (UL/day)
name (male, age
[18]
19–70)

Vitamin A Retinol, retinal, and Fat 900 µg 3,000 µg Hypervitaminosis A


Night-blindness,
four carotenoids Hyperkeratosis, and
including beta carotene [19]
Keratomalacia

Vitamin Thiamine Water 1.2 mg Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff [20]


N/D Drowsiness or muscle
B1 syndrome relaxation with large
[21]
doses.

Vitamin Riboflavin Water 1.3 mg Ariboflavinosis N/D


B2

Vitamin Niacin, niacinamide Water 16.0 mg Pellagra 35.0 mg Liver damage (doses >
B3 [22]
2g/day) and other
problems

Vitamin Pantothenic acid Water [23] Paresthesia N/D


5.0 mg Diarrhea; possibly
B5 nausea and
[24]
heartburn.

Vitamin Pyridoxine, Water 1.3–1.7 mg [25] 100 mg Impairment of


Anemia peripheral
B6 pyridoxamine, proprioception, nerve
neuropathy.
pyridoxal damage (doses >
100 mg/day)

Vitamin Biotin Water 30.0 µg Dermatitis, enteritis N/D


B7

Vitamin Folic acid, folinic acid Water 400 µg Megaloblast and Deficiency 1,000 µg May mask symptoms of
B9 during pregnancy is associated vitamin B12 deficiency;
with birth defects, such as other effects.
neural tube defects

Vitamin Cyanocobalamin, Water 2.4 µg [26] N/D Acne-like rash [causality


Megaloblastic anemia
B12 hydroxycobalamin, is not conclusively
methylcobalamin established].

Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water 90.0 mg Scurvy 2,000 mg Vitamin C megadosage

Vitamin D Ergocalciferol, Fat [27] Rickets and Osteomalacia 50 µg Hypervitaminosis D


5.0 µg–10 µg
cholecalciferol
Vitamin 5

Vitamin E Tocopherols, Fat 15.0 mg 1,000 mg


Deficiency is very rare; mild Increased congestive
tocotrienols hemolytic anemia in newborn heart failure seen in one
[28]
infants. large randomized
[29]
study.

Vitamin K phylloquinone, Fat 120 µg Bleeding diathesis N/D Increases coagulation in


menaquinones patients taking
[30]
warfarin.

In nutrition and diseases


Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of a multicellular organism. Using the genetic
blueprint inherited from its parents, a fetus begins to develop, at the moment of conception, from the nutrients it
absorbs. It requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present at certain times. These nutrients facilitate the
chemical reactions that produce among other things, skin, bone, and muscle. If there is serious deficiency in one or
more of these nutrients, a child may develop a deficiency disease. Even minor deficiencies may cause permanent
damage.[31]
For the most part, vitamins are obtained with food, but a few are obtained by other means. For example,
microorganisms in the intestine — commonly known as "gut flora" — produce vitamin K and biotin, while one form
of vitamin D is synthesized in the skin with the help of the natural ultraviolet wavelength of sunlight. Humans can
produce some vitamins from precursors they consume. Examples include vitamin A, produced from beta carotene,
and niacin, from the amino acid tryptophan.[18]
Once growth and development are completed, vitamins remain essential nutrients for the healthy maintenance of the
cells, tissues, and organs that make up a multicellular organism; they also enable a multicellular life form to
efficiently use chemical energy provided by food it eats, and to help process the proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
required for respiration.[3]

Deficiencies
It was suggested that, when plants and animals began to transfer from the sea to rivers and land about 500 million
years ago, environmental deficiency of marine mineral antioxidants was a challenge to the evolution of terrestrial
life. Terrestrial plants slowly optimized the production of “new” endogenous antioxidants such as ascorbic acid
(Vitamin C), polyphenols, flavonoids, tocopherols, etc. Since this age, dietary vitamin deficiencies appeared in
terrestrial animals.[32] Humans must consume vitamins periodically but with differing schedules, to avoid deficiency.
Human bodily stores for different vitamins vary widely; vitamins A, D, and B12 are stored in significant amounts in
the human body, mainly in the liver,[28] and an adult human's diet may be deficient in vitamins A and D for many
months and B12 in some cases for years, before developing a deficiency condition. However, vitamin B3 (niacin and
niacinamide) is not stored in the human body in significant amounts, so stores may last only a couple of weeks.[19]
[28]
For vitamin C, the first symptoms of scurvy in experimental studies of complete vitamin C deprivation in
humans have varied widely, from a month to more than six months, depending on previous dietary history that
determined body stores.[33]
Deficiencies of vitamins are classified as either primary or secondary. A primary deficiency occurs when an
organism does not get enough of the vitamin in its food. A secondary deficiency may be due to an underlying
disorder that prevents or limits the absorption or use of the vitamin, due to a “lifestyle factor”, such as smoking,
excessive alcohol consumption, or the use of medications that interfere with the absorption or use of the vitamin.[28]
People who eat a varied diet are unlikely to develop a severe primary vitamin deficiency. In contrast, restrictive diets
have the potential to cause prolonged vitamin deficits, which may result in often painful and potentially deadly
diseases.
Vitamin 6

Well-known human vitamin deficiencies involve thiamine (beriberi), niacin (pellagra), vitamin C (scurvy), and
vitamin D (rickets). In much of the developed world, such deficiencies are rare; this is due to (1) an adequate supply
of food and (2) the addition of vitamins and minerals to common foods, often called fortification.[18] [28] In addition
to these classical vitamin deficiency diseases, some evidence has also suggested links between vitamin deficiency
and a number of different disorders.[34] [35]

Side-effects and overdose


In large doses, some vitamins have documented side-effects that tend to be more severe with a larger dosage. The
likelihood of consuming too much of any vitamin from food is remote, but overdosing (vitamin poisoning) from
vitamin supplementation does occur. At high enough dosages, some vitamins cause side-effects such as nausea,
diarrhea, and vomiting.[19] [36] When side-effects emerge, recovery is often accomplished by reducing the dosage.
The doses of vitamins different individual can tolerate varies widely, and appear to be related to age and state of
health.[37]
In 2008, overdose exposure to all formulations of vitamins and multivitamin-mineral formulations was reported by
68,911 individuals to the American Association of Poison Control Centers (nearly 80% of these exposures were in
children under the age of 6), leading to 8 "major" life-threatening outcomes and 0 deaths.[38]

Supplements
Dietary supplements, often containing vitamins, are used to ensure that adequate amounts of nutrients are obtained
on a daily basis, if optimal amounts of the nutrients cannot be obtained through a varied diet. Scientific evidence
supporting the benefits of some vitamin supplements is well established for certain health conditions, but others need
further study.[39] In some cases, vitamin supplements may have unwanted effects, especially if taken before surgery,
with other dietary supplements or medicines, or if the person taking them has certain health conditions.[39] Dietary
supplements may also contain levels of vitamins many times higher, and in different forms, than one may ingest
through food.[40]
There have been mixed studies on the importance and safety of dietary supplementation. A meta-analysis published
in 2006 suggested that Vitamin A and E supplements not only provide no tangible health benefits for generally
healthy individuals but may actually increase mortality, although two large studies included in the analysis involved
smokers, for which it was already known that beta-carotene supplements can be harmful.[41] Another study published
in May 2009 found that antioxidants such as vitamins C and E may actually curb some benefits of exercise.[42] While
others findings suggest that evidence of Vitamin E toxicity is limited to specific form taken in excess.[43]

Governmental regulation of vitamin supplements


Most countries place dietary supplements in a special category under the general umbrella of foods, not drugs. This
necessitates that the manufacturer, and not the government, be responsible for ensuring that its dietary supplement
products are safe before they are marketed. Regulation of supplements varies widely by country. In the United
States, a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994.[44] In
addition, the Food and Drug Administration uses the Adverse Event Reporting System to monitor adverse events that
occur with supplements.[45] In the European Union, the Food Supplements Directive requires that only those
supplements that have been proven safe can be sold without a prescription.[46]
Vitamin 7

Names in current and previous nomenclatures

Nomenclature of reclassified vitamins

Previous name Chemical name [47]


Reason for name change

Vitamin B4 Adenine DNA metabolite; synthesized in body

Vitamin B8 Adenylic acid DNA metabolite; synthesized in body

Vitamin F Essential fatty acids Needed in large quantities (does


not fit the definition of a vitamin).

Vitamin G Riboflavin Reclassified as Vitamin B2

Vitamin H Biotin Reclassified as Vitamin B7

Vitamin J Catechol, Flavin Catechol nonessential; flavin reclassified as B2


[48] Anthranilic acid Non essential
Vitamin L1
[48] Adenylthiomethylpentose RNA metabolite; synthesized in body
Vitamin L2

Vitamin M Folic acid Reclassified as Vitamin B9

Vitamin O Carnitine Synthesized in body

Vitamin P Flavonoids No longer classified as a vitamin

Vitamin PP Niacin Reclassified as Vitamin B3

Vitamin S Salicylic acid [49]


Proposed inclusion of salicylate as an essential micronutrient

Vitamin U S-Methylmethionine Protein metabolite; synthesized in body

The reason that the set of vitamins skips directly from E to K is that the vitamins corresponding to letters F-J were
either reclassified over time, discarded as false leads, or renamed because of their relationship to vitamin B, which
became a complex of vitamins.
The German-speaking scientists who isolated and described vitamin K (in addition to naming it as such) did so
because the vitamin is intimately involved in the Koagulation of blood following wounding. At the time, most (but
not all) of the letters from F through to J were already designated, so the use of the letter K was considered quite
reasonable.[47] [50] The table on the right lists chemicals that had previously been classified as vitamins, as well as
the earlier names of vitamins that later became part of the B-complex.

Anti-vitamins
Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. For example, avidin is a
protein in egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin.[51] Pyrithiamine is similar to thiamine vitamin B1 and
inhibits the enzymes that use thiamine.[52]

References
[1] Lieberman, S, Bruning, N (1990). The Real Vitamin & Mineral Book. NY: Avery Group, 3, ISBN 0895297698
[2] Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993).
Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. OCLC 32308337.
[3] Bender, David A. (2003). Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80388-5.
[4] Bolander FF (2006). "Vitamins: not just for enzymes". Curr Opin Investig Drugs 7 (10): 912–5. PMID 17086936.
[5] Jack Challem (1997). "The Past, Present and Future of Vitamins" (http:/ / www. thenutritionreporter. com/ history_of_vitamins. html)
[6] Jacob, RA. (1996). "Three eras of vitamin C discovery.". Subcell Biochem 25: 1–16. PMID 8821966.
Vitamin 8

[7] Bellis, Mary. Vitamins – Production Methods The History of the Vitamins (http:/ / inventors. about. com/ library/ inventors/ bl_vitamins.
htm). Retrieved 1 February 2005.
[8] 1929 Nobel lecture (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ medicine/ laureates/ 1929/ hopkins-lecture. html)
[9] Rosenfeld, L. (1997). "Vitamine—vitamin. The early years of discovery.". Clin Chem 43 (4): 680–5. PMID 9105273.
[10] Carpenter, Kenneth (22 June 2004). "The Nobel Prize and the Discovery of Vitamins" (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ medicine/
articles/ carpenter/ index. html). Nobelprize.org. . Retrieved 5 October 2009.
[11] Tokyo Kagaku Kaishi: (1911) (http:/ / www. journalarchive. jst. go. jp/ english/ jnlabstract_en. php?cdjournal=nikkashi1880& cdvol=32&
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[12] Funk, C. and H. E. Dubin. The Vitamines. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Company, 1922.
[13] Fukuwatari T, Shibata K (2008). "Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin
intakes in young Japanese women". J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 54 (3): 223–9. doi:10.3177/jnsv.54.223. PMID 18635909.
[14] "Water-Soluble Vitamins" (http:/ / www. ext. colostate. edu/ PUBS/ FOODNUT/ 09312. html). . Retrieved 2008-12-07.
[15] Said HM, Mohammed ZM (2006). "Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins: an update" (http:/ / meta. wkhealth. com/ pt/ pt-core/
template-journal/ lwwgateway/ media/ landingpage. htm?an=00001574-200603000-00011). Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 22 (2): 140–6.
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[16] Maqbool A, Stallings VA (2008). "Update on fat-soluble vitamins in cystic fibrosis" (http:/ / meta. wkhealth. com/ pt/ pt-core/
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[17] Kutsky, R.J. (1973). Handbook of Vitamins and Hormones. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, ISBN 0442245491
[18] Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins (http:/ / iom. edu/ en/ Global/ News Announcements/ ~/ media/ Files/ Activity Files/ Nutrition/ DRIs/
DRISummaryListing2. ashx) The National Academies, 2001.
[19] Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin A (http:/ / dietary-supplements. info. nih. gov/ factsheets/ vitamina. asp)
[20] N/D= "Amount not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of
intake"(see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins (http:/ / www. iom. edu/ Object. File/ Master/ 7/ 296/ 0. pdf)).
[21] "Thiamin, vitamin B1: MedlinePlus Supplements" (http:/ / www. nlm. nih. gov/ medlineplus/ druginfo/ natural/ patient-thiamin. html). .
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[22] Hardman, J.G. et al., ed. Goodman and Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (10th ed.). p. 992.
[23] Plain type indicates Adequate Intakes (A/I). "The AI is believed to cover the needs of all individuals, but a lack of data prevent being able to
specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake" (see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins (http:/ / www. iom.
edu/ Object. File/ Master/ 7/ 296/ 0. pdf)).
[24] "Pantothenic acid, dexpanthenol: MedlinePlus Supplements" (http:/ / www. nlm. nih. gov/ medlineplus/ druginfo/ natural/ patient-vitaminb5.
html). MedlinePlus. . Retrieved 5 October 2009.
[25] Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B6 (http:/ / dietary-supplements. info. nih. gov/ factsheets/ vitaminb6. asp)
[26] Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B12 (http:/ / dietary-supplements. info. nih. gov/ factsheets/ vitaminb12. asp)
[27] Value represents suggested intake without adequate sunlight exposure (see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins (http:/ / www. iom. edu/
Object. File/ Master/ 7/ 296/ 0. pdf)).
[28] The Merck Manual: Nutritional Disorders: Vitamin Introduction (http:/ / www. merck. com/ mmhe/ sec12/ ch154/ ch154a. html) Please
select specific vitamins from the list at the top of the page.
[29] Gaby, Alan R. (2005). "Does vitamin E cause congestive heart failure?" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0ISW/ is_262/
ai_n13675725). Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. .
[30] Rohde LE, de Assis MC, Rabelo ER (2007). "Dietary vitamin K intake and anticoagulation in elderly patients". Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab
Care 10 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328011c46c. PMID 17143047.
[31] Gavrilov, Leonid A. Pieces of the Puzzle: Aging Research Today and Tomorrow (http:/ / www. longevitymeme. org/ articles/ viewarticle.
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[32] Venturi, S; Donati, FM; Venturi, A; Venturi, M (2000). "Environmental iodine deficiency: A challenge to the evolution of terrestrial life?".
Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association 10 (8): 727–9. doi:10.1089/10507250050137851. PMID 11014322.
[33] Pemberton, J. (2006). "Medical experiments carried out in Sheffield on conscientious objectors to military service during the 1939-45 war".
International Journal of Epidemiology 35 (3): 556. doi:10.1093/ije/dyl020. PMID 16510534.
[34] Lakhan, SE; Vieira, KF (2008). "Nutritional therapies for mental disorders.". Nutrition journal 7: 2. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-2.
PMC 2248201. PMID 18208598.
[35] Boy, E.; Mannar, V.; Pandav, C.; de Benoist, B.; Viteri, F.; Fontaine, O.; Hotz, C. (2009). "Achievements, challenges, and promising new
approaches in vitamin and mineral deficiency control.". Nutr Rev 67 (Suppl 1): S24–30. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00155.x.
PMID 19453674.
[36] Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper,
Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2001.
[37] Healthier Kids (http:/ / www. healthier-kids. com) Section: What to take and how to take it.
[38] Bronstein, AC; et al. (2009). "2008 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System
(NPDS): 26th Annual Report" (http:/ / www. aapcc. org/ dnn/ Portals/ 0/ 2008annualreport. pdf) (PDF). Clinical Toxicology 47 (10):
911–1084. doi:10.3109/15563650903438566. PMID 20028214. .
Vitamin 9

[39] Use and Safety of Dietary Supplements (http:/ / dietary-supplements. info. nih. gov/ Health_Information/
ODS_Frequently_Asked_Questions. aspx) NIH office of Dietary Supplements.
[40] Higdon, Jane Vitamin E recommendations at Linus Pauling Institute's Micronutrient Information Center (http:/ / lpi. oregonstate. edu/
infocenter/ vitamins/ vitaminE/ )
[41] Bjelakovic G, et al. (2007). "Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic
review and meta-analysis". JAMA 297 (8): 842–57. doi:10.1001/jama.297.8.842. PMID 17327526.. See also the letter (http:/ / jama. ama-assn.
org/ cgi/ content/ extract/ 298/ 4/ 401-a) to JAMA by Philip Taylor and Sanford Dawsey and the reply (http:/ / jama. ama-assn. org/ cgi/
content/ extract/ 298/ 4/ 402) by the authors of the original paper.
[42] Wade, Nicholas (12 May 2009). "Vitamins Found to Curb Exercise Benefits" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 05/ 12/ health/ research/
12exer. html?em=& pagewanted=print). The New York Times. . Retrieved 9 April 2010.
[43] Sen, CK; Khanna, S; Roy, S (2006). "Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond tocopherols.". Life sciences 78 (18): 2088–98.
doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.12.001. PMC 1790869. PMID 16458936.
[44] Legislation (http:/ / www. fda. gov/ opacom/ laws/ dshea. html). Fda.gov (2009-09-15). Retrieved on 2010-11-12.
[45] Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) (http:/ / www. fda. gov/ Drugs/ GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/ Surveillance/
AdverseDrugEffects/ default. htm). Fda.gov (2009-08-20). Retrieved on 2010-11-12.
[46] EUR-Lex - 32002L0046 - EN (http:/ / eur-lex. europa. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. do?uri=CELEX:32002L0046:EN:NOT).
Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved on 2010-11-12.
[47] Every Vitamin Page (http:/ / www. lifeinyouryears. net/ everyvitamin. pdf) All Vitamins and Pseudo-Vitamins. Compiled by David Bennett.
[48] Davidson, Michael W. (2004) Anthranilic Acid (Vitamin L) (http:/ / micro. magnet. fsu. edu/ vitamins/ pages/ anthranilic. html) Florida
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[49] Kamran Abbasi (2003). "Rapid Responses to: Aspirin protects women at risk of pre-eclampsia without causing bleeding". British Medical
Journal 327: 7424. doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7424.0-h.
[50] Vitamins and minerals – names and facts (http:/ / www. pubquizhelp. 34sp. com/ sci/ vitamin. html)
[51] Roth KS (1981). "Biotin in clinical medicine—a review". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34 (9): 1967–74. PMID 6116428.
[52] Rindi G, Perri V (1961). "Uptake of pyrithiamine by tissue of rats". Biochem. J. 80: 214–6. PMC 1243973. PMID 13741739.

External links
• USDA RDA chart in PDF format (http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/dga/rda.pdf)
• Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes Reference Chart for Vitamins (http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/
nutrition/reference/table/ref_vitam_tbl_e.html)
• NIH Office of Dietary Supplements: Fact Sheets (http://dietary-supplements.info.nih.gov/Health_Information/
Vitamin_and_Mineral_Supplement_Fact_Sheets.aspx)
• NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplements: Background Information (http://dietary-supplements.
info.nih.gov/factsheets/dietarysupplements.asp)
Article Sources and Contributors 10

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Vitamin  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=420356961  Contributors: .:Ajvol:., .V., 10014derek, 27 Juni, =CJK=, A. B., A8UDI, ACDCFANLONGTIME, AMIrungu, ASarnat,
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