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A piston reciprocates inside the cylinder. It is connected to the
crankshaft by means of a connecting rod and crank. There are no valves in
two-stroke engines. Instead of valves, port (ways) is cut in the cylinder walls.
There are three ports namely inlet, exhaust and transfer ports. The closing
and opening of the port is obtained by the movement of the piston. The
crown of the piston is made of a particular shape. This is to deflect the fresh
charge (air-fuel mixture) upwards in the cylinder. A spark plug is also
provided in the cylinder. The events are given below.

Upward stroke of the piston (first stroke):

a) Compression:

1. The piston moves up from bottom dead centre (BDC) to top dead
centre (TDC).

2. Both transfer and exhaust ports are covered by the piston.

3. Air- fuel mixture which is transferred already into the engine

cylinder is compressed by the moving piston.
4. The pressure and temperature increases at the end of compression.

b) Ignition and inductance:

1. Piston almost reaches the top dead centre.

2. The air-fuel mixture inside the cylinder is ignited by means of an

electric spark produced by a spark plug.

3. At the same time, the inlet port is uncovered by the piston.

4. Fresh air-fuel mixture enters the crankcase through the inlet port.

Downward stroke of the piston (second stroke):

c) Expansion and crankcase compression:

1. The burning gases expand in the cylinder.

2. The burning gases force the piston to move down. Thus useful work
is obtained.

3. When the piston moves down, the air-fuel mixture in the crankcase
is partially compressed. This compression is known in crankcase

d) Exhaust and transference:

1. At the end of expansion, exhaust port is uncovered.

2. Burnt gases escape to the atmosphere.

3. Transfer port is also opened. The partially compressed air-fuel

mixture enters the cylinder through transfer port.

4. The crown of the piston is made of a deflected shape. So the fresh

charge entering the cylinder is deflected upwards in the cylinder.
Thus the escape of fresh charge along with exhaust gases is

Again the piston moves up. The transfer port is first closed and then
the exhaust port is closed. The compression of air-fuel mixture takes
place inside the cylinder. When the piston is nearing top dead centre,
the inlet port is uncovered. Fresh charge enters into the crankcase.
After compression, the ignition of air-fuel mixture takes place and the
cycle is repeated.

Thus all the events (suction, compression, power and exhaust) are
completed in two strokes of the piston. Hence this is known as two
stroke cycle engine.

The schematic diagram of modified two stroke gasoline

engine is shown in the above figure.
In direct injection method the fuel is directly pumped into
the cylinder at the time of compression stroke, when the exhaust
port closed. Hence there is no wastage of fresh air fuel mixture.
Complete combustion is possible, efficiency will be improved. Due
to complete combustion unburnt gases are reduced. Due to this
pollution also reduced.

Direct injection has considerable advantages in two-stroke

engines, eliminating some of the waste and pollution caused by
carbureted two-strokes where a proportion of the fuel/air mixture
entering the cylinder goes directly out, unburned, through the
exhaust port. Two systems are in use, low-pressure air-assisted
injection, and high pressure injection.

Port timing diagram for two stroke gasoline engine

Two stroke cycle engines are provided with ports. The timing
sequence of events opening and closing of various ports are
shown graphically in terms of crank angles from dead centre
positions. The figure shows that port timing diagram for two
stroke cycle SI engines. The inlet port is opened by the piston 45º
to 55º before TDC. The inlet port is closed by the piston 45º to 55º
after TDC position.
The exhaust port is opened by the piston 65º to 75º before
BDC. The exhaust port closed by the piston 65º to 75º after BDC
position. The transfer port is opened by the piston 50º to 65º
before BDC. The transfer port is closed by the piston 50º to 65º
after BDC. Ignition occurs at 15º to 25º before TDC.
Modified port timing diagram