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Resumo de ingls Book 1 Definite article: The student is Canadian.

The is used to identify a definite noun, and can be used with singular and plural nouns. Indefinite Articles: This is a pen This is an eraser. The indefinite article is used before singular countable nouns. A is used before consonant sounds and An is used before vowel sounds. Demonstrative Pronouns: This and that are used only with singular nouns. Ex: This is a dog That is a house.

Plural forms; These an Those. Ex Those baseball bats are cheap. Possessive Case: to form the possessive case we add s to a singular noun, indicating the possessor . Possessor are only people or animals. Ex: Jean is Daniels sister. To form the possessive of the plural noun which ends in s, only the apostrophe () is used. Ex: That is my neighbors house. Interrogative pronouns : Who: is used to people . What is used to animals and objects. Adverbs of place: Here; There. Ex: The girls are here and the boys are there. Interrogative adverb: Where. Ex: Where is Click Possessive Adjectives: My, Your, His , Her,Its, Our, Your, Their. EX: This is the Stricklands House . This is their house. Interrogative Adjective: Whose. Ex: Whose dog is this Its Daniels. Whose brother is he Hes Jeans brother. The present tense of the verb TO BE

Singul ar

Affirmative

Interrogat ive Am i. Are you Is he. Is she. Is it.. Are we

Negative

I am or Im You are or youre He is or hes She is or shes It is or its plural We are or were You are or youre They are or theyre

Im not Youre not He isnt

She isnt It isnt We arent

Are you

You arent

Are they.

They arent

Ex: We arent afraid of water. There is: ( singular) used to say that something exists. There is a notebook here you can use it. Is there a book at your table. There are(plural): used to say that something exists. Ex: there are three boys. Interrogative expression of quanlity: how many: is used with plural (countable) nous. Ex: how many sandwiches, Johnny Just one, please. How much:is use with uncountable noun. Ex: How much milk is there, How much is this video game Determiners of indefinite quantity: Some and Any

Some: affirmative sentences. Ex there are some doughnuts in that box. Any: Interrogative or negative sentences. Ex there arent any sausages today. The present continuous tense: is use to describe an action that is in progress at the moment on is speaking: We are talking Book 3 The future with will can be use to express the future. Ex: I will be there at 5. Expressing probability- must: is use to express what we think is probably right, based on facts we have. Never use an infinitive with to after must. Ex: Its 11:00 Bobs still working. He must be really tired. The simple past tense of the verb to be singul ar Affirmati ve I was You were He was She was Interrogati ve Was i Were you Negative

I wasnt You werent He wasnt She wasnt It wasnt We werent You werent They werent

Was he Was she

It was plural We were

Was it Were we

You were They were

Were you

Were they.

Ex: Joe wasnt here yesterday.

There was, there were are used to say that something existed. Affirmative: there was and there were Interrogative: Was there or Were there Negative: There wasnt or there werent. Ex: Was there a party at your school on Friday The simple past tense of some regular verbs: to form the simple past tense of a regular verb in the affirmative form add ed.Ex: I visited Washington in January. To form interrogative of regular verb in the simple past tense , place DID before the subject and drop the ed from the end of the verb. Ex: Did they visit Washington on January To form the negative of a verb in the simple past tense pace DID NOT before the verb and drop the ed from the end od the verb. Ex: they didi not visit Washington in January. Book 4 Prepositions : into , in, out of Interrogative pronoun WHO: when a question begins with who, and who refers to the subject, the auxiliaries do,does or did are not used: who scared Ana Joe did Subject When a question begins with who, and who refers to the object, the auxiliaries, do, does or did are used. Who did Joe scared Joe scared Ana. Subject Object Indirect speech practice: We use indirect speech to tell someone what another person said, without repeating that persons exact words. Use the past tense of the verb if original statements was in the present tense Ex: Mr. Clark said, Peter lives in London.( Direct speech) Mr. Clark said that Peter lived in London ( Indirect speech) In indirect speech, we use he or she when used I or you in the original statementEx: (a) I think bob has a class at 2. (b) youre right. By using

indirect speech: Mrs Wilson said that she thougth Bob had a class at 2 (b) Mrs. Brown said that she was right. In indirect speech we use that when this was used in the original statement and use they when we or you were used in the original statement .Ex The salesperson said, This is the only black purse we have The salesperson said that that was the only black purse they had. In indirect speech we use asked instead of said when we are reporting a question; the word if is used when we are introducing a yes or no question, that is, a question whose answer begins with yes or no.Ex: Pam said Is your brother traveling around Europe, Bob. Pam asked Bob if his brother was traveling around Europe. We use his or her when my or your was used in the original statement; we use the past continuous tense when the present continuous tense was used in the original statement. We use those when these was used in the original statement;we use him or her when me or you was used in the original statement. Ex: Mr. Hasek said Are these boobs for me Mr. Hasek asked if those books were for him The comparative form: adjectives of 3 or more syllables, is used to compare two inems. Ex: San Francisco is more interesting than L.A. The superlative form-adjectives of 3 or more syllables: we use the superlative when we are comparing on item to the rest of a group .Ex: San Francisco is the most interesting city in California. Comparative form- Adjectives of one or two syllables. Ex: This coat is newer than my coat. Note: if a one-syllable adjective ends in or is formed by a consonant+ vowel+ consonant, we double the final consonant and add er to form comparative of the adjective; if the adjective ends in a consonant+y, we drop the y and add ier to form the comparative; if the adjective ends in e, just add r to form the comparative. The superlative form- adjectives of one or two syllables. Ex: This is the quietest street in the neighborhood Note: with one syllable adjectives that end in or are formed by consonant+ vowel+ consonant, we double the final consonant and add est to form the superlative; if the adjective ends in consonant +Y, we drop the y and add iest to form the superlative; if the adjective ends in e, we just add st to form the superlative.

The past continuous tense: When two actions, one longer than the other, occur at the same time in the past, the longer action is expressed in the use past continuous tense and the shorter action is expressed in the simple past tense. Ex: I was talking to Sue when Bob Arrived COULD is the past tense of can and is used for all persons ( singular or Plural) Ex: Tina coul read when she was four Could Tina rea when she was four My grandfather could not hear very well. WOUL LIKE: when asking for something, its more polite to use I woul like than I want Ex: I would like a steak or Id like a steak Would she like a steak I would not like to live in a big city. (If+ Present)Will: when we talk about something that may happen in the future if certain condition is met, that is, a possible future occurrence, we use the simple present tense in the part of the sentence that express condition, and the simple future tense in the part that says what may happen. If I have the money, I will travel to Europe. (If+ Past).Would: when we want to talk about an unreal or imaginary situation in the present, we use the past tense in part of the sentence that expresses conditions and conditional (would+ infinitive without to) in the part which express what would happen if that condition were met. When we use if+ the past tense of the verb to be, we have to use were for all persons If I had the money, I would buy a new car. If Mary were here, shed know what to do. Book 5 In indirect speech we use their when your or our was used in the original statement; use would when will was used in the original statement .ex: Sandra said Your mother will love this kitten Sandra told Paul and Met that their mother would love that kitten. In indirect speech , use them when us or you (pl) was used in the original statement. Ex: Lucy asked her father Is grandmother going to stay

with us using indirect speech: Lucy asked her father if her grandmother was going to stay with them. Use the next day or the following day when tomorrow was used in the original statement. Ex: The teacher said Ill talk to you about your test grade tomorrow The teacher told Harry that she would talk to him about his test grad the next day. In indirect speech , the formule (if+present)Will becomes (if+ past) would. Ex: Mary told Peter, If Greg is home, I will invite him over for dinner Mary told Peter that if Greg were home, she would invite him over for dinner May: we use to talk about the possibility of something happening She may have to work late tonight. I may not go to the party The formation of the present perfect tense: we use the verb to have in the present and the past participle of the main verb. One of the uses of the present perfect tense is when we want to talk about something that happened in the past without saying exactly when it happened Ex: Daniel has traveled around the States. Has Daniel traveled around the States Daniel has not traveled around the States. Like and alike: we use to compare people, things, places and situations that are like each other in some way. We use like between the items being compared and alike after the items being compared. Ex: Ray looks like his brother Jo. ; ray and his Brother Jo look alike. Different is use after the items being compared and different from between the items being compared. Ex: Lilys sunglasses are different from Danas sunglasses.; Lily sunglasses and Danas Sunglasses are different. To be able: is equivalent to can. It means to have the necessary power, ability or qualifications to do something. Ex: Are you able to speak german Book 6 Using have got or has got: mean the same thing as have and has Ex: I have Jims telephone number. Ive got Jims telephone number

Using have got to and has got to: mean the same thing as have to and has to, we usually use to make affirmative statements .Ex:I have got to get some glue pens It takes or it took are used to describe how much time is necessary to do a certain activity and it takes or it took+ person are used to describe how much time is or was necessary for someone to do a certain activity Ex: I takes a long time to go downtown during the rush hour; Does it take.;it usually tackes Vick a long time to get ready for a date. Many is used with plural contable noun and its more common to use it to make negative statements , a few means some or small number and Its is use with plural countable number an few means not many and is use with plural countable nouns. There arent many places to go at night in this town. Give me a few more day to think about your offer Few students earn black belt in karate It will take: it will take about an hour to get to the superstore As far as and up to are used to talk about distance. As far as generally means to a certain point and no further. Up to implies the idea of moving further north from where you are.Ex: I can take you as far as Mayberry; Im living Miami tonight and going up to Orlando We use until to talk abou time. Up to can also be uses to talk about time, but its not common.Ex: the stores open until 9 or the stores open up to 9. Might: to talk about the possibility of something happening in the present or future, dont use to after might.Ex: I might go to the beach to play volleyball tomorrowcc