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DRAFT

Eco-Housing

Eco-housing Guidelines for the Tropical Regions of Asia

September 2005 United Nation Environment Programme Bangkok, Thailand

Acknowledgement
Several organisations and individuals have contributed in the preparation of this publication. UNEP takes this opportunity to thank all of them; The Centre for Research on Sustainable Building Science, The Energy and Resources Institute(TERI), New Delhi, for preparing these guidelines The Ministry of Energy, Environment and Water, Government of Maldives, for arranging site specific data for the demonstration project site at Hanimadhoo Island The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of Sri Lanka and Lanka Jathika Sarvodaya Shramadana Sangamaya (Sarvodaya), Sri Lanka, for arranging site specific data for the demonstration project site at Kalutara district.

UNEP RRC.AP Project team

Table of Contents
Executive Summary 1 Introduction 1.1 Global and regional trends 1.2 Tsunami reconstruction 1.3 The concept of eco-housing 1.4 About the project 1.5 About the guidelines 2 Guidelines for Eco-housing 2.1 Pre-design guidelines 2.2 Sustainable site planning 2.2.1 Site infrastructure 2.2.2 Pollution considerations in site planning 2.2.3 Site layout 2.2.4 Landscaping 2.2.5 Soil stabilization 2.2.6 Restrict run-off on site 2.3 Materials and product selection 2.4 Energy performance 2.4.1 Energy management 2.4.2 Renewable energy 2.5 Water management 2.5.1 Plumbing Fixtures 2.5.2 Drinking Water 2.5.3 Treatment of waste water and reuse 2.5.4 Rainwater harvesting 2.6 Waste management 2.7 Indoor environmental quality 2.8 Construction administration 2.9 Building commissioning 2.10 Operation and maintenance 3 Application of design guidelines in the tsunami reconstruction work at Kalutara, Sri Lanka 3.1 Introduction 3.2 About the site 3.3 Analysis of the site and its microclimate 3.4 Orientation and layout 3.5 Soil stabilization 3.6 Run-off coefficient 3.7 Landscape design to reduce heat island effect 3.8 Solar protection, design, and analysis 3.9 Natural daylight References 1 3

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Annexures
1 Glossary 2 List of local plant species recommended for the site at Kalutara, Sri Lanka 3 List of Members of the Regional Expert Group on Eco-housing 63 66 68

Executive Summary
The activities of the construction sector are a major source of environmental degradation, its impacts being felt over time and space. Its geographical spread and rapid growth rate impacts the present global ecosystem. Moreover, the long lives of the structures being built extend the impacts over several generations. This makes the construction sector a hot spot requiring careful analysis and benign intervention. The dynamics of current socio-cultural and economic systems ensure that the sector will continue to grow at a rapid rate. The development pathways of most Asian countries are symptomatic of these trends. The evolving concept of eco-housing is a flexible, bottoms-up approach that could reverse the trends in the construction sector. The concept has caught the attention of decision makers in Asia, but a lack of real examples has prevented its adoption on a larger scale. To meet this need, UNEP and UN-HABITAT joined hands in 2004, to promote and demonstrate eco-housing as a key preventive measure in the Asia-Pacific region. They facilitated the establishment of a regional expert group on eco-housing, which recommended that the concept be taken forward through a composite project addressing four key areas: knowledge building, educational initiatives, networking and demonstration projects. The demonstration project will be implemented in Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, China and Bhutan. Generic Design Guidelines were prepared for Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Maldives and were discussed with national level stakeholders in the National Inception Workshops held in the three countries in May, 2005. This publication is a compilation of these guidelines, for wider dissemination. The Asian tsunami of December, 2004, added a new dimension to the project. The massive reconstruction work provides an opportunity for integrating eco-housing principles. The projects in Indonesia and Sri Lanka are combined with the tsunami reconstruction efforts. Eco-housing integrates several mature disciplines and design objectives that need to be applied during the entire lifecycle of a housing project: design, construction, maintenance and end of life activities. It also tries to merge traditional and modern day architectural practices. Many of its concepts have been used by humans for centuries to ensure comfort conditions in their habitats. The drivers of environmental and social externalities in the construction sector are dynamic in nature. Hence the guidelines cannot be rigid, but needs to blend itself in to the bio-climatic features and socio-cultural aspects of the site. Site selection, material selection, energy performance, water management and waste management, are key areas of the concept. Integrating and implementing so many objectives and disciplines requires an effective interdisciplinary team with good project management skills. Integrated design and project management softwares could help in this process. In general, an objective of the integrated design process is to create minimum disturbance to the existing site and minimise the requirements of natural resources, energy and water with the help of its bio-climatic features. A more challenging eco-housing target would be to enhance the existing site features and even be net producers of energy, water etc, within the traditional framework of economic-efficiency. The guidelines presented in this publication serves to outline the broad framework for eco-design in the tropical areas of Asia and build up capacity in the region. It also challenges practitioners to take up more ambitious targets.

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Global and Regional Trends The design, construction, and maintenance of houses have a major impact on our environment and on the stock of natural resources. Huge amounts of natural resources, and energy are consumed in a buildings life cycle, polluting air, water, and land. The rapid growth of the global economy, and the rising trends in population, urbanization and rural migration is contributing to the expansion of the built environment, threatening natural habitats and wildlife. Built up land increased from 0.23 billion global ha in 1961 to 0.44 billion global ha in 2001; an increase of 91.3%. In terms of CO2 emission, experts equate one middle class house to two vehicles. In 1990, the residential, commercial, and institutional building sector consumed 31% of the global energy and emitted 1900 mega tonnes of carbon. By 2050, its share is expected to rise to 38% and 3800 mega tonnes, respectively (IPCC 1996). These negative trends are most apparent in Asia, in comparison to the rest of the globe. Asia has the fastest growing economies, the fastest growing middle class and the most populous countries. Furthermore, the regions economic growth is mainly localized to urban areas. For example, Bangkok alone contributes to 38 percent of Thailands GDP; Jakarta, with only 5 percent of total population, contributes to 7 percent of Indonesias GDP. In 1995 the urban population in Asia was 3.5 billion (33 percent), and is predicted to reach 5 billion (53 percent) by 2025. These factors are expected to sustain the boom in the housing and construction sector for several decades. 1.2 Tsunami Reconstruction Work The recent Asian Tsunami has further fuelled the demand for housing and infrastructure in the coastal areas of Asia. Indonesia, Sri Lanka , India and Maldives, were the most affected countries with huge loss of lives, housing, and infrastructure. The tsunami also resulted in severe environmental impacts, which will affect the region for many years to come. Severe damage has been inflicted upon ecosystems such as mangroves, coral reefs, forests, coastal wetlands, vegetation, sand dunes, rock formations, animal and plant biodiversity, and groundwater. The spread of wastes and industrial chemicals, and the destruction of sewage collection and treatment infrastructure threaten the environment even further. A major impact has been the salt water infiltration into fresh water and the deposition of a salt layer over arable land (Pearce, F., 2005). Sea, sand, and earth have polluted numerous wells and aquifers. The vast devastation of housing and infrastructure in the coastal regions has also taken a toll on peoples livelihood. For example, in Maldives, the homes are also hubs of cottage industries. Cottage industries bring in a substantial part of the income of most households. With the limited mobility of women in Maldives, working from home is often the only source of income for them. The island women process fish for sale and storage, weave palm leaves into roofing sheets to be sold to resorts, and produce handicrafts for sale to tourists. All these industries have been devastated by loss of homes in the tsunami. The Maldivian homes also play
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an integral role in the water-supply chain. Roofs of the island homes are designed to funnel rainwater down into the communal water tanks. Supplies of stored water were completely destroyed on 69 islands and the rain water harvesting infrastructure damaged on many others. The groundwater has been contaminated by salt water and human waste. Rehabilitation of the tsunamiaffected regions poses an immense challenge. On one hand, there is an urgent need for rehabilitating the displaced people in the shortest possible time while on the other, there are the challenges of managing the available resources (land, water, energy, and costs) in the most effective manner and reverse the negative environmental impacts caused during the tsunami. 1.3 The Concept of Eco-housing The externalities from the housing and construction sector necessitate a paradigm shift in the design, construction and operation of buildings, as embodied in the concept of eco-housing. An eco-house integrates economic efficiency, resource conservation, waste minimization, renewable energy, ease of operation and maintenance, and access to community facilities. It thus enables a healthy and cost-effective lifestyle. To achieve these objectives, an integrated design needs to be carried out, involving a variety of disciplines. Rather than studying the individual building component, system, or function in isolation, a multidisciplinary approach studies the interrelated impacts of design, systems, and materials. In Asia, eco-housing is yet to be mainstreamed into current plans and policies. Buildings have a long life, and their impacts will also be felt throughout their lifetime. It is important that the principles of eco-design be integrated into housing programmes being implemented now, to ensure sustainability in the long term. 1.4 About the project The concept of eco-housing has found wide acceptance from the political leadership in the Asia-Pacific, but they cite the need to see working models to take policy decisions. To meet this need, UNEP and UN-HABITAT joined hands in 2004, to promote and demonstrate eco-housing as a key preventive measure in the Asia-Pacific region. They facilitated the establishment of a regional expert group on eco-housing, which recommended that the concept be taken forward through a composite project addressing four key areas: knowledge building, educational initiatives, networking and demonstration projects. The demonstration project will be implemented in Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, China and Bhutan. Generic Design Guidelines were prepared for Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Maldives and these were discussed with national level stakeholders in the National Inception Workshops held in the three countries in May, 2005. The members of the regional expert group has been listed in Annexure 3. In Indonesia the project will try to incorporate eco-housing guidelines in the current tsunami reconstruction work. Apart from that, a model eco-village will also be constructed. Proposed sites are the tsunami affected areas of Malahayati, Municipality of Banda Aceh and Calang, District of Aceh Jaya. In Sri Lanka the site for the eco village has been prepared in Lagoswatta, in Kalutara district,
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near Colombo. The project is a part of the tsunami reconstruction project in Sri Lanka . It is proposed to have 57 residences and associated community facilities such as a park and community centre. The plots had been allotted, and streets laid out. The details of the project and the application of the design guidelines to this project has been elaborated in Chapter 3. In Maldives a multipurpose Government Building would be built in the island of Hanimaadhoo, for which the Government has allotted the resources. The Thai Cabinet recently approved a project for an eco-city, as a joint venture between the Natural Resources and Environment Ministry, Thailand and UNEP. 1.5 About the guidelines This report is a compilation of the eco-housing guidelines prepared for the project in Indonesia, Maldives and Sri Lanka. A major portion of these guidelines are generic, while some are specific to the tropical regions in Asia. It has been structured along the following heads. Pre-design guidelines Site selection and site planning Material and product selection Energy performance Water management Waste management Indoor environmental quality Construction administration Building commissioning Operation and maintenance

Chapter 2: Guidelines for Eco-housing


2.1 Pre-design guidelines Pre-design discussions and goal setting are beneficial to the project over its entire life cycle. It sets out definitive goals, charters project directions, and provides opportunities for cost optimization to achieve the desired goals in innovative ways. The generic guidelines for the pre-design stage include: o Select an effective, interdisciplinary design team. The team could include the owner, architects, engineers, and subject consultants. o Finalise appropriate procedures for contracting and contractor selection. Appropriate guidelines, specifications and procedures should be laid within the contract document to meet eco-design objectives. o Develop design goals, which include the following. A vision statement that clearly sets out goals, objectives, and processes. It should be based on careful site analysis, resource availability, available best practices and technologies, and costeffectiveness. The project must also identify if the design goals intend to achieve improvements over the conventional standards, e.g., better envelope standards than minimum energy codes, better water efficiency than the national codes. The goals needs to be prioritized based on the need, project constraints, and relative importance of the criteria.e.g., water quality and conservation may be a priority in the tsunami-affected regions. o Laws, codes, and standards: Prepare a list of applicable codes, standards, laws relevant to the project, e.g., o building bye-laws of municipality, o rules/bye-laws related to water and waste management, o financial incentives of eco-measures, e.g., subsidies for renewable energy systems, energy-efficient equipment, o energy codes/standards, o relevant building codes, o regulations related to measures like rainwater harvesting, solar water heating, etc, o environmental clearances required, if any, o Applicable international best practices as identified in project goal, and o disaster mitigation measures o Identify the damage reversals that need to be addressed prior to implementation of the eco-housing project, e.g., salt contamination, groundwater contamination, etc in tsunami affected areas. List out the actions that are required to address these issues. 2.2 Sustainable site planning The purpose of sustainable site planning is to integrate design and construction strategies by modifying both, the site and building to achieve greater human comfort and operational efficiency. It ensures minimum site disruption; maximum usage of microclimate features; minimum requirement for intra/inter7

site transportation; appropriate erosion and sedimentation control plans; and appropriate landscaping .The guidelines for achieving this are as follows. 2.2.1 Site infrastructure o Confirm that the selected site does not fall within the disaster-control zone as specified by the local authority o Ensure that basic amenities such as bank, child care, post office, park, library, convenience grocery, primary school, clinic and community hall are near to or within the site premises. 2.2.2 Pollution considerations in site planning o To mitigate light pollution, design exterior lighting such that all exterior luminaires with more than 1000 initial lamp lumens are shielded and all luminaires with more than 3500 initial lamp lumens meet full cut off2 IESNA3 classification. Any luminaire within a distance of 2.5 times its mounting height from property boundary should have shielding such that no light from the luminaire crosses the boundary. o Plan pedestrian access ways and bicycle tracks within site premises. Discourage use of fossil fuel-based vehicles on site. o Make a spill prevention and control plan that clearly states measures to stop the source of the spill, contain the spill, dispose the contaminated material, and provide training of personnel . Some of the hazardous wastes to be cautious about are pesticides, paints, cleaners, and petroleum products. o The run-off from construction areas and material storage sites should be collected or diverted so that pollutants do not mix with storm water runoff from undisturbed areas. Temporary drainage channels, perimeter dike/swale, etc. should be constructed to carry the polluted water directly to municipal drains. The plan should indicate how the above is accomplished on site well in advance of the commencement of construction activity. o Site should be properly planned to mitigate the heat island effect by reducing the total paved area allowed on site. The paved areas should be made pervious or open grid. Shading should be provided for the paved surfaces. 2.2.3 Site layout o The site layout should allow for wind protection and solar access in winter and at the same time, adequate sun protection and ventilation in summer. Having a mix of building types could help achieve this. Row buildings can be used as wind breakers. High-rise can increase ventilation in a dense

A full cut off luminaire has zero candela intensity at an angle of 90 degrees above the vertical axis (nadir) and at all angles greater than 90 degrees from nadir. Additionally, the candela per 1000 lamp lumens does not numerically exceed 100 (10%) at an angle of 80 degrees above nadir. This applies to all lateral angles around the luminaire. IESNA is the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.

development. Low-rise buildings should be sited so that they avoid excessive heat exchange with the environment and utilize their link with open spaces. o The ratio of street width to building height determines the altitude up to which solar radiation can be cut off. Similarly, street orientation determines the azimuth up to which solar radiation can be cut off. Their effective combination should be optimized in the compact planning of the built form on large sites. In particular, for the streets running northsouth, the street width to building height ratios should be kept as low as possible. This would provide mutual shading from the horizontal morning and evening sun. East west streets should be avoided on account of the low sun in the mornings and evenings. However, if unavoidable, they should be kept narrow. o Layout development for streets should be within 25 degrees of eastwest. 2.2.4 Landscaping Suitably designed landscape is a very effective micro climate modifier. Landscaping plays a very important role in modulating airflows in a building. Moreover, landscaping provides the required shading for outdoor areas, which modifies the microclimate. Care needs to be taken to avoid undesirable increase in humidity levels , by excessive plantations . Selection of plant species should be based on its water requirements and the micro climatic benefits that should result from it. The points to be noted are: o For projects larger than one hectare, remove topsoil and preserve for reuse on site. For tsunami affected areas, ensure that the topsoil has not been rendered unusable. A pH of 6.0 to 7.5 and organic content of not less than 1.5% by mass needs to be maintained. Add lime where pH < 6.0 to adjust to 6.5 or higher, up to 7.5. Any soil having soluble salt content > 500 ppm should not be used for the purpose of landscaping. o Preserve existing vegetation on site. Mark all the existing vegetation in tree survey plan. Evolve tree preservation guidelines. o Do compensatory depository forestation in the ratio of 1:5 within the site premises, for all mature trees removed o Do not alter the existing drainage pattern on site. Existing grades should be maintained around existing vegetation. Maintenance activities should be performed as needed to ensure that the vegetation remains healthy. o Some methods of altering the air flow patterns by landscaping is shown in Figure 1 a & b.

Figure 1a: Enhancing ventilation effectiveness through landscaping

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Figure 1b: Enhancing ventilation effectiveness through landscaping

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2.2.5 Soil stabilization o The most effective way to prevent soil erosion, sedimentation, and to stabilize soil is through the provision of vegetative cover by effective planting practices. The foliage and roots of plants provide dust control and a reduction in erosion potential by increasing infiltration, trapping sediments, stabilizing soil, and dissipating the energy of hard rain. Temporary seeding can be used in areas disturbed after rough grading to provide soil protection until the final cover is established. Permanent seeding/planting is used in buffer areas, vegetated swales, and steep slopes. The vegetative cover also increases the percolation of rainwater thereby increasing the groundwater recharge. o Use of organic mulches has to be done to enhance soil stabilization. Organic mulches include shredded bark, wood chips, straw, composted leaves, etc. Inorganic mulches such as pea gravel, crushed granite, or pebbles can be used in unplanted areas. Stone mulches should not be used adjacent to the building as they can easily get heated and cause glare. Mulching is good for stabilizing soil temperature also. o Use organic compost and mychorrizal biofertilizer for remediation of alkaline soil, as is the case with soil affected by sea water intrusion. o Sedimentation basins, and contour trenching, also helps top reduce soil erosion. 2.2.6 Restrict run-off on site Pervious surfaces allow rainwater to seep through them while impervious or hard surfaces prevent it. A site contains hard or impervious surfaces (roads, impervious pavements, parking, etc.) and soft and pervious surfaces (vegetative cover, pavements, parking, walkways which are pervious). A site planned for a higher proportion of impervious surface results in less groundwater recharge and higher run-off. Conventional drainage methods used on site usually involve transporting water as fast as possible to a drainage point, either by storm water drainage or a sewer. Sustainable drainage systems work to slow down the accumulation and flow of water into these drainage points and increases on-site infiltrations. This results in a more stable ecosystem as the water level and the water flow speed in the watercourse is more stable, and hence, less erosion will take place. o Pervious surfaces needs to be encouraged on site in the form of pavements and parking, which allow rainwater to seep through them. Table 1 gives the typical values for the run-off coefficients for different types of surfaces. Pervious surfaces such as gravel or other open-textured material are only suitable for pedestrian or low-volume, light-weight traffic, such as walkways and personal driveways, but they are very easy to implement and inexpensive compared to the other methods. A combination of different types of pervious surfaces such as large or small paving blocks should be used. Large blocks have large holes that are filled with soil, and allow grass to grow in them. The surface is only suitable for foot traffic or occasional
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cars but has an aesthetic benefit due to the mostly grassy surface. Small blocks are impervious blocks that fit together in such a way so as to leave small openings in the joints between the blocks, allowing water to flow through. These blocks can take more and heavier traffic than large element blocks. o Well planned roadways, parkings, or walkways, with compact circulation patterns, could minimize pavement costs, centralize run-off, and improve efficiency of movement. This would help to reduce the ratio of impermeable surfaces to the gross site area. Table 1: Run-off coefficient for various surfaces Surface type Run-off coefficient Roofs conventional 0.70.95 Concrete/ kota 0.95 paving Gravel 0.75 Brick paving 0.85 Vegetation 1%3% 0.2 3%10% 0.25 > 10% 0.3 Turf slopes 0%1% 0.25 1%3% 0.35 3%10% 0.4 > 10% 0.45 o Restrict the net run-off from a site to a maximum of 60 %. In case the site hydrogeology does not allow the run-off factor to be 0.6, measures are to be taken to allow the collection of run-off into soak pits or collection pits so that the net run-off from the site is not more than 60 %. Calculations for run-off coefficient on site Gross site area: A m2 Ground coverage: p % Built-up area on site (Ab): (p / 100) x A m2 Total open area on site (AO ): (A - Ab ) m2 Open area on site planned for perviousness (Ap): A1 x C1 + A2 x C2 + . Where, A1, A2 Area of various surfaces such as pavements/roads/vegetation, etc. planned for different run-off coefficients C1, C2, etc. Average run-off coefficient = Ap/ AO 2
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2.3 Materials and product selection Using eco-friendly materials contributes towards creating an eco-habitat. They help conserve natural resources and are characterized by low-embodied energies. They are convenient for recycling and reuse, and have low-emissions. Wastes and by-products generated from various manufacturing processes could form secondary resources for production of building materials. This would allow savings in consumption of primary grade raw materials, energy, labour, and capital investments in plants. Selection of appropriate materials is driven by local/regional availability and cost effectiveness.The points to be noted for material and product selection are: o Use materials with low-embodied energy content for all structural work in fill systems o Use locally available materials and technologies, employing local work force o Use industrial waste-based bricks / blocks for non-structural or infill wall system o Reuse/recycle construction debris o Minimise use of wood for interior works and use any of the following in place of wood. Composite wood products such as hardboards, blockboards, lumbercore plywood, veneered panels, particle boards, medium/low-density fibreboards made from recycled wood scrap from sawmill dusts or furniture industry and bonded with glue or resin under heat and pressure. Materials/products made from rapidly renewable small-diameter trees and fast-growing, low-utilized species harvested within a ten-year cycle or shorter, such as bamboo, rubber, eucrasia, eucalyptus, poplar, jute/cotton stalks, etc. The products include engineered products, bamboo ply boards, rubber, jute stalk boards, etc. Products made from wastes. These could be wood waste, agricultural wastes, and natural fibres, such as sisal, coir, and glass fibre in inorganic combination with gypsum, cement, and other binders, such as fibrous gypsum plaster boards, etc. Salvaged timber and reused wood products such as antique furniture. o Use water-based acrylics for paints o Use acrylics, silicones, and siliconized acrylic sealants for interior use o Use adhesives with no/low-VOC emissions for indoor use. It could be acrylics or phenolic resins such as phenol formaldehydes o Use water-based urethane finishes on wooden floors o Use particleboard made with phenol-formaldehyde resin rather than urea formaldehyde, to control indoor VOC emissions o In corrosive atmospheres, metallic surfaces, and foundation reinforcements should be treated with suitable anti-corrosive treatments, such as epoxy, polyurethane coatings, etc. o Minimise the use of metallic surfaces and metallic pipes, fitting, and fixtures o Use products and materials with reduced packaging and/or encourage manufacturers to reuse or recycle their original packaging materials
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2.4 Energy Performance The primary function of a building envelope is to protect its occupants from sun, rain, and to provide thermal and visual comfort for work and leisure. In order to achieve comfort conditions, it is almost always essential to provide energy-consuming space conditioning and lighting devices. An eco-building should have an optimum energy performance and yet provide the desirable thermal and visual comfort. The energy usage of the built environment can be improved by better a) energy management and by b) use of renewable energy sources 2.4.1 Energy management Fundamental strategies that could be adopted to optimize energy performance can be broadly classified as follows: Reduction in energy demand Improving energy efficiency Reduction in energy demand entails adoption of design measures to reduce space conditioning, lighting, and service water-heating loads. The first step to reduce the energy demand is to design for the macro and microclimate of the site by adoption of suitable bio-climatic design principles. Bio-climatic design varies from one climatic zone to the other. A building designed for a hot climate would have measures to reduce the solar gain such as, smaller window sizes; shaded walls; minimum exposure to the west and east; external wall and roof insulation; or use of design elements like solar chimneys, wind towers, etc., to maximize ventilation. The humidity levels of a climatic zone govern the use of water-based measures for cooling of buildings. While measures like water bodies, fountains, and roof gardens are conducive for a hot-dry climate, these should be used with caution in a humid climatic zone.Site microclimate is an important aspect that makes building designs in the same climatic zone distinct from one another. Each building site would have distinct topography, vegetation, wind-flow pattern, solar and daylight access. The design should be able to address these site conditions and requirements. Maximizing the energy efficiency of the building system offers further opportunity for energy savings. Use of efficient lighting, air-conditioning, and service water heating systems can reduce the energy use in a building by 30% 40%.

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2.4.1.1 Reduction in energy demand

Environmental architecture, including passive solar design 1 is a site-specific endeavour. The broad design areas that are considered in the context of environmental architecture are listed below. Siting: It is important to properly locate the building to take maximum benefit of the sun, wind, and daylight. This includes proper orientation to enable solar access, and air flows. Fenestration design: Windows are a very important component of any building. They contribute to daylight and airflow, in turn, letting in heat. Hence, proper fenestration design is required to keep the heat away during summer and yet allow air flows (if desirable) and daylight. Thermal mass: Adequate thermal mass helps modulate the internal temperature of the building by storing heat and releasing it during the needed hours. Thermal mass helps shift the peak cooling and heating loads to off peak hours. Passive cooling with natural ventilation: Incorporation of natural or induced ventilation strategies to enable enhancement of energy performance of buildings in most locations. In warm and wet climate high-air velocities are needed to increase the efficiency of sweat evaporation and to avoid as far as possible, discomfort due to moisture on skin and clothes. Thermal comfort could be achieved at different temperatures and relative humidity levels, with certain minimum desirable wind speeds. Such wind speeds are given in Table 2, available from the Indian Standards for Ventilation requirements (SP41- Handbook of Functional Requirements of Buildings). Table 2: Desirable wind speeds for thermal comfort conditions Dry bulb Relative humidity (per cent) temperat 30 40 50 60 70 ure 0 0 F/ C (wind speed, m/s) 82.4 / 28 * * * * * 84.2 / 29 * * * * * 86.0 / 30 * * * 0.06 0.24 87.8 / 31 * 0.06 0.24 0.53 1.04 89.6 / 32 0.20 0.46 0.94 1.59 2.26 91.4 / 33 0.77 1.36 2.12 3.00 + 93.2 / 34 1.85 2.72 + + + 95.0 / 35 3.20 + + + + * None + Higher than those acceptable in practice. (p.80, BIS, 1988)
1

80

90

* 0.06 0.53 1.47 3.04 + + +

* 0.19 0.85 2.10 + + + +

Passive solar design refers to the use of solar energy for the heating and cooling of living spaces in buildings. The building or any of its element, makes use of the interaction of solar energy with building materials and air. This type of design is inherently simple, and requires no mechanical systems. Its operation and maintenance is easy.

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The following are the guidelines for reducing energy demand, in terms of strategies for natural ventilation, wall/roof construction and day-lighting : 2.4.1.1.1 Ventilation o A building need not necessarily be oriented perpendicular to the prevailing outdoor wind. It may be oriented at any convenient angle between 0 30 degrees without losing any beneficial aspect of the breeze. If the prevailing wind is from east or west, the building can be oriented at 35 degrees to the incident wind so as to diminish the solar heat sacrificing slightly the reduction in air motion indoors. o Large openings, doors, and windows are of advantage in a warm-wet climate provided they are effectively protected from penetration of solar radiation, driving rain, and intrusion of insects. o Inlet openings in buildings should be well-distributed and should be located on the wind-ward side at a low level, and outlet openings should be located on the leeward side. Inlet and outlet openings at a high level would only clear the air at that level without producing air movement at the level of occupancy. o Maximum air movement at a particular plane is achieved by keeping the sill height of the opening at 85% of the critical height (such as head level). The following levels are recommended according to the type of occupancy. o For sitting on chair = 0.75 m o For sitting on bed = 0.60 m o For sitting on floor = 0.40 m o Inlet openings should not be obstructed by adjoining buildings, trees, signboards or other obstructions, or by partitions in the path of air flow. o In rooms of normal size having identical windows on opposite walls, the average indoor air speed increases rapidly by increasing the width of window by up to two-thirds of the wall width. Beyond that the increase in indoor air speed is in much smaller proportion than the increase in window width. The air motion in the working zone is maximum when the window height is 1.1 m. A further increase in window height promotes air motion at a higher level of the window but does not contribute additional benefits as regards air motion in the occupancy zones in buildings. o Greatest flow per unit area of openings is obtained by using the inlet and outlet openings of nearly equal areas at the same level. o For a total area of openings (inlet and outlet) of 20% 30% of floor area, the average indoor wind velocity is about 30% of the outdoor velocity. Further increase in the window size increases the available velocity but not in the same proportion. In fact, even under most favourable conditions, the maximum average indoor wind speed does not exceed 40% of the outdoor velocity. o Where the direction of wind is quite constant and dependable, the size of the inlet should be kept within 30%50% of the total area of openings and the building should be oriented perpendicular to the incident wind. Where the direction of the wind is quite variable, the openings may be arranged equally on all sides, to the extent possible. Thus, no matter what the wind direction
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o o o

o o

may be, some openings would be directly exposed to the wind pressure and others to air suction and effective air movement through the building would be assured. Windows of living rooms should open directly to an open space. In places where this is not possible, open space could be created in buildings by providing adequate courtyards. In case of rooms with only one wall exposed to the outside, provision of two windows on that wall is preferred to that of a single window. Windows located diagonally opposite each other with the wind-ward window near the upstream corner gives better performance than other window arrangements for most building orientations. A single-side window opening can ventilate a space up to a depth of 6-7 m. With cross-ventilation, a depth up to 15 m may be naturally ventilated. Integration with an atrium or chimney to increase the stack effect can also ventilate deeper plan spaces. Horizontal louver, a sunshade atop a window, deflects the incident wind upwards and reduces air motion in the zone of occupancy. A horizontal slot between the wall and horizontal louver prevents upwards deflection of air in the interior of rooms. Provision of an inverted L-type louver increases the room air motion provided that the vertical projection does not obstruct the incident wind. Provision of horizontal sashes inclined at an angle of 45 degrees in appropriate direction helps promote indoor air motion. Sashes projecting outwards are more effective than projecting inwards. Air motion at working plane, 0.4 m above the floor, can be enhanced by 30% using a pelmet-type wind deflector. Roof overhangs help promote air motion in the working zone inside buildings. Verandah open on three sides is to be preferred as it increases room air motion with respect to the outdoor wind, for most orientations of the building. A partition placed parallel to the incident wind has little influence on the pattern of air flow but when located perpendicular to the main flow, the same partition creates a wind shadow. In such cases, a partition with gap of 0.3 m underneath helps augment air motion near the floor level in the leeward compartment of the building. In a building unit having windows tangential to the incident wind, air movement increases when another unit is located at an end-on position on the downstream side. Air motion in two wings oriented parallel to the prevailing breeze is promoted by connecting them with a block in the downstream side. Air motion in a building is not affected by constructing another building of equal or smaller height on the leeward side, but it is slightly reduced if the building on the leeward side is taller than the windward block. Air motion in a shielded building is less than that in an unobstructed building. To minimize the shielding effect, the distance between the two rows should be 8 H (8 times the height) for semi-detached houses and 10 H for long row houses. However, for smaller spacings, the shielding effect is diminished by raising the height of the shielded building.
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o The ventilation indoors can be improved by constructing buildings on earth mound, having a slant surface with a slope of 10 degrees on the upstream side. o Raising the building on stilts is an advantage in the warm and wet climate Figure 3 illustrates this arrangement for few houses in the ongoing tsunami reconstruction project at Kalutara, Sri Lanka(refer Chapter 3). This has two advantages: first, it enables better ventilation by locating windows above the surrounding zone comprising lower buildings. Second, it enables cooling of the floor from below, which is particularly beneficial at night. o Provide openings in roof tiles, this would enhance stack effect and enable hot air to escape outside. One such example is the kindergarten for Sri Aurobindo International Institute of Educational Research in the warm and humid climate of Pondicherry, India, which has used specially designed roof tiles for escape of hot air (Figure 2). o Provision should be made for forced ventilation strategies by use of ceiling/wall-mounted fans, exhaust fans.

Figure 2: Recessed windows, extended roof, ventilated roof by special designed tiles for escape of hot water o Provide buffer spaces like staircases, lifts, store, toilets, double-wall without opening etc, on at least 50% of the west wall

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Figure 3: Raising alternate row of houses on stilts o Hedges and shrubs deflect air away from the inlet openings and cause a reduction in the indoor air motion. These elements should not be planted up to a distance of about 8 m from the building because the induced air motion is reduced to a minimum in that case. However, air motion in the leeward part of the building can be enhanced by planting low hedges at a distance of 2 m from the building. o Trees with large foliage mass having trunks bare of branches up to the top level of the window, deflect the outdoor wind downwards and promote air motion in the leeward portion of buildings. 2.4.1.1.2 Wall and roof construction o Due to the climate characteristics of warm--wet region, with small diurnal temperature range, the heat capacity of buildings should be as low as possible. This will avoid accumulation of heat in the day time and its subsequent release in the night time. o External wall with high thermal resistance is recommended to minimize the heat flow from external surfaces warmed by the sun. o The main heat flow from roof to the space below is due to radiation. The roof should be protected against excessive heat gain by appropriate insulation to give an U-value (thermal conductivity value) as specified by the local energy conservation building code. Bonded mineral wool could be used for underdeck roof insulation. Resin-bonded mineral wool comprising rockwool and glasswool is available in the form of slabs and rolls of density 2448 kg/m3 and thickness 2575 mm. These materials are available with or without lamination of aluminium foil. High-density 96 and 144 kg/m3 rigid
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o o o

slabs and boards are also available. The typical thermal conductivity is about 0.029 W/mk at 10 C mean temperature. Aluminium foil lamination is recommended for this application. Cost of mineral wool insulation (material only, for 50 mm thick and 48 kg/m3) is approximately 3 USD/ m2 (excluding taxes), and the cost of application with accessories is extra. Instead of roof insulation, a roof garden on the exposed roof area or a shaded roof, would help to reduce heat ingress. Light-weight tiles with low heat capacity are preferred for the roofs, but it might cause heat stress during daytime. The roof could be painted with light colour, instead of a dark colour. Light colour helps reflect heat and solar radiation outwards. This would aid in reducing the heat island effect also. Thermal barrier paints: These paints are energy-efficient, energy-saving, flexible coatings, made from a water-based pure acrylic resin system filled with vacuumed sodium borosilicate ceramic micro spheres of less than 100 microns in size. Each micro sphere acts as a sealed cell and the entire mastic acts as a thermally efficient blanket covering the entire structure. These coatings are non-toxic, friendly to the environment, and form a seamless membrane that bridges hairline cracks. They have high reflectance and high emittance as well as a very low conductivity value. Roof coats greatly reduce thermal shock and heat penetration by keeping roof surfaces much cooler in hot summer weather. They offer UV (ultraviolet) protection and low VOC's. They display excellent dirt pick-up resistance and retain their flexibility after ageing. Roof Coats reduce noise transmission and have an effective use range from -40375 C (SPM Thermo-Shield Inc). The approximate cost of application of thermal barrier paint is about USD 24/m2. Wall insulation should be considered in the event of a building being airconditioned. Some commonly used wall insulation types like mineral wool slabs, expanded/extruded polystyrene, aerated concrete blocks, etc could be used for this purpose.

2.4.1.1.3 Day Lighting o The rooms should have good access to day light. Daylight analysis for sitespecific conditions should be carried out. The fenestration should be optimized for day-lighting and thermal comfort. Day-lighting goals should be based on the intended usage of the space and the design illumination levels recommended by IES (Illuminating Engineering Society, North America). Appropriate light control strategies could be applied after an analysis for integrating day-lighting and artificial lighting. o Efficient glazing systems that maximize day-lighting and providing sun control should be adopted. 2.4.1.2 Energy Efficiency The main energy consuming equipments in buildings are the HVAC(Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning) and lighting systems. The efficiencies of these systems could vary depending on the technology used and the way they are
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operated and maintained. Following are few guidelines for getting the best out of them and thereby minimising energy consumption 2.4.1.2.1 Lighting System o Use renewable energy-based lighting system for external lighting. o Lighting power density could be restricted to 7.5 W/m2 o Use fluorescent/compact fluorescent lamps operating on low-loss ballast for general lighting of brightly lit spaces and common/circulation areas, such as passages, staircases, lifts, corridors, lobbies, and other common areas. o Use HID (high-intensity discharge) lamps with minimum circuit efficacy of 80 lm/W for outdoor lighting,e.g., high-pressure sodium vapour lamps. o Apply control devices, such as timers or photocells, to turn lights on and off. o Provide fixed/pre-wired luminaires with sockets that will only accept lamps with high efficacy. 2.4.1.2.2 HVAC System o For space conditioned buildings, apply insulation of high thermal resistance (R-value) throughout the building o Minimize use of glass in buildings. Glass should not cover more than 50% of the wall area. o Wherever glass is used, consider the use of double-glazed low-e windows with effective interior shading devices. o Provide outside shading (louvers/fins, etc.) to windows o Orient the longer axis of the building eastwest, so that the shorter walls face north-south. o Avoid excessive illumination levels inside, which will add to the cooling load inside the building. Use those types of lighting that efficiently convert electrical energy into light , instead of heat, e.g., CFLs instead of incandescent bulbs. o Use high efficiency window air conditioners. The window air conditioners have lower operating efficiencies, compared to split or central air conditioners. Window air-conditioning systems are now available with some energy-saving features, such as sleep mode and filter-clean reminder. The sleep mode feature helps to save electric energy by increasing the set temperature, when the occupants are sleeping. While sleeping, the human metabolic rate drops. During this time it is not essential to cool the room up to the normal set point. For example, if the window air conditioner is usually set at 22 0C and switched to sleep mode, it raises the set temperature by 10C ( 230C) after a few hours. The increment continues every hour for the next four hours or so. By early morning, the set temperature is a comfortable 260C, which not only improves the comfort level but also helps save energy. The single-biggest reason for inefficiency in window air conditioners is a dirty filter. A clogged filter results in increased power consumption and poor cooling. The filter-clean reminder feature reminds the user, when the filter is to be cleaned. o Though split air-conditioners are more expensive than the window type, they are preferred for their low noise levels as the noisier components are kept
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outside the conditioned space. A comparison between window and split air conditioners is given in Table 3. o Water cooled AC systems should be preferred over air cooled systems. Water-cooled units are of higher capacity and more energy-efficient compared to air-cooled units. Air-cooled units are more suitable for places where water is scarce or of hard quality or where there is no space for installing a cooling tower. In air cooled units, the condenser (heat rejection unit) is cooled by the air blown by a fan. In water cooled units, water is pumped through the condenser. This heated water is then sent into a cooling tower outside the air-conditioned room where heat is dissipated into the atmosphere. o In all HVAC systems the, scaling or soiling of the heat transfer surfaces (condenser, cooling tower and evaporator) would reduce the system efficiency. Hence it is important to have proper maintenance practices.

Table 3 : Characteristics of non-central air-conditioners available in India


System type Advantages Disadvantages Recommended applications Available sizes Cooling Input capacity power (TR) (kW) 1 1.40 1.25 1.50 1.5 1.80 1.75 2.00 2 2.30 1 1.5 2 3 4 1.60 1.90 2.50 3.80 5.00

Window air conditioners

Split units

1) Inexpensive 2)Easy-to-install 3)Independent control 4)Low service and maintenance cost 1) Quieter 2)Available up to 5 TR 3)Do not block view 4)Multiple units possible 5)Suit theinterior better 6)Aesthetically better

1)Limited capacity 2) Noisier 3)View blocking 4)No constant fresh air circulation 1)Costlier than window units 2)Outside space requiredfor outdoor unit 3)Some piping and cabling required 4)Do not provide for fresh air intake

1) Homes 2)Small offices 3)Executive cabins 4) Small shops

1)Senior executive cabins 2) Small and midsized showrooms 3)Up-market homes 4)Small clinics 5)ATMs

2.4.2 Renewable energy


Use of renewable forms of energy, based on solar, wind, and biomass energy helps in reducing demand for polluting, conventional fossil fuel based energy. Fossil fuels supply 80 percent of the worlds primary energy at present, but resource depletion and long term environmental impacts might curb their use in future. Hence policy makers are increasingly turning to renewable energy as a more sustainable option. At present renewable energy such as hydropower, solar energy, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal energy meets 13.5 percent of the global energy 23

demand.(Muneer,T.,et.al, 2004) The most likely application of renewable energy in the residential sector would be based on solar, wind or biomass energy. A short description of few solar energy applications for residential users in the tropical areas of Asia , is given in the sections below.

2.4.2.1 Solar PV based applications 2.4.2.1.1 Solar photovoltaic technology The solar PV (photovoltaic) technology is primarily semiconductor based and is used to convert solar radiation into electricity. A PV system comprises photovoltaic modules, which collect and convert solar energy into electrical energy and the balance of systems ( BOS) designed to store, and deliver the generated electricity. Balance of systems include the support structure; wiring; batteries; power electronics and controls. The material commonly used for solar cell production is silicon either crystalline (single and poly) or amorphous silicon. Out of it, crystalline Si cells (with efficiencies of 15%17 %) are the most popular, though more expensive. The other technology used for PV modules is the thin-film technology. Thin film solar modules are cheaper because less material is used and it has a relatively easier manufacturing process. Inspite of this, it still has a smaller market, mainly due to its relatively lower efficiency (10%12%). Generation is possible only when the sun is shining, so a battery is needed to store electricity and use it at night or during periods of insufficient sunshine. In places where sales to the grid is possible and attractive, the user could avoid the use of batteries, by using the grid as the storage medium. The user could sell electricity to the grid when demand is low, and take electricity from the grid, when demand is high. An inverter is used to convert the DC current into AC current, which is required by all common loads. Solar modules are specified in terms of peak wattage, which is measured under standard test conditions(STC). The STC is specified as 1000 W/m2 solar radiation, Air-Mass ratio of 1.5(corresponding to zenith angle of 48.2o) 2 and temperature of 25oC. Under normal conditions, the PV module may not produce the same output as specified due to the variations from the STC. The amount of sunlight and hence the output from the PV module, varies according to the angle of the module relative to the position of the sun in the sky. The maximum output is obtained when the sun rays fall perpendicular to the surface of the module. During the day, the output increases as the sun rises in the sky and reaches peak at mid day and again decreases gradually as the sun goes down and falls to zero at night. The sun angle also changes during the year, with sun being higher in the sky during summer and lower in winter. Unlike solar thermal panels, solar electric panels are very sensistive to shading. Hence the tilt angle is important.
2 Air Mass(AM) is a concept used to specify the effect of the clearness of the sky on sunlight. It is equal to the relative length of the direct beam of sunlight through the atmosphere. It can be found out from the relation Air Mass = 1/Cos A, where A is the zenith angle. At sea level, on a clear day in summer, solar radiation at Zenith corresponds to Air Mass 1(AM1).(Zahedi A, 1998.p.18)

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The suggested tilt angle for PV modules is at an angle equal to the latitude of the location. In winter the optimum value is latitude+15 degrees and in summer it is latitude15 degrees (Kyocera, 2004). To achieve optimum output, there are tracking systems available, which have computer controlled motors that can change the slope of the solar panel by five degrees every 15 minutes for around seven mid-day hours. This could increase the output by around 30 percent, compared to the modules with fixed slopes.(Zahedi,A, p.43) The compass direction or azimuth of the module also is important. i.e., the angle with respect to the north-south-east-west direction. Ideally the module should be facing south. Any change in angle from the south direction would decrease the amount of solar radiation and PV output. Photovoltaics can be integrated virtually on every kind of structure, from bus shelters to high-rise buildings. They can also be used as landscaping elements. At present, PV based power is more costly compared to that of grid electricity. But in places with no access to the electricity grid, PV system is an attractive option. One of the main advantages of the PV systems is that power can be generated at the building site thus, reducing dependence on grid electricity.

Figure 4: Stand alone photovoltaic system with AC loads 2.4.2.1.2 Building integrated PV systems (BIPV) PV arrays are normally mounted on special-support structures. However, they can also be mounted on buildings or even be made an integral part of the building envelope. There are several building elements that can readily accommodate PV, such as curtain walls, atria, and roofs. In addition, new products are being developed with PV as an integral component, such as active shading elements, building glazing, or roof tiles. By definition, each BIPV product is either integrated into a building element or completely replaces an existing building elements. The building value of the BIPV element can be

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Figure 5: Roof integrated photovoltaic systemBiosolar house,Pathumthani, Thailand assessed by comparing it with typical building elements without the PV component. From an architectural, technical, and financial point of view, the advantages of a BIPV system is It does not require extra land for installation, It can replace conventional building materials such as window glazing, roof tiles, etc., in addition to being a power generation option. It provides an aesthetic appearance in an innovative way. Once put in the building context, PV can be regarded as multifunctional building elements that provide both shelter and power. For instance, the BIPV as roof serves the following functions: provides structural stability and durability; provides protection against chemical and mechanical damage; provides fire prevention; protection against rain, sun, wind, and moisture; allows heat absorption and heat storage; controls diffusion of light, etc. In addition, as an electricity generator, it will meet a part of the electrical load of the building. Standard modules with frames are widely used in existing buildings for retrofitting purposes. However, these frames impede an easy and elegant integration and hence, for integration applications, laminates are preferred. Laminates can be mounted like glass panes, using conventional glazing techniques. These are double-glass modules, which are semi-transparent. Another technique for PV integration is using PV tiles or shingles that can be installed very quickly and easily. They have the look and function of asphalt and composition shingles. Wire connections are made below the roof decking. With growing interest in PV facades, manufacturers are now offering customized sizes and options to modify the modules appearance.The BIPV products can be transparent, semi-transparent, or opaque, depending on the module technology. For example, the colour of mono-crystalline cell-based modules varies from uniform black to a dark grey with a uniform surface structure. In contrast, the structure of the module using poly- or multi-crystalline cells show irregular grey-to-blue coloured crystals. In both types, the current gathering screen-printed silver grid lines are visible. The balance between the
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amount and quality of glass and type of cells used in the module is part of the design process, and will decide the aesthetics and functionality of the module. For semi-transparent modules, space between the cells is enlarged to let light pass through. This lowers the ratio between the cell area to the total module area, or in other words, its fill factor ( FF )3 is low. For modules using thin-film technology, transparency depends on the extent to which light can penetrate the cells. As cells absorb a part of the spectrum, the colour of the transmitted light changes. These modules are uniformly dark brown in colour. For BI PV systems, the trend is gradually shifting towards polycrystalline Si solar modules. In India, cost of a PV system is approximately, USD 7750 per kW (including balance of system costs). The BIPV systems would be costing more: an indicative range is between USD 10000 120004 per kW.

2.4.2.1.3 Solar Home System (SHS) It consists of a single PV module of 1875 W capacity; a deep discharge-type lead acid battery; charge controller; 1, 2 or 3 CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps); and a DC power point for another appliance such as radio, tape recorder. The module generates energy that is stored in the battery and can be used at any time of the day. The cost is approximately USD 5.5 6.5 /W. Usually, the module life is in excess of 20 years, but the battery is normally replaced within 45 years. In India, the battery costs around USD 46.5 for a smaller system and USD 116 186 for larger systems.

Figure 6: Solar home system in India

2.4.2.1.4 Small-capacity village power plants or mini-grids A mini-grid is refers to small power plants that supply three-phase AC electricity through low-tension distribution networks to households for domestic power, commercial (for example, shops, cycle repair shops, and flour mills) activities,
3 4

Ratio between cell area to total module area Because of high demand in European markets, prices of solar PV systems in Indian markets are not stable and are on the rise.

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and community requirements such as drinking water supply and street lighting. State-of-the-art batteries and inverters are used to ensure long life and reliable field performance. An appropriately designed mini-grid can easily supply power for 810 h daily. Though there is no limit on the capacity of the mini-grid, PVbased mini-grids are typically of 25100 kW. Installation, operation and maintenance of these mini-grids are normally contracted on a turnkey basis to the PV supplier. At the local level, the village community is expected to play a critical role in facilitating payment collection, monitoring of theft, complaint redress, etc. Due to the high initial investments involved, PV systems are promoted by many Governments through subsidies on initial investment.

2.4.2.1.5 Solar street lighting system Street lighting is another application, which could utilizes solar photovoltaic technology. It is a stand-alone system that operates automatically by sensing the daylight at dawn and dusk. A typical system has the following configuration: 74 W solar PV module 12 V, 75 Ah tubular plate battery with battery box Charge controller cum inverter 11-watt CFL lamp with fixtures 4-m-mild steel lamp post above ground level. 2.4.2.1.6 Solar water pumps Pumping of water is an application, which does not require battery storage. In this system, PV modules are directly coupled to the motor-pump unit and water is pumped as long as the sun shines. There are several system designs based on various types of motor and pump sets. The most commonly used ones in India are 900 or 1800 W DC surface and AC submersible motor-pump sets. These pumps are suitable for both drinking and irrigational requirement. 2.4.2.2 Solar cookers Several design of solar cookers are available in the market. In India, solar boxtype cookers is the most common. This is being promoted by the MNES (Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources), Government of India, since the early 1980s. These are available in different sizes, suitable for cooking for a family or a group of 68 persons.The approximate cost in India is USD 48-70 depending on models and size. Each cooker can save 34 LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) cylinders of 14.4 kg each, per year. Solar dish cookers are used for community cooking. It can save 5 to 10 LPG cylinders per year. A dish cooker of 4 sq m collector area can serve for 10-15 people per day in India. The approximate cost is USD 95-120/m2 of the collector area of the cooker. The important guidelines to note for installing solar cookers are: o Solar cookers need south-facing gallery or open space free from shadow. The place should be free from shadow for at least four hours during the day around noon time.
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o Kitchens having south-facing wall can be provided with a retractable /sliding platform on the outside to keep the solar box cooker. This will reduce the work of going to the terrace or open-ground and solar cooking can be monitored from the kitchen. o Kitchen design and layout should be finalized in consultation with the cooker supplier in case of a concentrating cooker (scheffeler cooker). This can reduce the construction cost and can help in using the cooker more efficiently. 2.4.2.3 Solar stills The use of direct solar energy for desalting saline water has been investigated and used for some time. These devices are popularly known as solar stills. During World War II, considerable work went into making small solar stills for use on life rafts. This work continued after war with a variety of devices being made and tested. These devices generally imitate a part of the natural hydrological cycle in that the saline water is heated by the sun's rays so that production of water vapour increases. The water vapour is then condensed on a cool surface, and the condensate is collected as water(the product). An example of this type of process is the greenhouse solar still, in which the saline water is heated in a basin on the floor and the water vapour condenses on the sloping glass roof that covers the basin. In a solar still plant, the only moving part is the pump, used to pump saline water from the well. The solar still can de-salt saline water having a wide range of salinity, including sea water. In addition, it also removes toxic ions and bacteriological contamination. Thus, solar stills are ideal to provide safe drinking water to isolated communities of small villages, islands, lighthouses, and salt works. They can be constructed in modular form too and provide a viable option of providing potable water for a single house or a group of families. Some preconditions for setting up solar stills of relatively larger sizes are as follows: o Uninterrupted supply of saline water preferably over 10 000 ppm and sunny weather throughout the year. o It is a sensitive equipment and hence requires proper operation and maintenance. o The quality of the glass sealing plays a very crucial role as far as performance of still is concerned as vapour-leakage through the joints appreciably reduce the output. The capital cost of a commercial solar still of 1 m2 area is about USD 120. The average yield of a 1 m2 single slope, single basin, solar still is about 2 litres per day.

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Figure 7: Solar still 2.5 Water management Water supply, water quality, and its management is an important component while designing an eco-friendly and sustainable habitat. Considering the increasing demand and limited availability of water, it is important that it be used and managed efficiently. In efficiently managing its water resources, most countries in Asia lag behind the developed countries and a lot could be done to improve the situation. As an example, we could compare the consumption of water in bathrooms and toilets. The combined consumption of toilets, showers, and faucets is around 2/3rd of indoor water use. In India, conventional toilets use 13.5 litres water per flush. In 1988, the state of Massachusetts of USA amended its plumbing code to require the use of low flush toilets that will use only 6.2 litres/flush. Later, Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Table 3) established standards that require new toilets to have a flow rate of 6.2 litres/flush, urinals with a flow rate of 3.8 litres/flush, and showerheads and lavatory and kitchen faucets with a flow rate of 9.5 litres/flush. Table 4: EPACT fixture ratings Fixture Flow requirements closets 6.2 3.8 9.7 9.7 9.7

Water (litres/flush) Urinals (litres/flush) Showerheads (litres/minute) Faucets (litres/minute) Replacement aerators (litres/minute)

The guidelines for an effective water management system are

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o Prepare a water balance for the site. The demand could be estimated based on standard consumption norms for specific categories of housing o Fix norms for water quality from various sources as per the specified local standards for different applications o Use efficient fixtures for uniform distribution of water at the desired pressure and avoid wastage and losses o Ensure regular monitoring of both consumption patterns and quality o Adopt planting of native species and trees with minimal water requirement o Use mulches and compost for improving moisture retention in soil o Promote low-cost decentralized waste water treatment system o Develop norms based on existing standards for reuse of treated water for non-potable applications o Encourage rainwater harvesting and storage/recharge for capturing good quality water. This is particularly important for coastal areas where groundwater is saline and intrusion of sea water has occurred o When water is sprayed on concrete structures for curing, free flow of water should not be allowed. o Concrete structures should be covered with thick clothe/gunny bags and water should be sprayed on them, which would avoid water rebound and will ensure sustained and complete curing o Concrete building blocks should be cured in shade o Ponds should be made using cement and sand mortar to avoid water flowing away from the flat surface while curing 2.5.1 Plumbing Fixtures Plumbing fixtures recommended to reduce water consumption are as follows: 2.5.1.1 Low-flow flush toilets To minimize water consumption for flushing, low-flush toilets with a flow rate of 6 litres/flush or ultra-low-flush toilets with flow of 3.8 litres/flush could be used.

Figure 8: Low flow fixtures

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2.5.1.2 Composting toilets Composting toilets do not require any water. This is based on the biological process of conversion of solids present in human waste into enriched manure. The system consists of two underground pits. The first pit gets filled with waste in less than two years and during this time, the waste is acted upon by bacteria resulting in digested sludge, which is odourless and safe to be used as a soil fertilizer. After filling up of the first pit, the usage of second pit starts. 2.5.1.3 Low-Flow Urinals Low-flow urinals consume water at the flow rate of 3.8 litres/flush use same format everywher. Use of an electronic flushing system or magic eye sensor can further reduce the flow of water to 0.4 litres per flush. Figure 9: Sensor-based urinal 2.5.1.4 Waterless urinals Waterless urinals use no water but a biodegradable liquid for cleaning. This functions by allowing the urine to pass though the biodegradable liquid using a funnel system called cartridge thus preventing any odour and maintains a hygienic surrounding. The advantage of using such a system is not only saving water but also reducing the load in the sewer system. The average life of the cartridge is 7000 uses. 2.5.1.5 Water taps The use of conventional faucets results in flow rates as high as 20 lpm (litres per minute). Low-flow faucets are available which can result in withdrawal of water at a flow rate of 9.5 lpm at pressures of 80 psi(pound per square inch). In addition to this, further reduction of water consumption is possible by using :auto control valves, pressure-reducing device, aerators and pressure inhibitors for constant flow, and magic eye solenoid valve self-operating valves. 2.5.1.6 Showerheads Showers of different diameters at different pressures result in different flow rates. The conventional showerheads have a range of flow rates of 1025 lpm at a pressure of 60 psi. Reduction in water consumption is possible by the use of fixtures with flow rates of 9.5 lpm at 80 psi. 2.5.2 Drinking Water People in villages suffer from water-borne diseases caused by microbiological contamination. Excessive levels of fluoride, nitrates, iron, and arsenic can cause
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severe health disorders. Water needs to be stored properly and treated, before being used for drinking purpose. 2.5.2.1 Household level treatment Some means of disinfecting water at household level are enumerated below:2.5.2.1.1 Boiling Boiling is a very effective method of purification and very simple to carry out. Boiling water for 10 to 20 minutes is enough to remove all biological contaminants. 2.5.2.1.2 Chemical disinfection using chlorine Chlorination is done with stabilised bleaching powder (calcium hypo chlorite CaOCl2) , which is a mixture of chlorine and lime. Chlorination can kill all types of bacteria and make water safe for drinking purposes. About 1 gm (approximately tea spoon) of bleaching powder is sufficient to treat 200 litres of water. Sometimes chlorine tablets are used. They are easily available commercially. One tablet of 0.5 g is enough to disinfect 20 litres of water 2.5.2.1.3 Filtration a. Charcoal water filter

Figure 10: Water filter A simple charcoal filter can be made in a drum or an earthen pot. The filter is made of gravel, sand and charcoal, all of which are easily available

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b. Sand filters

Figure11: Sand filter Sand filters have commonly available sand as filter media. They are easy and cheap to construct. These filters can be employed for treatment of water to effectively remove turbidity (suspended particles like silt and clay), colour, and micro-organisms. 2.5.2.1.4 Ceramic filters These filters are manufactured commercially on a wide scale. Most water purifiers available in the market are of this type. 2.5.2.2 Rural Applications More sophisticated systems are available for various kinds of rural applications. For example, ION Exchange India Ltd5, an Indian water treatment company, has developed a suite of products for rural application. To remove suspended impurities , they have two systems: a) on-line dosing coagulant system and b) Lamella clarifier for surface water with high flow rate and high turbidity .Online dosing system prevents microbial growth in treated, stored water. Other systems have been developed to treat brackish water, fluorides, arsenic, and iron. These are also available as hand pump attachments. The particles are either adsorbed on a resin or onto a catalytic media. Another option for providing quality water at low cost is to use package plants. Package plants consist of various components of the treatment process, such as chemical feeders, mixers, flocculators, sedimentation basins, and filters in a compact assembly. As these units are assembled based on standard designs, they are cheaper as compared to those that are built on site.

http://www.ionindia.com/

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Figure 12: Arsenic removal kit with Hand pump 2.5.3 Treatment of waste water and reuse Waste water has to be treated adequately so that clean water could be safely returned to the environment. If the treated water meets the desired criteria level, then it could be reused for various applications. Reuse depends on the quality and the type of application. Graywater from bathrooms, washings, can be suitably treated and reused for non-potable applications such as irrigation, flushing, etc. Different types of treatment techniques can be adopted, depending on land availability, quantity, and the characteristics of waste water. Treatment plants, which are used for treating sewage, are usually based on the biological process. The process is dependent on natural micro-organisms that utilize oxygen and organic contaminants in waste water to generate CO2, sludge, and treated water. The systems could be based on either suspended growth or attached growth. These systems normally require a pre-treatment step such as settlement chamber before the aeration unit. These conventional centralised systems to dispose waste water, face several problems like water stagnation, clogging, overflow with a foul smell, mosquito infection, and contamination of groundwater. Using the conventional method, it is difficult to meet the criteria for discharge or reuse. It is beneficial to decentralize the waste water treatment, which ensures that there is little possibility for groundwater contamination. There is also the advantage that recycled water can be used for irrigation/ flushing purposes. Two systems are being highlighted here, due to their advantages in terms of cost, treatment efficiency, and operation reliability. Eco-friendly, low energy DEWATS Root zone system 2.5.3.1 Eco-friendly, low energy DEWATS DEWATS stands for Decentralized Waste Water Treatment System, based on a modular and partly standardized technical design. Since 1960, BORDA (Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association) has been initiating decentralized waste water system (DEWATS) in India and China. Modules of
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DEWAT can be designed as per the site requirement. The system has successful examples in Auroville, Pondicherry, India. The project is a cooperation between German and Indian not-for-profit organizations financially supported by the EU (European Union). The Arvind Eye Hospital in Pondicherry has a system with three components: a) Anaerobic baffled reactor, b) Planted gravel filter, and c) Polishing pond. The effluent is collected in an open underground water tank from where it is emptied daily for irrigation purposes.

Baffled Reactor

Planted Filter

Open Tank

Figure 13: DEWATS used in Arvind Eye Hospital, Pondicherry

f tanks serve 200

Another example of decentralized waste water treatment in Auroville is a plant, which serves three communities that accommodate up to 200 residents. The three communities are equipped with individual Imhoff tanks for pre-treatment. Such a tank has been considered useful for loads above 3 m3/day. The three Imhoff tanks connect to a single inlet box for feeding the planted filter (Figure 14). From here, water is further channelised into a huge polishing tank. The planted filter is divided into two separate operating parts. Two fountains are installed for oxygenation purpose.
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Table 4: Plant overview Start of operation Retaining structure Design capacity Waste water type Total plan area of the system Pre-treatment Main treatment Post treatment Filter media Plant species Mode of disposal 1998 Bottom: concrete, walls: bricks 10 m3 / day Domestic 614 m2 3 Imhoff tanks combined capacity of 84 m3 Horizontal planted filter of 400 m2, depth of 60 cm Polishing tank of 190 m2, 171 m3 Granite stones, pebbles, sand Arundo donax Reuse for irrigation purposes

Imhoff tank consists of a settling compartment above the digestion chamber. Funnel-like baffle walls prevent up-flowing sludge particles from getting mixed with the effluent and from causing turbulence. De-sludging is necessary at regular intervals. Leaving some bottom sludge behind in the tank helps the starting up process, i.e., decomposition of settled sludge. The sludge could be used as manure for vegetation and crops of individual houses.

1. 2. 3.

Sedimentation Protection against up flow of sludge particles Fermentation of bottom sludge

gas manhole inflow

Longitudinal section
Out flow

Figure 15: Principle of the Imhoff tank

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2.6.3.2

Root zone treatment system

Nowadays, there is growing interest in artificial wetlands or reed bed systems, which are based on the use of deep-rooted plants for waste water treatment. The Root Zone treatment system, is one such system developed in 1970 by Dr Reinfold Kickuth of Germany.The system is suitable for treatment of waste water from various sources containing biodegradable compounds. It is based on the principle of attached growth biological reactors similar to the conventional trickling filters with combination of aerobic and anaerobic zones. The contaminants present in waste water are treated by seepage of pollutants through the root-zone of plants by a combination of plants, soil, bacteria, and hydraulic flow systems resulting in physical, chemical, and microbiological processes. Oxygen present in the zones facilitate degradation of waste water. A variety of micro organisms and reactions in the root zone of plants , maximise removal efficiency.

Figure 16: Root zone system The treated water could be used for irrigation of landscaped areas or flushing purposes. Dual plumbing has to be deployed if the latter option is adopted. Root zone system is being used in TERIs(The Energy Research Institute) RETREAT Building at Gurgaon, India.

Figure 17: TERIs RETREAT building, an example where root zone system is used in India

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The land area required for a Root Zone treatment plant is around 30-35 m2/m3 of waste water treated per day. According to Indian standards for residential communities with population up to 20000, the quantity of water consumed and therefore waste water generated (litres per head per day) = 70100 litres. In India, the cost of a root zone treatment plant that could treat 1000 LPD of sewage is about USD 2380 . 2.5.4 Rainwater harvesting Rainwater harvesting is traditionally practised in many parts of Asia, e.g., in Maldives this is the only source of drinking water in many islands. PVC tanks are predominantly used for storing rainwater. The decision whether to store or recharge water depends on the rainfall pattern of a particular region. Maldives being a high rainfall zone, rain falls throughout the year, barring a few dry periods. In such a case, one can depend on storage tank as the period between two spells of rain is short.

Figure 18: Traditionally used rainwater harvesting system in Maldives Rainwater drainage pipes collect rainwater from roof to storage container. Appropriate precautions should be taken to prevent contamination of stored water. Mesh filters provided at mouth of drain pipe prevent leaves and debris from entering the system (Figure 19). Further, a first-flush device should be provided in the conduit before it connects to the storage container (Figure 20). If stored water is to be used for drinking, a sand filter should also be provided . Underground masonry/RCC (reinforced cement concrete) tanks/ over ground PVC tanks could be used for storage of rainwater. Each tank must have an overflow system connected to the drainage/recharge system.

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Figure 19: Mesh filters at roof level Design of storage tank

Figure 20: First shower flush device

The quantity of water stored in a rainwater-harvesting system depends on the size of the catchment area and the size of the storage tank which is designed based on the water requirements, rainfall, and catchment availability. For example, suppose that the system has to be designed for meeting the drinking water requirement of a five-member family living in Kalutara district , Sri Lanka. The house has a roof-top area of 75 m2. The average annual rainfall is 3000 mm. Daily drinking water need is 10 litres/person, including cooking. Maximum amount of rainfall that can be harvested from rooftop = area of catchment (A) x average annual rainfall (R) x Run-off co-efficient (C) = 75 x 3 x 0.95 = 213.75 m3 The tank capacity has to be designed for the dry period, that is, January to March in Kalutara, which is about 90 days The drinking water requirement for five persons in the dry season =90 x 5 x 10 = 4,500 litres
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Applying safety factor of 20%, the tank size should be 5400 litres for the dry period requirement of five persons in a family. It should be noted that during the dry period, the stored water should be used only for drinking purposes. However, in the wet period, the collected water could be used for all household purposes. Quality of stored water Rainwater collected from rooftops is free of mineral pollutants like fluoride and calcium salt but is likely to be contaminated by air and surface pollutants. All these contaminations can be prevented largely by flushing off first 10-20 minutes of rainfall.Water quality improves over time during storage in tank as impurities settle in the tank if water is not disturbed.Even pathogenic organisms gradually die out due to storage. Additionally, biological contamination can be removed by the above means. Specifications for drinking water should be as prescribed by the WHO (World Health Organization). 2.6 Waste management Waste generation is associated with every human activity. Waste generated from housing colonies consists of a mix of biodegradable, non-biodegradable, and inert waste. Organic wastes include vegetable, food, animal, leafy, and agriculture wastes. Municipal solid waste is usually dumped in landfill sites. This leads to air and water pollution. Through efficient waste management methods, a significant amount of solid waste entering the landfill could be diverted and reused. Natural waste decomposing is a very slow process and therefore, it is better to go for alternative technologies, such as bio-methanation. Among the various options available for treatment of the organic fraction of solid waste, bio-methanation is the most desirable because it has two benefits: it yields biogas, which can replace conventional fuels and it provides digested sludge, which can be used as an organic manure.

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Figure 21: Schematic diagram for bio-methanation process The inorganic part of solid wastes, like paper, metals, and plastic should be diverted for recycling purposes. Recycling reduces the need to extract virgin natural resources. For this, the organic fraction of waste has to be separated, before it gets mixed with the other components forming a heterogeneous mixture that become difficult to handle. A separate bin system should be arranged for storing non-degradable waste such as metal scrap, rubber, and recyclable wastes such as paper and plastics. These bins should be in different colours to facilitate disposal. The local Government could be responsible for the collection of nondegradable, recyclable, and reusable waste. The guidelines are as follows: o Provide facilities for collection of segregated waste at the household and colony levels o Identify facilities for recycling of non-biodegradable wastes such as plastics, glass, and paper o Develop decentralized treatment systems at site based on composting or anaerobic digestion process for segregated organic waste o Identify appropriate options for use of by-products from treated organic waste, such as biogas and manure o Develop norms for use of by-products based on local standards o Develop norms for disposal of non-degradable and inert waste in landfills based on local standards, to ensure safe environment in the surrounding areas o Perform regular checks on plumbing systems to check for leakages, wastages, and system degradation o Establish an efficient waste reduction, recycling, and reuse programme o Minimize toxic wastes by recycling items such as ballasts, mercury-based lighting products, used oil, unusable batteries, etc.
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o Reuse construction debris. In isolated areas that do not have indigenous manufacturing units for building materials, like the islands in Maldives, building materials have to be imported. Optimization of building materials becomes a priority in these areas. In such cases, the use of construction debris after segregation and crushing could be considered. This is especially true in the case of areas affected by natural disasters, like the tsunami affected areas of Asia. 2.7 Indoor environmental quality People spend 80%90% of their time indoors, at home, school, and work . Hence indoor environmental quality is an important parameter in sustainable habitat. Poor indoor air quality causes headaches, tiredness, shortness of breath, and allergic reactions such as sinus congestion, irritation of the eyes and throat, sneezing, coughing, and wheezing. In some cases, an allergic reaction of the lungs (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) has also been reported.Indoor air quality is affected by ventilation rates, temperature and humidity, building materials, kind of devices used indoor (mainly unflued devices), and outdoor air pollution entering into the home. Biological contaminants also contribute to the poor indoor air quality. In coastal regions, warm, humid conditions provide an excellent environment for breeding of dust mites, moulds, and fungi. The contaminants include animal dander, water-borne microbes, moulds, etc., all of which can cause an allergic reaction. Some organisms can contaminate water sources and become air-borne through humidifiers. Combustion by-products due to incomplete burning of fuels (oil, gas, kerosene, wood, coal, etc.) generate gases and tiny particles like carbon monoxide and respirable suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, ammonia, etc, which are known to cause adverse health impacts. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas given off by traces of uranium in soil and rock. Radon is not generally a problem in the coastal regions, but some buildings in the interior have been found to have levels that could increase the long-term risk of lung cancer. The guidelines for maintaining indoor environmental quality are as follows: o Use interior finishes and products with zero VOC (volatile organic compound) or low VOC content. Limits of VOC content should be as per established international or national standard. o Indoor ventilation rate should be maintained as per ASHRAE 62-2004 or national standards o Design for indoor thermal comfort level as per ASHRAE 55 : 2004. o Avoid use of hazardous materials.e.g, asbestos o Provide operable window for air-conditioned space o Keep the house clean and dust-free to reduce allergens such as house dust mites, pollen, and animal dander o Avoid leaving any material that could degrade/rot inside house o To prevent growth of mould, lower the humidity by venting moist areas or by installing dehumidifiers or humidistats o Disinfect the house regularly, especially whenever mould is seen to be growing
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o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Separate cooking area from living area Use high-efficiency combustion devices with outside vents (chimney) Implement no-smoking rules Design for day lighting as per the local code Provide views from all living spaces Identify local zoning codes regarding noise and determine project requirement to adhere to these norms Adopt measures to tackle noise pollution inside building, if there are high noise sources, such as airport in the vicinity Fix acceptable indoor noise levels as per national standards Ensure proper slab construction between floors to deter structure-borne noise Select appropriate partitioning system to achieve required speech privacy rating between spaces Use appropriate constructed or natural screens to reduce the impact of noise from external sources Choose internal surface finishes based on acoustic performance Consider acoustic lining for noise-producing equipment.e.g., dieselgenerating sets

2.8 Construction administration Environmentally conscious construction practices can minimise site disturbance and construction waste, and use of natural resources. It also reduces the overall project cost. The guidelines for incorporating environmental parameters into construction are as follows: Some improved cook stoves in India Some of the improved wood devices in India are Vishal stove, Pawan stove with chimney, and Sugam stove with chimney. The pollutant emissions from these devices in comparison to the traditional open burning/ three-stone/ U-shaped stove burning is given below. Table 5: Comparison of efficiency of wood devices Criterion/stove type Traditional Vishal Pawan Sugam Thermal efficiency (%) Emission factor (ECO) (gm/kg) 13.808 21.190 19.066 20.574 6.481 6.649 14.595 6.046

o Incorporate environmental guidelines into the construction contract. o Prepare project implementation plan with detailed staging plan. o Develop construction safety norms and include the same in contractors document. o Identify specific site concerns and prepare plans to address the same. o Identify potential health hazards and formulate safety measures to address the same. o Isolate construction sites from the occupied areas. o Adopt best practices for air pollution management on site.
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o Optimize water use in construction by technologies.e.g., use of ready mix concrete . o Use recycled water for construction o Recycle and use construction debris 2.9 Building commissioning

adopting

water-efficient

Commissioning involves examining and approving or withholding approval of the building and its sub-systems to ensure that it is constructed in accordance with the contract documents, and performing as intended. Commissioning enables integration and organization of design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a building and its sub-systems. The guidelines for the building commissioning process are: o o o o o o o o o Select the processes and systems that are to be commissioned Prepare a detailed commissioning plan Prepare the criteria for processes and systems to be commissioned Include commissioning process in the contract document Designate a commissioning agent Involve the design team in monitoring the commissioning process Ensure commissioning in accordance with contract document Carry out systems and equipment start-up Prepare the commissioning report

2.10 Operation and maintenance The O&M (operation and maintenance) costs throughout the building life cycle is considerable and could exceed the buildings initial investment. The design intent of a building and systems is not met unless it is maintained properly. Appropriate maintenance procedures helps to keep the building and its subsystems in order, so that they give the same output as during the initial stages. The guidelines for O&M are: o Ensure that qualified professionals are engaged in operation and maintenance o Train facility staff for proper maintenance of facilities o Prepare a detailed O&M plan with written policies and procedures for checking and inspection, preventive maintenance, repairs, and cleaning. Material safety data sheets and information on cleaning, chemicals to be used for cleaning, frequencies of cleaning, and pest-control methods should be properly documented and followed. o Monitor the performance parameters of the buildings and compare it with established benchmarks. o Monitor thermal and visual comfort parameters

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3.0 Application of Design Guidelines in Reconstruction Work at Kalutara, Sri Lanka


3.1 Introduction

the

Tsunami

This chapter describes the application of the Generic Design Guidelines for the demonstration project in Sri Lanka. The proposed development is a part of the tsunami reconstruction project in Sri Lanka. The tsunami reconstruction proiject involved the construction of 57 residences and associated community facilities such as a park and community centres. The plots had been allotted, and streets had been laid out. The design of the houses has been finalized and construction has begun. It is expected to be over by December. The eco-housing demonstration project in Sri Lanka has been merged into this project. Eco-design for demonstration purpose would be mainly carried out in common facilities like the community hall and library. Solar home systems would be provided for each of the 57 houses, mainly for lighting. A solar street lighting system is also being planned. Figure 24 shows the site layout. All the houses being constructed are of the same design and the plan view is shown in Figure 26. 3.2 About the site Kalutara is a semi-urban town located approximately 40 km south of Colombo, Sri Lankas capital. It lies between latitude 6o4134 and 6o4310 and longitude 8oo0253 and 80o0503.

Figure 22: Map of Sri Lanka with location of Kalutara

Figure 23: The site

Temperatures are high and follow a very constant diurnal pattern throughout the year. The annual mean temperature is about 27 C and the range of average monthly temperature is very small, about 13 C. The diurnal range, on the other hand, may vary from 815 C. Humidity and rainfall are high throughout the year. The vapour content of the atmosphere is high, with vapour pressures of about 25 mm, and relative humidity being always 75% and above. Wind speed
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is 1.53.0 m/s. From AprilAugust, the predominant wind direction is southwest to north-east , while from October to March, the direction reverses. The site for the project has an area of 5 acres. One main road and two arterial roads subdivide the site into four strips of land. The proposed site does not fall under the disaster control zone. The surroundings are lush green and covered with dense vegetation (Figure 23). The soil on site is stabilized and is covered with grass. The soil type is red yellow podsolic soil. The allotted plot for development is connected to the city through a main road, which runs across the site. There is a high-tension wire crossing the site. Table 6 gives the key climatic data of the site. Table 6: Climatic data of the site ( monthly average values )
Month 2002 May June July August September October November December January February March April 2003 May June July August September October November December January February March April DBT o C WBT o C
o

DPT C

RH %

V.P hpa

Wind Speed (Knots) 4 3 6.2 5 -

Pressure hpa

Rainfall mm

Cloud cover Octas 5.7 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.3 6.2 6 6 5.5 4.2 5.2 6 5.6 5.4 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.5 7.1 4.1 4.5 4.8 4.8 5.9

Visibli tiy Km 22.5 25 24 22 24 17.5 16.5 15.5 17 18 19.6 18 19.5 19.5 19.5 20 19 17 13.4 17.5 18 17 16 15.5

28.9 28.7 28.5 28.3 29.3 27.4 27.2 26.6 26.9 27.7 28.5 29.1 29.4 29.0 28.8 28.7 28.5 28.3 26.5 27.7 27.7 28.0 29.1 29.5

26.5 26.1 25.7 25.3 25.5 25 24.9 24.1 23.9 24.9 25.1 25.5 26.5 26.1 25.7 25.7 25.6 25.2 24.5 24.3 24.3 24.2 25.4 26.3

25.5 25 24.5 24 23.8 23.9 23.9 22.9 22.5 23.6 23.6 24.5 25.3 24.9 24.3 24.4 24.3 23.9 23.6 22.7 22.7 22.4 23.7 24.9

82 81 79 77 73 81 83 81 77 79 75 76 79 79 77 78 79 77 84 75 74 72 73 77

32.6 31.7 30.7 29.8 29.5 29.6 29.6 27.9 27.2 29.1 29.1 30.7 32.2 31.5 30.4 30.6 30.4 29.6 29.1 27.6 27.6 27.1 29.4 31.5

1008.4 1008.1 1009.5 1009.6 1010.45 1009.7 1009.9 1010.7 1011.6 1010.2 1009.6 1008.5 1009.3 1007.9 1008.1 1010 1011 1010.9 1010.6 1010.6 1010 1010.1 1009.2 1008.7

11.7 2.07 1.34 1.00 4.35 18.23 9.0 9.59 4.72 3.65 8.25 4.5 6.19 5.92 7.15 2.8 9.34 7.87 13.43 1.07 1.07 1.43 .06 2.63

DBT WBT DPT RH V.P

- Dry Bulb Temperature -Wet Bulb Temperature -Dew Point Temperature - Relative Humidity - Vapor Pressure

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Figure 24: Site Layout

3.3 Analysis of the site and its microclimate Thermal analysis was carried out using software TRNSYS 16, a Transient System Simulation programme. The internal temperatures observed inside a typical house near the site of the project are 3035 C and outside
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relative humidity of 75%90%. With these internal environment parameters, according to SP41 (BIS, 1998), to achieve the thermal comfort conditions, wind speed between 1.52.5 m/s is desirable. To achieve this wind speed, continuous ventilation is essential and this will affect all aspects of building design, namely, orientation, the size and location of windows, and layout of the surroundings. Ecotect_v 5.20,was used to understand the relationship between predominant winds and the proposed site, and to study the annual and daily sun path for latitude 6 degrees. A sun path study helps to determine the favourable orientations and to design shading devices for critical facades. The climate data indicates that the predominant wind direction is the South West. Wind speeds are 1.53.0 m/s. When the wind direction is SW, optimum ventilation conditions are achieved when the long facades are oriented towards the north or south, a direction which may also be preferable from the solar radiation viewpoint (Givoni 1969). The next step is to optimise the window design to enhance natural ventilation inside the house .For example, in bedroom 1, the optimum window area is equal to 35% of the floor area. SP41(BIS,1998) gives a relationship between the effect of area of opening on average indoor wind velocity. For fenestration area = 35% of floor area, available wind velocity inside the room would be 35% of the outdoor wind velocity. For example, when the outdoor wind velocity is 6 knots (3.08m/s), the indoor wind speeds achieved = 1.06 m/s. Referring to Table 2, when inside air speed = 1.06 m/s, thermal comfort is achievable inside the room without any fans or mechanical means given the condition that internal air temperature does not rise above 30 C and relative humidity is up to 90% .

Figure 25: Sun path diagram for Kalutara district Figure 32 predicts the movement of Sun at 6 degrees north latitude. The east facade, west faade and roof are the crucial parts of the building envelope that
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require shade. It is also observed that being located near the equator in the Northern Hemisphere, the sun does not come towards the Southern Hemisphere or south orientation during the summer months (AprilSeptember). It does cross the north orientation at low angles early morning and late evenings. Hence, all the houses are proposed to be oriented with long facades facing NorthSouth, as shown in Figure 27.The eaves of the pitched roof 26 overhang are enough to provide shade to the proposed apertures on north and south orientations. No extra shading device is required for north and south orientations. 3.4 Orientation and layout Site planning affects several environmental factors important from the point of view of human comfort, the degree of protection from solar radiation, rain, dust, and ventilation conditions, which prevail around and inside the building.The planning features which influence these factors are the dimensions and particularly the height of the structures, spacing between the structures, orientation of the street network, distribution of building plots, and extent of open spaces. The proposed layout as shown in Figure 27, for 57 houses on the site has been oriented to optimize both ventilation and provide maximum protection from solar radiation. Following are the criteria considered while laying out the proposed arrangement. o Minimum site disruption o Maximum usage of microclimatic features o Erosion-control measures o Appropriate landscaping to be achieved through the control of paved areas and use of local plant species that consume less water. o Plants are positioned to enhance natural ventilation around and inside houses. Following are the proposed site layout features. o All houses have been arranged with long facades facing the north and south orientation and short faade facing eastwest orientation (Figures 27 & 28). o The houses should be oriented to achieve best-possible ventilation. Contrary to common belief, this does not mean that the wall with the inlet windows should face the prevailing winds. In fact, it is beneficial to orient the faade within 350 of the wind direction. o Open planning and wide, free spaces between buildings help to achieve good ventilation. The wind-flow pattern depends upon the geometry of the array, especially height-to-width ratio. The recommended H/W ratio is <0.7, under which condition, the flow pattern would be the same as if they were isolated houses. This has been maintained in most cases in the proposed layout. o Tree planting could be used to guide air flow inside houses. o To enhance cross ventilation, windows on the windward side should be given access through large openings to rooms on the opposite pressure side region. Hence two more windows, W1 and W2 are recommended in the existing house design(Figure 26)
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W2

It is recommended to plant trees parallel to the wind stream. This would aid to streamline the air movement, which is desirable to increase air movement in and around the houses. Placement of vegetation perpendicular to the predominant wind direction should be avoided as this would block the air movement around the houses. Keeping this guideline in mind, an indicative landscape layout is proposed in accordance with property lines in the site and at the same time to enhance natural ventilation inside the houses. This is illustrated in Figure 29. Figures 30 a and b show some of the houses arranged in the already laid plots of W1 the site. The houses as seen have been oriented with long facades facing NS. Depending upon the street layout, plot orientation, and its relation with wind direction, trees have been positioned parallel to wind direction. In the situation Figure 26: House oriented 30, trees are parallel to the street, while in the case shown in shown in Figure with long facades on 31, orientation FigureN-S trees are recommended to be planted perpendicular to the street. The number of trees to be planted would depend on the plant characteristics and site specific factors. 3.4 Soil stabilization Soil erosion results from the impacts of precipitation and wind processes, leading to degradation of property and sedimentation of local water bodies. Controlling storm water runoff reduces erosion and contamination of receiving waters. Landscape activities and design could help retain the soil in its place and will have a significant effect on erosion. It would be beneficial to grow native plants to reduce watering and maintenance cost. It is also recommended to grow lowheight deciduous trees (57 m high) with a wide diameter (45 m wide). However, it should be noted that landscaping that is designed for soil erosion mitigation might sometimes affect passive solar gains or obstruct the wind currents . The proposed layout plan has been optimized to achieve erosion control without affecting the wind currents or passive solar gains. Small-height trees would streamline the air movement at human scale around the houses (Figure 31). The landscape architect should consider these aspects while selecting plant species. The list of local plant species that could be adapted is given in Annexure I. In figures 30 a and b, positions for trees have been marked. On the remaining soft ground, grass, flowers, crops, vegetables, and other small plants could be grown around the house which would not affect the air currents but at the same time, hold the soil together, prevent soil erosion, and help people have a sustainable living (Figure 33). Figure 27: Proposed site layout, all houses oriented with long facades N-S
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It is recommended to plant trees parallel to the wind stream. This would aid to streamline the air movement, which is desirable to increase air movement in and around the houses. Placement of vegetation perpendicular to the predominant wind direction should be avoided as this would block the air movement around the houses. Keeping this guideline in mind, an indicative landscape layout is proposed in accordance with property lines in the site and at the same time to enhance natural ventilation inside the houses. This is illustrated in Figure 28. Figures 29 and 30 show some of the houses arranged in the already laid plots of the site. The houses as seen have been oriented with long facades facing NS. Depending upon the street layout, plot orientation, and its relation with wind direction, trees have been positioned parallel to wind direction. In the situation shown in Figure 29 a, trees are parallel to the street, while in the case shown in Figure 29 b, trees are recommended to be planted perpendicular to the street. The number of trees to be planted would depend on the plant characteristics and site specific factors. 3.5 Soil stabilization Soil erosion results from the impacts of precipitation and wind processes, leading to degradation of property and sedimentation of local water bodies. Controlling storm water runoff reduces erosion and contamination of receiving waters. Landscape activities and design could help retain the soil in its place and will have a significant effect on erosion. It would be beneficial to grow native plants to reduce watering and maintenance cost. It is also recommended to grow lowheight deciduous trees (57 m high) with a wide diameter (45 m wide). However, it should be noted that landscaping that is designed for soil erosion mitigation might sometimes affect passive solar gains or obstruct the wind currents . The proposed layout plan has been optimized to achieve erosion control without affecting the wind currents or passive solar gains. Small-height trees would streamline the air movement at human scale around the houses (Figure 30). The landscape architect should consider these aspects while selecting plant species. The list of local plant species that could be adapted is given in Annexure I. In figures 29 and 31, positions for trees have been marked. On the remaining soft ground, grass, flowers, crops, vegetables, and other small plants could be grown around the house which would not affect the air currents but at the same time, hold the soil together, prevent soil erosion, and help people have a sustainable living .

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Figure 28: Wind flow pattern in proposed landscape layout

54

Vegetated surface

25% pervious paved surface of the total open site area.

Figure 29: Landscape design around eco-house for soil stabilization

Case (a)

Case (b)

Figure 30: Case (a), tall trees might result into loss of wind as it gets deflected. Case (b) small dense trees would guide and channelize wind towards house units
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3.6 Run-off coefficient The proposed layout plan minimizes storm water run-off and increases on site infiltration around the house. This has been achieved by reducing pervious paved surface to 25% of the total open area on site (Figure 29). The remaining open site has vegetation cover. The proposed pervious surface is only suitable for pedestrians or light-weight traffic like occasional cars or personnel driveways. The proposed paving is made of a permeable system of blocklatches that permits drainage, grass growth in the lattices, as well as give strength and stability. Annual rainfall for Kalutara is 3000 mm, with a run off factor of 60%, the net capture for a 20 234 m2 plot with rainwater harvesting can be estimated as 36421 Kilo litres. This calculation shows that by restricting the run-off factor, there is a significant potential to recharge groundwater, which can be achieved by efficient site/landscape planning. 3.7 Landscape design to reduce heat island effect Use of dark, non-reflective surfaces for parking, roofs, and pathways contribute towards the heat island effect created when heat from the sun is absorbed and radiated back to the surrounding areas. The heat island effect causes the ambient temperature to rise in comparison to the undeveloped areas. This can be mitigated by reducing the use of hard pavings on site, by shading hard surfaces, and by using light colours that reflect heat instead of absorbing it. By planting trees and bushes, a properly planned landscape can help reduce the heat island effect by reducing the ambient temperature through evapotranspiration. For example in plot 60, trees are planted so that they provide shade and do not obstruct the wind currents. Pervious pavement is placed such that the paved areas are shaded by trees and provide access from main street to the house (Figure 31). o Use light colored, reflective roofs having SRI (solar reflectance index) of 50% or more. The dark colored, traditional roofing finishes have an SRI varying from 5%-20%. Light-coloured roof finishes helps to reflect the heat off the surface because of high solar reflectivity and infrared emittance. High solar reflective (albedo) roof coatings or heat-reflective paints on roofs could also be used. o No pavement is provided adjacent to the building as they can get heated up, reflect solar radiation inside, and cause glare (Figure 33). o Use light-coloured aggregates or white top the pavements with 50-mmthick layer of cement concrete. Stabilize pavements with porous materials such as sand.

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Figure 31: Landscape design around eco-house for soil stabilization

3.8 Solar protection, design, and analysis The large area of openings required in warm and wet climates necessitates adequate shading. Otherwise, indoor temperature might rise above the outdoor level.

Figure 32: Proposed eco-house and sun path at Kalutara district, Sri Lanka

On observing the solar charts for Kalutara district, it is observed that during the entire year, the altitude of sun is high, thus, north and south orientations receive negligible direct solar radiation (Figure 32). Eaves projecting out up to 26 is enough to shade the window apertures on north and south orientation during the
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daytime, except early morning and late in the evening. Thus, no further shading is required on the north and south facades.

Figure 33: Stereographic projection showing shading mask projected by roof eaves on south faade of the house

Figure 34: Stereographic projection showing shading mask projected by 410 shading device on aperture W1, East faade of the house

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The stereographic in Figure 34 & 35 shows south orientation wall would always be under shade and be protected due to roof overhangs from 8:00 h till 17:00 h in the months MarchOctober. It can also be observed that from April September, the South faade does not get direct sunlight from sunrise till sunset. Smaller openings are recommended on east and west orientations. In the east, 410-wide overhang projection extending outside the window for both W1 and W2 is recommended. The projection would cast a shadow on the window from 9:00 hrs onwards. It is recommended to have smaller openings on the west orientation. 3.9 Natural daylight Day lighting reduces the need for electric lighting of building interiors, resulting in decreased energy use. In addition, day-lit spaces provide a connection between indoor spaces and the outdoor environments. Figure 35 is an illustration, which shows that more than 90% of the room areas have access to the outside views. It should also be noted that by adding window W1 in the living room, the black portion indicated in the plan would be removed. As discussed earlier, W1 would also aid cross-ventilation and enhance natural ventilation(refer section 3.4).

Figure 35: Rooms in an eco house, have access to outside views


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References
CSE, 2003 A water harvesting manual for urban areas: Case studies from Delhi and Mumbai Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi Givoni B., 1969 Man, Climate and Architecture Elsevier Publishing Co. Ltd, England US Green Building Council , 2001 Rating system reference guide LEED Green Building Rating System. 2001 US Green Building Council, Washington BIS,1988 SP41- Handbook on Functional Requirements of Buildings(other than idustrial buildings).. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi IPCC, 1996 Technologies, Policies and Measures for Mitigating Climate Change IPCC Technical Paper I Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Ingersoll T G,et al, 1975 Climatic Design in Manual of Tropical Housing and Buildings Orient Longman, New Delhi Kyocera, 2004. Understanding Solar: Modules. Kyocera International, Inc, USA http://www.kyocerasolar.com/learn/modules.html,2 June, 2005 Majumdar M., 2004 Development of eco housing base line principles for Pune Report submitted to United States Asia Environmental Partnership Ministry of Environment and Construction, 2004 State of the Environment Maldives 2004 Ministry of Environment and Construction, Mal, Maldives. Ministry of Home Affairs, Housing and Environment. 2001 First national communication of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Ministry of Home Affairs, Housing and Environment., Mal, Maldives Muneer,T., et al, 2004.
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Sustainable Production of Solar Electricity with Particular Reference to the Indian Economy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 9 (2005) 444-473 Pearce, F., 2005. Tsunami's salt water may leave islands uninhabitable. NewScientist.com news service, 15 September, 2005 http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn6840 Public Technology Inc.; Green Building Council, 1996 Sustainable building technical manual: Green building design, construction and operations US Department of Energy and US Environmental Protection Agency SPM Thermo-Shield Inc Roof Coats SPM Thermo-Shield Inc, South Dakota, USA http://www.thermoshield.com/roof_coats.html TERI, 2004 Sustainable Building design manual TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute), HAREDA (Haryana State Energy Development Agency), ICAEN (Institut Catal dEnergia), Spain and London Borough of Merton, UK. Zahedi A, 1998. Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Design and Use. The New World Publishing, Melbourne, Australia

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Annexure 1: Glossary
ASHRAE: American Society of Lighting, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Ballast: A device used in conjunction with an electric discharge lamp to cause the lamp to start and operate under the proper circuit conditions of voltage, current, wave form, electrode heat, etc. Building commissioning: The start-up phase of a new or remodelled building. This phase includes testing and fine-tuning of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air- conditioning) and other systems to assure the proper functioning and adherence to design criteria. Commissioning also includes preparation of the system operation manuals and instructions for the building maintenance personnel. Contour trenching: An earth embankment or ridge and channel arrangement constructed parallel to the contours along the face of a slope at regular intervals on long and steep slopes (in sloping areas with slopes >10%). The area is used for reducing run-off velocity, increasing distance of overland run-off flow, and holding moisture and minimize sediment loading of surface run-off. DF (daylight factor): The ratio of daylight illumination at a given point on a given plane expressed as a percentage, from an obstructed sky of assumed or known illuminance distribution to the light received on a horizontal place from an unobstructed hemisphere of this sky. Direct sunlight is excluded for both values of illumination. The daylight factor is the sum of the sky component, external reflected component, and internal reflected component. The interior place is usually a horizontal work plane. If the sky condition is the CIEs (Commission Internationale de l' Clairage) standard overcast condition then the DF will remain constant regardless of the absolute exterior illuminance. Fenestration: Any opening or arrangement of openings in a building (normally filled with glazing) that admits daylight and any devices in the immediate proximity of the opening that affect light distribution (baffles, louvers, etc.) Formaldehyde: A gas used widely in production of adhesives, plastics, preservatives, and fabric treatments and commonly emitted by indoor materials that are made with its compounds. It is highly irritating if inhaled and is now listed as a probable human carcinogen. Heat island: An area, such as a city or industrial site, having consistently higher temperatures than the surrounding areas because of a greater retention of heat as by buildings, concrete, and asphalt. HID lamp: The HID (high-intensity discharge) lamps have a longer life and provide more light (lumens) per watt than most other light sources. Available in mercury vapour, metal-halide, high-pressure sodium, and low-pressure sodium types
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HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) system: The equipment, distribution systems, and terminals that provide either collectively or individually, the process of heating, ventilating, or air-conditioning to a building or portion of a building Life-cycle: The consecutive, interlinked stages of a product, beginning with raw materials acquisition and manufacture; continuing with its fabrication, manufacture, construction, and use; and concluding with any of a variety of recovery, recycling, or waste-management options Light pollution: Illumination of the night sky by electric lights as in an urban area that interferes with astronomical observation and disrupts the eco-system Lm (lumen): The SI unit of luminous flux. Radiometrically, it is determined from the radiant power as in luminous flux. Photometrically, it is the luminous flux emitted within a unit solid angle (1 sr) by a point source having a uniform luminous intensity of 1 cd Lumens: The amount of light a lamp produces or emits Luminaire efficacy: Luminaire efficacy describes the efficiency of a luminaire, in terms of rated light output (in lumens) per watt of electricity use Luminous efficacy of a source of light: The quotient of total luminous flux emitted and the total lamp power input; it is expressed in lumens per watt . The term luminous efficiency has in the past, been extensively used for this concept. Micro climate: The climate of a small, specific place within an area as contrasted with the climate of the entire area. Mulching: Mulching is one of the simplest and most-beneficial practices used in landscaping. Mulch is simply a protective layer of a material that is spread on top of soil. Mulches can either be organic, such as grass-clippings, straw, bark chips, and similar materials, or inorganic, such as stones, brick chips, and plastic. Both, organic and inorganic mulches have numerous benefits as they o protect soil from erosion, o reduce compaction from impact of heavy rains, o conserve moisture, reducing the need for frequent waterings, o maintain a more even soil temperature, o prevent weed growth, o keep fruits and vegetables clean, o keep feet clean, allowing access to the garden even when damp, and o provide a finished look to the garden. Photocell: A transducer used to detect and measure light and other radiations Sedimentation basin: A dam or basin for collecting, trapping, and storing the sediment produced by construction activities to allow sediments to settle before the run-off is directed towards the outfall
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Solar azimuth: In solar analysis, the horizontal angular distance between the vertical plane containing a point in the sky (usually the sun) and true south Swale: A grassy area in a low-lying land or a drainage trench through a park or lawn, which could be graded appropriately Top soil: The upper-most layer of soil VOCs (volatile organic compounds): Chemical compounds based on carbon and hydrogen structures that are vaporized at room temperatures, the VOCs are a type of indoor contaminant Water harvesting: Collection of both runoff and rainwater for various purposes, such as irrigation, fountains, or drinking purposes

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Annexure 2: List of local plant species recommended for the site at Kalutara, Sri Lanka
Name of species Artocarpus heterophyllus Ficus religiosa Habitat Widespread, a common home garden tree All over the country Description Medium size 15 m evergreen tree A large deciduous tree, Young pink leaves and bronze yellow-ochre old leaves Leaves Simple, dark, green and leathery Heart-shaped with long pointed tips Fruit Composite Red to dark purple Uses The ripe fruit is eaten This tree is venerated and planted in temple General Native to southwest India The Buddha attained enlightenment under the Bo tree. [ this came from Sri Lanka] Indigenous

Terminalia bellirica Diospyros ebenum Cassia fistula Erythrina variegata Azadirachta indica

Common in Gal- Oya region savanna ecosystem Dry zone only

A large up to 25 m deciduous tree, buttressed trunk, bark is dark brown A large up to 30 m tall buttressed Small 12m Medium fast growing up to 20 m Tree up to 15 m

Simple, alternately at the tips of branches 15 cm long Simple more or less oblong 10 cm ,shiny and dark Compound leaflet large 15 cm ,Oval shaped Compound ,Trifoliate, Triangular shape Compound leaflet are shiny 5-6 cm

Small 3 cm

Ayurvedic medicine

Small

This unmistakable ,black very dense wood Ornamental, Medicine Medicinal, improve the soil condition In India this is called the tree of a hundred uses Ayurvedic Oil

Indigenous to Sri Lanka Indigenous to Sri Lanka Indigenous to Sri Lanka Indian subcontinent

Common tree the dry and intermediate Common in dry low land ,Intermediate Common tree of dry land and intermediate

Very long 30-60 cm Cylindrical pod 10 cm long Oval shape 1-2 cm

Adina cordifolia Schleichera oleosa

Common tree of dry land and intermediate Common tree of dry land

Medium size 20 m Medium size 20 m

Simple, Hart shape Compound, Four to six large, Oblong leaflets 1-18

Tiny capsules 3mm Small pale brown/cream, Oval-

Indigenous to Sri Lanka Indigenous to India and Sri-Lanka

Name species Terminalia arjuna Crateva adansonii

of

Habitat

Description

Leaves cm Simple Opposite arrangement 10 cm Compound Three oval shaped leaflets (Trifoliolate) Simple 5 cm oval shape Simple Characteristically bilobed, each lobe an oval Simple medium 11 cm Compound Compound dark green 9 cm Numerous 1 cm Simple and small 5 cm Compound 10-20 cm pairs of more or less oblong leaflets Compound 1-2 cm

Fruit shape Winged ,Woody ,Brown fruit Spherical berries

Uses

General

A common tree along river banks in low intermediate and dry land Common in dry and arid zone Dry and arid zone Very common in dry zone Common in dry and intermediate zone Low country dry zone Common in secondary forest Open land savannahs Common in dry zone Forest in dry zone

Tall tree 25 m

Wood, medicine

Indigeno to India and Sri Lanka Indigenous to Sri Lanka /India Indigenous to Sri Lanka Indigenous to Sri Lanka Indigenous to Sri Lanka and India Indigenous to Sri Lanka and India and Indigenous Sri Lanka Indigenous in India Indigenous to Sri Lanka and India Indigenous In Sri Lanka and India

Small tree 10 m with many branches Small tree Small tree 7 m A large 25 m Height 30 m Small 10 m Small 10 m A large 30 m Height 25 m

Treatment for many urinary diseases Medicine Ornamental plant Oil / cosmetic Heavy wood Edible fruit timber Ayuruvedic Timber Timber

Salvadora persica Bauhinia racemosa Madhuca longifolia Vitex altissima Dimcarpus Longana Phyllanthus emblica Manikara hexandra Chloroxylon seietenia Tamarindus indicus

A small red drupe Along pod 25 cm Shiny, Yellowbrown Purplish black Spherical brown fruit 1.5 cm light green Numerous small 1cm Chambered capsules with winged seeds A slightly curved ,Sausage shape pod 15 cm

Dry zone in Sri Lanka

Height 25 m

Cooking acidity Timber

sour,

Native in Africa; naturalize in South Asia

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Annexure 3: List of Members of the Regional Expert Group on Ecohousing


Prof. Arvind Krishan Head, Department of Architecture School of Planning and Architecture 4, Block B, 1.P. Estate, New Delhi 110002,India Fax: +91 11 2610 7250 E-mail: krishan@del2.vsnl.net.in Prof. Deo Prasad Faculty of the Built Environment Program Director, Master of Built Environment Director - UNSW Centre for a Sustainable Built Environment The University of New South Wales Sydney , NSW 2052, Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 4868 Fax: +61 2 9385 6735 E-mail: D.Prasad@unsw.edu.au Prof. Soontorn Boonyatikarn Professor Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University Phayatai, Wangmai Bangkok 10330, Thailand Tel: +66 2 6450588 Fax: +66 2 6450578 E-mail: soontorn@asia.com Dr.Vorasan Buranakarn Associate Professor, Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University Phayatai, Wangmai Bangkok 10330, Thailand Tel: +66 2 2184307-1 Fax:+66 2 2184372 Bernard Lefebvre Director, Habitech Center School of Civil Engineering, Asian Institute of Technology Km 42 Paholyothin Highway,PO Box 4 Klong Luang Pathumthani 12120, Thailand Tel: +66 2 524-5611 Mobile: (66-1) 646-5098 Fax: +66 2 524-6384 E-mail: bernard@ait.ac.th

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Dr. Ranjith Perera, Assistant Professor and Coordinator, UEM Field of Study, Director, SEA-UEMA Project, School of Environment, Resource and Development Asian Institute of Technology, P.O.Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand Tel: +66-2- 5245619 (O), 524-6264 (R) Fax: +66-2- 5162126, 5161418, 5246380 E-mail: ranjithp@ait.ac.th, ranjith.perera@gmail.com Pritam Krishna Shrestha, Ph.D. Project Manager, CIDA-AIT Southeast Asia Urban Environmental Management Applications (SEA-UEMA) Project, School of Environment, Resource and Development Asian Institute of Technology, P.O.Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand Tel./Fax: +66 2 524 8338 Fax.: +66 2 524 6380 E-mail: pritam@ait.ac.th Mili Majumdar Fellow & Area Convenor, Centre for Research on Sustainable Building Science The Energy and Resources Institute Darbari Seth Block, I H C Complex Lodhi Road, New Deli-110003 Tel: +91 11 24682100, 24682111 Fax: +91 11 24682144, 24682145 E-mail: milim@teri.res.in Udani Aswini Mendis, Deputy Executive Director - Technological Programmes. Lanka Jathika Sarvodaya Shramadana Sangamaya Damsak Mandira, 98, Rawatawatta Road, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. Fax: +94 11 2732200 E-mail: sarrutec@sltnet.lk, saredo@lanka.ccom.lk Prof. Zhiqiang Wu College of Architecture and Urban Planning Tongji University 1239 Siping Road, 200092 Shanghai, China Tel: +86 21 65983414 Fax: +86 21 65983419 E-mail: ausam@sh163.net

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