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RAN 10.

Troubleshooting Guide

Issue Date Part Number

01 2008-05-30

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Notice
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but the statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

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Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................1 1 Introduction to RAN Troubleshooting..................................................................................1-1
1.1 RAN Troubleshooting Process........................................................................................................................1-2 1.2 RAN Troubleshooting Methods......................................................................................................................1-4 1.3 Huawei Technical Support..............................................................................................................................1-7 1.3.1 Contacting Huawei for Technical Support.............................................................................................1-7 1.3.2 Files to be Sent to Huawei Technical Support.......................................................................................1-8

2 Troubleshooting Voice Services..............................................................................................2-1


2.1 Definitions of Voice Service Problems...........................................................................................................2-2 2.2 Conversation Noise.........................................................................................................................................2-2 2.3 One-Way Audio..............................................................................................................................................2-6 2.4 Reference Information of Voice Services.....................................................................................................2-10

3 Troubleshooting Video Phone Services................................................................................3-1


3.1 Definitions of Video Phone Service Problems................................................................................................3-2 3.2 Low Quality Video Phone Images..................................................................................................................3-2 3.3 Signal Flow of Video Phone Services.............................................................................................................3-4

4 Troubleshooting Packet Switched Services..........................................................................4-1


4.1 Definitions of PS Service Problems................................................................................................................4-2 4.2 PS Service Problems on the Control Plane.....................................................................................................4-2 4.3 PS Service Problems on the User Plane..........................................................................................................4-5 4.4 Bad Performance in User Data Transmission.................................................................................................4-8 4.5 Signal Flow of PS Services...........................................................................................................................4-11

5 Troubleshooting the Access to the Network.........................................................................5-1


5.1 Defintions of Network Access Problems........................................................................................................5-2 5.2 UE Failure to Search the Network..................................................................................................................5-2 5.3 UE Failure to Access the Network or Frequent UE Disconnections from the Network.................................5-4 5.4 UE Failure to Make a Call on the Network.....................................................................................................5-7 5.5 Procedure for the UE to Select the Network...................................................................................................5-9

6 Troubleshooting Handover......................................................................................................6-1
6.1 Definitions of Handover Problems..................................................................................................................6-3 6.2 Intra-RNC Soft Handover Failure...................................................................................................................6-3 Issue 01 (2008-05-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd i

Contents

RAN Troubleshooting Guide

6.3 Inter-RNC Soft Handover Failure...................................................................................................................6-6 6.4 Hard Handover Failure....................................................................................................................................6-7 6.5 Inter-System Handover Failure.......................................................................................................................6-9 6.6 Signal Flow of a Handover............................................................................................................................6-13

7 Troubleshooting RAN Clocks................................................................................................. 7-1


7.1 Definitions of Clock Problems........................................................................................................................7-2 7.2 NodeB Clock Problems: Causes and Related Alarms.....................................................................................7-2 7.3 RNC Clock Problems: Causes and Related Alarms........................................................................................7-2 7.4 Signal Flow of a Clock System.......................................................................................................................7-3

8 Troubleshooting RAN Interface Links..................................................................................8-1


8.1 Definitions of Interface Link Problems...........................................................................................................8-2 8.2 Interface Link Problems: Causes and Related Alarms....................................................................................8-2

9 Troubleshooting RAN Radio Frequency Performance.......................................................9-1


9.1 Definitions of RF Problems ............................................................................................................................9-2 9.2 NodeB RF Fault: Causes and Related Alarms................................................................................................9-2 9.3 Signal Flow of the RAN RF System...............................................................................................................9-3

10 Collecting RAN Fault Location Data..................................................................................10-1


10.1 Collecting RNC Fault Location Data..........................................................................................................10-2 10.1.1 Collecting RNC Fault Location Data.................................................................................................10-2 10.1.2 Collecting Error Logs from the RNC FAM.......................................................................................10-4 10.1.3 Collecting RNC Alarm Data..............................................................................................................10-5 10.1.4 Collecting Error Logs from a BAM Server........................................................................................10-6 10.1.5 Collecting Operation Logs from the RNC LMT................................................................................10-7 10.1.6 Collecting RNC Self-Diagnostic Output Data...................................................................................10-7 10.1.7 Collecting Call Data Tracing Messages.............................................................................................10-9 10.1.8 Collecting Signaling Tracing Messages on Standard Interfaces......................................................10-12 10.1.9 Collecting RNC Configuration Data................................................................................................10-15 10.2 Push-Button RNC Data Collection Guidelines.........................................................................................10-16 10.3 Collecting NodeB Fault Location Data.....................................................................................................10-17 10.3.1 Collecting NodeB NMPT Logs........................................................................................................10-17 10.3.2 Collecting NodeB Board Logs.........................................................................................................10-19 10.3.3 Collecting Signaling Tracing Messages on the Iub Interface...........................................................10-21 10.3.4 Collecting CHR data........................................................................................................................10-22

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Figures

Figures
Figure 1-1 RAN Troubleshooting Process...........................................................................................................1-2 Figure 2-1 Procedure for troubleshooting noise in calls......................................................................................2-3 Figure 2-2 Iu interface loopback..........................................................................................................................2-5 Figure 2-3 Procedure for troubleshooting one-way audio in calls.......................................................................2-7 Figure 2-4 Iu interface loopback..........................................................................................................................2-9 Figure 2-5 Protocol stack of voice services in the WCDMA system.................................................................2-10 Figure 2-6 RAB Assignment Request messages................................................................................................2-11 Figure 2-7 RANAP Security Mode Command messages..................................................................................2-12 Figure 3-1 Procedure for troubleshooting low quality VP services.....................................................................3-2 Figure 3-2 Protocol stack for the signal flow of VP services...............................................................................3-4 Figure 4-1 Procedure for troubleshooting PS service problems on control plane................................................4-3 Figure 4-2 Procedure for troubleshooting PS service problems on the user plane..............................................4-6 Figure 4-3 Procedure for troubleshooting bad performance in user data transmission........................................4-9 Figure 4-4 Data transmission paths for PS services...........................................................................................4-11 Figure 5-1 Procedure for troubleshooting UE failure to search the network.......................................................5-3 Figure 5-2 Procedure for troubleshooting UE failure to search the network.......................................................5-5 Figure 5-3 Procedure for troubleshooting UE failure to make a call on the network..........................................5-7 Figure 5-4 Cell selection and reselection of the UE.............................................................................................5-9 Figure 6-1 Procedure for troubleshooting the intra-RNC soft handover failure..................................................6-4 Figure 6-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the hard handover failure...................................................................6-7 Figure 6-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the inter-system handover failure....................................................6-10 Figure 6-4 Signal Flow of an Intra-RNC Soft Handover...................................................................................6-13 Figure 6-5 Signal Flow of an Inter-RNC Soft Handover...................................................................................6-14 Figure 6-6 Signal Flow of an Intra-RNC Hard Handover..................................................................................6-15 Figure 6-7 Signal flow of an inter-RNC hard handover.....................................................................................6-16 Figure 6-8 Signal flow of an inter-system handover..........................................................................................6-17 Figure 7-1 RNC clock structure...........................................................................................................................7-4 Figure 7-2 Iub interface clock synchronization mode..........................................................................................7-5 Figure 7-3 GPS clock synchronization mode.......................................................................................................7-6 Figure 7-4 External reference clock synchronization mode.................................................................................7-7 Figure 9-1 Signal flow of the RAN RF system....................................................................................................9-3 Figure 10-1 RNC FAM log file..........................................................................................................................10-4 Figure 10-2 CHR path and file name.................................................................................................................10-5 Issue 01 (2008-05-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd iii

Figures

RAN Troubleshooting Guide Figure 10-3 RNC FAM log file..........................................................................................................................10-6 Figure 10-4 Self-diagnoses.................................................................................................................................10-7

Figure 10-5 Self-diagnostic file path..................................................................................................................10-9 Figure 10-6 CDT tracing..................................................................................................................................10-10 Figure 10-7 Setting the CDT tracing................................................................................................................10-11 Figure 10-8 CDT tracing message file.............................................................................................................10-12 Figure 10-9 Trace management........................................................................................................................10-13 Figure 10-10 Iu interface tracing......................................................................................................................10-14 Figure 10-11 File path for tracing messages on standard interfaces................................................................10-15 Figure 10-12 COL LOG parameters................................................................................................................10-16 Figure 10-13 NMPT log file transfer...............................................................................................................10-18 Figure 10-14 NMPT log file.............................................................................................................................10-19 Figure 10-15 Board log file transfer.................................................................................................................10-20 Figure 10-16 NodeB signaling tracing messages on the Iub interface.............................................................10-21 Figure 10-17 Standard signaling interface tracing...........................................................................................10-22 Figure 10-18 Setting CHR Switch....................................................................................................................10-23

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Tables

Tables
Table 1-1 Categories of faults occurring in RAN.................................................................................................1-3 Table 7-1 NodeB clock fault causes and related alarms.......................................................................................7-2 Table 7-2 RNC V100R010 clock fault causes and related alarms ......................................................................7-3 Table 7-3 RNC V200R010 clock fault causes and related alarms ......................................................................7-3 Table 8-1 Fault causes and related alarms of interface links for the NodeB........................................................8-2 Table 8-2 Fault causes and related alarms of interface links for the RNC...........................................................8-3 Table 9-1 NodeB RF fault causes and related alarms...........................................................................................9-2 Table 10-1 RNC fault location data....................................................................................................................10-3

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RAN Troubleshooting Guide

About This Document

About This Document

Purpose
This document describes the troubleshooting methods for the Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) Radio Access Network (RAN) products in service. With this document, maintenance engineers or technicians can troubleshoot the following problems:
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Complaints from users Faults in routine maintenance Burst equipment faults Alarms

Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document: Product Name RNC Version V100R010 V200R010 NodeB V100R010 V200R010

Intended Audience
This document is intended for:
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System engineers RNC site maintainers NodeB site maintainers

Update History
Refer to Changes in RAN Troubleshooting Guide.
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About This Document

RAN Troubleshooting Guide

Organization
1 Introduction to RAN Troubleshooting This part describes the process and methods of RAN troubleshooting and the technical support from Huawei. 2 Troubleshooting Voice Services This part presents the troubleshooting cases of voice services. 3 Troubleshooting Video Phone Services This part describes the faults occurring in VP services and the troubleshooting methods. It also presents cases for troubleshooting VP services. 4 Troubleshooting Packet Switched Services This part describes the faults occurring in PS services and the troubleshooting methods. It also presents cases for troubleshooting PS services. 5 Troubleshooting the Access to the Network This part describes the faults occurring to voice services and the troubleshooting methods. It also presents cases for troubleshooting voice services. 6 Troubleshooting Handover This part describes the faults occurring in different types of handover and the troubleshooting methods. It also presents cases for troubleshooting handover failures. 7 Troubleshooting RAN Clocks This part describes the relationship between the clock fault causes and related alarms. It also presents cases for troubleshooting clock failures. The clock faults refer to the faults occurring in clock source and clock board. 8 Troubleshooting RAN Interface Links This part describes the fault causes and related alarms of the RAN interface links. It also presents the cases of troubleshooting interface links. 9 Troubleshooting RAN Radio Frequency Performance This part describes the fault causes and related alarms of RF performance. It also presents the cases of troubleshooting RF performance. 10 Collecting RAN Fault Location Data When the RAN devices are faulty and the field engineers cannot immediately locate or clear the faults, collect the RAN fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Conventions
1. Symbol Conventions The following symbols may be found in this document. They are defined as follows
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About This Document

Symbol

Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk that, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk which, if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation that, if not avoided, could cause equipment damage, data loss, and performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save your time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

DANGER

WARNING

CAUTION
TIP

NOTE

2. General Conventions Convention Times New Roman Boldface Italic Courier New 3. Command Conventions Convention Boldface Italic [] {x | y | ...} [ x | y | ... ] { x | y | ... } * Description The keywords of a command line are in boldface. Command arguments are in italic. Items (keywords or arguments) in square brackets [ ] are optional. Alternative items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars.One is selected. Optional alternative items are grouped in square brackets and separated by vertical bars.One or none is selected. Alternative items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars.A minimum of one or a maximum of all can be selected. Description Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman. Names of files,directories,folders,and users are in boldface. For example,log in as user root . Book titles are in italics. Terminal display is in Courier New.

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RAN Troubleshooting Guide

Convention [ x | y | ... ] *

Description Alternative items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars.A minimum of zero or a maximum of all can be selected.

4. GUI Conventions Convention Boldface > Description Buttons,menus,parameters,tabs,window,and dialog titles are in boldface. For example,click OK. Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example,choose File > Create > Folder .

5. Keyboard Operation Convention Key Key1+Key2 Key1,Key2 Description Press the key.For example,press Enter and press Tab. Press the keys concurrently.For example,pressing Ctrl+Alt+A means the three keys should be pressed concurrently. Press the keys in turn.For example,pressing Alt,A means the two keys should be pressed in turn.

6. Mouse Operation Action Click Double-click Drag Description Select and release the primary mouse button without moving the pointer. Press the primary mouse button twice continuously and quickly without moving the pointer. Press and hold the primary mouse button and move the pointer to a certain position.

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1 Introduction to RAN Troubleshooting

Introduction to RAN Troubleshooting

About This Chapter


This part describes the process and methods of RAN troubleshooting and the technical support from Huawei. 1.1 RAN Troubleshooting Process RAN troubleshooting process consists of collecting fault information, determining the fault area and type, diagnosing fault causes, clearing the fault, checking whether the equipment or the service is restored, and contacting Huawei for technical support. 1.2 RAN Troubleshooting Methods RAN troubleshooting methods include user tracing, interface signaling tracing, traffic measurement, alarm analysis, test analysis, network packet catchers, comparison and double replacement, GENEX series tools, and OMStar. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support If you have questions during the troubleshooting, collect necessary information and contact Huawei for technical support.

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1.1 RAN Troubleshooting Process


RAN troubleshooting process consists of collecting fault information, determining the fault area and type, diagnosing fault causes, clearing the fault, checking whether the equipment or the service is restored, and contacting Huawei for technical support. Figure 1-1 shows the RAN troubleshooting process. Figure 1-1 RAN Troubleshooting Process

Collecting Fault Information


The following information must be collected before the troubleshooting:
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Fault symptoms Time, location, and frequency Area and impact Running status of the equipment before a fault occurs Operations and related results before a fault occurs Measures and related effects after a fault occurs Alarms and associated alarms when a fault occurs States of board LEDs when a fault occurs

To collect the fault information, use the following methods:


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Consult the person who reports the fault about symptoms, time, location and frequency of the fault. Consult equipment maintainers about the running status of equipment, fault symptoms, operations before a fault occurs, measures and effects after a fault occurs. Observe board LEDs and alarm management system on the LMT to obtain information about the running status of system software and hardware. Examine the impact of the fault by means of service presentation, performance measurement, and interface or signaling tracing.

Note the following suggestions when you collect the fault information:
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Beware of collecting fault information especially when a major problem occurs. Ensure the actual situations before working out solutions for the next step. Do not solve the problem at random. Maintain good relations with maintainers from other offices and relevant departments, which will greatly facilitate communications and technical consultations.

Determining the Fault Area and Type


After you collect fault information, analyze fault symptoms and determine the fault area and type. Table 1-1 describes categories of the faults occurring in the RAN. Table 1-1 Categories of faults occurring in RAN Category Faults in services Sub-Category Faults in voice services Faults in VP services Faults in packet switched services Faults in network access Faults in handover Faults in the functional subsystem Faults in RAN clocks Faults in RAN interface links Faults in RAN radio frequency performance Refer to ... Troubleshooting Voice Services Troubleshooting Video Phone Services Troubleshooting Packet Switched Services Troubleshooting the Access to the Network Troubleshooting Handover Troubleshooting RAN Clocks Troubleshooting RAN Interface Links Troubleshooting RAN Radio Frequency Performance

NOTE

In this way, you can easily determine the fault area and type according to fault symptoms. These types of fault are not entirely irrelevant to each other. For example, a fault in voice services may be caused by the clock problem. In this situation, handling suggestions will be directly referenced to the section that troubleshoots the clock and they are not described in the scope of troubleshooting voice services.

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Diagnosing Fault Causes


Certain methods are used to compare and analyze possible causes and eliminate impossible ones until the immediate causes are finally determined.
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Locating faults in services

To locate a fault in voice services or packet switched services, you can check the Iu, Iub, and Uu interfaces in turn and then determine whether the fault occurs to the RAN based on the symptoms on the interface. If the fault occurs to the internal component of the RAN, you should further locate it. To locate a fault in handover or in access to the network, you should start the signaling tracing and comparing it with the protocols to locate the fault.

Some methods should be used to locate and analyze specific faults, as listed in 1.2 RAN Troubleshooting Methods.
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Faults in the functional subsystem

Faults occurring to clocks, interface links, and radio frequency performance have many types but comparatively narrow range. Faults of this category have simple causes and are displayed through board LEDs (which will blink abnormally), alarms, and error prompts. You can always troubleshoot these faults in compliance with the LED information, alarm handling suggestions, or error prompts.

Clearing the Fault


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Clearing the fault means using proper measures to restore the system. It consists of checking the cables, replacing the boards, modifying the data configuration, switching over the systems, and resetting the boards. Different procedures should be applied to different faults. The system should be checked again after the troubleshooting to ensure that the fault is completely cleared. Review the whole troubleshooting process, note down the key points in the troubleshooting, and summarize the workaruond and measures for improvement to avoid recurrence of the faults of the same type.

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Checking the Equipment or Services


After you clear the faults, check whether the system works properly by querying the states of board LEDs and alarm LEDs, and perform dialing test to ensure that the services are operational.

Contacting Huawei for Technical Support


Collect necessary fault information and contact Huawei for technical support. For details, refer to 1.3 Huawei Technical Support.

1.2 RAN Troubleshooting Methods


RAN troubleshooting methods include user tracing, interface signaling tracing, traffic measurement, alarm analysis, test analysis, network packet catchers, comparison and double replacement, GENEX series tools, and OMStar.
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User Tracing
The user tracing, based on the number of one user, can trace and display information about the standard interfaces, messages in the interfaces, and status of the interfaces of that user in a chronological order on the monitor. The user tracing can be applied to locating the fault that recurs in call services. The user tracing has the following benefits:
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Real-time tracing results Comprehensive information about the tracing over all the standard interfaces Applicable to high traffic Applicable to various scenarios for analyzing the call procedure and for tracing VIP users
NOTE

The RNC LMT provides the user tracing function which consists of call tracing and CDT tracing.

Interface Signaling Tracing


The interface signaling tracing can trace and display all the information over one interface, for example, the Iu, Iub, Iur, or Uu interface, in a chronological order on the monitor. The interface signaling tracing is applied to locating the faults in calls of indefinite types, for example, low put-through rate of calls of an office. The interface signaling tracing has the following benefits:
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Real-time tracing results Complete messages over the interface in a period of time Tracing of messages for link management
NOTE

Both the RNC LMT and the NodeB LMT provide the interface signaling tracing function, in which the RNC LMT provides message tracing on the Iu, Iub, and Uu interfaces and the NodeB LMT provides message tracing on the Iub interface.

Traffic Measurement
The traffic measurement is to take real-time statistics from various problems such as call drops and handover during calls. It can be applied to the KPI analysis and performance analysis. The traffic measurement has the following benefits:
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Providing an overall reflection of calling results, for example, the put-through rate
NOTE

The M2000 client provides the traffic measurement function for the RAN.

Alarm Analysis
When a fault occurs in the system, related alarms are displayed on the LMT. Maintainers can immediately obtain the reported alarms by setting related parameters, for example, setting an alarm icon with the blinking LED. The maintainers can also set the alarm box to obtain specified audio and visual information.
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You can determine fault types and fault location data by checking the alarms or the relevance between alarms. In addition, each alarm provides the information about the alarm handling procedures and the troubleshooting methods. The alarm analysis is applied to troubleshooting the faults in services and functional subsystems.
NOTE

Both the RNC LMT and the NodeB LMT provide fault management function. For details about fault management, refer to the RNC LMT User Guide and the NodeB LMT User Guide.

Test Analysis
Test analysis, a way to detect faults, is used to test service-related physical paths and functional modules. The fault detection function of the system consists of the detection of E1 faults, detection of SAAL link faults, and detection of clock faults. The test analysis is applied to troubleshooting faults in services and functional subsystems.
NOTE

Both the RNC LMT and the NodeB LMT provide fault detection function. For details about fault detection, refer to the RNC LMT User Guide and the NodeB LMT User Guide.

Network Packet Catchers


The Sniffer and the Ethereal are two types of software that are used to catch and analyze packets according to the defined conditions in the Ethernet. This greatly facilitates the analysis during data forwarding. The packet catchers are applied to troubleshooting the PS services.
NOTE

For details about how to use packet catchers, refer to their user guides.

Comparison and Double Replacement


Comparison is implemented to compare the faulty components with the operational components or to compare fault symptoms with operational states. Then you can find out their difference and locate the faults. This function is often applied to the faults in simple areas. Double replacement is performed to determine the area or location of a fault by replacing the parts. In this case, components in operational state and components that are probably faulty, such as boards and optical cables, are replaced with each other. Comparison between the running states before and after the replacement is used to determine the area or location of the faults. This function is often applied to the faults in complicated areas. Comparison and double replacement are used to troubleshoot functional modules.

GENEX Series Tools


The GENEX series tools are a suit of tools for radio test, wireless network performance analysis, wireless call tracing, and wireless network planning. The GENEX series tools are applied to network planning and optimization. The GENEX series tools have the following functions:
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U-Net: provides network preplanning in early phase, such as network estimation and budget, and also implements network planning, such as network dimensioning and emulation. Probe: provides air interface tests in order to obtain network indexes through drive tests. Assistant: provides analysis and takes statistics from the drive test data and the RNC data. Nastar: obtains post-processed data to locate and analyze the network faults.
NOTE

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For details about how to use the GENEX series tools, refer to the manuals of related tools.

OMStar
The WCDMA RAN OMStar (hereinafter referred to as OMStar) is a suit of tools for maintenance and tests of WCDMA RAN equipment. Through analysis of the D-matrix and of alarms, performance, configuration, and call logs, the OMStar can help maintainers start the diagnosis procedure in IE browser and locate the faults in the shortest period. The OMStar is used applied to initial establishment of sites, routine OM, routine inspection, and burst fault handling.
NOTE

For details about how to use the OMStar, refer to the OMStar User Guide.

1.3 Huawei Technical Support


If you have questions during the troubleshooting, collect necessary information and contact Huawei for technical support. 1.3.1 Contacting Huawei for Technical Support For the problems difficult to be located or solved, contact Huawei for technical support. 1.3.2 Files to be Sent to Huawei Technical Support To effectively solve the problems, you are recommended to provide the following information before asking Huawei for technical support:

1.3.1 Contacting Huawei for Technical Support


For the problems difficult to be located or solved, contact Huawei for technical support. Use the following contact information:
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Telephone: (86-755) 28560000 Fax: (86-755) 28560111 E-mail: support@huawei.com Website: http://support.huawei.com
NOTE

For contact information about the local office in your region, log in to the previously mentioned website.

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1.3.2 Files to be Sent to Huawei Technical Support


To effectively solve the problems, you are recommended to provide the following information before asking Huawei for technical support:

Collecting Fault Information


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Full name of the office Contact person and telephone number Time that the fault occurs Fault symptoms in detail Version of the host software on the equipment Measures taken after the fault occurs and corresponding results Severity level of the fault and expected time for troubleshooting

Collecting Fault Location Data


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Alarm information Host error log BAM error log Operation log of the LMT Self-diagnosis output data CDRs of a single user Signaling tracing messages on standard interfaces Data configuration

For details about how to collect fault information, refer to the 10 Collecting RAN Fault Location Data.

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2 Troubleshooting Voice Services

Troubleshooting Voice Services

About This Chapter


This part presents the troubleshooting cases of voice services. 2.1 Definitions of Voice Service Problems Voice service problems refer to the problems occurring during calls, such as one-way audio, no audio, noise, discontinuity, cross talk, echo, and so on. 2.2 Conversation Noise Noise, discontinuity, low quality calls, or occasional silence may occur during the conversation. 2.3 One-Way Audio During a call, only one party can be heard while the other cannot, or neither of them can hear each other. 2.4 Reference Information of Voice Services This part describes the reference information about voice services, which consists of signal flow of voice services, negotiation process of establishing voice services, handover process, and encryption process of voice services.

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2.1 Definitions of Voice Service Problems


Voice service problems refer to the problems occurring during calls, such as one-way audio, no audio, noise, discontinuity, cross talk, echo, and so on. For information about call establishment, access delay, call drop, coverage effect and other voice-related problems, refer to 5 Troubleshooting the Access to the Network. Problems in voice services can be divided into the following two categories:
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One-way audio: includes one-way audio, no audio, and cross talk. Noise: includes noise, low quality calls, discontinuous voices, and occasional silence.

One-Way Audio
When A calls B, A can hear B but B cannot hear A.

No Audio
After a call is set up between A and B, they cannot hear each other.

Discontinuity
There is pause during the conversation, that is, the called party can hear a speech with words skipped.

Conversation Noise
Strange sound occurs during the conversation, such as sound of bubbles, clatters, and metals. In serious cases, conversations are totally covered by noise.

Cross Talk
During the conversation, both the called or calling party and a third party can be heard, or a third party instead of the called or calling party can be heard.

Echo
During the conversation, not only the called party but also echo of the calling party can be heard. In serious cases, the echo may interrupt the conversation.

2.2 Conversation Noise


Noise, discontinuity, low quality calls, or occasional silence may occur during the conversation.

Context
Figure 2-1 shows the procedure for troubleshooting noise in calls.
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Figure 2-1 Procedure for troubleshooting noise in calls

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SN *1-1 *1-2 *1-3 *1-4 *1-5

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs on the RAN side. Check the quality of radio signals on the RAN side. Check whether packet loss occurs in the network. Initiate single user tracing on the RNC and check whether the user is located in handover area and whether there is relevance between the moment that noise appears and the signaling that handed over by the user. Restart the UE and check whether the noise disappears. If the noise disappears, the UE may be faulty. In this situation, replace that UE with a new one and try again. Determine whether the problem occurs in the encryption mode. Determine whether the services are restored. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to ... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs on the RAN side. Check the quality of radio signals. Check whether packet loss occurs in the network. Determine whether the problem is caused by the handover.

*1-6

Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE.

*1-7 *1-8 *1-9

Determine whether the problem occurs in the encryption mode. Determine whether the services are restored. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. Based on the feedback from users, perform dialing tests for different offices and areas on specified sites until the problem recurs. When the problem recurs, trace the entire signaling process. Maintain the connection between the UE and the network. Observe whether a handover occurs, for example, the 3G-to-2G handover and the inter-frequency hard handover. Step 2 Determine whether the problem occurs on the RAN side. If the problem recurs and persists, diagnose it through sectional loopback. Initiate the single user loopback on the RNC LMT. Figure 2-2 shows the single user loopback on the RNC LMT.

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Figure 2-2 Iu interface loopback

If the noise does not disappear after the uplink loopback for a single user, it indicates that the problem occurs on the RAN side. Then, refer to the parts from Checking quality of radio signals to Determine whether the problem occurs in the encryption mode to determine where the problem occurs. If the noise disappears after the uplink loopback for a single user, it indicates that the problem occurs in the CN. Then, contact the CN maintainers for troubleshooting.

Step 3 Check the quality of radio signals. 1. Check the signal-to-noise ratio on cells and the received signal power of the UE to determine the quality of downlink signals.
l

If the downlink RSCP is less than 98 dBm, improve the radio environment and the quality of downlink signals. If the downlink Ec/Io is less than -18 dB, improve the radio environment and the quality of downlink signals.

2.

Check whether the RTWP of the cell is at a high level. If the RTWP is always higher than 95 dBm, check whether external interference occurs.

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3.

Check the uplink signals for a single user by monitoring OLPC on the RNC LMT. If the BLER is higher than 10%the speech quality may be poor. In this situation, enhance the quality of downlink signals by improving the radio environment. Check whether intermittent or fault alarms occur in the transmission process on the NodeB. If so, clear the alarms on transmission. Check whether the clock-related alarms are generated on the NodeB and the RNC. If so, clear the alarms. Check whether there are similarities between the signaling process records when the problem recurs, for example, whether an inter-system handover or an inter-frequency hard handover is performed. If the problem is related to the handover, check whether the problem occurs in the encryption mode or in the UE by referring to Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE and Determine whether the problem occurs in the encryption mode. If the problem is not related to the UE or the encryption mode, contact Huawei for technical support. Test the UEs manufactured by different vendors, compare the test results, and check whether the problem occurs in a specified type of UEs. Even if the UEs under test are of the same type, their software versions may vary. For information about UE types and software versions, refer to the instructions delivered with the corresponding UEs. If the problem does not occur after you perform the same test on other UEs, inform the vendors of the faulty UEs. Test tools for the UEs, such as Tems, are required for analyzing whether the encryption algorithms for UEs during the handover process are consistent with those for the network. For hybrid services, check whether the encryption algorithms for PS services are consistent with those for CS services. If the algorithms are inconsistent, modify them and verify whether the mismatch is cleared. To set encryption algorithm parameters for CS and PS services on the CN side, contact the CN maintainers for technical support.

Step 4 Check whether packet loss occurs in the network. 1. 2.

Step 5 Determine whether the problem is caused by the handover. 1.

2.

Step 6 Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. 1.

2.

Step 7 Determine whether the problem occurs in the encryption mode. 1. 2. 3.

Step 8 Determine whether the services are restored. After locating the problem and taking corresponding measures, perform dialing tests on the sites where the problem occurs and check whether the problem is cleared. ----End

2.3 One-Way Audio


During a call, only one party can be heard while the other cannot, or neither of them can hear each other.

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Context
One-way audio or no audio is often related to the equipment, such as the UE, network equipment, and transmission device. The radio coverage or the decryption algorithm is not involved in oneway audio or no audio. Figure 2-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting one-way audio in calls. Figure 2-3 Procedure for troubleshooting one-way audio in calls

SN *1-1 *1-2

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs on the RAN side.

Refer to... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs on the RAN side.

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SN *1-3

Action Initiate single user tracing on the RNC and check whether the user is located in the handover area and whether there is relevance between the moment that noise appears and the signaling that handed over by the user. Restart the UE and check whether the noise disappears. If the noise disappears, the UE may be faulty. In this situation, replace that UE with a new one and try again. Determine whether the services are restored. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to... Determine whether the problem is caused by the handover.

*1-4

Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE.

*1-5 *1-6

Determine whether the services are restored. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. Based on the feedback from users, perform dialing tests for different offices and areas on specified sites until the problem recurs. When the problem recurs, trace the entire signaling process. Maintain the connection between the UE and the network. Observe whether a handover occurs, for example, the 3G-to-2G handover and the inter-frequency hard handover. Step 2 Determine whether the problem occurs on the RAN side. If the problem recurs and persists, diagnose it through sectional loopback. Initiate the single user loopback on the RNC LMT. Figure 2-4 shows the single user loopback on the RNC LMT.

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Figure 2-4 Iu interface loopback

If the one-way audio does not disappear after the uplink loopback for a single user, it indicates that the problem occurs on the RAN side. Then, determine the fault area by referring to Check whether the problem is caused by the handover to Check whether the services are restored. If the one-way audio disappears after the uplink loopback for a single user, it indicates that the problem occurs in the CN. Then, contact the CN maintainers for troubleshooting. Check whether there are similarities between the signaling process records when the problem recurs, for example, whether an inter-system handover or an inter-frequency hard handover is performed. If the problem is related to the handover, check whether the UE is faulty. If the problem is not related to the previously mentioned two points, contact Huawei for technical support.

Step 3 Determine whether the problem is caused by the handover. 1.

2. 3.

Step 4 Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE.

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1. 2.

Check whether the problem occurs in a specified UE. Even if the UEs under test are of the same type, their software versions may vary. If the problem does not occur after you perform the same test on other UEs, inform the vendors of the faulty UEs.

Step 5 Determine whether the services are restored. After you diagnose the fault and take corresponding measures, determine whether the services are restored by performing dialing tests several times on the same location where the problem occurs. ----End

2.4 Reference Information of Voice Services


This part describes the reference information about voice services, which consists of signal flow of voice services, negotiation process of establishing voice services, handover process, and encryption process of voice services.

Signal Flow of Voice Services


Voice services are basic services for the mobile communications systems. Figure 2-5 shows the network elements and protocol processing modules involved in the WCDMA network. Figure 2-5 Protocol stack of voice services in the WCDMA system

The protocol stack shown in Figure 2-5 is described as follows:


l

AMR: a voice coding protocol in the WCDMA system. For details, refer to 3GPP TS26.101TS26.105. Uu interface: physical layer processing on the air interface, including channel coding and decoding, scrambling, spreading, modulating, and transmitting. For details, refer to 3GPP TS25.211TS25.215. FP: a protocol for the user plane on the Iub interface. IuUP: a protocol for the user plane on the Iu interface.
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MAC-d: a part of the Uu interface, which can be processed on the UE or the RNC.

After analysis of the modules for protocol processing, the following conclusion can be made to help you troubleshoot voice services:
l

The WCDMA RAN is not involved in speech encoding and decoding but involved in encryption, decryption, and frame format conversion. Thus if a fault occurs in the RAN, it may be frame loss or a frame error which causes noise, message loss, or click sound instead of echo or cross talk. Different from the GSM system, the time adjustment mechanism is posed on the Iu and Iub interfaces. Faults may occur when the time adjustment mechanism is interoperable with other network elements, especially the Iu interfaces of equipment supplied by other vendors, and when the transmission is poor on the Iub interface. The air interface quality, which is influenced by coverage of radio signals and external interference, directly affects the quality of voice services.

Negotiation Process of Establishing Voice Services


The process of establishing voice services is basic to the WCDMA system. This process is the basis of analyzing the faults in voice services, where all the voice processing-related parameters are negotiated and the parameters of speech rate and encryption algorithm need to be obtained. Figure 2-6 shows the parameters of voice services. Figure 2-6 RAB Assignment Request messages

Figure 2-7 shows the parameters of encryption algorithm.


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Figure 2-7 RANAP Security Mode Command messages

Handover Process
Handover from the 3G system to the 2G system
l

At present, all the offices for commercial use can support the handover from the 3G system to the 2G system. After the handover, the 3G RAN is no longer connected but the 3G CN is still connected to the UE.

Inter-frequency hard handover


l

Speech loss is inevitable during the hard handover. Therefore, the quality of voice services will degrade in the case of frequent hard handover, which can be verified through the observation of traffic statistics or signaling tracing for a single user.

Encryption Process of Voice Services


Individual negotiation of CS and PS services
l

When a 3G-to-2G handover is initiated, the encryption algorithm will be negotiated. If the negotiation result is not consistent, serious noise may arise.

Process of special cases


l

For some scenarios of complicated signaling processes, problems may occur in the negotiation of encryption algorithms. For example, if the 3G-to-2G handover fails, the UE will automatically roll back to the 3G system and the encryption algorithm will also be restored.
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Troubleshooting Video Phone Services

About This Chapter


This part describes the faults occurring in VP services and the troubleshooting methods. It also presents cases for troubleshooting VP services. 3.1 Definitions of Video Phone Service Problems VP service problems mainly refer to low call quality or fuzzy images in VP services. 3.2 Low Quality Video Phone Images Low quality VP images include mosaics, fuzzy images, and low speech quality in VP services. 3.3 Signal Flow of Video Phone Services This part describes the protocol processing modules involved in VP services.

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3.1 Definitions of Video Phone Service Problems


VP service problems mainly refer to low call quality or fuzzy images in VP services.

3.2 Low Quality Video Phone Images


Low quality VP images include mosaics, fuzzy images, and low speech quality in VP services.

Context
Figure 3-1 shows the procedure for troubleshooting low quality VP services. Figure 3-1 Procedure for troubleshooting low quality VP services

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SN *1-1 *1-2 *1-3 *1-4 *1-5 *1-6

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Check whether packet loss occurs on the network side. Determine whether the UE is faulty. Determine whether the services are restored. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to ... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Check the quality of radio signals. Check whether packet loss occurs on the network side. Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. Determine whether the services are restored. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. Based on the user's feedback, dialing tests at specified sites are performed until the problem recurs. When the problem recurs, trace the entire signaling process. Maintain the connection between the UE and the network. Note whether a handover, especially the hard handover, occurs in the process. Step 2 Check the quality of radio signals. 1. Check the signal-to-noise ratio on cells and the received signal power of the UE to determine the quality of downlink signals.
l

If the downlink RSCP is less than 98 dBm, improve the radio environment and the quality of downlink signals. If the downlink Ec/Io is less than -15 dB, improve the radio environment and the quality of downlink signals.

2. 3.

Check whether the RTWP of the cell is at a high level. If the RTWP is always higher than 95 dBm, check whether external interference occurs. Check the uplink signals for a single user by monitoring the Block Error Rate (BLER) of transport channels on the RNC LMT. If the BLER is higher than 1%the speech quality may be poor. In this situation, enhance the quality of downlink signals by improving the radio environment.

Step 3 Check whether packet loss occurs on the network side. 1. 2. Check whether intermittent or fault alarms occur in the transmission process on the NodeB. If so, clear the alarms on transmission. Check whether the clock-related alarms are generated on the NodeB and the RNC. If so, clear the alarms.
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3. 4.

Take statistics from a single user for the uplink BLER which is currently set to be 0.2%. If the value exceeds 0.2% after analysis of long-period statistics, a problem may occur. Take statistics from the number of uplink packets and determine whether serious packet loss occurs in the strictly defined 64 kbit/s VP services. If there is no convergence of power control or the packet loss is serious, the problem may occur in the UTRAN. In this situation, contact Huawei for technical support.

Step 4 Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. 1. 2. Check whether the problem occurs in a specified UE. Even if the UEs under test are of the same type, their software versions may vary. If the problem does not occur after you perform the same test on other UEs, inform the vendors of the faulty UEs. Sometimes, the quality of VP services in one network can be determined only through comparison of tests results on VP services in another operator's network. Step 5 Determine whether the services are restored. After solving the previously mentioned problems, initiate VP services again and determine whether the quality of images and voices is improved. At present, the quality of VP services can be determined only by arbitrary decisions. ----End

3.3 Signal Flow of Video Phone Services


This part describes the protocol processing modules involved in VP services. Figure 3-2 shows the network elements and protocol processing modules involved in the WCDMA network. Figure 3-2 Protocol stack for the signal flow of VP services

The protocol stack shown in Figure 3-2 is described as follows:


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3 Troubleshooting Video Phone Services

H324M: Application-layer protocols for VP services, which consist of voice data, video data, and signaling on the application layer. These data are processed only by the UEs. For the UTRAN and the CN, the data are transmitted transparently. This feature can be used to locate some problems, for example, the problem of good-quality video and bad-quality voice can be located in the UE. You can use the earphone instead of the handfree function to solve this problem. Uu interface: physical layer processing on the air interface, including channel encoding and decoding, scrambling, spreading, modulating, and transmitting. For details, refer to 3GPP TS25.211-TS25.215. FP: a protocol for the user plane on the Iub interface. IuUP: a protocol for the user plane on the Iu interface. For VP services, the transparent transmission is applied to the IuUP. MAC-d: a part of the Uu interface, which can be processed on the UE and the RNC respectively.

l l

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Troubleshooting Packet Switched Services

About This Chapter


This part describes the faults occurring in PS services and the troubleshooting methods. It also presents cases for troubleshooting PS services. 4.1 Definitions of PS Service Problems The PS service problems may occur in the CN and the UTRAN. 4.2 PS Service Problems on the Control Plane The UE cannot access the PS services or the PC fails to dial up when a problem occurs in PS services on the control plane. 4.3 PS Service Problems on the User Plane The PS service problem occurs on the user plane when the UE is connected or dialed up to the network but cannot visit the webpage. In some cases, the UE even cannot ping the server during the tests. 4.4 Bad Performance in User Data Transmission Low performance in data transmission on the user plane includes the low data transmission rate in FTP and the poor effect of streaming services. 4.5 Signal Flow of PS Services This part describes the signal flow of PS services.

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4.1 Definitions of PS Service Problems


The PS service problems may occur in the CN and the UTRAN. The control plane carries signaling for the PS services, which is similar to the signaling of the CS services. The user plane carries data for PS services. The differences between PS and CS services are as follows: the CS services are carried on the TDM or IP paths while the PS services are carried only on the IP paths. PS services on the user plane have no definite physical resources. Common PS service problems in the UTRAN consist of the following:
l l l

Fault in channels on the control plane Fault in channels on the user plane Low performance of data transmission on the user plane

4.2 PS Service Problems on the Control Plane


The UE cannot access the PS services or the PC fails to dial up when a problem occurs in PS services on the control plane.

Context
Figure 4-1 shows the procedure for troubleshooting PS service problems on the control plane.

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Figure 4-1 Procedure for troubleshooting PS service problems on control plane

SN *1-1 *1-2 *1-3

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Start the tracing of a single user on the RNC side and check whether the problem occurs in the UE setting.

Refer to... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Check the quality of radio signals. Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE.

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SN *1-4

Action Start the tracing of a single user at the RNC side and check whether the problem occurs in the UE subscription. Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE driver or PC. Determine whether the services are restored. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to... Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE subscription Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE driver or PC. Determine whether the services are restored. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

*1-5 *1-6 *1-7

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. Based on the user's feedback, dialing tests at specified sites are made until the problem recurs. When the problem recurs, trace the entire signaling process. Maintain the connection between the UE and the network. Step 2 Check the quality of radio signals. 1. Check the signal-to-noise ratio on cells and the received signal power of the UE to determine the quality of downlink signals.
l

If the downlink RSCP is less than 98 dBm, improve the radio environment and the quality of downlink signals. If the downlink Ec/Io is less than 15 dB, improve the radio environment and the quality of downlink signals.

2.

Check whether the RTWP of the cell is at a high level. If the RTWP is always higher than 95 dBm, check whether external interference occurs.

Step 3 Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. Check whether the UE settings are correct, for example, the APN, Proxy, password, and website, when the problem recurs. At the same time, check whether the English spelling of the code is correct or the parameters of the 3G and 2G network system are confused. If the setting of parameters is not correct, a primary decision can be made through signaling tracing.
NOTE

For details about UE settings, refer to the user guide of the UE.

Step 4 Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE subscription 1. 2. To check whether the problem is related to specified users, replace the USIM card with a new one and perform tests at the same site. If the problem occurs in one of the USIM cards, contact the CN engineers to check the subscriber information and accounting information.

Step 5 Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE driver or PC.


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1.

Check whether the problem occurs in the settings of PC dial-up parameters such as the APN, subscriber account, and password. The PC driver problem can be diagnosed through signaling flow. If the fault still exists when the signaling flow is complete, reinstall the PC driver and perform a test. If the fault persists, replace the PC and test again.

2. 3.

Step 6 Determine whether the services are restored. To determine whether the PS services are restored, tests on various services are required, for example, online services for UE and demand services. If online, note that the webpage is refreshed to prevent being misled by the pages in the buffer. ----End

4.3 PS Service Problems on the User Plane


The PS service problem occurs on the user plane when the UE is connected or dialed up to the network but cannot visit the webpage. In some cases, the UE even cannot ping the server during the tests.

Context
Figure 4-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting PS service problems on the user plane.

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Figure 4-2 Procedure for troubleshooting PS service problems on the user plane

SN *1-1 *1-2 *1-3

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Start the tracing of a single user on the RNC side and check whether the problem occurs in the RNC.

Refer to... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Check the quality of radio signals. Determine whether the RNC is faulty.

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SN *1-4

Action Perform statistical analysis on the RNC side and determine whether the problem occurs in the CN or the application layer. Determine whether the UE is faulty. Determine whether the services are restored. Collect data on the troubleshooting and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to... Determine whether the problem occurs in the CN or the application layer. Determine whether the UE is faulty. Determine whether the services are restored. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

*1-5 *1-6 *1-7

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. Based on the user's feedback, dialing tests at specified sites are made until the problem recurs. When the problem recurs, trace the entire signaling process. Maintain the connection between the UE and the network. Step 2 Check the quality of radio signals. 1. Check the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) on cells and the received signal power of the UE to determine the quality of downlink signals.
l

If the downlink RSCP is less than 98 dBm, enhance the quality of downlink signals by improving the radio environment. If the downlink Ec/Io is less than 15 dB, enhance the quality of downlink signals by improving the radio environment.

2. 3.

Check whether the RTWP of the cell is at a high level. If the RTWP is always higher than 95 dBm, check whether external interference occurs. Check the single user data in the uplink by monitoring OLPC on the RNC LMT. If the BLER of transport channels is higher than 1%, the PS service quality may be at a low level. In this situation, enhance the quality of downlink signals by improving the radio environment.

Step 3 Determine whether the RNC is faulty.


l

Check whether the process to activate the Packet Data Protocol (PDP) of the UE is complete by tracing the single user signaling on the Iu interface. If the process is not complete, refer to Figure 4-2 to locate the problem. Check whether there are packets in the uplink or the downlink based on detailed information about user tracing. If no packet is found, the problem occurs in the RAN. If only a few packets are found in the uplink while no packets are found in the downlink, the problem occurs in the CN, server, or configurations on the router. For details, refer to Determine whether the problem occurs in the CN or the application layer. If the packets cannot be found on the user plane according to the RNC statistics, contact Huawei for technical support.

Step 4 Determine whether the problem occurs in the CN or the application layer.
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1.

If a few packets in the uplink and in the downlink can be found on the RNC, further check whether the server can be pinged. If no problem occurs, it shows that bottom layer bearing is functional. However, if services such as webpage browsing and VOD are still unavailable, contact relevant engineers or accounting staff responsible for these services. If the server cannot be pinged, check whether data in the uplink and in the downlink are received through the signaling tracing on the CN. If the data are received on the CN, contact the CN engineers for technical support. If you cannot determine whether the problem occurs in the RNC or the CN, contact Huawei for technical support. If a PC is used, check the firewall of the PC. Reinstall the UE driver of the PC and perform a test on the PC. Replace the PC and make the test again.

2.

3.

Step 5 Determine whether the UE is faulty.


l l l

Step 6 Determine whether the services are restored. To determine whether the PS services are restored, you can perform tests on various services such as UE access to the Internet and VOD. Note that the webpage must be refreshed when the UE is connected to the Internet and avoid to be misled by the pages in the buffer. ----End

4.4 Bad Performance in User Data Transmission


Low performance in data transmission on the user plane includes the low data transmission rate in FTP and the poor effect of streaming services.

Context
Figure 4-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting bad performance in user data transmission.

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Figure 4-3 Procedure for troubleshooting bad performance in user data transmission

SN *1-1 *1-2 *1-3

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Start the tracing of a single user on the RNC side and check whether the problem occurs in the RNC.

Refer to ... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Check the quality of radio signals. Determine whether the RNC is faulty.

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SN *1-4

Action Perform statistical analysis on the RNC side and determine whether the problem occurs in the CN or the application layer. Determine whether the UE is faulty. Determine whether the services are restored. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to ... Determine whether the problem occurs in the CN or the application layer. Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. Determine whether the services are restored. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

*1-5 *1-6 *1-7

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. Based on the user's feedback, dialing tests at specified sites are performed until the problem recurs. When the problem recurs, trace the entire signaling process. Maintain the connection between the UE and the network. Step 2 Check the quality of radio signals. 1. Check the signal-to-noise ratio on cells and the received signal power of the UE to determine the quality of downlink signals.
l

If the downlink RSCP is less than 98 dBm, improve the radio environment and the quality of downlink signals. If the downlink Ec/No is less than -15 dB, improve the radio environment and the quality of downlink signals.

2.

Check whether the RTWP of the cell is at a high level. If the RTWP is always higher than 95 dBm, check whether external interference occurs.

Step 3 Determine whether the RNC is faulty.


l

Use detailed information about user tracing, check the analysis result of the actual bandwidth of the RNC, and determine whether the bandwidth of the Iub interface is limited. If the Iub bandwidth is insufficient, ask the operator to add more resources. If the packets cannot be found on the user plane according to the RNC statistics, refer to 1.3 Huawei Technical Support. If a large number of retransmissions are found according to detailed information about the user tracing on the RNC, check radio signals by referring to Check the quality of radio signals. At the same time, check whether an intermittent alarm or packet loss occurs during the transmission.

Step 4 Determine whether the problem occurs in the CN or the application layer.
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If the retransmission of packets in the uplink and downlink of RNC decreases but the transmission rate becomes lower on the whole, analyze the problem by using a packet catcher on the CN or the PC.
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4 Troubleshooting Packet Switched Services

If the field of packet loss can be found by catching packets on the TCP/IP layer on the CN, server, or UE side, contact the CN engineers for technical support. If you cannot determine the causes of packet loss on the RNC or the CN, contact Huawei for technical support.

Step 5 Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE.


l l l l

If a PC is used, check the firewall of the PC. Reinstall the UE driver of the PC and perform a test on the PC. Replace the PC and perform the test again. High performance of PC or UE is required for the high speed download service.

Step 6 Determine whether the services are restored. 1. 2. To determine whether the PS services are restored, you can perform tests on various services such as UE access to the Internet and VOD. To test the performance of data transmission, download a large file and test its download rate. The maximum rate for users to download files depends on the maximum subscription rate. If the subscription rate for a user is 128 kbit/s, normally the average download rate is about 100 kbit/s.

----End

4.5 Signal Flow of PS Services


This part describes the signal flow of PS services. Different from those for CS services, the data transmission paths for WCDMA PS services are relatively complicated, as shown in Figure 4-4. Figure 4-4 Data transmission paths for PS services

Figure 4-4 shows the following:


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The transmission paths for CS and PS services are the same on the physical layer in the UTRAN (including the UE). The protocols of high layers, such as the RLC/PDCP protocol, are more complicated than those of the physical layer. CS and PS services have totally different routes on the CN layer where data on all the interfaces are carried according to the GTP-U protocol. The PS services comply with the TCP/IP protocol on the UE side and on the server side, and methods of recording data and analyzing packet loss are available.

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Troubleshooting the Access to the Network

About This Chapter


This part describes the faults occurring to voice services and the troubleshooting methods. It also presents cases for troubleshooting voice services. 5.1 Defintions of Network Access Problems If the UE fails to access the network or is disconnected when it is powered on, the problem may occur in the network access. 5.2 UE Failure to Search the Network The UE receives no signals and cannot search the network. 5.3 UE Failure to Access the Network or Frequent UE Disconnections from the Network The UE is occasionally faulty when receiving signals; or the UE can receive signals of high quality but fails to access the network; or the UE is frequently disconnected from the network; or the UE always uses the 2G system when the 3G system is available. 5.4 UE Failure to Make a Call on the Network The UE subscribes to the network and receives high-quality signals but fails to make a call or establish other services. 5.5 Procedure for the UE to Select the Network This part describes how the UE selects the network in normal state.

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5.1 Defintions of Network Access Problems


If the UE fails to access the network or is disconnected when it is powered on, the problem may occur in the network access.

Context
Fault symptoms for the network access problems are as follows:
l l l

UE Failure to Search the Network UE Failure to Access the Network or Frequent UE Disconnections from the Network UE Failure to Make a Call on the Network

5.2 UE Failure to Search the Network


The UE receives no signals and cannot search the network.

Context
Figure 5-1 shows the procedure for troubleshooting UE failure to search the network.

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Figure 5-1 Procedure for troubleshooting UE failure to search the network

SN *1-1 *1-2 *1-3 *1-4 *1-5 *1-6

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Check whether the problem occurs in the cells on the RNC. Determine whether the UE is faulty. Determine whether the services are restored. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to ... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Check the quality of radio signals. Check whether the problem occurs in the cell. Check whether the UE is faulty. Determine whether the services are restored. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

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Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. Based on the user's feedback, dialing tests at specified sites are performed until the problem recurs. Step 2 Check the quality of radio signals. To locate the fault causes, you can directly check the data collected by the Scanner. If the RSCP and Ec/lo of the cells are very low, you can determine that the problem occurs in radio coverage. If the RSCP is lower than -105 dBm and the Ec/Io is lower than -18 dB, enhance the quality of signals by resetting the engineering parameters. Different UEs have different abilities to search the network. In the same radio environment, some UEs can access the network and make calls while some cannot. Poor quality of radio signals can be caused by faults in NodeB configurations, cell selections or power amplifiers. In some buildings, high penetration loss also causes signals in poor quality. Note that during the optimization of radio signals, cells may be wrongly selected or the NodeBs may be closed due to the faults. In either case, other cells where the call drop occurs may receive signals of poor quality. Solution: Improve the quality of radio signals. Step 3 Check whether the problem occurs in the cell. Check the related cells covering the site where the problem occurs. Run the DSP CELL command on the RNC LMT and the Query type is BYCELL. If the cell is faulty, the UE on the cell receives no signals and thus fails to access the network. You should clear the fault in the cell first. Step 4 Check whether the UE is faulty. 1. 2. Check whether the UE is manually searching the network or is set to the GSM mode. Change the UE into dual mode of automatic searching and reset the UE for tests. Use the same USIM card and replace the UE for tests.

Step 5 Determine whether the services are restored. Check whether the service recovers after necessary analysis and measures are taken. Reset the UE to check whether it can access the network, receive signals or make calls through normal voice services. ----End

5.3 UE Failure to Access the Network or Frequent UE Disconnections from the Network
The UE is occasionally faulty when receiving signals; or the UE can receive signals of high quality but fails to access the network; or the UE is frequently disconnected from the network; or the UE always uses the 2G system when the 3G system is available.

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Context
Figure 5-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting UE failure to access the network or frequent UE disconnections from the network. Figure 5-2 Procedure for troubleshooting UE failure to search the network

SN *1-1 *1-2 *1-3 *1-4

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE subscription. Determine whether the problem occurs in the uplink of the cell.

Refer to ... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Check the quality of radio signals. Check whether the problem occurs in the UE subscription. Check whether the problem occurs in the uplink of the cell.
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SN *1-5 *1-6

Action Determine whether the services are restored. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to ... Determine whether the services are restored. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. Based on the user's feedback, dialing tests at specified sites are performed until the problem recurs. Step 2 Check the quality of radio signals. Check whether the UE is at the edge of cell coverage or the signals change quickly. To determine the quality of radio signals, you need to consult network planning engineers. Solution: Improve the quality of radio signals. Step 3 Check whether the problem occurs in the UE subscription. 1. When the UE searches the network after being powered on, the signal strength may be displayed for a while and the UE begins to update its location. If the UE fails to update the location, it will be disconnected from the network and receives no signals due to its failure in subscription. Check whether the UE is manually searching the network or is set to the GSM mode. If so, change the UE into dual mode of automatic searching and reset the UE for tests. Replace the USIM card and test the UE again.

2. 3.

Step 4 Check whether the problem occurs in the uplink of the cell. 1. Check whether the RNC receives the UE signaling in the uplink by tracing the signaling over the Uu interface.
l

If the RNC cannot receive the signaling, clear the fault in the cell and then go to step Step 4.2. If the RNC receives the signaling, it is an indication that no problem occurs in the uplink of the cell.

2.

Check whether the cell is normal by running the DSP CELL command on the RNC LMT. The Query type is BYCELL.
l

If the cell is normal but the UE cannot access the network, contact Huawei for technical support. If the cell is faulty, contact Huawei for technical support.

Step 5 Determine whether the services are restored. Check whether the service recovers after necessary analysis and measures are taken. Reset the UE to check whether it can access the network, receive signals or make calls through normal speech services. ----End
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5.4 UE Failure to Make a Call on the Network


The UE subscribes to the network and receives high-quality signals but fails to make a call or establish other services.

Context
Figure 5-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting UE failure to make a call on the network. Figure 5-3 Procedure for troubleshooting UE failure to make a call on the network.

SN *1-1 *1-2

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage.

Refer to ... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Check the quality of radio signals.

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SN *1-3 *1-4 *1-5 *1-6

Action Check whether the problem occurs in the billing system. Determine whether the problem occurs in the cell. Determine whether the services are restored. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to ... Check whether the problem occurs in the billing system. Check whether the problem occurs in the cells. Determine whether the services are restored. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support.

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. Based on the user's feedback, dialing tests at specified sites are performed until the problem recurs. Step 2 Check the quality of radio signals. To locate the fault causes, you can directly check the data collected by the Scanner. If the RSCP and the Ec/lo of the best cell are quite low, it can be inferred that the problem occurs in radio coverage. If the RSCP is less than -105 dBm and the Ec/Io is not more than -18 dB, improve the coverage quality by modifying engineering parameters. Solution: improve the quality of radio coverage. Step 3 Check whether the problem occurs in the billing system. For the default subscribers or the services not subscribed, the UE may receive signals but the services cannot be used. Contact the CN maintainers to check whether the user defaults the charges or does not subscribe to the corresponding service. Step 4 Check whether the problem occurs in the cell. Check whether the cell is normal by running the DSP CELL command on the RNC LMT. The Query type is BYCELL.
l

If the cell is normal but the UE fails to access the network, contact Huawei for technical support. If the cell is faulty, contact Huawei for technical support.

Step 5 Determine whether the services are restored. Check whether the services are restored after taking necessary analysis and measures. Power on and power off the UE to check whether it can access the network, receive signals, and make calls. ----End

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5.5 Procedure for the UE to Select the Network


This part describes how the UE selects the network in normal state. Figure 5-4 shows the process of UE network selection. Figure 5-4 Cell selection and reselection of the UE

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As stipulated by the protocol, the network searching process of the UE is very complicated. Generally, the network searching process is as follows: 1. Power on the UE and read the IMSI from the USIM card. Then obtain the HPLMN ID and the previous PLMN ID from the USIM. Select and search the PLMN in the order stipulated by the TS23.122. Search the cell of each frequency and read the broadcast messages from which you can obtain the PLMN ID of the network. The UE chooses a PLMN and camp on a cell. If the cell meets the requirement for camping, the UE initiates the relocation process for registration. If the relocation is complete, the UE starts the service normally. If the relocation fails, the UE keeps searching other cells to make more attempts on relocation. If the UE cannot find the proper cell to camp on, the cell is chosen at random and enters the state of limited services. In this case, the UE can only intiate calling of limited services. If the UE cannot receive any signal, the UE is in the state of no signals and is searching the network.

2.

3. 4.

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6
About This Chapter
Context
l l l

Troubleshooting Handover

This part describes the faults occurring in different types of handover and the troubleshooting methods. It also presents cases for troubleshooting handover failures.

The problems in handover include: Soft handover failure including both intra-RNC and inter-RNC soft handover failures Inter-frequency hard handover failure Inter-system handover failure

6.1 Definitions of Handover Problems The fault symptoms of handover are not as obvious as those of services. The handover problems often result in call drops. You can decide whether a problem occurs in the handover through problem recurrence and preliminary signaling analysis. 6.2 Intra-RNC Soft Handover Failure Call drops occur during the test; or the soft handover is performed at a very low success rate during the KPI analysis; or the handover process involves only the NodeBs or the cells of an RNC. 6.3 Inter-RNC Soft Handover Failure Call drops occur during the test; or the soft handover is performed at a very low success rate during the KPI analysis; or the handover process involves only the NodeBs or the cells of an RNC. 6.4 Hard Handover Failure Call drops occur during the drive test or the hard handover is performed at a low success rate during the KPI analysis. 6.5 Inter-System Handover Failure Call drops occur during the drive test or the inter-system handover is performed at a low success rate during the KPI analysis. 6.6 Signal Flow of a Handover
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The UE handover is classified into five types: intra-RNC soft handover, inter-RNC soft handover, inta-RNC hard handover, inter-RNC hard handover, and inter-system handover. Each type corresponds to a signal flow.

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6.1 Definitions of Handover Problems


The fault symptoms of handover are not as obvious as those of services. The handover problems often result in call drops. You can decide whether a problem occurs in the handover through problem recurrence and preliminary signaling analysis.

6.2 Intra-RNC Soft Handover Failure


Call drops occur during the test; or the soft handover is performed at a very low success rate during the KPI analysis; or the handover process involves only the NodeBs or the cells of an RNC.

Context
Figure 6-1 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the intra-RNC soft handover failure.

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Figure 6-1 Procedure for troubleshooting the intra-RNC soft handover failure

SN *1-1 *1-2 *1-3

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Determine whether the problem occurs in the setting of parameters.

Refer to ... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Determine whether the problem occurs in the setting of parameters.

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SN *1-4

Action Determine whether the transmission resources or CE resources are limited. Determine whether the problem occurs in the NodeB clock. Determine whether the handover problem is solved. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to ... Determine whether the transmission resources or CE resources are limited. Determine whether a deviation occurs in the NodeB clock. Determine whether the handover problem is solved. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

*1-5 *1-6 *1-7

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. The soft handover problem can be located during its recurrence. You can detect the problem through drive tests at the handover site. Preliminary analysis of the detailed signaling records shows that the problem occurs in the process of soft handover. Step 2 Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. The faults in soft handover consist of the following two types: One is that soft handover cannot be implemented in coverage holes; the other is that because the handover area is too small, when the UE is moving in the handover area, the UE needs to keep measuring its neighboring cells of the same frequency and periodically report the measurement results to the RNC to decide whether to perform the handover. The whole process of handover requires a period of time. If the handover area is too small or the signals change too fast or the signals in the original service area suddenly become weak, the UE cannot complete the handover, which may result in call drops.
l

Check whether the coverage holes exist or the handover area is too small.
NOTE

Quantitative analysis of coverage holes and handover areas can be made through drive test devices of network planning. Coverage holes: You can check whether the signal strength of the cell with optimum signals is lower than the threshold, for example, the signal strength is lower than 105 dBm. The scope of handover areas can be decided by the duration when signals alternate in the serving cells.
l

Contact network planning engineers to solve the problem in radio coverage.

Step 3 Determine whether the problem occurs in the setting of parameters. The parameters related to soft handover include neighboring cell configurations and soft handover boolean.
l

If the neighboring cell of the same frequency is not configured, soft handover cannot be performed when the UE is moving to the cell. If the signals in the original service area suddenly become weak, the UE cannot complete the handover, which may result in call drops. Some neighboring cells are not configured during the network capacity expansion and adjustment. You can further analyze this problem by using drive test devices. For example,
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it is found that the neighboring cells with strong signals are detected but not added to the neighboring cell list. Execute LST INTRAFREQNCELL to check the neighboring cell list.
l

Based on the signaling analysis, the UE stays in the soft handover area and reports the associated measurement results, such as 1A event and 1C event reports but the RNC does not initiate the soft handover. When the UE begins to move, signals in the original service area are increasingly weak, which results in call drops. In the CS services, the soft handover boolean is always open. However, the soft handover is not used for high speed PS services but intra-frequency hard handover. Therefore, these services may cause failures in handover or call drops in application because the boolean of soft handover is not open. The problem is solved when you reset the parameters. Run the SET CORRMALGOSWITCH command to modify the soft handover boolean. Run the SET HOCOMM command to modify the rate threshold of soft handover.

Step 4 Determine whether the transmission resources or CE resources are limited.


l

When soft handover is performed, two or more radio links are needed. The requirement for CE and AAL2 resources increases. If the resources are insufficient, new radio links cannot be set up and new cells cannot be added to the active set. Check the load of the target cell when the problem occurs. For details about how to check the cell load, refer to the RNC Site Maintenance Guide. When resources are limited, you can only increase the resources through capacity expansion or adding transmission resources.

Step 5 Determine whether a deviation occurs in the NodeB clock. At present, most of the UEs can trace only one NodeB clock. Thus the difference between two NodeB clocks must cause the variation of multi-path signals, which brings about many problems, such as no reporting of measurement results and call drops without reasons.
l

The way to diagnose the faults is to check whether the clock-related alarms are reported on the NodeB. If the alarms are reported, refer to the online help of the alarm subsystem. Run the DSP CLKSTAT or DSP CLK(RNC V200R010) command to check whether the NodeB clock is locked.

Step 6 Determine whether the handover problem is solved. After the UE is reconnected to the network, perform a drive test at the same site to check whether the handover is complete. You can perform the test several times if necessary. ----End

6.3 Inter-RNC Soft Handover Failure


Call drops occur during the test; or the soft handover is performed at a very low success rate during the KPI analysis; or the handover process involves only the NodeBs or the cells of an RNC.

Context
Most of the fault causes of the inter-RNC handover and the intra-RNC handover are the same. Refer to 6.2 Intra-RNC Soft Handover Failure.

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NOTE

6 Troubleshooting Handover

Check the parameter settings of the Iur interface, especially those of neighboring cells. Check whether the parameters of the RNCs are consistent.

6.4 Hard Handover Failure


Call drops occur during the drive test or the hard handover is performed at a low success rate during the KPI analysis.

Prerequisite
Figure 6-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the hard handover failure. Figure 6-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the hard handover failure

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SN *1-1 *1-2 *1-3

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Determine whether the problem occurs in the setting of parameters.

Refer to ... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Determine whether the problem occurs in neighboring cell configurations and handover parameter settings. Determine whether the resources are limited. Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. Determine whether the hard handover problem is solved. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

*1-4 *1-5 *1-6 *1-7

Determine whether the transmission resources or CE resources are limited. Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. Determine whether the hard handover problem is solved. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. The handover problem can be located during its recurrence. The faults are detected through drive tests at the handover point and then detailed signaling records are made. Preliminary analysis shows that the faults occur in the process of hard handover. Step 2 The faults related to radio coverage and hard handover consist of the following two types: One is that the handover cannot be performed if coverage holes exist; the other is that because the handover area is too small, the RNC cannot receive the messages of physical channel reconfiguration during the inter-frequency hard handover.
l

Check the signal strength through the drive test devices of network planning at the handover site. Check whether the RSCP is higher than 100 dBm and the Ec/Io is higher than 14 dB. If the signals are too weak, optimize the network to ensure the quality of signals. Contact network planning engineers to solve the problem in radio coverage.

Step 3 Determine whether the problem occurs in neighboring cell configurations and handover parameter settings. The parameters related to hard handover include neighboring cell parameters and hard handover boolean.
l

If the neighboring cell of the same frequency is not configured, the target cell cannot be measured when the UE is moving to the cell. If the signals in the original service area become very weak, the handover may cause call drops. Some neighboring cells are not configured during the network capacity expansion and adjustment. Check the cells of the handover area by using drive test devices and run the LST INTERFREQNCELL command to check whether the neighboring cells are correctly configured.
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6 Troubleshooting Handover

Run the LST CORRMALGOSWITCH command to check whether the boolean for the inter-frequency hard handover, compressed mode and active set is open. If the boolean is open, the hard handover can be performed. For inter-frequency hard handover, when the signals are of low quality, the UE sets up the compressed mode on the network. The inter-frequency hard handover can be performed only when the UE measures the inter-frequency cells. The RNC starts the compressed mode after the UE reports the 2D event. Therefore, the reporting of the 2D event cannot be too late in case that the signal quality of the cells becomes worse and the handover cannot be performed. The way to determine the problem is to check the signal changes of the cell by using drive test devices after the 2D event alarms are reported. For inter-frequency hard handover, when the signals are of low quality, the UE sets up the compressed mode on the network. The inter-frequency hard handover can be performed when the UE measures the inter-frequency cells. The hard handover process should be started if required. If the target cell of the RNC requires high-quality signals, the hard handover cannot be performed even if the cells are measured. When the signal quality of the target cell meets the requirement, that of the serving cell becomes worse and thus the handover still cannot be performed. Solution: The problem is solved when you reset the parameters. When hard handover is performed, two or more radio links are needed for a moment. The requirement for the CE and AAL2 resources increases. If the resources are insufficient, new radio links cannot be set up and new cells cannot be added to the active set. Thus the signal quality of the serving cell becomes worse, which results in call drops. Check the load of the target cell when the problem occurs. For details about how to check the cell load, refer to the RNC Site Maintenance Guide. When resources are limited, you can only increase the resources through capacity expansion or adding transmission resources.

Step 4 Determine whether the resources are limited.


l

Step 5 Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. Some UEs cannot support the compressed mode and so the inter-frequency hard handover cannot be performed. For example, some old version UEs do not support the inter-frequency hard handover. You can only replace the UE and make a test again. Step 6 Determine whether the hard handover problem is solved. After the UE is reconnected to the network, perform a drive test at the same site to check whether the handover is complete. You can perform the test several times if necessary. ----End

6.5 Inter-System Handover Failure


Call drops occur during the drive test or the inter-system handover is performed at a low success rate during the KPI analysis.

Context
NOTE

At present, the inter-system handover is mainly applied to the handover between the 3G and the 2G systems. Many factors, including the devices in these systems, affect the inter-system handover. This part describes the diagnosis of problems in the RAN of the 3G system.

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Figure 6-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the inter-system handover failure. Figure 6-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the inter-system handover failure

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SN *1-1 *1-2 *1-3 *1-4 *1-5 *1-6 *1-7 *1-8

Action Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in the RAN. Determine whether the problem occurs in the setting of parameters. Determine whether the resources of the 2G system are limited. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. Determine whether the inter-system handover problem is solved. Collect fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

Refer to ... Perform tests until the problem recurs. Determine whether the problem occurs in the RAN. Determine whether the problem occurs in the setting of parameters. Determine whether the resources of the 2G system are limited. Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. Determine whether the intersystem handover problem is solved. 1.3 Huawei Technical Support

Procedure
Step 1 Perform tests until the problem recurs. The inter-system handover problem can be located during its recurrence. The faults are detected through drive tests at the handover point and then detailed signaling records are made. Preliminary analysis shows that the faults occur in the process of inter-system handover. Step 2 Determine whether the problem occurs in the RAN. Many network elements are involved in inter-system handover. Check whether the faults occur in the RAN by tracing the signaling of single subscribers. Step 3 Determine whether the problem occurs in the setting of parameters. The parameters related to the inter-system handover include neighboring cell configurations and inter-system boolean.
l

The 3G and the 2G systems are two different networks. Some neighboring cells are not configured during the capacity expansion of networks or the resetting of parameters. The problem frequently occurs in the network for commercial use. Generally, to solve the problem, you can make drive tests in the cell where neighboring cells are not configured to make the fault recur. Then check the information on the cells at the same site of both the 3G and the 2G systems through drive test devices. Check whether the neighboring cells are correctly configured by running the LST GSMNCELL command on the RNC. The boolean is used to control the system handover and the compressed mode. Ensure that the boolean is open and then perform the inter-system handover. Run the LST CORRMALGOSWITCH command to query the boolean status.
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For inter-system handover, when the signals are of low quality, the UE sets up the compressed mode. The inter-sysem handover can be performed only when the UE measures the intersystem neighboring cells. The RNC starts the compressed mode after the alarm on the 2D event of the UE is reported . Therefore, the reporting of the 2D event cannot be too late in case that the signal quality of the cells becomes worse and the handover cannot be performed. The way to determine the problem is to check the signal changes of the cell by using drive test devices after the 2D event alarms are reported. Parameter settings of inter-system handover include those of the access network. The CN of the 3G system also has information on the neighboring cells of the 2G system. Correct settings ensure that the handover is performed normally. If the handover fails, contact the CN maintenance engineers to check the parameter settings of neighboring cells. To check the parameter settings of the CN, contact the CN engineers for technical support. The problem is solved when you reset the parameters.

Step 4 Determine whether the resources of the 2G system are limited. When inter-system handover is performed, radio link resources are required. If the 2G system has much load and the resources are insufficient, new radio links cannot be set up and the intersystem handover cannot be performed.
l

Check whether the resources of the 2G system are limited. The CN of the 3G system queries the CN of the 2G system. The received response is No resource. The problem is solved when you add more resources or more cells where a handover can be performed.

Step 5 Determine whether the problem occurs in radio coverage. The faults related to radio coverage and inter-system handover are mainly that the signals change quickly in the handover area. Generally the parameter settings of inter-system handover depend on those of the whole network. However, for some handover areas, for example, railways and highways, specific adjustment of parameters or coverage improvement is required because the UE can move very fast. Changes of signal quality in the cells are measured by the drive test devices after the alarm on the 2D event is reported. You can ask the network planning engineers for evaluation. Step 6 Determine whether the problem occurs in the UE. Some UEs, usually the old version UEs of the 3G system, cannot support the inter-system handover. And most of the 3G UEs support the operation mode of manual setting. If the UE is set to the WCDMA-ONLY mode, the inter-system handover cannot be performed. The UEs of various types have different settings. Most of the UEs are in the network setting list. To check the list, refer to the user guide of the UE. This problem is solved when you modify the operation mode of the UE or make a test on the UE that meets your requirements. Step 7 Determine whether the inter-system handover problem is solved. After the UE is reconnected to the network, perform a drive test at the same site to check whether the handover is complete. You can perform the test several times if necessary. ----End

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6.6 Signal Flow of a Handover


The UE handover is classified into five types: intra-RNC soft handover, inter-RNC soft handover, inta-RNC hard handover, inter-RNC hard handover, and inter-system handover. Each type corresponds to a signal flow.

Signal Flow of an Intra-RNC Soft Handover


Figure 6-4 shows the signal flow of an intra-RNC soft handover. Figure 6-4 Signal Flow of an Intra-RNC Soft Handover

In different scenarios, the intra-RNC soft handovers can be different. The above figure shows the common process of adding a new tributary channel through a soft handover. The process mainly includes the following steps:
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1. 2. 3.

Establish radio links on a new NodeB. Add a new tributary channel for the UE by sending the message Activeset Update. When the message Activeset Update Complete for the UE is received, the whole process is complete.

Signal Flow of an Inter-RNC Soft Handover


Figure 6-4 shows the inter-RNC soft handover flow. Figure 6-5 Signal Flow of an Inter-RNC Soft Handover

The signaling processing between the RNCs is added to the signal flow of the inter-RNC soft handover. The SRNC sends the signaling of establishing a radio link to the DRNC over the Iur interface. Then the DRNC sets up a new radio link for the new NodeB. Other process is the same as that of the inter-RNC soft handover flow.

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Signal Flow of an Intra-RNC Hard Handover


Figure 6-4 shows the intra-RNC hard handover flow. Figure 6-6 Signal Flow of an Intra-RNC Hard Handover

In the case of intra-frequency handover or lack of resources, the hard handover flow is often performed. Different from the soft handover flow, the intra-RNC hard handover flow connects the UE to a new radio link by running the Physical Channel Reconfiguration command. The old radio link is deleted at the same time.

Signal Flow of an Inter-RNC Hard Handover


Figure 6-4 shows the inter-RNC hard handover flow.

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Figure 6-7 Signal flow of an inter-RNC hard handover

The signaling processing between the RNCs is added to the signal flow of the inter-RNC hard handover. The SRNC sends the signaling of establishing radio links to the DRNC over the Iur interface. Then the DRNC sets up a new radio link for the new NodeB. Other process is the same as that of the inter-RNC hard handover flow.

Signal Flow of an Inter-system Handover


Figure 6-4 shows the inter-system handover flow.

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Figure 6-8 Signal flow of an inter-system handover

The inter-system handover, which involves many 3G and 2G network elements, is relatively complicated. On the whole, the process is as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Handover required by RNC (to CN) 3G-to-2G handover required (3G CN to 2G CN) Handover command (RNC to UE) Handover command (UE to 2G) Handover complete (2G CN to 3G CN) Original radio link release (3G CN to RNC).

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7 Troubleshooting RAN Clocks

7
About This Chapter

Troubleshooting RAN Clocks

This part describes the relationship between the clock fault causes and related alarms. It also presents cases for troubleshooting clock failures. The clock faults refer to the faults occurring in clock source and clock board. 7.1 Definitions of Clock Problems The clock faults refer to the faults in clock source and clock board. 7.2 NodeB Clock Problems: Causes and Related Alarms The NodeB clock problems refer to the faults occurring in the NodeB clock source and clock board. This part mainly describes the fault causes and related alarms. 7.3 RNC Clock Problems: Causes and Related Alarms The RNC clock problems refer to the faults occurring in the RNC clock source and clock board. This part mainly describes the fault causes and related alarms. 7.4 Signal Flow of a Clock System The RAN clock system consists of two parts: the RNC clock system and the NodeB clock system. The RNC clock system can provide clock signals for the NodeB clock system through the Iub interface. Either of the clock systems can extract clock signals from the GPS or the external clock reference sources independently.

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7.1 Definitions of Clock Problems


The clock faults refer to the faults in clock source and clock board.

7.2 NodeB Clock Problems: Causes and Related Alarms


The NodeB clock problems refer to the faults occurring in the NodeB clock source and clock board. This part mainly describes the fault causes and related alarms. Table 7-1 NodeB clock fault causes and related alarms Fault Cause The clock source is lost due to the loss, variation or large offset of the clock reference source; or the errors in system settings. Related Alarm ALM-1020 NodeB Clock Source Abnormal (for macro NodeB) ALM-1008 NodeB Clock Source Abnormal (for BBU) ALM-1021 GPS Abnormal The frequency of clock source components drifts or the frequency is incorrect. ALM-1020 NodeB Clock Source Abnormal (for macro NodeB) ALM-1008 NodeB Clock Source Abnormal (for BBU) ALM-1038 NMPT Secondary PLL Out of Lock (only for macro NodeB) The clock source components are damaged. For example, the local clock is lost. ALM-1032 NMPT-to-Board Clock Abnormal (only for macro NodeB) ALM-1036 NMPT 10M Clock Abnormal (only for macro NodeB) ALM-1008 Board Clock Abnormal (for macro NodeB) ALM-1007 Board Clock Abnormal (for BBU) ALM-1037 NMPT 4x Clock Abnormal (only for macro NodeB)

7.3 RNC Clock Problems: Causes and Related Alarms


The RNC clock problems refer to the faults occurring in the RNC clock source and clock board. This part mainly describes the fault causes and related alarms.

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Table 7-2 RNC V100R010 clock fault causes and related alarms Fault Cause The board module is faulty; or the board version is incorrect; or the board is not securely inserted. Related Alarm ALM-9030 Clock Source Unavailability ALM-9036 PLL 88915 Faulty ALM-9037 Crystal Oscillator Faulty ALM-9031 PLL TRU050 Faulty

Table 7-3 RNC V200R010 clock fault causes and related alarms Fault Cause The board module is faulty; or the board version is incorrect; or the board is not securely inserted. Related Alarm ALM-232 The Clock Reference Of The GCU/GCG Board Unusable Alarm ALM-233 The Current Clock Reference Source Status Of The GCU/GCG Board Abnormal Alarm ALM-234 The Current Clock Reference Source The GCU/GCG Board 24-Hour Abnormal Beyond Threshold Alarm ALM-235 The Clock Module Input Resource Of GCU/GCG Board Unusable Alarm ALM-236 The GCU/GCG Clock Frequency Doubler Abnormal Alarm ALM-237 The Local Oscillator Signal Abnormal Alarm ALM-238 The Status Of Phase-Lock Loop Of GCU/ GCG Board Changed Alarm ALM-239 The Clock Reference Source Of GCU/ GCG Board Changed Alarm

7.4 Signal Flow of a Clock System


The RAN clock system consists of two parts: the RNC clock system and the NodeB clock system. The RNC clock system can provide clock signals for the NodeB clock system through the Iub interface. Either of the clock systems can extract clock signals from the GPS or the external clock reference sources independently.

Signal Flow of the RNC Clock System


The RNC clock sources include the following:
l

BITS clock
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Iu interface clock Satellite synchronization clock Local free-run clock

Take the RNC V200R010 as an example. Figure 7-1 shows the RNC clock structure. Figure 7-1 RNC clock structure

NOTE

The RNC clock module is on the GCUa/GCGa board, as shown in Figure 7-1.
l

The RNC can use the GPS timing signals shown in Figure 7-1 only when the RNC is configured with the GCGa board, because the GCGa board is configured with a GPS card but the GCUa board is not. If the RINT (AEUa, PEUa, POUa, AOUa, or UOIa) that extracts the line clock from the CN is located in the RSS subrack, the timing signals travel to the GCUa/GCGa board either through a backplane channel in the RSS subrack or through the 2 MHz timing signal output port on the panel of the RINT. In the former case, the channel can be either line 0 channel
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or line 1 channel. In the latter case, a clock cable connects the RINT to the GCUa/GCGa board.
l

If the RINT that extracts the clock from the CN is located in an RBS subrack, the timing signals travel to the GCUa/GCGa board only through the 2 MHz timing signal output port on the panel of the RINT. In this case, a clock cable connects the RINT to the GCUa/GCGa board.

Signal Flow of the NodeB Clock System


The NodeB supports the following three clock synchronization modes:
l l l

Iub interface clock GPS clock External reference clock

Take the BTS3812E/BTS3812AE as an example. The signal flows of the three modes are described as follows: Figure 7-2 Iub interface clock synchronization mode

The Iub interface clock is an optional clock synchronization mode, as shown in Figure 7-3. When the GPS clock is taken as the NodeB synchronization clock source, a GPS card must be configured in the NMPT board.

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Figure 7-3 GPS clock synchronization mode

The NodeB can provide 2 MHz clock sources for clock synchronization through the external reference clock as shown in Figure 7-4. The reference clock can be a BITS clock or a 2 MHz clock provided by the transmission equipment. The accuracy of the external reference clock should be higher than 0.05 ppm as required.

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Figure 7-4 External reference clock synchronization mode

NOTE

In addition to the previously-mentioned three modes, the NodeB internal clock is set to the free-run mode to ensure the normal operation of the NodeB. The OCXO of high accuracy is applied to the NodeB as the main clock. The clock should be an enhanced clock with the time limit of 90 days to ensure the normal operation of the NodeB.

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8 Troubleshooting RAN Interface Links

Troubleshooting RAN Interface Links

About This Chapter


This part describes the fault causes and related alarms of the RAN interface links. It also presents the cases of troubleshooting interface links. 8.1 Definitions of Interface Link Problems The interface link problems refer to the faults in the interface links between the RAN host system and other devices, for example, the CN devices. 8.2 Interface Link Problems: Causes and Related Alarms This part describes the fault causes and related alarms of interface links for the NodeB and the RNC.

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8.1 Definitions of Interface Link Problems


The interface link problems refer to the faults in the interface links between the RAN host system and other devices, for example, the CN devices.

8.2 Interface Link Problems: Causes and Related Alarms


This part describes the fault causes and related alarms of interface links for the NodeB and the RNC.

Context
Table 8-1 shows the fault causes and related alarms of interface links for the NodeB. Table 8-1 Fault causes and related alarms of interface links for the NodeB Fault Cause The links are wrongly connected. For example, the transmit and receive links are connected inversely. Related Alarm ALM-2500 E1/T1 Loss of Signal ALM-2501 E1/T1 Alarm Indication Signal ALM-2502 E1/T1 Remote Alarm Indication ALM-2513 E1/T1 Loopback ALM-2602 Optical Port Loss of Signal ALM-2604 Optical Port Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal ALM-2605 Optical Port Line Remote Defect Indication The transmission quality in the links is at a low level, or the links are faulty, or the boards related to transmission are faulty. ALM-2500 E1/T1 Loss of Signal ALM-2501 E1/T1 Alarm Indication Signal ALM-2502 E1/T1 Remote Alarm Indication ALM-2503 E1/T1 Loss of Frame Alignment ALM-2504 E1/T1 Loss of Multiframe Alignment ALM-2505 Excessive E1/T1 Slip Frames ALM-2507 E1/T1 Bit Error Rate Too High ALM-2600 Optical Port Out Of Frame ALM-2601 Optical Port Loss of Frame ALM-2602 Optical Port Loss of Signal

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Fault Cause

Related Alarm ALM-2603 Optical Port Administrative Unit Loss of Pointer ALM-2604 Optical Port Line Alarm Indication Signal ALM-2605 Optical Port Line Remote Defect Indication ALM-2606 Optical Port Loss of Cell Delineation

The parameters are set incorrectly.

ALM-2503 E1/T1 Loss of Frame Alignment ALM-2504 E1/T1 Loss of Multiframe Alignment ALM-2605 Optical Port Line Remote Defect Indication

Table 8-2 shows the fault causes and related alarms of interface links for the RNC. Table 8-2 Fault causes and related alarms of interface links for the RNC Fault Cause The cables are wrongly connected, or the modules are mismatched, or the hardware is faulty. The parameters for link interconnection are wrongly negotiated, or the interconnection parameters are inconsistent, or the parameters for both ends are wrongly interpreted. Related Alarm Fault alarms of ports on interface board Fault alarms of physical links ALM-1802 SAAL Link Unavailable ALM-1413 MTP-3b Signalling Link Unavailable ALM-1403 MTP-3b DSP Inaccessible ALM-1711 Path Unavailable ALM-1508 Remote SCCP Unavailable ALM-1901 Path to SGSN Faulty ALM-2602 PPP/MLPPP Link Down ALM-1851 SCTP link down ALM-2010 NCP Faulty ALM-2011 CCP Faulty ALM-2008 Common Channel Faulty ALM-2006 Cell Unavailable ALM-2026 NodeB Unavailable

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9 Troubleshooting RAN Radio Frequency Performance

Troubleshooting RAN Radio Frequency Performance

About This Chapter


This part describes the fault causes and related alarms of RF performance. It also presents the cases of troubleshooting RF performance. 9.1 Definitions of RF Problems The Radio Frequency (RF) problems refer to the faults in the RF system, including the antenna and feeder system, receive path, and transmit path. 9.2 NodeB RF Fault: Causes and Related Alarms The NodeB RF fault refers to the fault caused by the NodeB RF subsystem. This part mainly describes the fault causes and related alarms. 9.3 Signal Flow of the RAN RF System This part describes the RAN RF system structure and the RF signal flow in the downlink and the uplink.

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9.1 Definitions of RF Problems


The Radio Frequency (RF) problems refer to the faults in the RF system, including the antenna and feeder system, receive path, and transmit path.

9.2 NodeB RF Fault: Causes and Related Alarms


The NodeB RF fault refers to the fault caused by the NodeB RF subsystem. This part mainly describes the fault causes and related alarms. Table 9-1 NodeB RF fault causes and related alarms Fault Cause Antenna system faults Related Alarm ALM-1107 TMA Fault ALM-1150 Antenna VSWR Abnormal (only for macro NodeB) ALM-1317 RRU VSWR Abnormal Receive path faults ALM-1151 MAFU LNA FaultRRU LNA Fault (only for macro NodeB) ALM-1318 RRU LNA Fault ALM-1102 MTRU Rx Branch Abnormal ALM-1308 RRU Rx Branch Abnormal Transmit path faults ALM-1107 MTRU Tx Branch Switch off ALM-1306 RRU Tx Gain Abnormal ALM-1100 MTRU Tx Gain Abnormal ALM-1313 RRU Tx Branch Switch Off Antenna equipment faults ALM-1319 RRU ALD Current Abnormal ALM-2102 RET Hardware Abnormal ALM-2103 RET Motor Abnormal ALM-2104 RET Not Adjusted ALM-2105 RET Data Loss ALM-2106 RET Position Loss ALM-1152 ALD Current Abnormal Equipment or link faults ALM-1101 MTRU DPD Failure ALM-1106 MTRU Clock Abnormal

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Fault Cause

Related Alarm ALM-1111 MTRU-to-MAFU Tx Link Abnormal (only for macro NodeB) ALM-1113 MTRU Internal Hardware Abnormal (only for macro NodeB) ALM-1153 MTRU-to-MAFU Control Link Abnormal (only for macro NodeB) ALM-1307 RRU DPD Failure

Other factors

ALM-1104 MTRU Over Current ALM-1105 MTRU Over Temperature ALM-1108 MTRU Input Power Too High ALM-1310 RRU Over Current ALM-1311 RRU Over Temperature ALM-1314 RRU Input Power Too High

9.3 Signal Flow of the RAN RF System


This part describes the RAN RF system structure and the RF signal flow in the downlink and the uplink. Figure 9-1 shows the signal flow of the RAN RF system. Figure 9-1 Signal flow of the RAN RF system

Downlink signal flow: After the RF modulation and power amplification, the baseband signals are transmitted from the MTRU to the MAFU. The transmit filter in the MAFU module filters out the out-band signals and then sends the other signals to the antenna. Uplink signal flow: After being filtered by the receive filter and amplified by the Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), the signals received by the antenna are transmitted from the MAFU to the
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MTRU. When the signals go through the process of down-conversion and filtering, they are modulated into baseband signals in the baseband modules. For NodeB V200R010 the MTRU and MAFU are united to be WRFU.
NOTE

The Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA) is an optional module. It filters downlink signals and provides a filter and an LNA for uplink signals.

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Collecting RAN Fault Location Data

About This Chapter


When the RAN devices are faulty and the field engineers cannot immediately locate or clear the faults, collect the RAN fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support. 10.1 Collecting RNC Fault Location Data When the RNC is faulty and the field engineers cannot immediately locate or clear the faults, collect the RNC fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support. 10.2 Push-Button RNC Data Collection Guidelines The RNC LMT provides simple methods for collecting fault location data. You can collect the BAM and FAM fault location data easily by running the COL LOG command. The returned messages include the file path and file name for saving fault data. 10.3 Collecting NodeB Fault Location Data When the NodeB is faulty and the field engineers cannot immediately locate or clear the faults, collect the NodeB fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support.

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10.1 Collecting RNC Fault Location Data


When the RNC is faulty and the field engineers cannot immediately locate or clear the faults, collect the RNC fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support. 10.1.1 Collecting RNC Fault Location Data In different scenarios, you need to combine different types of data to locate and clear the faults. 10.1.2 Collecting Error Logs from the RNC FAM Error logs from the RNC FAM are the most important fault location data, including various error data, failed message trace during the calling, and cell logs. 10.1.3 Collecting RNC Alarm Data The past and present RNC alarm data are recorded on the LMT, which indicates the running or changing status of the RNC. 10.1.4 Collecting Error Logs from a BAM Server Error logs from a BAM server include the event logs, SQL Server logs, and BAM module running logs. 10.1.5 Collecting Operation Logs from the RNC LMT The operation logs from the RNC LMT record all the MML commands executed by users on the LMT during a period of time. These logs serve as the main reference for checking parameter modifications and key actions such as reset and changeover order. 10.1.6 Collecting RNC Self-Diagnostic Output Data When a fault occurs, the fault inside the RNC may not be displayed on the LMT, which indicates that the internal part of the RNC is probably faulty. Before locating the fault, you need to check the statuses of the links and boards in the RNC. 10.1.7 Collecting Call Data Tracing Messages When a user requires the detailed analysis of call flow fault causes, you can provide a typical call flow record of the user. The Call Data Tracing (CDT) is a comprehensive record for fault location. 10.1.8 Collecting Signaling Tracing Messages on Standard Interfaces Signaling tracing messages on standard interfaces include the tracing messages on the Iu, Iub, and Uu interfaces, or of a single user. These messages are collected to check whether the interface messages are correct when devices of different companies are interconnected. 10.1.9 Collecting RNC Configuration Data The RNC configuration data are collected from a BAM server. BAM configuration data can be used as a reference for fault location.

10.1.1 Collecting RNC Fault Location Data


In different scenarios, you need to combine different types of data to locate and clear the faults. Table 10-1 shows the RNC fault location data to be collected.

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Table 10-1 RNC fault location data Scenario Faults occur in network access, PS services, and handover. Fault Location Data
l l

RNC alarm data Signaling tracing messages on standard interfaces from the RNC LMT The CDR of a single subscriber on the test management system RNC configuration data Operation logs from the RNC LMT UE types Error logs from the RNC FAM RNC self-diagnostic output data RNC alarm data RNC configuration data Signaling tracing messages on standard interfaces from the RNC LMT The CDR of a single user on the test management system Performance tracing (such as throughput, BLER, and transmit power) Operation logs from the RNC LMT UE types RNC self-diagnostic output data Error logs from the RNC FAM RNC alarm data Error logs from the RNC FAM RNC configuration data Operation logs from the RNC LMT Call Detail Record Push-button NodeB logs and NodeB alarms RNC alarm data Error logs from the RNC FAM The message returned by the command DSP RSTREASON from the LMT Operation logs from the RNC LMT RNC alarm data Error logs from a BAM server

l l l

In addition, the following data are allowed:


l l

Faults occur in PS services, such as abnormal PS rate, unreachable set rate, and serious rate variation.

l l l

l l

l l

In addition, the following data are allowed:


l l

Faults in network access

l l l l l l

RNC board reset or board fault or broken internal IPC link

l l l

Operation and maintenance fault

l l

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10.1.2 Collecting Error Logs from the RNC FAM


Error logs from the RNC FAM are the most important fault location data, including various error data, failed message trace during the calling, and cell logs.

Procedure
Step 1 Collecting text log files The file path is \BAM\LoadData\FamLog. For RNC V200R010 the path is BAM\Common \Famlog\fmt as shown in Figure 10-1. Figure 10-1 RNC FAM log file

File format: FNLOGyyyymmddhhmmss_yyyymmddhhmmss.log.zip


l l

FN: subrack number, 2 digits yyyy: year mm: month dd: day hh: hour mm: minute ss: second

For example, 00Log20080425064929_20080425090626.log.zip Step 2 Collecting CHR data


NOTE

The Call History Record (CHR) in binary format requires specific tools for analysis.

The file path is \BAM\LoadData\FamLogFmt. For RNC V200R010 the path is BAM \Common\Famlog\txt as shown in Figure 10-2.
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Figure 10-2 CHR path and file name

File format: FNLOGyyyymmddhhmmss_yyyymmddhhmmss.log.zip


l l

FN: subrack number, 2 digits yyyy: year mm:month dd: day hh: hour mm: minute ss: second

The "zip" means the way to compress the file. For example: 00Log20080425064929_20080425090626.log.zip
NOTE

When a fault occurs, you only need to collect the log files recording the fault-related time and subrack number from the two directories.

----End

10.1.3 Collecting RNC Alarm Data


The past and present RNC alarm data are recorded on the LMT, which indicates the running or changing status of the RNC.

Prerequisite
NOTE

The RNC alarm data are of two types: event alarms and fault alarms. Both types are required for the faults that are difficult to locate.

Procedure
Open the Alarm Browse window and select the fault alarms. Right-click and select Save All Alarms. Save them as .txt files.
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Figure 10-3 RNC FAM log file

You can decide the directory and file name to save the files. ----End

10.1.4 Collecting Error Logs from a BAM Server


Error logs from a BAM server include the event logs, SQL Server logs, and BAM module running logs.

Prerequisite
If a fault occurs in the BAM, you should collect BAM logs. Generally, in other cases, BAM log collection is not required.

Procedure
To collect all the BAM fault location data, run the COL LOG command on the LMT. The log file name and file path are displayed after you use this command. The BAM fault data to be collected include module running logs, SQL Server logs, various operation logs and alarms, and user operation logs. ----End
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10.1.5 Collecting Operation Logs from the RNC LMT


The operation logs from the RNC LMT record all the MML commands executed by users on the LMT during a period of time. These logs serve as the main reference for checking parameter modifications and key actions such as reset and changeover order.

Procedure
Run the EXP LOG command on the LMT. Save the generated file in \BAM\FTP, generally in D:\Bsc6800\BAM\FTP. For the RNC V200R010 the path is BAM main eara path\FTP. The file is named as RNC-Y2008M01D09H13N01S52-Y2008M05D09H13N02S09OLOG.txt. The number in the middle represents the time when the file is named, that is , from 2008-01-09-13:01:52 to 2008-05-09-13:02:09. ----End

10.1.6 Collecting RNC Self-Diagnostic Output Data


When a fault occurs, the fault inside the RNC may not be displayed on the LMT, which indicates that the internal part of the RNC is probably faulty. Before locating the fault, you need to check the statuses of the links and boards in the RNC.

Procedure
Step 1 Select a self-diagnostic subrack by running the TST SYS command on the LMT. Figure 10-4 Self-diagnoses

Step 2 After the command is used, the system can automatically detect the fault in the devices or signaling links of the transport layer. The self-diagnostic functions include diagnoses of the following:
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Boards and subsystem statuses Board self-diagnostic result Board clock status
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Temperature of the WMUX or WMUXb or WFMR board Transport links within a WRBS subrack or between the WRBS subracks Transport links between the WRBS and WRSS subracks DSP, HPI, and TDM of the WFMR RFN status Internal PVC configuration

For the RNC V200R010 the self-diagnostic of RBS subrack include diagnoses of the following:
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Boards and subsystem statuses Board self-diagnostic result Board clock status Temperature of the SCU or DPU board Transport links within a RBS subrack or between the RBS subracks Transport links between the RBS and RSS subracks DSP, HPI, and TDM of the DPU RFN status Internal PVC configuration

For the RNC V200R010 the self-diagnostic of RSS subrack inculde diagnoses of the following:
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Boards statuses Board self-diagnostic result CPU usage Memory usage Queue usage

Step 3 In a period of time, the self-diagnostic result is reported in a .txt file and saved in the BAM under the \BAM\LoadData\WRBSFad, generally in D:\Bsc6800\BAM\LoadData\WRBSFad.
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WRBS self-diagnostic file: WRBS17FadResult2005-0907-17-37.txt WRSS self-diagnostic file: WRSS02FADRESULT2005-0907-16-26.txt

For the RNC V200R0010 the self-diagnostic result is reported and saved in \LOADDATA \FAD on the BAM server, as shown in Figure 10-5. The self-diagnostic result file is named according to the following rule: Subrack No. + FADRESULT + yyyy/mm/dd/hh/mm/ss.

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Figure 10-5 Self-diagnostic file path

----End

10.1.7 Collecting Call Data Tracing Messages


When a user requires the detailed analysis of call flow fault causes, you can provide a typical call flow record of the user. The Call Data Tracing (CDT) is a comprehensive record for fault location.

Procedure
Step 1 Start the LMT and click the Maintenance tab in the left pane. Select CDT, as shown in Figure 10-6.

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Figure 10-6 CDT tracing

Step 2 When the CDT tracing window is displayed, enter the IMSI number in the IMSI box. Click OK, as shown Figure 10-7.

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Figure 10-7 Setting the CDT tracing

Step 3 Click OK to start the CDT tracing. Step 4 If the tracing is started successfully, call the UE to obtain the call detail message. After the tracing, the message can be automatically saved as a file on the LMT under a constant directory as shown in Figure 10-8.

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Figure 10-8 CDT tracing message file

CAUTION
The CDT file cannot be saved manually, because the system automatically saves the file. You will obtain incomplete messages through manual saving. Therefore, it is recommended to use the file that is automatically saved by the system. ----End

10.1.8 Collecting Signaling Tracing Messages on Standard Interfaces


Signaling tracing messages on standard interfaces include the tracing messages on the Iu, Iub, and Uu interfaces, or of a single user. These messages are collected to check whether the interface messages are correct when devices of different companies are interconnected.

Procedure
Step 1 Trace the messages on standard interfaces on the LMT. Select the Maintenance tab in the window on the LMT. Step 2 Click Trace Management, as shown in Figure 10-9.

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Figure 10-9 Trace management

Step 3 Double-click an interface tracing message. The tracing message dialog box is displayed. For example, if you double-click Iu interface tracing, the Iu interface tracing dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 10-10.

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Figure 10-10 Iu interface tracing

The upper part of the dialog box shows the tracing destination point and the RNC WSPU subsystem. The messages to be traced are in the lower part and usually they are all selected. You can select the options in the dialog box as required. For details about how to trace messages, press F1 for help. Step 4 Save the messages in the file under the LMT installation directory, as shown in Figure 10-11.

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Figure 10-11 File path for tracing messages on standard interfaces

NOTE

The UE tracing on standard interfaces should not be performed concurrently with the CDR tracing on the test management system. For a single user, the system provides tracing of messages on one interface only.

----End

10.1.9 Collecting RNC Configuration Data


The RNC configuration data are collected from a BAM server. BAM configuration data can be used as a reference for fault location.

Context
The configuration script exported by the MML command is under the \BAM\FTP, generally in D:\Bsc6800\BAM\FTP. For RNC V200R010 the path is BAM main area path\FTP. The file name is specified when the MML command is executed. If the file name is not specified, the system provides the following file name format by default: CFGMMLYYYYMMDDHHMMSS.txt. For example, if a file name is CFGMML-20050819121344.txt, it represents the time when the file is named.

Procedure
Export all the BAM configuration data by running the EXP CFGMML command on the LMT of the RNC. ----End
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10.2 Push-Button RNC Data Collection Guidelines


The RNC LMT provides simple methods for collecting fault location data. You can collect the BAM and FAM fault location data easily by running the COL LOG command. The returned messages include the file path and file name for saving fault data.

Procedure
Collect fault location data by running the COL LOG command on the LMT. The result is shown in Figure 10-12. Figure 10-12 COL LOG parameters

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For the TYPE box:


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If you select BAM, only BAM-related data are collected, including running logs of all BAM modules, event logs and SQL Sever logs of the BAM operating system, subscriber operation logs on the LMT, and alarm data. If you select HOST, besides error logs from the RNC FAM, the subscriber execution logs of MML commands, alarm data, and self-diagnostic output data are collected. If you select ALL, both BAM and HOST logs are collected.

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----End

10.3 Collecting NodeB Fault Location Data


When the NodeB is faulty and the field engineers cannot immediately locate or clear the faults, collect the NodeB fault location data and contact Huawei for technical support. 10.3.1 Collecting NodeB NMPT Logs When a fault occurs in the NodeB, collect NodeB NMPT logs. You can save and check these logs when they are uploaded to the FTP server. 10.3.2 Collecting NodeB Board Logs When a fault occurs in a board, the data related to the faulty board need to be collected in addition to the NodeB NMPT logs. You can save and check these data when they are uploaded to the FTP server. 10.3.3 Collecting Signaling Tracing Messages on the Iub Interface When handling service-related faults in access, call drop or cell setup, you need to collect the returned Iub messages for fault location and analysis. 10.3.4 Collecting CHR data When handling service-related faults in access, call drop or cell setup, you need to collect the returned NodeB CHR data for fault location and analysis.

10.3.1 Collecting NodeB NMPT Logs


When a fault occurs in the NodeB, collect NodeB NMPT logs. You can save and check these logs when they are uploaded to the FTP server.

Procedure
Step 1 Log in to the NodeB on the LMT to collect data. Step 2 Select Maintenance in the left pane. Then choose Service > Software Management > Other File Transfer , as shown in Figure 10-13.

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Figure 10-13 NMPT log file transfer

Step 3 Double-click Other File Transfer. The dialog box is displayed as shown in Figure 10-14.

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Figure 10-14 NMPT log file

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Select Main Board Log Files in the File Description box. Enter the file name of an existing file on the LMT host into the Destination File or Directory box to save the uploaded log file, or click Browse to select a file. Select Upload mode. Compressed Mode is optional. If the compressed mode is selected, the compressed upload file can reduce the actual volume of transmission data. Then click Start.

Step 4 When the upload is complete, click Close to close the window. ----End

10.3.2 Collecting NodeB Board Logs


When a fault occurs in a board, the data related to the faulty board need to be collected in addition to the NodeB NMPT logs. You can save and check these data when they are uploaded to the FTP server.

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Context

CAUTION
If an alarm of the link in the associated faulty board is reported, that is, a fault occurs in the link between the faulty board and the NMPT, board logs cannot be collected from the LMT.

Procedure
Step 1 Log in to the NodeB on the LMT to collect data. Step 2 Select Maintenance in the left pane. Then choose Service > Software Management > Other File Transfer . Step 3 Double-click Other File Transfer. The dialog box is displayed as shown in Figure 10-15. Figure 10-15 Board log file transfer

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Select Board Log Files in the File Description box. Enter the board-related parameters in Cabinet No., Subrack No., and Slot No..
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Enter the file name of an existing file on the LMT host into the Destination File or Directory box to save the uploaded log file, or click Browse to select a file. Select Upload mode. Compressed Mode is optional. If the compressed mode is selected, the compressed upload file can reduce the actual volume of transmission data. Then click Start.

Step 4 When the upload is complete, click Close to close the window. ----End

10.3.3 Collecting Signaling Tracing Messages on the Iub Interface


When handling service-related faults in access, call drop or cell setup, you need to collect the returned Iub messages for fault location and analysis.

Procedure
Step 1 Log in to the NodeB on the LMT to collect data. Step 2 Select Maintenance in the left pane. Then choose Service > Trace Management > Interface Trace Task > Standard Signaling Interface. Step 3 Start signaling tracing on standard interfaces as shown in Figure 10-16, Figure 10-16 NodeB signaling tracing messages on the Iub interface

Step 4 Double-click Standard Signaling Interface Tracing. The check box is displayed as shown in Figure 10-17.
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Figure 10-17 Standard signaling interface tracing

Step 5 Select the associated items to trace the signaling optionally. Step 6 Select Autosave to automatically save the tracing result in a specified file. ----End

10.3.4 Collecting CHR data


When handling service-related faults in access, call drop or cell setup, you need to collect the returned NodeB CHR data for fault location and analysis.

Prerequisite
The directory "d:\CHRDATA\" is already created.

Procedure
Run the command SET CHRSW to set the CHR Switch to ON. Then NodeB will report CHR data to CHR local server. When the fault occurs, the CHR data need to be collected for 30 minutes and send back. ----End
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Example
SET CHRSW: CHRSW=ON, IP="10.161.215.239", DSTF="d:\CHRDATA\", USR="admin", PWD="*****";

Figure 10-18 shows the setting of this switch. Figure 10-18 Setting CHR Switch
NOTE

Make sure the Ftp Server IP, User Name, and Password are correct.

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