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# 1. The following liquid phase reactions are carried out isothermally in a CSTR.

The mass density of the mixture remains constant throughout the reactor A B -rA1=k1CA k1= 0.657 s-1 A C -rA2=k2CA k2= 2 s-1 Calculate the space time required to achieve 95% conversion of A (FA0 = 10 mol/s). 2 The following two liquid phase elementary reactions occur simultaneously: k1 k2 A B and A+C D k1 is 0.2 min-1 and k2 is 0.1 M-1min-1. The inlet flow rates are 10 mol/min of A, 2 mol/min of B, and 10 mol/min of C. The inlet concentration of A is 2.5 M. If there is a 40 L CSTR available to you, what is the conversion of A leaving the reactor?

3. The following elementary gas phase reaction occurs in a batch reactor which has an initial volume of 10 L. A +B C k=0.1 L/mol.min Initial feed to the reactor contains 10 moles of A, 10 moles of B and 5 moles of inerts. a) Write the expression for change in volume in terms of conversion of A for isobaric and isothermal operation. b) What is the change in volume for 50% conversion of A? c) Express rate law in terms of conversion. d) What is the time required for 0.5 conversion? Leave the final answer in the integral form and need not get a numerical value. 4. A plug flow reactor (2 m3) processes an aqueous feed (100 L/min) containing reactant A (CA0 = 100 mmol/L). This reaction is reversible and represented by R -rA = (0.04 min -1 )CA -(0.01 min -1 )CR A First find the equilibrium conversion and then find the actual conversion of A in the reactor. 2B takes place in a PFR operated at 2 atm 5. The reversible gas-phase chemical reaction A and 120C. The forward reaction is first-order, and the backward reaction is second order. We want to process a 100 mole/min stream of pure A and achieve a level of 90% of the equilibrium conversion. At the operating conditions (120C), k1 = 0.1 /min and k2 = 0.322 lt/mole.min. a) Derive the design equation. Plot Conversion vs residence time or volume of the reactor. b) What is the equilibrium composition at 120C in a PFR for k2.C0/k1 = 0.5 c) What is the reactor volume required for 90% of the equilibrium conversion for k2.C0/k1 = 0.5 6. Selective oxidation of ammonia (A) is investigated in an isothermal constant-volume batch reactor. The following gaseous chemical reactions take place in the reactor. A + 2B C + 2D -rA1=k1CACB k1=20 (lt/mol)min-1 -rA2= k2CACB k2=0.04 (lt/mol)min-1 A + B E + 2D -rC3= k3CBCC. k3=40 (lt/mol)min-1 C+B F -rA4= k4CACC k4=0.0274 (lt/mol)min-1 A + 2C 2E + 2D A gas mixture consisting of 40% A, 40% B and 20% inerts (mol%) is charged into a 4 lt reactor, and the initial pressure is 2 atm. The reactor operates at 609K. a. What is the initial concentration of A and the total number of moles charged into the reactor? b. Write the rate laws for all the components in extents (or conversion)? c. Write down the minimum number of design equations required to solve for extents (or conversion ) in Polymanth.
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d. If D is the desired product and E is the undesired product, write the instantaneous selectivity and instantaneous yeild expressions (in concentration). 7. The following liquid phase reactions are carried out isothermally in a semi- batch reactor. A +2B C + D rD1 = kD1CACB2 kD1 =0.25 L2/mol2.min rE2 = kE2CACD kD2 = 0.1 L/mol.min 3A + 2D C + E rF3 = kF3 CBCC2 kF3 = 5 L2/mol2.min B +2C D + F CA0 = 1.5 mol/L; CB0 = 2.0 mol/L; vo= 10 L/min. Initially the reactor contains 40 L liquid. . Plot the species concentrations and conversion of A as a function of time for two cases 1) A is fed to B and 2) B is fed to A. What differences do you observe for these two cases? 8. The manufacture of sulphuric acid required sulphur trioxide. In this process, sulphur is first burned with air to produce sulphur dioxide. The sulphur dioxide is then oxidized in a catalytic reactor to produce sulphur trioxide. The gas from a sulphur burner consists of 8 SO2%, 11% O2, and 81% N2 (all mol %). This gaseous mixture is passed to a catalytic reactor where SO2 is oxidized to SO3. The reactor exit temperature is 500C and the pressure is 1 bar. The equilibrium constant at 500C is 85 and the fugacity coefficients are one. The reaction is 1 SO2 + O2 SO3 2 Calculate the reactor exit conversion if equilibrium is established. If the reaction is carried out in a PFR, what is the minimum volume required to achieve equilibrium conversion. If only 80% of equilibrium conversion is required, how much volume is minimized?
9. The vapor phase dehydration of ethanol over an ion exchange resin has been studied. The rate of ethanol dehydration to diethyl ether at temperatures of 110 to 135C is given by the following rate function
1 2 ks KC2 H5OH PC22 H 5OH PH 2O P(C2 H5 ) OH 2 K1 mol rA = 2 s. g cat 1 + KC2 H5OH PC2 H5OH + K H 2O PH 2O

## The constants are

12424 ks = 1.5 108 exp T 1842 K1 = 0.25exp T mol s. g cat

## 4741 KC2 H5OH = 2.0 107 exp T

7060 K H 2O = 1.0 109 exp T

kPa -1
kPa -1

with T in K and P in kPa. The overall reaction for ethanol dehydration to diethyl ether is 2C2 H 5OH H 2O + ( C2 H 5 )2 OH a) Convert the above rate expression to concentration units, i.e., replace PC2 H5OH , PH 2O , and

## P(C2 H5 ) OH with respective concentrations. Use mol/m3 for concentration units.

2

b) Calculate the equilibrium conversion of ethanol if pure ethanol is fed to a reactor at a total pressure of 300 kPa and 130C. c). The ethanol dehydration is to be carried out with a packed bed reactor (PBR) similar to that available in Unit Operations Laboratory (3.5 diameter and 15 tall). For the packed bed, literature suggests a void fraction of 0.34 and the density of the resin is 3 g/cm3. Pure ethanol

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vapor is fed to the PBR at a rate of 1 mol/h. The reactor is operated at 300 kPa and 130C. Calculate the steady state conversion of ethanol at the exit of the reactor. 10. The following liquid phase reactions are carried out isothermally in a PFR. rC1 = kC1CACB2 kC1 =0.2 L2/mol2.min A +2B C + 2D rD2 = kD2CA3CC2 kD2 = 0.002 L4/mol4.min 3A + 2C D + 2E 3 rE3 = kE3 CBCD kE3 = 0.08 dm3/mol3.min B +3D E + 2F a) If the desired product is D, what is the optimum reactor volume? At the optimum D values, if F is the undesirable product, what is the selectivity? FA0=20 mole/min, FB0=30 mole/min, vo= 10 L/min. b) Instead of using the optimal PFR, if the same volume of CSTR is used, then what is the amount of D formed? Is it a good idea to have a CSTR? 11. A total of 10 m3/h of metaxylene (M) entering a 28 m3 plug flow reactor is isomerized to k1 M O orthoxylene(O) and paraxylene (P) according to: k2 M P The liquid phase reaction is isothermal and at constant pressure. At 400 C, 37% of M fed to the reactor is isomerized. If the flow rate is decreased to 6.67 m3/h at the same temperature, 50% of M fed to the reactor is isomerized. If a 46 % conversion of M is required with a pure feed rate (of M) of 22 m3/h, what volume of reactor would you need? 12. You want to produce product C using a liquid phase reaction A+2M C. Two reactors i) one CSTR and ii) one PFR with same volume are available. The relation between the conversion of A and rate of reaction of A is shown in the graph. The units of rA are mol/L.min and FA0 = 10 mol/min. Amount of C entering the first reactor is 20 negligible. a) When the first reactor was a PFR, the obtained 16 conversion of C was 0.3. What is the volume of the PFR? 12 (15 points) b) If you decide to use the available CSTR, then what is 8 the final conversion of C? (15 points) 4 c) If a colleague suggests that using CSTR and then the PFR will give a higher conversion, would you agree? 0 0 0.2 0.4 X A 0.6 0.8 Need to show your work on the graph only below, and need not get a numerical number)?
1/-r A

13. While in your secret lab, you discovered compound A that reacted very strangely. While A reacted with B, you plotted the rate of A as a function of the conversion of A. The inlet flow rate of A is 15 mol/min. a) You have been asked to design three reactors in series to achieve a conversion of 0.75. What flow reactors would you choose (give the order) to achieve the lowest total volume? Show your work on the above graph for each reactor and give the total volume with the appropriate units. b) Calculate the volumes of each reactor in part A. c) If 100 small CSTRs were placed in series such that the exiting conversion out of the last CSTR was 0.2, how would the total volume of all of the CSTRs compare to the volume of a
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## single PFR that had an exit conversion of 0.2?

350 300 -1/rA (min/M) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 0.2 0.4 XA 0.6 0.8

14. The following two elementary liquid reactions occur simultaneously: A B and 2C D The rate constant for A B is 0.2 min-1 and the rate constant for 2C D is 0.1 M-1min-1. The inlet flow rates are 10 mol/min of A, 2 mol/min of B, and 7 mol/min of C. The inlet concentration of A is 3 M. You have three CSTRs in series. The volume of the first CSTR is 8 liters. The volume of the second CSTR is 12 liters. The volume of the third CSTR is 18 liters. What is the conversion of A leaving the third reactor?

15. Two competing elementary liquid-phase reactions take place: A D (Desirable) 2A U (Undesirable) The following kinetic data is known: EA1 = 10,000 cal/mol; EA2 = 20,000 cal/mol k1(T=100C) = 1.2 min-1; k2(T=100C) = 0.3 L/mol.min. R= 1.987 cal/mol.K (a) Current designers wanted the reactor to operate at 100C. If you wanted to double the instantaneous selectivity of this reactor, what temperature would you operate at? (b) What type of reactor would you employ to achieve a maximum selectivity? Why?

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