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CHRYSLER CORPORATION SPACE DIVISION SATURN IB ORIENTATION TRAINING MANUAL 85 1- 0

This publication p r e s e n t s a brief d e s c r i p t i v e s u m m a r y of the S a t u r n I B vehicle and C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n ' s a c c o m p l i s h m e s t s in the m i s s i l e s and s p a c e field. The S a t u r n IB information p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n i s based on c u r r e n t plans f o r e a c h of the s t a g e s . Although t h e r e m a y be design changes f r o m vehicle to vehicle, the basic components, s y s t e m s , and operating p r i n c i p l e s will r e m a i n s i m i l a r to p r e v i o u s m o d e l s .

PREPARED THROUGH JOINT EFFORTS OF P e r s o n n e l Department Education and Development Branch S y s t e m s Training Unit Michoud Operations AND Engineering Communications Department Technical Information B r a n c h Applied Communications Engineering Section Huntsville Operations

Date: 1 5 F e b r u a r y 1965

T A B L E O F CONTENTS Section INTRODUCTION
A B

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.......... CHRYSLER CORPORATION S P A C E DIVISION . . . . . . A . MICHOUD OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B . HUNTSVILLE OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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HISTORY SATURN FAMILY AND MISSIONS

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15 17 19 23

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FLORIDA OPERATIONS

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SATURN IB VEHICLE DESCRIPTION

GLOSSARY

.......... GENERAL DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VEHICLES NOMENCLATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIT NUMBERING AND COMPONENT DESIGNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S.IBSTAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-IVB STAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTRUMENT UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAYLOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P R O P E L L A N T DISPERSION SYSTEM (DESTRUCT SYSTEM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMERGENCY DETECTION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . ...............................
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LIST O F ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Frontispiece Redstone Jupiter C- 1. C.2. and E a r l i e r V e h i c l e s T h e S a t u r n F a m i l y of V e h i c l e s S a t u r n I / IB L a u n c h Complexe s Defense-Space G r o u p O p e r a t i o n s Space D i v i s i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n Huntsville O p e r a t i o n s O r g a n i z a t i o n S a t u r n IB Configurations S a t u r n IB S t a g e a n d Unit Designations S-IB Stage T a i l Unit A s s e m b l y T a i l A r e a . Outboard E n g i n e s R e m o v e d T a i l A r e a . Complete Propellant Containers S p i d e r B e a m and Top Tank A r e a S-IVB Stage I n s t r u m e n t Unit Apollo P a y l o a d Block D i a g r a m S a t u r n IB EDS Title Page

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LIST O F TABLES Title Page

Table

R e d s t o n e and J u p i t e r C Highlights Ground T e s t Vehicle N o m e n c l a t u r e F l i g h t Vehicle s N o m e n c l a t u r e S-IB Stage S t a t i s t i c a l Data M a j o r S i m i l a r i t i e s and D i f f e r e n c e s of C o n t a i n e r s Container Identification

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SECTION I.

INTRODUCTION

'I. . This book, M r . Townsend, that you j u s t gave m e , i s the inspection r e c o r d of the b i r d behind m e . It i s full of s t a m p s ; s t a m p s placed t h e r e by quality c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s , both f r o m C h r y s l e r and NASA, and t h i s is probably just a s i t should be. We need quality control to m a k e s u r e that nothing h a s been overlooked. But quality and reliability, two words that a r e h e a r d s o a r e things that you cannot i n s p e c t into a rocket. They m u s t be frequently . built into it. Quality and reliability a r e not, a s s o m e people s e e m t o .think, s t a t i s t i c a l t r i c k s t h a t a r e built into r o c k e t s by some c o m p u t e r s in a r e m o t e location. Reliability and quality a r e r a t h e r the r e s u l t of a n a l m o s t religious dedication and devotion to perfection on the p a r t of e v e r y m e m b e r of the t e a m .

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I think you m e n and women of the C h r y s l e r Corporation that have worked with u s during t h e s e l a s t y e a r s i n the development and production of r o c k e t s have e v e r y r e a s o n to be proud. You have r e a s o n to be proud of this b i r d behind m e ; you have r e a s o n t o be proud of this facility .

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. But you c a n a l s o be proud of the g e n e r a l r e c o r d that the C h r y s l e r Corporation h a s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r itself in the r o c k e t s and space business. C h r y s l e r w a s the f i r s t p r o d u c e r of a n operational ballistic m i s s i l e s y s t e m i n the country, t h e now obsolescent but s t i l l working Redstone. You established a 100 p e r c e n t reliability r e c o r d f o r y o u r s e l v e s i n the a s s i s t a n c e , i n the development, and p a r t i c u l a r l y in the production of the J u p i t e r i n t e r m e d i a t e r a n g e ballistic m i s s i l e . You had a hand, a v e r y i m p o r t a n t hand a t that, i n the e s tablishment of the f r e e w o r l d ' s f i r s t s a t e l l i t e , E x p l o r e r I, which i s s t i l l in o r b i t today, m a n y y e a r s a f t e r i t s injection. And finally, the world will n e v e r f o r g e t that i t w a s C h r y s l e r - b u i l t Redstones that gave our f i r s t a s t r o n a u t s , Alan S h e p a r d and Gus G r i s s o m , t h e i r f i r s t r i d e into outer space in a M e r c u r y capsule. T h e s e w e r e sub- o r b i t a l flights, but they paved the way f o r the o r bital flights of m e n like John Glenn and Walter S c h i r r a that w e r e to follow.
No C h r y s l e r m i s s i l e h a s e v e r failed. I do not know if any other company can m a k e s u c h a proud s t a t e m e n t about i t s own r e c o r d . I wish you good luck .I1 and Godspeed f o r your f u t u r e participation in this p r o g r a m

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D r . Wernher von B r a u n , December 13, 1963

A.

HISTORY

Dr. von B r a u n ' s r e m a r k s , a s D i r e c t o r of the George C. M a r s h a l l Space Flight C e n t e r (MSFC), w e r e m a d e a t the c e r e m o n y m a r k i n g the completion of production of the f i r s t C h r y s l e r - b u i l t S a t u r n I S-I stage a n d the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the booster to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a t the NASA-Michoud plant. His r e m a r k s a r e a thumbnail h i s t o r y of C h r y s l e r t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the nationt s m i s s i l e and s p a c e effort and c h a r a c t e r i z e o u r relationship with v a r i o u s governmental a g e n c i e s o v e r a good n u m b e r of y e a r s . A s a r e s u l t of C h r y s l e r ' s exceptional World War I1 w a r e f f o r t under the l e a d e r s h i p of K. T. K e l l e r , on October 24, 1950 P r e s i d e n t T r u m a n appointed M r . K e l l e r , p r e s i d e n t and c h a i r m a n of the board of C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n , t o the newly c r e a t e d position of D i r e c t o r of Guided M i s s i l e s f o r the U. S. A r m e d F o r c e s . Shortly a f t e r h i s appointment to t h i s position, with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r e s i g h t , M r . K e l l e r i n s i s t e d to the C h r y s l e r board of d i r e c t o r s t h a t C h r y s l e r e n t e r the m i s s i l e b u s i n e s s . An Advanced P r o j e c t s Group f o r m i s s i l e s and s p a c e was f o r m e d within the Defense Division. This group l a t e r f u r n i s h e d the nuclei of both the M i s s i l e Division and the Space Division. In the S u m m e r of 1952, the A r m y Ballistic M i s s i l e Agency (ABMA) w a s seeking a p r i m e c o n t r a c t o r f o r the Redstone m i s s i l e . T e a m s w e r e s e n t to talk to the m a n a g e m e n t s of v a r i o u s c o r p o r a t i o n s t h a t had the potential to become p r i m e c o n t r a c t o r s . In October, 1952, the Department of Defense a w a r d e d C h r y s l e r a c o n t r a c t to a s s i s t ABMA with the design and production of Redstone m i s s i l e s . The jet engine plant that C h r y s l e r had built during the Korean War f o r the Navy, and which had n e v e r been u s e d because of c o n t r a c t cancellation, was converted into a m i s s i l e manufacturing facility. C h r y s l e r e n g i n e e r s w e r e a l s o i n t e g r a t e d into i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t s of the Redstone A r s e n a l a t Huntsville, Alabama. On September 29, 1954, C h r y s l e r Corporation w a s g r a n t e d the c o n t r a c t t o produce the Redstone m i s s i l e . M a s s production concepts s t e m m i n g f r o m automotive e x p e r i e n c e w e r e employed by C h r y s l e r i n the development of fabrication and a s s e m b l y o p e r a tions f o r the Redstone. The C h r y s l e r - o p e r a t e d Michigan Ordnance M i s s i l e P l a n t w a s the only one of i t s kind o p e r a t e d by a m o t o r c a r m a n u f a c t u r e r , and C h r y s l e r i s s a i d to be the f i r s t U. S. m i s s i l e builder to place l a r g e ballistic m i s s i l e s i n scheduled production. C h r y s l e r m a d e e n o r m o u s s t r i d e s i n the development of f a c i l i t i e s , methods, and tooling i n the plant. The highly organized facility w a s complete with equipment f o r manufacturing, t e s t i n g , quality control, and a l l the e l e m e n t s r e q u i r e d to produce a m i s s i l e r e a d y f o r deployment to the a r m e d f o r c e s . M o r e o v e r , a t e a m c a l l e d the Advance P r o j e c t s Organization was f o r m e d within the C h r y s l e r Defense Group to s p e c i a l i z e in the concept and planning of new weapon and s p a c e s y s t e m p r o j e c t s .

B e c a u s e of C h r y s l e r ' s c l o s e cooperation with D r . von Braun and the ABMA t e a m and C h r y s l e r ' s p r o v e n s u c c e s s with the Redstone, C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n was g r a n t e d the c o n t r a c t f o r the production of the J u p i t e r (IRBM) m i s s i l e . By the t i m e of the s u c c e s s f u l launch of the f i r s t C h r y s l e r - b u i l t -. o p e r a t i o n a l J u p i t e r on J a n u a r y 21, 1959, t h r e e months ahead of schedule, C h r y s l e r ~EFj5oTxtion was one of a handful of companies t h a t could boast o v e r s i x y e a r s of highly s u c c e s s f u l ballistic m i s s i l e e x p e r i e n c e s . Today, no o t h e r f i r m h a s h a d - - o r e v e r will have - - the opportunity to have s o m a n y of i t s p e r s o n n e l w o r k with and l e a r n the m i s s i l e business under the guidance of D r . von B r a u n and h i s staff. I t i s no wonder that C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n was c h o s e n a s the p r i m e c o n t r a c t o r f o r the S a t u r n I / I B s p a c e exploration b o o s t e r .

1. Redstone. During the 1945-50 p e r i o d of l i m i t e d funds and l i m i t e d s e n s e of u r g e n c y , the A r m y built the f a c i l i t i e s , a s s e m b l e d the talent, and a c c u m u l a t e d the b a s i c knowledge needed to produce i t s m i s s i l e s y s t e m s . At the White Sands M i s s i l e Range (then P r o v i n g Grounds, established i n 1944) A m e r i c a n and f o r m e r G e r m a n m i s s i l e m e n f i r e d V - 2 ' s and other m i s s i l e s under e x p e r i m e n t a l conditions. Experimentation p e r f o r m e d during those y e a r s e m p h a s i z e d the inseparability of m i s s i l e and s p a c e r e s e a r c h . The G e r m a n V-2, a n operational weapon, was u s e d frequently a s a s p a c e r e s e a r c h vehicle. A r m y ' s Redstone developed in a n opposite fashion. It was conceived a s a t e s t vehicle and, a s the J u p i t e r C , p e r f o r m e d many s p a c e exploration e x p e r i m e n t s including the launching of E x p l o r e r I.
The i n t e r r e l a t i o n of m i s s i l r y and space a c t i v i t i e s i s personified by such s c i e n t i s t s a s D r s . von B r a u n , Stuhlinger, and t h e i r colleagues. During the 1920's and 1 9 3 0 ' s t h e s e m e n became i n t e r e s t e d i n r o c k e t s and m i s s i l e s solely a s a m e a n s of exploring o u t e r space. But the knowledge of r o c k e t r y they gained w a s adapted to m i l i t a r y u s e , f i r s t by the G e r m a n A r m y , then by the U. S. A r m y . When t h e s e s p a c e enthilsiasts helped build the J u p i t e r C , they completed a cycle i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s . The f i r s t Redstone m i s s i l e was built by the A r m y and f i r e d i n August, 1953, approximately two y e a r s a f t e r the f i r s t studies w e r e initiated. Eleven m o r e Redstones w e r e built and t e s t e d by the A r m y . M i s s i l e 13, the f i r s t C h r y s l e r - b u i l t Redstone, was delivered in November 1955. The Redstone ( F i g . 1 ) commonly r e f e r r e d to a s the "father of A m e r i c a n ballistic m i s s i l e s ' ' h a s had a n unequaled r e c o r d of s u c c e s s f u l f i r i n g s . It was a n A r m y F i e l d A r t i l l e r y Tactical M i s s i l e . A s a weapon, i t was cons i d e r e d t o be a long- r a n g e s u r f a c e - to- s u r f a c e ballistic ( p r o j e c t i l e ) type rocket. A s a m i s s i l e , i t was c o n s i d e r e d to be a m e d i u m - r a n g e vehicle because i t had a r a n g e of l e s s than 500 m i l e s .

F I G U R E 1. 4

REDSTONE

The vehicle w a s p o w e r e d by a single bipropellant liquid r o c k e t engine developing 78, 000 pounds of t h r u s t . The m i s s i l e w a s d i r e c t e d i n flight f r o m lift-off to i m p a c t by a n i n e r t i a l guidance a n d c o n t r o l s y s t e m . In addition t o t h e M e r c u r y - R e d s t o n e p r o j e c t , which i s well known h i s t o r y , some of the highlights of the Redstone and J u p i t e r C p r o g r a m a r e shown i n Table 1. TABLE 1. Missile 1 13 REDSTONE AND J U P I T E R C HIGHLIGHTS Event F i r s t Redstone f i r e d F i r s t Chrysler-built m i s s i l e (delivered 1 4 November 1955) F i r s t deep p e n e t r a t i o n of s p a c e (Jupiter C) F i r s t C h r y s l e r m i s s i l e shipped d i r e c t l y to AMR F i r s t nose cone r e c o v e r y ( J u p i t e r C ) F i r s t t a c t i c a l top ( w a r h e a d ) Explorer I (Jupiter C) F i r s t troop firing E x p l o r e r IV ( J u p i t e r C ) H a r d t a c k (high altitude n u c l e a r t e s t s ) Date F i r e d 20 August 1953

19 J u l y 1956

27

20 S e p t e m b e r 1956

32

14 M a r c h 1957 8 August 1957 10 D e c e m b e r 1957 31 J a n u a r y 1958 16 May 1958 26 J u l y 1958 1 August 1958 12 Augus.t 1958

40 42 29 1002 44 50 51

2. J u p i t e r . The J u p i t e r m i s s i l e ( F i g . 2) w a s a n i n t e r m e d i a t e r a n g e b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e (IRBM) conceived by the A r m y and designed to p e r f o r m autom a t i c a l l y t h e checkout, fueling, t a r g e t a l i g n m e n t , ignition, a n d launch to t h e t a r g e t within a s p e c i f i c t i m e l i m i t a f t e r the f i r i n g c o m m a n d w a s given. Approval f o r the development w a s g r a n t e d by the S e c r e t a r y of Defense on November 8 , 1955. This a p p r o v a l w a s b a s e d on the e x p e r i e n c e gained by the Redstone A r s e n a l t e a m f r o m V - 2 and Redstone. By t h i s t i m e , C h r y s l e r

F I G U R E 2.

JUPITER

6

engineers h a d become well integrated m e m b e r s of t h i s t e a m and w e r e p a r t i c i pating d i r e c t l y i n the design and development of this highly automated weapon system. The f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l launching of a n IRBM, the A r m y ' s J u p i t e r , w a s a c complished May 31, 1957. C h r y s l e r Corporation continued to support the development w o r k a n d w a s g r a n t e d a c o n t r a c t e a r l y i n 1958 f o r production of the J u p i t e r . On J a n u a r y 31, 1959, the f i r s t C h r y s l e r - m a d e operational J u p i t e r w a s launched. B e c a u s e of a national defense policy change, a l l IRBM weapon s y s t e m s (1500-mile r a n g e ) w e r e t r a n s f e r r e d to the A i r F o r c e . On May 6 , 1959, a C h r ~ s l e r - b u i l tJ u p i t e r was successfully launched and dec l a r e d o p e r a t i o n a l by the USAF. The m i s s i l e became the USAF Model SM-78 m i s s i l e u n d e r the A i r F o r c e p r o g r a m . ABMA continued i t s s p a c e exploration p r o j e c t s with modified J u p i t e r s 1 called J u n o 1 . T h e s e m i s s i l e s w e r e u s e d to launch E x p l o r e r , P i o n e e r , and Beacon s a t e l l i t e s . Then, i n A p r i l 1957, the scientific organization d i r e c t e d by D r . von B r a u n began studies of launch vehicles having payloads of 20, 000 to 40,000 pounds f o r o r b i t a l m i s s i o n s o r 6 , 0 0 0 to 1 2 , 0 0 0 pounds f o r e s c a p e m i s s i o n s . In D e c e m b e r 1957, the group submitted to the Department of Defense a " P r o p o s a l f o r a National Integrated M i s s i l e and Space Vehicle Development P r o g r a m . ' ' This document indicated a need f o r a booster of 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 pounds t h r u s t . In July 1958, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Advanced Res e a r c h P r o j e c t s Agency (ARPA) e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t in a c l u s t e r e d booster of 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 pounds t h r u s t that would u s e r o c k e t engines a l r e a d y t e s t e d and p r o v e n r e l i a b l e . On August 15, 1958, ARPA O r d e r 14-59 f o r m a l l y initiated what was to become the S a t u r n p r o j e c t . S a t u r n I / I B . The o r d e r authorizing a n R&D p r o g r a m f o r a l a r g e 3. s p a c e vehicle booster specified t h a t , to s e c u r e the d e s i r e d t h r u s t , a number of available r o c k e t engines would be c l u s t e r e d , and the feasibility of this design would be d e m o n s t r a t e d by a full- s c a l e s t a t i c firing by the end of 1959. E a r l y s t u d i e s f o r the S a t u r n p r o j e c t had d e t e r m i n e d that a n existing engine, the S-3D, u s e d on both the J u p i t e r and Thor m i s s i l e s , could be modified to produce a n i n c r e a s e d t h r u s t of 188,000 pounds. Studies had a l s o shown t h a t the liquid oxygen ( L O X ) and fuel tanks developed f o r the Redstone and J u p i t e r m i s s i l e s could, with s o m e modification, be u s e d f o r the tanks of the p r o p o s e d b o o s t e r . T h u s , it was possible to begin booster development with c e r t a i n w e l l - t e s t e d h a r d w a r e of proven reliability. As a r e s u l t , the t i m e f o r design and development of s o m e i m p o r t a n t booster components and tooling w a s significantly shortened and the c o s t of h a r d w a r e development and r e tooling reduced.

h October 1958, ARPA o r d e r 14-59 w a s amended to r e q u i r e t h e development of a r e l i a b l e h i g h - p e r f o r m a n c e booster to s e r v e a s the f i r s t s t a g e of a multistage vehicle capable of p e r f o r m i n g advanced s p a c e m i s s i o n s . ARPA a l s o r e q u e s t e d a study of a complete vehicle s y s t e m s o t h a t u p p e r - s t a g e selection and development could begin and the launch f a c i l i t i e s a t the Atlantic M i s s i l e Range (AMR) could be determined. In r e s p o n s e to the ARPA o r d e r , construction of the ABMA s t a t i c t e s t stand f o r l a r g e b o o s t e r s began on J a n u a r y 16, 1959 a t Redstone A r s e n a l . By F e b r u a r y 1959, a c o n t r a c t had been a w a r d e d f o r construction of the f a c i l i t i e s a t Launch Complex 34, and a design c o n t r a c t w a s a l s o a w a r d e d f o r a movable s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e , which would be u s e d to a s s e m b l e and s e r v i c e the vehicle on the launch pad. On F e b r u a r y 3, 1959, a n ARPA m e m o r a n d u m officially r e n a m e d the p r o j e c t S a t u r n , cancelling the f o r m e r identification of Juno V. During the e a r l y and middle p a r t of 1959, n u m e r o u s S a t u r n s y s t e m s s t u d i e s w e r e p r e s e n t e d to NASA and ARPA outlining v a r i o u s upper s t a g e configurations. On November 18, 1959, NASA a s s u m e d technical d i r e c t i o n of the S a t u r n p r o j e c t , pending i t s f o r m a l t r a n s f e r f r o m ARPA, On D e c e m b e r 1 5 , 1959, the S a t u r n Vehicle Evaluation C o m m i t t e e r e a c h e d a d e c i s i o n on S a t u r n upper stage configurations. The c o m m i t t e e , composed of r e p r e s e n t a tives f r o m NASA, ARPA, DOD, and USAF, r e c o m m e n d e d a long r a n g e d e velopment p r o g r a m f o r S a t u r n , including upper stage engines burning liquid hydrogen (LH2) and LOX. The C- 1 configuration, s e l e c t e d a s the i n i t i a l vehicle to be developed, w a s to be a stepping stone to the C-2 vehicle a s shown in f i g u r e 3. A building-block concept w a s p r o p o s e d t h a t would yield a v a r i e t y of S a t u r n configurations, each using previously p r o v e n developm e n t s a s f a r a s possible. A s t h e s e recommendations w e r e a c c e p t e d by the NASA A d m i n i s t r a t o r , D e c e m b e r 31, 1959, a ten-vehicle R&D p r o g r a m w a s established. The C-1 configuration included the S-I, S-IV, and the S-V stages. The S-I stage was to have eight H-1 engines c l u s t e r e d , using LOX/ R P - 1 propellants capable of producing a t o t a l of 1 , 5 0 0 , 000 pounds of t h r u s t . The S-IV stage w a s to have four engines using LOX/LH2 p r o p e l l a n t s p r o ducing a total of 80, 000 pounds of t h r u s t . The S-V stage would u s e two of the s a m e engines a s the S-IV s t a g e , producing a t o t a l of 4 0 , 0 0 0 pounds of t h r u s t . The S a t u r n p r o j e c t was approved on J a n u a r y 1960, a s a p r o g r a m of the highest national p r i o r i t y . During M a r c h 1960, the executive o r d e r t r a n s f e r r i n g the Saturn p r o g r a m to NASA became effective. A f t e r r e v i e w of the S-IV p r o p o s a l s , Douglas A i r c r a f t Corporation w a s a w a r d e d , on A p r i l 26, 1960, a c o n t r a c t to develop a n d build the s t a g e , using s i x L H ~ / L O Xengines. On May 26, 1960 a s s e m b l y of the booster f o r the f i r s t S a t u r n flight vehicle w a s begun. On J u l y 1 , 1960,

REDSTONE

UPITER-C

M REDSTONE

JUPITER

JUNO I I
C-H 9044

FIGURE 3.

C - 1, C-2, AND EARLIER VEHICLES

the S a t u r n p r o g r a m w a s f o r m a l l y t r a n s f - r r e d to the George C. M a r s h a l l Space F l i g h t C e n t e r (MSFC). I n J a n u a r y 1961, D r . von B r a u n p r o p o s e d t h a t the C- 1 vehicle be changed f r o m a t h r e e - s t a g e to a two-stage configuration i n support of the Apollo p r o g r a m . The change deleted r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the S - V s t a g e on the C - 1 veh i c l e s . During May 1961, MSFC began r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of the capabilities of the S a t u r n C - 2 configuration. R e s u l t s of this examination indicated t h a t , a s l u n a r m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s had i n c r e a s e d , a S a t u r n vehicle of even g r e a t e r p e r f o r m a n c e would be d e s i r a b l e . As a r e s u l t of studies initiated a t MSFC i n May, D r . von B r a u n announced, June 23, 1961, t h a t f u r t h e r engineering design w o r k on the C-2 configuration would be discontinued, and effort would i n s t e a d be r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the S a t u r n C-3 and Nova concepts Investigations w e r e specifically d i r e c t e d toward determining capabilities of the p r o p o s e d C - 3 configuration i n supporting the Apollo m i s s i o n . During the of S a t u r n development f r o m 1958 to 1961, C h r y s l e r e n g i n e e r s working with the von B r a u n t e a m , though officially in support of the Redstone and J u p i t e r p r o g r a m s , w e r e actively engaged in the developm e n t of the S a t u r n p r o g r a m . During the l a s t week i n J u n e 1961, a c o n t r a c t w a s a w a r d e d to C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n f o r p e r f o r m a n c e of qualification and

reliability t e s t i n g on v a r i o u s engine, hydraulic, m e c h a n i c a l , a n d s t r u c t u r a l components of the S a t u r n booster. This c o n t r a c t m a r k e d C h r y s l e r ' s official e n t r y into the S a t u r n p r o g r a m . On September 7, 1961, the government-owned Michoud Ordnance P l a n t a t New O r l e a n s was s e l e c t e d by NASA a s the s i t e f o r i n d u s t r i a l production of the S - I stage. The plant would be operated by industry under the t e c h n i c a l direction of MSFC. Simultaneously, MSFC continued p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a conf e r e n c e to s e c u r e Requests f o r Quotations f r o m i n d u s t r y on production of the S - I stage. On September 26, 1961, a p r o p o s a l conference w a s held a t New O r l e a n s to s e c u r e bids f o r i n d u s t r i a l production of the S - I s t a g e , a n d on November 17, 1961, NASA announced the selection of C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n to negotiate a c o n t r a c t t o build, check out, and t e s t 20 S - I b o o s t e r s . The c o n t r a c t was signed in m i d - J a n u a r y 1962. On J u l y 11, 1962, NASA announced that a new two-stage S a t u r n c l a s s vehicle would be developed f o r manned e a r t h o r b i t a l m i s s i o n s with f u l l - s c a l e Apollo s p a c e c r a f t and a s s o c i a t e d equipment. The C-1 booster and the C-5 t h i r d stage would be adapted t o provide a vehicle capable of p e r f o r m i n g t h e s e m i s s i o n s . This vehicle w a s identified a s the S a t u r n C-IB. On August 6, 1962, NASA and C h r y s l e r signed a c o n t r a c t f o r production of 21 C - 1 b o o s t e r s , with d e l i v e r y to be m a d e between l a t e 1964 and e a r l y 1966. The s t a g e s would be produced by C h r y s l e r a t the Michoud P l a n t . During the f i r s t week of F e b r u a r y 1963, NASA announced t h a t S a t u r n vehicle n o m e n c l a t u r e had been changed f r o m C- l to S a t u r n I, f r o m C-IB to Saturn IB, and f r o m C-5 to Saturn V. On F e b r u a r y 20, 1963, NASA a p proved the p r o c u r e m e n t plan f o r modification of the basic C h r y s l e r c o n t r a c t , f o r redesigning the S-I stage to the S-IB configuration, and f o r the d e l i v e r y of twelve S-IB s t a g e s and eight S-I s t a g e s . S-IB c o n t r a c t negotiations with C h r y s l e r a t Michoud w e r e completed on August 5 , 1963. In e a r l y November 1963, S-I- 111 through S-I- 116 s t a g e s w e r e cancelled and existing h a r d w a r e diverted to S-IB manufacture. B. SATURN FAMILY AND MISSIONS

The Saturn IB i s one of the Saturn launch vehicle family c o m p r i s e d of the four configurations shown i n figure 4. The four S-I Block I flight vehicles (SA- 1 through SA-4) w e r e u s e d p r i m a r i l y to t e s t and validate the multi-engine and c l u s t e r e d propellant tank concepts. These vehicles f e a t u r e d 165,000-pound t h r u s t (165 K ) engines and dummy upper s t a g e s . A simplified guidance s y s t e m w a s u s e d because of the l i m i t e d t r a j e c t o r i e s flown by t h e s e vehicles.

3

ffi

u

H

The S a t u r n I Block I1 flight vehicles (SA-5 through SA- 10) have live second s t a g e s , i n s t r u m e n t u n i t s , and a r e adapted f o r a t t a c h m e n t of b o i l e r p l a t e o r prototype Apollo s p a c e c r a f t . Engines f o r the S-I stage of the Block I1 vehicles a r e u p r a t e d to 188 K . Six LH2/LOX fueled engines p o w e r the S-IV s t a g e . T h e s e vehicles a r e being u s e d to conduct p e r f o r m a n c e t e s t s of the i n t e g r a t e d S-I/S-IV s t a g e s , prove the LH2 / LOX propellant combination, f l i g h t - t e s t the prototype Apollo s p a c e c r a f t , and conduct m i c r o m e t e o r o i d measurement experiments. The S a t u r n IB vehicle a s shown r e p r e s e n t s the m o s t advanced of a s e r i e s of 22 S a t u r n I / I B t e s t and flight vehicles to be produced. The flight v e r s i o n s of t h e s e v e h i c l e s i n c o r p o r a t e components of the S a t u r n I and S a t u r n V v e h i c l e s . The eight engines used f o r the S-IB booster a r e r a t e d a t 200 K e a c h ; the S-IVB s t a g e single LHz/LOX fueled J - 2 engine i s r a t e d a t 200 K. The p r i m a r y operational m i s s i o n of the Saturn IB flight vehicles will be to p l a c e unmanned and manned Apollo s p a c e c r a f t into e a r t h o r b i t s i n a c c o r d a n c e with specific m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . A v a r i e t y of t e s t s will be conducted during t h e s e f l i g h t s , including space docking and l u n a r landing m a n e u v e r e x e r c i s e s , and flight t e s t i n g of the S-IVB stage f o r S a t u r n V and other h e a v i e r c o m ponents of the Apollo p r o g r a m . The S a t u r n V configuration shown i n f i g u r e 4 i s a m u l t i s t a g e launch vehicle u s e d f o r the Apollo manned l u n a r and p l a n e t a r y exploration p r o g r a m . F i v e engines, e a c h with a t h r u s t of 1 , 500, 000 pounds a n d fueled with a m i x t u r e of R P - 1- d i e s e l and LOX, power the S-IC f i r s t s t a g e of the launch vehicle. Engines, fueled with a m i x t u r e of LH2 and LOX, power the S-I1 (second) s t a g e , and the S-IVB ( t h i r d ) stage of the vehicle. An i n s t r u m e n t unit i s located between the S-IVB stage and the Apollo payload. The payload c o n s i s t s of the l u n a r e x c u r s i o n module ( L E M ) , the s e r v i c e module (SM), and the command module (CM). The S a t u r n I / I B vehicles a r e launched f r o m two pads a t AMR, launch complexes 34 and 37B. S a t u r n I Block I vehicles w e r e launched f r o m launch complex 34. This Complex h a s been modified and will be u s e d to launch Saturn IB vehicles. Complex 37B i s the launching s i t e f o r the S a t u r n I Block I1 vehicles. It will be modified to launch Saturn IB vehicles. The launch complexes ( F i g . 5) provide fuel, pneumatic, launch c o n t r o l c e n t e r , s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e , launch p e d e s t a l , and umbilical tower f a c i l i t i e s to e r e c t and s e r v i c e the vehicle i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r launching. Launching of the S a t u r n V will occur f r o m Complex 39 a t the AMR. The complex f a c i l i t i e s provide the f i r i n g s i t e s , v e r t i c a l a s s e m b l y building (VAB), l a u n c h e r - u m b i l i c a l tower ( L U T ) , mobile a r m i n g t o w e r , and c r a w l e r t r a n s p o r t e r f o r the a s s e m b l y , checkout, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and f i r i n g of the S a t u r n V vehicle. Because of the e n o r m o u s s i z e of the Saturn V, mating of the s t a g e s

and checkout of the vehicle will be accomplished on the LUT in the VAB. The LUT with the e r e c t , a s s e m b l e d vehicle will be then t r a n s p o r t e d to the firing s i t e by the c r a w l e r t r a n s p o r t e r .

FIGURE 5.

SATURN I / I B LAUNCH COMPLEXES

SECTION 1 . 1

CHRYSLER CORPORATION SPACE DIVISION

F r o m i t s humble beginnings a s a n advanced p r o j e c t s working group i n the Defense Division, C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n ' s m i s s i l e s and s p a c e effort h a s evolved until it i s two divisions ( M i s s i l e Division and Space Division) within the Defense-Space Group. The Defense-Space Group h a s offices and facilit i e s providing l i a i s o n and d i r e c t support of the m a j o r m i s s i l e s and s p a c e f a c i l i t i e s i n the United States a s shown i n f i g u r e 6. Our Washington, D. C . office maintains l i a i s o n with government a g e n c i e s engaged i n m i s s i l e s and s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s and p a r t i c i p a t e s in c o n t r a c t n e gotiations a t the p r o g r a m level. The D e t r o i t offices provide a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support f o r the Defense -Space Group, provide d i r e c t engineering support to the Space and M i s s i l e s Divisions, and d i r e c t engineering support and l i a i s o n f o r the Lewis R e s e a r c h C e n t e r and W r i g h t - P a t t e r s o n A i r F o r c e R e s e a r c h C e n t e r . Both the M i s s i l e and the Space Divisions maintain launch support o p e r a tions a t the F l o r i d a Operations plant a t Cape Kennedy in engineering and technical s u p p o r t of both NASA and the A i r F o r c e . These operations p a r t i c i p a t e in complex facility equipment i n s tallation, launch p r e p a r a t i o n s , and refurbishing of launch complexes a f t e r launch. The Houston office maintains liaison and engineering support f o r the Manned Space C e n t e r . The White Sands office provides technical and engineering support f o r r o c k e t and m i s s i l e weapon s y s t e m s testing conducted by the A r m y a t the White Sands M i s s i l e Range. The W e s t C o a s t office maintains l i a i s o n with Edwards A i r F o r c e B a s e , Vandenburg A i r F o r c e B a s e , and manufacturing companies engaged i n the m i s s i l e and s p a c e b u s i n e s s . By f a r the l a r g e s t of the organizations that compose the Space Division a r e the Michoud and Huntsville Operations engaged in engineering supp o r t and booster manufacture f o r MSFC and the Saturn I / I B p r o j e c t .

A.

MICHOUD OPERATIONS

In November 1961, the C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n Space Division w a s f o r m e d to negotiate a c o n t r a c t with NASA, a c i v i l i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n engaged i n t h e peaceful e x p l o r a t i o n of s p a c e , t o build t h e b o o s t e r s t a g e of t h e S a t u r n I vehicle. I n J a n u a r y 1962, 46 k e y staff p e r s o n n e l f r o m both t h e D e t r o i t and Huntsville O p e r a t i o n s of the M i s s i l e Division moved into the Michoud p l a n t to begin the o p e r a t i o n of the C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n Space Division. Today t h e r e a r e m o r e t h a n 4, 600 p e r s o n n e l i n the d i v i s i o n ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 , 150 a t Michoud O p e r a t i o n s and 1, 500 a t Huntsville O p e r a t i o n s ) . The Space D i v i s i o n ( F i g . 7 ) i s c o m p o s e d of 12 d e p a r t m e n t s , e a c h of which p e r f o r m s a v i t a l function. The Michoud O p e r a t i o n while p e r f o r m i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r t h e Space Division p r o v i d e s t h e e n g i n e e r i n g and manufacturing s u p p o r t f o r producing the S - I / I B b o o s t e r s , p r o v i d e s e n g i n e e r ing s u p p o r t f o r the Huntsville Ope r a t i o n s , and p r o v i d e s e n g i n e e r i n g and o t h e r support s e r v i c e s f o r t h e Houston office. The P r o g r a m Control Office d i r e c t s the development of a p p r o p r i a t e w o r k p r o p o s a l s and m o n i t o r s and c o o r d i n a t e s t h e a c t i v i t i e s of a l l d e p a r t m e n t s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s a r e p r o c e e d i n g a c c o r d i n g t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s of o u r contract. The E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t d e f i n e s a l l s y s t e m e l e m e n t s t o be built, a n a l y z e s r e l i a b i l i t y of s y s t e m s and t o t a l s t a g e s , p r o p o s e s component r e design, conducts inve s t i g a t i o n into new s p a c e m i s s i o n s , and p r o v i d e s v a r i o u s support s e r v i c e s . The S y s t e m s T e s t D e p a r t m e n t , which s t a t i c - f i r e s the s t a g e , p r o v i d e s launch and e n g i n e e r i n g s u p p o r t t o t h e J. F. Kennedy Space C e n t e r , and supervises stage transportation between manufacturing location and t e s t sites. The D i r e c t o r of O p e r a t i o n s c o o r d i n a t e s the a c t i v i t i e s of f o u r o p e r a t i n g groups: Quality Control, Manufacturing, M a t e r i a l s , and Huntsville Operations. The Quality C o n t r o l D e p a r t m e n t t e s t s and i n s p e c t s p r o d u c t s y s t e m s , components, and t h e completed vehicle, and e s t a b l i s h e s quality s t a n d a r d s and i n s p e c t i o n m e t h o d s f o r the d i v i s i o n and s u p p l i e r s . The Manufacturing D e p a r t m e n t f a b r i c a t e s p a r t s and components and a s s e m b l e s the v e h i c l e ; develops the m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s f o r the f a b r i cation and a s s e m b l y of p r o d u c t i o n i t e m s ; p r o v i d e s c o s t e s t i m a t i n g and

SPACE DIVISION

I
PROGRAMCONTROL OFFICE
I
i

OPERATIONS

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SYSTEMS TEST DEPARTMENT

ADMINISTRATION AND COMPTROLLER

I
I

I
QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT MANUFACTURING DEPARTMENT MATERIALS DEPARTMENT HUNTSVILLE SPACE OPERATIONS

I'
PERSONEL DEPARTMENT COMPTROLLER DEPARTMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION

I
PURCHASING DEPARTMENT

I
P U B L I C RELATIONS DEPARTMENT

C.H 9042-1

F I G U R E 7.

S P A C E DIVISION ORGANIZATION

industrial engineering s e r v i c e s ; develops the plant layout; and designs, acquires, installs, and maintains plant equipment and facilities. The M a t e r i a l s Department handles the receipt, movement, storage, preservation, and packaging of a l l production m a t e r i a l s ; identifies production m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ; follows up their receipt and schedules them into production; and provides traffic s e r v i c e with commercial c a r r i e r s . Huntsville Ope rations conducts engineering, general and prototype manufacturing, and development operations i n support of customer agencies and space and defense contractors. The Vice P r e s i d e n t i s i n charge of the five administrative departments of the Space Division: Personnel, Comptroller, Contract Administration, Purchasing, and Public Relations. The P e r s o n n e l Department obtains and maintains a competent work f o r c e and provides for training, safety, employee relations, wage and s a l a r y administration, and the security of classified information. The Comptroller Department i s responsible for the direction of a financial control p r o g r a m , reviewing capital expenditure proposals, electronic processing of business data, s y s t e m s and procedures activities, communications coordination, stationery storage and disbursement, and generation and maintenance of r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s covering the accounting and t r e a s u r y activities of the Space Division. The Contract Administration Department negotiates and a d m i n i s t e r s a l l p r i m e contracts. The Purchasing Department p r o c u r e s goods and s e r v i c e s to provide facilities, equipment, production, and non-production m a t e r i a l s and furnishe s information concerning cost reduction p r o g r a m s , make-or-buy decisions, and new facilities p r o g r a m s . The Public Relations Department develops and d i r e c t s public, civic, and community relations. B. HUNTSVILLE OPERATIONS

The Huntsville Operations of the Space Division (Fig. 8) continues to support the von Braun t e a m a t MSFC. Huntsville Operations also supports

OPERATIONS

I I

DIRECTOR

1
(

HUNTSVILLE SPACE OPERATIONS OPERATING MANAGER
I

1
ENGINEERING MANAGER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT NO. 4500 CHIEF ENGINEER

PLANTCOMPTROLLER DEPARTMENT NO. 4030 MANAGER

PROGRAM ANDCONTRACTS LIAISON OFFICE DEPARTMENT NO. 4000

1-1

PURCHASING OFFICE DEPARTMENT NO. 4100 MANAGER

I

r
I

E L E C T R I C A L AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT NO. 4700 CHIEF ENGINEER

I
1
I

PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT NO. 4200 MANAGER

I

I

I

STRUCTURES AND MECHANICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT NO. 4800 CHIEF ENGINEER

I

OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT NO. 4300 MANAGER

r
I I
SYSTEMS STATIC TEST DEPARTMENT NO. 4900

ENGINEERING COMMUNICATIONS DEPARTMENT NO. 4600 MANAGER

I

QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT NO. 4400

I

DRAFTING AND DESIGN DEPARTMENT NO. 4690 MANAGER

-1
I

I

MANAGER

I

L---

-- ------I
F I G U R E 8.

I
I

MANAGER

HUNTSVILLE OPERATIONS ORGANIZATION

the Launch S u p p o r t E q u i p m e n t E n g i n e e r i n g Division ( l o c a t e d i n H u n t s v i l l e ) of Kennedy S p a c e C e n t e r . The f u n c t i o n s of t h e H u n t s v i l l e o p e r a t i n g d e p a r t m e n t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e of t h e Michoud O p e r a t i o n s . T h e P l a n t C o m p t r o l l e r D e p a r t m e n t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n of a financial c o n t r o l p r o g r a m including g e n e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e of r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s c o v e r i n g t h e accounting and t r e a s u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s of t h e H u n t s ville O p e r a t i o n . The business program and w i t h P r o g r a m s a n d C o n t r a c t s L i a i s o n office p a r t i c i p a t e s i n s e c u r i n g new a n d s e r v i c i n g c u r r e n t b u s i n e s s . T h i s office m a i n t a i n s c o n t r o l a n d l i a i s o n with M S F C , t h e A r m y , Michoud, Kennedy S p a c e C e n t e r , contractors.

T h e P u r c h a s i n g Office p r o c u r e s goods, s e r v i c e s f a c i l i t i e s , e q u i p m e n t , and m a t e r i a l s t o c a r r y on t h e s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e Huntsville Operation. T h e P e r s o n n e l D e p a r t m e n t obtains and m a i n t a i n s a c o m p e t e n t w o r k f o r c e and p r o v i d e s f o r t r a i n i n g , s a f e t y , e m p l o y e e r e l a t i o n s , w a g e a n d s a l a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a n d t h e s e c u r i t y of c l a s s i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The Operations Department maintains a manufacturing facility f o r the f a b r i c a t i o n of p r o t o t y p e h a r d w a r e a n d tooling, f o r c u s t o m m e c h a n i c a l a n d e l e c t r i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , and f o r s h o r t p r o d u c t i o n r u n s i n s u p p o r t of MSFC l a b o r a t o r i e s . Also, t h e d e p a r t m e n t f u r n i s h e s t h e plant o p e r a t i n g and e n g i n e e r i n g s e r v i c e s f o r t h e Huntsville P l a n t . T h e Quality C o n t r o l D e p a r t m e n t m a i n t a i n s a q u a l i t y c o n t r o l e n g i n e e r i n g , t e s t , and checkout s u p p o r t a c t i v i t y i n s u p p o r t of M S F C , including the e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d e x e c u t i o n of a Quality C o n t r o l S y s t e m i n c o m p l i a n c e with a p p l i c a b l e c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . Also, t h e d e p a r t m e n t m a i n t a i n s t h e q u a l i t y c o n t r o l of all i t e m s m a n u f a c t u r e d by t h e plant, and e s t a b l i s h e s a s y s t e m of s u r v e i l l a n c e on all plant m e a s u r i n g a n d t e s t equipment r e q u i r i n g c a l i b r a t i o n a n d t r a c e a b l e t o t h e B u r e a u of S t a n d a r d s . T h e S y s t e m s S t a t i c T e s t D e p a r t m e n t i s engaged i n s t a t i c t e s t i n g of t h e booster. This department i s a hybrid department i n that personnel admini s t r a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d b y - t h e Huntsville O p e r a t i o n a n d t e c h n i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s 2 r o v i d e d by t h e S y s t e m s T e s t D e p a r t m e n t of t h e Michoud O p e r a t i o n s . T h i s d e p a r t m e n t s t a t i c - t e s t s all s t a g e s built by C h r y s l e r .

All t h e e n g i n e e r i n g d e p a r t m e n t s of C h r y s l e r Huntsville r e p o r t t o t h e Engineering Manager. The S y s t e m s E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t p e r f o r m s l a u n c h s y s t e m d e s i g n , development, and modification, including l a u n c h f a c i l i t i e s , v e h i c l e s y s t e m s , g r o u n d equipment, i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , and a u x i l i a r y e q u i p m e n t i n s u p p o r t of both KSC and MSFC. T h e E l e c t r i c a l a n d E l e c t r o n i c s E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t i s engaged i n t h e e n g i n e e r i n g d e s i g n of guidance, c o n t r o l , and both a i r b o r n e a n d g r o u n d i n s t r u mentation s y s t e m s . T h s S t r u c t u r e s and M e c h a n i c s E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t i s engaged i n t h e e n g i n e e r i n g and d e s i g n of s p a c e vehicle s t r u c t u r e s a n d p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m s and evaluating t h e flight c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s p a c e v e h i c l e s . The Engineering Communications Department supports C h r y s l e r a e r o s p a c e and f a b r i c a t i o n p r o j e c t s and M S F C l a b o r a t o r i e s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n of a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i c a l d o c u m e n t s including m a n u a l s , handbooks, procedures, specifications, standards, purchase descriptions, r e p o r t s , s t u d i e s , b r o c h u r e s , c h a r t s , and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s . The d e p a r t m e n t a l s o maintains a technical l i b r a r y and m i c r o f i l m file. The Drafting and D e s i g n D e p a r t m e n t p r o v i d e s d e s i g n d o c u m e n t a t i o n of m i s s i l e and s p a c e vehicle s y s t e m s , c o m p o n e n t s , a n d l a u n c h s u p p o r t equipm e n t ; e s t a b l i s h e s e n g i n e e r i n g documentation plans a n d p r o g r a m s , a n d c o o r d i n a t e s d r a f t i n g and d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s with o t h e r e n g i n e e r i n g functions of C h r y s l e r and c u s t o m e r a g e n c i e s . C. FLORIDA OPERATIONS

C h r y s l e r F l o r i d a O p e r a t i o n s , m a n n e d by both M i s s i l e D i v i s i o n and S p a c e Division p e r s o n n e l , p r o v i d e s one of t h e m o s t c o m p l e t e e n g i n e e r i n g and m a n u f a c t u r i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e Cape Kennedy a r e a i n s u p p o r t of both NASA and t h e A i r F o r c e . l E n g i n e e r i n g and t e c h n i c a l p e r s o ~ n e a r e a c t i v e l y engaged i n l a u n c h c o m p l e x d e s i g n , f a c i l i t y equipment i n s t a l l a t i o n and modification, l a u n c h f a c i l i t y checkout, vehicle l a u n c h p r e p a r a t i o n , a n d f a c i l i t y r e f u r b i s h i n g a f t e r launch f o r t h e S a t u r n I / I B , at la.^, T i t a n , Minuteman, and C e n t a u r v e h i c l e s . The m a n u f a c t u r i n g f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e e l e c t r i c a l / e l e c t r o n i c and m e t a l f a b r i c a t i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s i n s u p p o r t of the engineering s e r v i c e s .

I n c r e a s e d S-IB m i s s i o n c o n t r a c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have f u r t h e r b r o a d e n e d the scope of w o r k p e r f o r m e d and the n u m b e r of people engaged a t F l o r i d a Operations. With t h i s i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e F l o r i d a O p e r a t i o n s h a s b e e n i n i t i a t e d t o include s e c t i o n s f o r P e r s o n n e l , Administration, M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g , I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g , E l e c t r i c a l and R F E n g i n e e r i n g , L o g i s t i c s Engineering, Launch Support Equipment Enginee ring, Quality E n g i n e e r i n g , T e s t i n g Engineering a n d Operations E n g i n e e r i n g . An o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t with w e l l defined s e c t i o n functional r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h a s not b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d at t h e t i m e of t h i s printing.

ESCAPE TOWER
29.1 ft
Ii

PAYLOAD

C-H9258

F I G U R E 9.

SATURN I B CONFIGURATIONS

SECTION 1 1 SATURN IB VEHICLE DESCRIPTION 1.

A.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

F i g u r e 9 shows the m a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of S a t u r n IB, the secondgeneration s u c c e s s o r to S a t u r n I , and by f a r the m o s t powerful i n i t s payload class being manufactured today. The S a t u r n IB two-stage vehicle i s capable of injecting a b a s i c payload of approximately 37,000 pounds into a 100-nautical-mile o r b i t . With a Centaur t h i r d s t a g e , i t i s capable of delivering a n e a r t h - e s c a p e payload of approximately 1 2 , 0 0 0 pounds, o r a Voyager payload of approximately 9 , 000 pounds, to the P l a n e t M a r s . The two-stage vehicle is approximately 191 f e e t long (including the launch e s c a p e s y s t e m ) , approximately 21 f e e t a t the l a r g e s t d i a m e t e r , and weighs approximately 1 , 262,400 pounds a t liftoff. Eight t a i l fins on the S-IB stage provide support and holddown points f o r launch a n d , under c e r t a i n conditions, aerodynamic stability during flight. Eight liquid-fueled Rocketdyne H- 1 engines, e a c h developing 200, 000 pounds of t h r u s t , power the S-IB stage. The four outboard engines a r e gimbal mounted f o r d i r e c t i o n a l control. A single 200, 000-pound t h r u s t L H 2 / L O X Rocketdyne J - 2 engine p o w e r s the S-IVB stage. The engine i s gimbal mounted to provide pitch and yaw control. The S-IVB stage a t t a c h e s to the S-IB s t a g e through the S-IVB a f t i n t e r stage. The a f t i n t e r stage i s bolted to the s p i d e r b e a m of the S-IB s t a g e , and S-IBIS-IVB s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r s between the S-IVB a f t s k i r t and the S-IVB a f t i n t e r s tage. A 2 6 0 - i n c h - d i a m e t e r , 36-inch-high, u n p r e s s u r i z e d , i n s t r u m e n t unit i s located between, and attached to, the S-IVB f o r w a r d s k i r t and the payload adapter a s s e m b l y . The i n s t r u m e n t unit houses the vehicle control s y s t e m , guidance and c o n t r o l s y s t e m , tracking s y s t e m s , and power supplies.

A payload a s s e m b l y , consisting of the Apollo s p a c e c r a f t with the launch escape s y s t e m attached, m a t e s to the i n s t r u m e n t unit through the payload adapter a s s e m b l y . The Apollo s p a c e c r a f t c o n s i s t s of a command module, a s e r v i c e module, and a l u n a r e x c u r s i o n module. These modules a r e a r r a n g e d so that t h r e e a s t r o n a u t s c a n m a k e a l u n a r o r b i t a l rendezvous approach to the moon, explore i t s s u r f a c e , and r e t u r n to e a r t h . One of the Saturn I B ' s m i s sions i s to t r a i n a s t r o n a u t s i n this technique.

A Saturn IB t h r e e - stage configuration u s e s the flight-proven Centaur a s a t h i r d stage. Two r e s t a r t a b l e L H 2 / L O x fueled P r a t t and Whitney RL-1OA-3 engines power the Centaur. Other configurations under study for improving the capabilities of the Saturn IB booster include using proven solid o r liquid strap-on units, the mixing of fluorine with LOX called FLOX, and elongating the S-IB propellant containers. These advanced S -1B stage configurations could i n c r e a s e the payload capacity of the entire vehicle by approximately 40 percent. The black and white painting pattern of the Saturn IB vehicle a i d s ground tracking stations i n establishing orientation of the vehicle during i t s initial stage of flight. Because of heat t r a n s f e r considerations, the fuel containers of the S-IB stage a r e painted predominantly black and the LOX containers a r e painted white. The launch escape tower i s painted red, and a r e d "UNITED STATES" on a white background i s painted on the S-IB stage fuel containers. The painting adds approximately 1, 000 pounds of weight t o the vehicle. B. VEHICLES NOMENCLATURE

The following information i s for orientation and familiarization with various Saturn IB vehicles and stage elements that will be produced. The dynamic t e s t vehicle, the facilities checkout t e s t vehicle, and the t e s t s t a g e s associated with each a r e indicated, together with a s e r i e s of special t e s t stages. The t h r e e categories of flight vehicles (prototype, qualification, and production) a r e identified, and the stage elements and instrument units a r e designated by name and number. Tables 2 and 3 show a complete breakdown on the vehicles and stage elements. 1. Dynamic T e s t Vehicle (SA200D). The dynamic t e s t vehicle will duplicate the s t r u c t u r e s , m a s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and essential- s y s t e m s incorporated i n the Saturn IB flight configuration. The vehicle, placed i n the dynamic t e s t tower, will be used to verify vehicle bending modes and f r e quencies under simulated Iton padtt and flight conditions. The g r e a t m a j o r i t y of engineering changes will r e s u l t f r o m findings determined f r o m t e s t s conducted on this vehicle. 2. F a c i l i t i e s Checkout Test Vehicle (SA200F). The facilities checkout t e s t vehicle will consist of the S-IB-F stage and the S-IU-200 V/500 V elements. The facilities checkout will verify operational status of complex 34 and i t s compatibility with the flight vehicle, This will include handling and e r e c t i o n of the Saturn IB, s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e adjustment for enclosing and providing acce s s to the vehicle, verification of a l l launch support equipment connections, operation of the pneumatic s y s t e m s , operation of the propellant t r a n s f e r and loading s y s t e m s , and checkout of the environmental control system.

,TABLE 2.

GROUND TEST VEHICLE NOMENCLATURE

TEST VEHICLES

I
DYNAMIC TEST VEHICLE FACILITIES CHECKOUT VEHICLE

1

SA-200D

1

1

I

SA-ZOOF

STAGES

1S-IB-D

1

S-IVB-D w H : ; SATURN ADAPTER

I

/1
I

STAGES

f: iE

1

PAYLOAD

1

I

S-IB-F

I I

I S-IVBIIB-F 1I

1

SPECIAL TEST STAGES

I
INSTRUMENT UNIT ASTRIONICS TEST S-IU-2OOA !BREADBOARD MODEL:
L

f

INSTRUMENT UNIT STRUCTURES TEST S-Iu-2ooS/5ooS

INSTRUMENT UNIT VIBRATION TEST S-1u-200v1500v

TABLE 3.

F L I G H T VEHICLES NOMENCLATURE

FLIGHT VEHICLES

I

PROTOTYPE

I
SA-201 SA-202

I

QUALIFICATION

PRODUCTION SA-209 SA-210 SA-211 SA-212

I
SA-204 SA-205 SA-206

I
ISA-203

]

I 1

SA-207

SA-208

STAGES

I

I

S-IB S-IB- 1 S-IB-2 S-IB-3

I

1 I

S-IVB/IB S-IVBfIB-1 S-IVB/IB-2 S-IVB/IB-3

I I

INSTRUMENT UNIT S-IU-201 S-IU-202 S-IU-203

I

PAYLOAD

1'

S-IB-9 S-IB- 10 S-IB- 11 S-IB- 12

S-IVBIIB-6 S-IVB/IB-7 S-IVB/IB-8 S-IVB/IB-9 S-IVB/IB-10 S-IVB/IB- 11 S-IVB/IB- 12

S-IU-206 S-IU-207 S-IU-208 S-IU-209 S-IU-210 S-IU-211 S-IU-212

Captive F i r i n g s . Each stage (S-IB and S-IVB) of e a c h vehicle will 3. be static tested p r i o r to u s e i n a flight vehicle.

4. Flight Vehicles. Table 3 p r e s e n t s the various stage combinations comprising a given flight vehicle.

C.

UNIT NUMBERING AND COMPONENT DESIGNATION

The vehicle i s divided i n units for quickly determining the physical location of e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical components. The unit numbering method for e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical r e f e r e n c e designations (finding n u m b e r s ) i s adapted f r o m MIL-STD- 16. F i g u r e 10 identifies the b a s i c vehicle units. Unit locations a r e a s foIlows: Units 1 through 8 - The four inboard and four outboard engines and t h e i r immediate a r e a below the firewall. The t h r u s t f r a m e a r e a and a r e a below propellant container Unit 9 bulkheads, including the lower s k i r t s of propellant tanks.

-

U n i t 10 - Propellant container a r e a , upper bulkhead t o lower bulkhead.
Unit 11 - The spider beam a r e a and a r e a above propellant container bulkheads. Also, the antenna panels a r e included i n U n i t 11. Unit 12 - The instrument compartment located i n the top s k i r t of fuel container number 2. Unit 13 - The instrument compartment located i n the top s k i r t of fuel container number 1. Units 14 and 15

-

deleted.

Units 16 through 23

-

Eight t a i l fins.

E l e c t r i c a l components installed i n a given unit a r e designated a s suba s s e m b l i e s of that unit and a r e identified by means of a coded n u m b e r l l e t t e r combination.

A typical component designation code will contain the following: (1) the b a s i c r e f e r e n c e unit (by number), (2) the subassembly (by l e t t e r ) , (3) the

UNIT-900 PAYLOAD

TANKS

C-H 7887

F I G U R E 10.
30

S A T U R N IB S T A G E AND UNIT DESIGNATIONS

number assigned to the subassembly (by number), (4) the name of the component (by l e t t e r ) , and (5) the number assigned to the component which differentiates that component f r o m identical units i n this o r other subassemblies. EXAMPLE 1 : Relay

TSpecifies

that this i s the No. 1 relay.

Indicates that the component i s a relay. Indicates this i s the f i r s t "All subassembly. -1ndentifies subassembly "A" of the instrument compartment. the relay i n unit 12, a n instrument compartment.

-Locates

EXAMPLE 2: T e r m i n a l E207 of Main Distributor

Terminal number. Indicates a n e l e c t r i c a l terminal. Locates the t e r m i n a l i n the f i r s t "A" subassembly. Indicates t e r m i n a l i s i n a n "A" subassembly.
I

Locates the t e r m i n a l i n unit 12.

D.

S-IB STAGE

The S-IB stage (Fig. 1l ) , manufactured by Chrysler Corporation a t Michoud, i s approximately 80 feet long, 21 feet i n d i a m e t e r , and has a fin span of approximately 40 feet. A stage s y s t e m s simplification and weight reduction effort, combined with m o r e powerful engines, allows l a r g e r payloads to be launched by this stage than originally planned. Compared to the S-I stage, significant weight reduction h a s been achieved i n the S-IB stage through design modification, deletion of components, and elimination of complete systems. The major changes include:

ANTI -SLOSH BAFFLES ElGH T 70" DIA. TANKS

HEAT

1.

t

!
d

C-H 8459

F I G U R E 11.

S-IB STAGE

Elimination of the LOX-SOX disposal system. Elimination of LH2 vent and exhaust system. Elimination of movie and TV c a m e r a s y s t e m s . Sixty p e r cent reduction i n instrumentation m e a s u r e m e n t s and attendant equipment. F o u r l a r g e and four stub t a i l fins replaced with eight swept-de sign identical fins. Tail section a s s e m b l y modified to reduce weight. Propellant container s k i r t skin thicknes s reduced. Spider b e a m shortened, and b e a m s and splice plates reduced in thickne s s. Retromotor s relocated f r o m S-IB stage to S-IBIS-IVB i n t e r stage. Elimination of COX check valves. Substitution of a computer-controlled switch selector flight control s y s t e m for the flight sequencer s y s t e m previously used. Other changes effective on the S-IB stage a r e a reduction i n e l e c t r i c a l components and the use of helium instead of GN2 for fuel tank pressurization. Additional data on the S-IB stage a r e presented i n table 4. The b a s e of the S-IB stage i s the tail section t h r u s t s t r u c t u r e assembly. The eight engines attach to the t h r u s t s t r u c t u r e aft of the firewall. The engines a r e partially enclosed by the tail shrouds and heat shield, and only the engine t h r u s t c h a m b e r s and heat exchangers a r e visible. Engine t h r u s t i s t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m the t h r u s t s t r u c t u r e through the LOX containers to the spider b e a m unit assembly. The container section consists of a 105-inch-diameter center LOX cont a i n e r , four 70-inch-diameter LOX container s , and four 70-inch-diameter fuel containers. The eight 70-inch containers a r e clustered around the 105inch container. The combined LOX capacity of the 105-inch LOX container and the four 70-inch LOX containers i s approximately 622,000 pounds. The combined fuel capacity provided by the four 70-inch fuel containers i s approximately 260, 000 pounds. The fuel containers a r e mounted to the spider b e a m unit a s s e m b l y with floating attachments to allow for LOX container

TABLE 4.

S-IB STAGE STATISTICAL DATA 971, 700 l b s . 882,400 l b s . H- 1 Rocketdyne 200, 000 lbs. 1. 6 million lbs. 310 300 1 , 708

G r o s s Weight a t Liftoff P r o p e l l a n t Weight Engines (8) T h r u s t p e r Engine Total T h r u s t (Sea Level) Valves and Control Devices Measurements during Flight E l e c t r i c a l and Electronic Components E l e c t r i c a l Network Connections (Excluding Internal) of Above Components Wiring Used S t r u c t u r a l Fabrication Final Assembly Note: All figures a r e approximate.

73,000 53 m i l e s 27 weeks 17 weeks

shrinkage when the booster i s loaded with liquid oxygen. Two 20-cubic-foot capacity, high-pressure helium (He) s p h e r e s a r e mounted i n the f o r w a r d sections of fuel containers F - 3 and F-4. Instrument compartments a r e located i n the forward sections of fuel containers F - 1 and F - 2 . The spider b e a m f o r m s the forward s t r u c t u r e of the stage and s e r v e s to anchor the forward end of the propellant containers. Seal plates cover the forward side of the spider beam. Tail Area. Installation of the water quench and b a r r e l h e a t e r s y s 1. t e m , engine purge s y s t e m , LOX and fuel wraparound suction l i n e s , lower LOX replenishing line, and f i r e detection s y s t e m t r a n s f o r m the s t r u c t u r a l t a i l section a s s e m b l y into the tail unit assembly. To utilize optimum a c cessibility, these installations (Fig. 12) a r e normally p e r f o r m e d before the clustering operation. The boattail conditioning and water quench s y s t e m s a r e perforated pipes routed f r o m a quick disconnect coupling a t the heat shield up the shroud and 1 1, along the t h r u s t outriggers a t fins I, 1 , 1 1 and IV to the center b a r r e l . This i s a threefold system: f i r s t , it provides the n e c e s s a r y water quench capability for firings; second, i t provides a m e a n s to purge the t a i l a r e a by ground s o u r c e ; and third, i t provides the n e c e s s a r y ducting for ground heating of the tail a r e a .

PURGE MANIFOLD GOXCONTROL

r

WRAPAROUND SUCTION LINES

HEAT SHIELD

1

BOATTAIL CONDITIONING SYSTEM 14)

F I G U R E 12.

TAIL UNIT ASSEMBLY

The engine purge s y s t e m provides for the routing of engine purge l i n e s f r o m the two umbilical s e r v i c e plates on the shroud to the purge manifold i n the center b a r r e l assembly. Lines extend f r o m the manifold through the f i r e w a l l to each of the engines. Each engine purge s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of: LOX pump s e a l purge and gearbox pressurization, LOX dome purge, gas generat o r LOX injector manifold purge, and t h r u s t chamber fuel injector manifold purge. The LOX pump s e a l purge and gearbox p r e s s u r i z a t i o n obtains GN2 f r o m the control p r e s s u r e spheres. The remaining purge s y s t e m s obtain GN2 f r o m the ground control source. The 1. 5-inch-diameter GOX lines f r o m the GOX manifold to the outboard engines a r e prefitted for installation a f t e r the engines a r e installed. The mechanical components of the f i r e detection s y s t e m a r e installed, and the inflight heat shield panels and s t a r a s s e m b l y a r e prefitted. T e s t configuration panels a r e used for static test. The inflight panels a r e reinstalled dur ing poststatic and preparation for shipment operations. The component installations i n the aft s k i r t s of a l l the LOX container unit a s s e m b l i e s a r e a l m o s t the s a m e for each container (Fig. 13). Two suction line ball rotor LOX shutoff valves (prevalves) a r e installed along with the actuating p r e s s u r e tubing and various tubing a s s e m b l i e s used f o r p r e s s u r e pickup, control, etc. The LOX fill and d r a i n valve i s installed on the sump of container L-3. The aft s k i r t of fuel container F - 3 contains the control p r e s s u r e GN2 storage sphere with the associated regulators, control valves, and connecting tubing. The control p r e s s u r e s y s t e m supplies GN2 p r e s s u r e to operate the electrically controlled p r e s s u r e - o p e r a t e d fuel vent valves, LOX vent valves, the LOX and fuel prevalves, and the LOX and fuel f i l l and d r a i n valves. The fuel f i l l and d r a i n valve i s located i n the aft s k i r t of fuel container F- 1. The s y s t e m supplies p r e s s u r e for p r e s s u r i z i n g the turbopump gearboxes, purging the LOX s e a l s , and purging the c a l o r i m e t e r s . Measurement r a c k s and distributors a r e located i n the aft s k i r t s of the fuel containers. Some of the measuring r a c k s and e l e c t r i c a l d i s t r i b u t o r s a r e shown i n figure 13. F o r additional information r e f e r to the Saturn IB Flight Measurements Manual. F i g u r e 1 3 shows the LOX and fuel interconnect lines and suction lines. Each outer container supplies one inboard and one outboard engine. The LOX containers a r e interconnected through the sump of the 105-inch LOX container unit. The LOX replenishing s y s t e m i s routed f r o m the heat shield to the sump of L O X container L-4.

FLAME SHIELD AND ACCESS CHUTE

FLAME CURTAINS
C H 67861

F I G U R E 13.

T A I L AREA, OUTBOARD ENGINES REMOVED

ACCESS CHUTE COVER

\--- INBOARD ENGINE TURBINE
EXHAUST FAIRING 14, iMGINE SKIRT (41

C-H 9160

F I G U R E 14.

TAIL AREA, COMPLETE

The four inboard engines a r e rigidly mounted to the t h r u s t s t r u c t u r e assembly i n a s q u a r e p a t t e r n around the centerline of the vehicle. The engines a r e canted outward a t a t h r e e - d e g r e e angle. A flame shield and a c c e s s chute f o r m s a heat b a r r i e r between each of the inboard engines. Additional engine compartment t e m p e r a t u r e control i s provided by the heat shield and the flexible flame curtains. The inboard engine gas generators a r e exhausted through the inboard turbine exhaust s y s t e m and heat exchanger. GOX for p r e s s u r i z i n g the LOX tanks i s obtained by routing LOX through the heat exchanger and converting i t to gaseous oxygen. The gaseous oxygen i s routed through a 3-inch GOX manifold to a GOX flow-control valve and then through the center LOX tank to the LOX p r e s s u r i z a t i o n manifold (GOX d i s t r i bution s y s t e m ) . The outboard engines (Fig. 14) a r e gimbal mounted to provide a movement of plus o r minus 8 d e g r e e s by any one actuator. Engine gimbaling i s accomplished through two a c t u a t o r s operating in a closed hydraulic system. Gimbaling action i s initiated by e l e c t r i c a l signal f r o m the guidance s y s t e m through a n electro-hydraulic s e r v o valve on each actuator. Flexible purge and propellant bubbling lines to the engine f r o m the f i r e wall p e r m i t engine gimbaling. The final length of the 1.5-inch GOX line to the outboard engine i s flexible. The turbine exhaust s y s t e m i s a component p a r t of the outboard engine, and a s p i r a t e s through a port on the periphery of the engine nozzle. This type of setup f o r the exhaust s y s t e m conserves space and p e r m i t s engine gimbaling. The flexible flame curtains around the engines, while preventing exces sive engine compartment t e m p e r a t u r e s , allow f r e e d o m of movement f o r the engines. Eight swept fins, four inboard engine turbine exhaust fairings, eight a i r scoop skins, and four engine s k i r t s a r e installed on the tail of the S-IB stage. The turbine exhaust fairings a s p i r a t e the exhaust g a s e s f r o m the inboard engines. The a i r s c o o p s and engine s k i r t s d i r e c t the flow of a i r around the tail section to control t a i l heating and aerodynamic loading on the engines. At the forward end of the tail unit, 60-degree fairing a s s e m b l i e s provide a n aerodynamic s e a l between the propellant container a s s e m b l y and the t a i l unit assembly.
2. Propellant Containers. The container a r e a (Fig. 15) encompasses the four fuel tanks, the five LOX tanks, and pertinent auxiliary components. T h e r e a r e m o r e s i m i l a r i t i e s than differences between the individual cont a i n e r s . F o r a summation of s i m i l a r and different c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r e f e r to table 5 and figure 15.

ANTISLOSH BAFFLES-

C-H

F I G U R E 15.

P R O P E L L A N T CONTAINERS

TABLE 5.

MAJOR SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES OF CONTAINERS
1

Component Anti- Slosh Baffles

P u r p o s e and Use To help maintain stable load

Container All LOX All fuel All LOX All fuel

Continuous and Disc r e t e Liquid Level Sensor Systems GOX Line

To indicate c o a r s e and fine liquid quantity

To directly p r e s s u r i z e 105" container, and manifold p r e s s u r i z e the 70" containers To a r m separation and r e t r o rocket E B W firing units. To give time base change command to IU

LOX, 105"

LOX and F u e l Level Sensor System

LOX, L-2 and L-4, fuel, F - 2 and F - 4

F u e l Depletion Sensors Sumps

I To initiate outboard engine
cutoff To improve propellant transfer characteristics To supply helium for fuel tank p r e s s u r i z i n g Route cables f r o m aft s k i r t s to instrumentation a s s e m b l i e s House s instrumentation, t e l e m e t r y and e l e c t r i c a l components

I

F - 2 and F-4

All fuel All LOX Fuel, F - 3 and F - 4 All fuel

20- Cubic-Foot HighP r e s s u r e He Spheres E l e c t r i c a l Cable Installations Instrumentation Compartment

Fuel, F - 1 and F - 2

a. The center LOX container unit a s s e m b l y internal a r r a n g e m e n t 60C10130 i s 105 inches i n diameter and 749.679 inches long. In addition to the components listed i n table 5, the center tank h a s a sump and fuel i n t e r connect manifold located i n the aft skirt.
After the auxiliary components (including connecting hardware, tubing, and wiring) a r e installed i n the forward and aft s k i r t s and on the skin,

t h e c e n t e r LOX container unit a s s e m b l y b e c o m e s the 1 0 5 - i n c h - d i a m e t e r LOX c o n t a i n e r , unit a s s e m b l y 60C10014. The 70-inch LOX c o n t a i n e r s a r e 747.43 i n c h e s long and 70 i n c h e s b. i n d i a m e t e r . After i n s t a l l a t i o n of the a u x i l i a r y components, e a c h c o n t a i n e r weighs a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3700 to 4100 pounds. A f t e r components a r e i n s t a l l e d on the e x t e r n a l s k i n and i n t h e s k i r t s , the c o n t a i n e r s b e c o m e 70-inch LOX container unit a s s e m b l i e s . Table 6 i s a quick r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . TABLE 6. Container Number CONTAINER IDENTIFICATION Container Unit Assembly (After Component Installation) Drawing No. 60C10014 60C10005 60c10006 6OC1OOO7 60C10008

Container Unit A s s e m b l y (Internal Arrangement)

LOX L-105 L- 1 L-2 L-3 L-4 Fuel F- 1 F-2 F-3 F-4

Drawing No. 6OClO13O 6OClO131 60C10132 60C10133 60610134

60610135 60610136 60610137 60610138

60Cl0009 60ClOOlO 60ClOOll 60C10012

c. The 70-inch-diameter fuel container unit a s s e m b l i e s a r e 743. 804 i n c h e s long. Table 6 identifies the c o n t a i n e r s , the i n t e r n a l a r r a n g e m e n t d r a w i n g s , and t h e c o n t a i n e r s a f t e r component installation. The i n t e r n a l a r r a n g e m e n t of the fuel c o n t a i n e r s i s s i m i l a r f o r a l l c o n t a i n e r s ( F i g . 15); however, t h e r e a r e s o m e differences. See table 5. The m o s t obvious diff e r e n c e between the fuel c o n t a i n e r s i s the f o r w a r d bulkheads of c o n t a i n e r s F - 1 and F - 2 t h a t f o r m i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n c o m p a r t m e n t s , u n i t s 1 3 and 12 r e spectively. F e e d - t h r o u g h a d a p t e r s for the fuel p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s y s t e m a r e a l s o i n s t a l l e d on the f o r w a r d bulkheads.

The e l e c t r i c a l cables for valve control, m e a s u r e m e n t s , guidance control, and other instrumentation a r e routed along the external skins of the fuel containers and covered with conduit covers. F o r detailed information on a l l containers, r e f e r to the drawings listed i n table 6. 3. Spider Beam A r e a . The spider beam unit assembly (Fig. 16), while s t r u c t u r a l l y supporting the S-IB stage forward end, adapts the S-IB stage to the S-IVB aft interstage and t r a n s m i t s t h r u s t to the S-IVB stage. The a s s e m b l y a l s o provides mounting for various measuring components and control and m e a s u r i n g tubing. Seal plates installed on the forward side of the spider b e a m p r o t e c t the S-IB stage f r o m the blast of the S-IVB engine during S-IVB stage ignition. These plates a l s o f o r m the aft s e a l of the S-IVB aft i n t e r s t a g e a r e a , and provide a compartment between the stages, which can be environmentally controlled. The LOX p r e s s u r i z i n g and vent s y s t e m (Fig. 16) i s interconnected through the p r e s s u r i z a t i o n manifold i n the forward end of the center LOX container. P r e l a u n c h p r e s s u r i z a t i o n i s accomplished by using helium f r o m a ground source. Inflight p r e s s u r i z a t i o n i s maintained by GOX obtained by passing LOX through the heat exchangers i n the e n t i r e turbine exhaust s y s t e m s . The GOX flows into a common manifold, through a flow regulator valve, and into the center LOX container. The remaining LOX containers receive GOX f r o m the upper interconnect lines (COX distribution system) associated with the center LOX container. COX p r e s s u r e i s bled off by one 7-inch and two 4inch vent lines to the outside during prelaunch operations. The fuel p r e s s u r i z a t i o n manifold interconnects the fuel containers a t the forward ends. Inflight p r e s s u r i z i n g helium i s supplied by the two 20-cubicfoot s p h e r e s located i n the forward s k i r t s of containers F - 3 and F - 4 . Two fuel vent valves located i n the p r e s s u r i z a t i o n manifold, i n containers F- 3 and F - 4 , mechanically maintain proper p r e s s u r e . The S-IB stage power supply, recording equipment, telemetry equipment, flight sequencing equipment, signal transmitting and receiving equipment, m e a s u r i n g equipment, vehicle control, and other instrumentation and elect r i c a l equipment a r e mounted i n instrumentation compartments, units 12 and 13 located i n the forward s k i r t s of fuel containers F - 2 and F- 1 respectively. The instrumentation and e l e c t r i c a l a s s e m b l i e s a r e f i r s t prefitted i n a n a s s e m bly fixture before they a r e installed in the vehicle. F o r m o r e detailed information, r e f e r to drawings 60C10023 and 60C10024, and Saturn IB Vehicle Data Books and the Saturn IB Instrumentation Systems Descriptions. The instrumentation compartments a r e cooled and then purged during countdown through a cooling s y s t e m that obtains conditioned a i r and GN2 (for purging) f r o m the environmental conditioning s y s t e m of the launch support equipment. Instrumentation, command, and t e l e m e t r y antennas a r e installed on panels 1, located a t the forward end of the stage along fin lines I, 11, 1 1 and IV.

- INSTRUMENT COMPARTMENT
NUMBER 17

GOX PRESSURIZATION MANIFOLD

TERNA PANEL (81

C-H 9161

F I G U R E 16.

S P I D E R BEAM AND T O P T A N K A R E A

E.

S-IVB STAGE

The S-IVB stage (Fig. 17), manufactured by Douglas A i r c r a f t Company, i s a self-supporting s t r u c t u r e designed for utilization a s the third stage of the Saturn V vehicle and adapted a s the second stage of the Saturn IB vehicle. The stage, including the forward s k i r t and aft inter stage a s s e m b l i e s , i s 59.1 feet long and 260 inches i n diameter. Basically, the stage i s a two-section tank s t r u c t u r e to which the forward s k i r t a s s e m b l y , aft s k i r t assembly, aft interstage assembly, the aft i n t e r stage fairing, and the t h r u s t s t r u c t u r e a r e attached. An insulated common bulkhead divides the tank s t r u c t u r e into a forward LH2 tank and a n aft LOX tank. The internal surface of the tank cylinders f e a t u r e s a milled waffle surface pattern. Access to the interior of the LH2 tank i s provided through a manhole i n the top. Access to the i n t e r i o r of the LOX tank i s provided through a detachable sump. A ring-type baffle i s installed i n the LOX tank to minimize sloshing. An external tunnel extending f r o m the forward s k i r t a s s e m b l y to the aft s k i r t a s s e m b l y houses various intrastage tubing, cables, and l i n e s f r o m the cold helium s p h e r e s mounted inside the LH2 tank. 1. Tail Area. The engine thrust s t r u c t u r e (Fig. 17) i s a truncated cone of reinforced skin and s t r i n g e r construction. The l a r g e end of the cone i s attached to the aft dome of the LOX tank. The engine, engine hydraulic actuating components, and a control p r e s s u r e helium sphere a r e mounted on the t h r u s t s t r u c t u r e . The control p r e s s u r e sphere supplies ambient helium a t 3 , 0 0 0 psig for pneumatic operation of valves i n the LH2 and LOX s y s t e m s , and supplies constant purge for the engine gearbox. Two doors provide a c c e s s to the t h r u s t s t r u c t u r e through a trapezoidal opening. The aft interstage (Fig. 17) i s a cylindrical skin and external s t r i n g e r s t r u c t u r e located between the aft s k i r t field splice plane of the S-IVB and S-IB s t a g e s and the interface of the S-IVB and S-IB stages. The interstage s e r v e s to t r a n s m i t s t r u c t u r a l loads between the stages and a l s o provides a n aerodynamic enclosure between the stages. There a r e provisions for eight equally spaced mounting points on a 220-inch diameter c i r c l e for the i n t e r face of the S-IB and S-IVB stages. Four r e t r o m o t o r s a r e mounted on the aft interstage aft of the separation plane and a t 90-degree intervals around the periphery. The r e t r o m o t o r s and support bracketry a r e enclosed i n a e r o dynamic fairings. The four solid propellant r e t r o m o t o r s produce a retarding f o r c e on the S-IB stage to prevent S-IBIS-IVB interaction during separation. a The r e t r o m o t o r s ignite, during separation, 16 to 31 ~ n i l l i s e c o n d s f t e r the shaped explosive charges a r e fired that cut the skin a t the separation plane between the S-IVB and the S-IVB stage. A door located i n the forward portion of the interstage provides personnel a c c e s s for maintenance purposes. An aft interstage f a i r i n g i s attached to the r e a r of the aft interstage. The f a i r i n g

HYDROGEN

'ORWARD SKIRT

AUXILIARY PR( SYSTEM MODUL

-AFT

SKIRT

7

RETROMOITORS (41

A F T I N 1-ERSTAGE

F I G U R E 17.

S-IVB STAGE

provides a n aerodynamic sheath over the S-IB stage spider b e a m and the u p p e r m o s t portion of the S-IB stage propellant container. The a f t s k i r t (Fig. 17) i s constructed of aluminum with a skin and ext e r n a l s t r i n g e r design. The aft umbilical plate, a hydrogen feed line fairing, t h r e e ullage rocket m o t o r s , and two auxiliary propulsion s y s t e m (APS) modules a r e mounted on the aft s k i r t . Ullage motor firing i s the f i r s t s t e p i n the s e p a r a t i o n sequence. The ullage m o t o r s i m p a r t forward a c c e l e r a t i o n when f i r e d ; t h i s f o r c e s e t t l e s the fuel to provide a positive turbopump head and a i d s S-IBIS-IVB stage separation. The APS consists of the two APS modules mounted 180 d e g r e e s a p a r t on the skin. Each module contains t h r e e fixed storable-propellant-fueled engines a r r a n g e d to control attitude i n the pitch, roll, and yaw planes. The APS i s controlled by the vehicle guidance computer i n the i n s t r u m e n t unit. The APS maintains r o l l control during S-IVB powered flight, and provides complete attitude control during e a r t h orbiting and maneuvering e x e r c i s e s . The aft s k i r t s t r u c t u r e i s u n p r e s s u r i z e d and houses various e l e c t r i c a l components of the propellant control s y s t e m , engine control s y s t e m , the auxiliary hydraulic pump motor, two b a t t e r i e s , and portions of the instrumentation and t e l e m e t r y system.

2. Propellant Containers. The LH2 container, formed by the forward end of the tank s t r u c t u r e and the forward side of the common bulkhead, h a s a capacity of approximately 10, 377 cubic feet. Inside s u r f a c e s of the LH2 container have 314-inch polyurethane foam bonded to the walls. Glass cloth coated with polyurethane sealant c o v e r s the foam. Pipes and fittings a r e vacuum jacketed. Mounted inside the tank a r e fuel m a s s , t e m p e r a t u r e , and liquid level s e n s o r s for propellant utilization operation, propellant loading, and ground monitoring display. Eight cold-helium s p h e r e s a r e installed i n the container to supply helium for inflight LOX tank pressurization. The cold helium i s expanded by passing i t through a heat exchanger i n the J - 2 engine turbine exhaust system. A s c r e e n a t the LH2 tank outlet provides vortex s u p p r e s s i o n and fuel filtering. Vent and relief valves a r e installed i n the f o r w a r d end of the container. LH2 f i l l , drain, and replenishing a r e accomplished through one f i l l and d r a i n valve located i n the bottom of the container.
The LOX container, formed by the aft end of the tank s t r u c t u r e and the aft side of the common bulkhead, has a capacity of approximately 2, 828 cubic feet. The suction line i s attached to the sump, and a n antivortex s c r e e n i s mounted i n the sump. LOX f i l l , drain, and replenishing a r e accomplished through one f i l l and d r a i n valve located on the bottom of the container. Vent and relief valves a r e installed i n the forward end of the container. T e m p e r a t u r e , m a s s , and liquid level s e n s o r s a r e mounted i n the container for p r o pellant management.

3. Forward Skirt. The forward s k i r t i s a 260-inch-diameter, 122inch-long cylinder of typical skin and external stringer construction. The s k i r t incorporates provisions f o r mounting the Instrument Unit. Cold plates a r e mounted to the walls of the skirt. Instrumentation, antennas, b a t t e r i e s , and other types of equipment a r e mounted to the plates. Environmental conditioning for the instrumentation i s accomplished by pumping liquid coolant through the cold plates f r o m the ground support instrument unit t h e r m a l conditioning system. The forward s k i r t contains the umbilical plate f o r the hydrogen vent line and electrical umbilicals. The telemetry antennas a r e a l s o mounted on the skirt. Provisions for installing two r e t r o m o t o r s a r e incorporated i n the s k i r t , although such motors will only be installed i n conjunction with a three-stage configuration of the Saturn IB vehicle. Access to the forward s k i r t i s through the a c c e s s door i n the instrument unit. Mounting for a removable work platform i s provided i n the skirt.

I?.

INSTRUMENT UNIT

The Saturn IB instrument unit (Fig. 18) i s a n unpressurized, cylindrical, load- supporting structure of sandwich- type bonded construction 2 60 inches in diameter and 36 inches long. The structure i s constructed i n t h r e e 120degree segments, each having a forward and aft interstage connecting ring segment. These three segments a r e assembled a t the launch complex. Mounted on the interior skin a r e honeycomb panel cold plates to which i s mounted the electrical and electronic equipment. Environmental conditioning i s provided by a t h e r m a l conditioning system that pumps a water-methonal mixture through the cold plates. Prelaunch cooling i s accomplished using ground support equipment. Jnflight conditioning i s accomplished by the onboard closed-loop conditioning system that incorporates a n e l e c t r i c motordriven pump and a heat exchanger to complete the refrigeration cycle, The instrument unit houses a n electrical system, instrumentation s y s tem, radio frequency system, environmental control system, the emergency detection system, and the guidance and control system. The guidance, control, and monitoring systems govern performance of the vehicle throughout a major portion of i t s mission, Instrument unit cont r o l begins a t liftoff and includes injection of the combined S-IVB stage, instrument unit, and Apollo spacecraft into e a r t h orbit, and extends through participation in initial orbital maneuvers. This period includes the following phases of flight: f i r s t stage powered flight, f i r s t stage separation, second stage powered flight, injection into e a r t h orbit, e a r t h orbital coast stabilization, spacecraft turn-around and docking maneuver, and through spacecraft withdrawal f r o m the remainder of the launch vehicle in e a r t h orbit. The instrument unit c e a s e s functioning when it i s jettisoned in conjunction with the S-IVB stage a t the conclusion of the aforementioned maneuver. The

FIGURE 18.

INSTRUMENT UNIT

guidance and control equipment includes an ST-124 (four gimbal gyros t a b i l i z e d ) i n e r t i a l guidance p l a t f o r m , the p l a t f o r m e l e c t r o n i c box, a guida n c e signal p r o c e s s o r , a digital c o m p u t e r , and a p r o g r a m m i n g device. A g a s e o u s n i t r o g e n a i r - b e a r i n g supply i s used i n conjunction with the i n e r t i a l platform.

G.

PAYLOAD

F i g u r e 19 of the Apollo s p a c e c r a f t i l l u s t r a t e s i n cutaway view the command module (CM), s e r v i c e module (SM), l u n a r e x c u r s i o n module (LEM), and the s p a c e c r a f t a d a p t e r (SA), e a c h of which i s a m a j o r component of the Apollo s p a c e c r a f t . Not shown i n t h i s view i s the launch e s c a p e s y s t e m , a l s o a m a j o r component of the s p a c e c r a f t , which i s attached to the f o r w a r d end of the command module. The CM contains the t h r e e a s t r o n a u t s and a m a j o r i t y of the s p a c e c r a f t control equipment. The SM provides propulsion f o r the combined CM and SM i n space. I n the S a t u r n IB/Apollo e a r t h o r b i t a l t e s t p r o g r a m , the SM m a i n propulsion engine will be t e s t e d and will be utilized to p r o p e l and m a n e u v e r the CM/SM combination into the p r o p e r position for r e e n t r y of the

CM and i t s astronaut crew into the e a r t h ' s atmosphere. The t e s t p r o g r a m will evaluate the SM for future use i n the Saturn V p r o g r a m . In the Saturn V p r o g r a m , the SM propulsion s y s t e m will be used to make mid-course c o r rections of the s p a c e c r a f t enroute to the moon, to propel the s p a c e c r a f t into p r o p e r launch orbit upon a r r i v a l a t the destination, and to r e t u r n the CM, containing the a s t r o n a u t s , toward the e a r t h i n the final phases of the lunar mission. The LEM will be tested during the Saturn IB /Apollo e a r t h o r b i t t e s t program. The t e s t s will evaluate the LEM for future use i n the Saturn V program. During the lunar missions of the Saturn V p r o g r a m , the LEM will be utilized i n the following manner. The LEM (ascent and descent s t a g e s i n combination) will land astronauts on the lunar surface for exploration and a f t e r w a r d s will r e t u r n them (in the LEM ascent stage) to the CM/SM combination orbiting overhead around the moon. Upon completion of this rendezvous and t r a n s f e r of the astronauts back into the CM, the LEM (ascent stage) will be jettisoned to o r b i t around the moon. The CM/SM will propel the astronauts back toward the earth. Each of the aforementioned Apollo spacec r a f t maneuvers, required for the lunar m i s s i o n of the Saturn V p r o g r a m , will be executed during the e a r t h orbital coast period a s p a r t of the Saturn IB program. Thorough testing of the Apollo spacecraft s y s t e m s t capabilities will be performed during the e a r t h orbital coast period. The configuration of the LEM shown i n this illustration i s a n e a r l y design. This LEM e a r l y design h a s a general tthelicopter bubble" forward face of the a s c e n t stage. The ascent stage i s designed to ascend f r o m the moon a f t e r lunar exploration by the a s t r o n a u t s (in the Saturn V program). The LEM descent stage i s designed to descend f r o m lunar o r b i t and land upon the lunar surface during the Saturn V program. The LEM descent stage will be left behind on the moon when the astronauts r e t u r n to earth. Extensive development t e s t s and redesign have resulted i n enlargement of the S-IVB stage propellant containers. This enlargement has necessitated folding the LEM descent stage landing gear for compactness of storage inside the spacecraft adapter. The SM m a i n propulsion engine and the fuel and oxidizer propellant containers a r e a l s o illustrated. Two of the four reaction control s y s t e m (RCS) modules a r e shown. Each of these four modules consists of four reaction jets which will be utilized to provide maneuvering capability and attitude control i n space. Expulsion of gas through these RCS jets will provide the pulsed t h r u s t vector control of the CM/SM combination which will be n e c e s s a r y to effect p r e c i s e direction and stability. H. PROPELLANT DISPERSION SYSTEM (DESTRUCT SYSTEM)

The p r i m a r y purpose of the range safety command d e s t r u c t s y s t e m i s to provide a positive means for terminating the vehicle flight upon command f r o m the ground.

'AGE

F I G U R E 19. A P O L L O PAY LOAD

Range safety r e q u i r e m e n t s specify that each m i s s i l e on the Atlantic Missile Range (AMR) m u s t have two s e p a r a t e and independent emergency methods for terminating a flight, in the event of a vehicle malfunction. Vehicle s launched a t elevation angles g r e a t e r than 45 d e g r e e s above the horizon (the Saturn IB i s i n this category) m u s t contain two U H F radio command s y s t e m s that a r e compatible with the dual command t r a n s m i t t e r s located on the range. The only i t e m s that may be common to the two s y s t e m s a r e the antennas, the cabling, and the d e s t r u c t package. Each a i r b o r n e s y s t e m ( t h e r e i s one for each of the booster s t a g e s ) consists of command antennas, command d e s t r u c t r e c e i v e r s , audio decoder, d e s t r u c t s y s t e m , and a s s o c i a t e d wiring. These provide the means for engine cutoff, a r m i n g of the d e s t r u c t s y s t e m for vehicle destruction, and propellant dispersion. The d e s t r u c t commands a r e transmitted by frequency-modulating the command t r a n s m i t t e r s (located a t the launch s i t e ) with selected combinations of audio tones. This frequency-modulated c a r r i e r i s received and demodulated by each of the command r e c e i v e r s . The recovered audio tones a r e then applied to the decoder, where they a r e separated according to frequency, to energize the p r o p e r combination of relays. The proper combination of r e lays completes the c i r c u i t r y for execution of the d e s i r e d command that init i a t e s the engine cutoff and d e s t r u c t sequence. A time delay between engine cutoff and d e s t r u c t , required for escape of manned capsules and inflight charging of the E B W firing unit, i s provided by a t i m e r i n the Range Safety Officer's console.

I.

EMERGENCY DETECTION SYSTEM

An emergency detection s y s t e m (EDS) h a s been developed to p r o t e c t the a s t r o n a u t s i n the event a malfunction should t h r e a t e n l o s s of the Saturn IB space vehicle. The EDS (Fig. 20) i s designed to accomplish the following functions: (1) detect equipment malfunctions, f a i l u r e s , and impending r e sultant e m e r g e n c i e s , (2) evaluate the possible and probable consequence s of these a d v e r s e conditions, ( 3 ) i s s u e warning signals to the a s t r o n a u t s and to the personnel a t ground monitoring stations, and (4) under c e r t a i n c i r c u m stances, initiate action to protect the a.stronauts by ejecting them i n the CM away f r o m the launch vehicle. The evaluation of onboard vehicle i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i s divided into two basic categories for the purpose of classifying EDS r e a c tion. These two subdivisions a r e : (1) those which consist of, o r will p r e cipitate, ' c r i t i c a l f a i l u r e s , ' and ( 2 ) those which consist of, o r will precipitate, 'catastrophic f a i l u r e s . ' ' Critical f a i l u r e s ' a r e those which will cause s e r i o u s limitations to the capability of the vehicle to accomplish i t s mission. ' Catastrophic f a i l u r e s ' a r e those which a r e c e r t a i n to r e s u l t i n destruction of the vehicle and for which the danger i s imminent. ' C r i t i c a l f a i l u r e s ' may c r e a t e conditions which l a t e r may degenerate into m o r e s e r i o u s conditions and culminate i n the eventual l o s s of the vehicle. Because of a c e r t a i n inherent t i m e

Q-BALL

R A T E EXCESSIVE AUTOMATIC ABORT DEACTIVATE SWITCH COMMAND MODULE 2 OUT OF 3 VOTING CIRCUIT S-IB TWO ENGINE OUT AUTOMATIC ABORT DEACTIVATE SWITCH HANDCONTROLLER MANUALABORT
b

I
REDUNDANT CIRCUIT FOR VISUAL INDICATION
J

a
- - -I
I

ANGLE O F ATTACK

4

A

APOLLO I.U.
I

- -- --

-

-T

-Y Y

- --

- -

V

Y
2 OUT O F 3 VOTING FOR ABORT AND CAPSULE COMMANDS REDUNDANCY FOR VISUAL INDICATION

E.D.S. DISTRIBUTOR
I L

A A A A

A [

AL A

AL A

DATA ADAPTER

R A T E GYROS ARMED FOR AUTO ABORT

------------------

L& 3
S-IVB SEQUENCER

DESTRUCT CONTROLLERS

- - - --S-IB

S-IVB

- - - ENGINE 1 - - - - - DESTRUCT CONTROLLERS

P I
I

ENGINES OUTPUT

I

Y
MAIN DISTRIBUTOR

PROPULSION DISTRIBUTOR

-

4

1
TDK TOK T O K T O K TO 1 8 19 20 21 2

+ ENGINE OUTPUT

ENG 1

ENG 2

ENG 3

ENG 4

ENG 5

ENG 6

ENG 7

ENG 8
C-H 8602-1

F I G U R E 20.

BLOCK DIAGRAM SATURN I B EDS

a s s e t , ' c r i t i c a l f a i l u r e s ' a r e susceptible to human evaluation a s to the extent of their effects and a s to the urgency of their demands. The EDS provides manually initiated a b o r t action when t i m e p e r m i t s , and automatic-initiated a b o r t for 'catastrophic failures. ' The EDS thereby t a k e s advantage of the superior a s s e t s of onboard human reasoning and r e a c tion by the a s t r o n a u t s i n a highly capable man-machine system. The EDS likewise p r o t e c t s the a s t r o n a u t s by instantaneous automatic a b o r t initiation when time i s not available for human decision and action. Automatic a b o r t conditions r e s u l t i f vehicle angular o v e r r a t e o c c u r s o r l o s s of t h r u s t of two o r m o r e engines on the S-IB stage i s indicated. During both automatic and manual a b o r t conditions, a n emergency signal i s t r a n s m i t t e d to the EDS d i s play panel i n view of the astronauts i n the CM. The signal display i s ' a d visory only' to the a s t r o n a u t s during automatic a b o r t conditions. Under manual a b o r t conditions, the astronauts a r e given the option to continue the m i s sion o r to initiate the a b o r t sequence and thus t e r m i n a t e the m i s s i o n i n accordance with their own judgment. Information generated by the EDS i s t e l e m e t e r ed to ground monitoring stations. The ground operating personnel may thus a s s i s t i n evaluating the f a c t o r s involved i n ' c r i t i c a l f a i l u r e ' conditions wherein manual a b o r t may be required. Malfunction and failure sensing elements of the EDS a r e located throughout the vehicle. The c e n t r a l receiving, evaluating, control, and distributing network elements a r e located i n the instrument unit. Typical of this l a t t e r group i s the EDS distributor. Signals representative of space vehicle p e r formance p a r a m e t e r s a r e supplied to this distributor f r o m strategically i m portant positions throughout the vehicle. The EDS distributor, i n turn, r o u t e s the signals into appropriate paths for comparison, evaluation, display, and action initiation. The status of the following performance p a r a m e t e r s a r e displayed on the a s t r o n a u t ' s panel: (1) Engine status i n S-IB stage, ( 2 ) Engine status i n S-IVB stage, ( 3 ) Guidance failure indication, (4) Vehicle angle of attack, and ( 5 ) Vehicle angular motion r a t e . The EDS includes a n angular o v e r r a t e device t e r m e d the r a t e package. The r a t e package m e a s u r e s the angular r a t e s of displacement of the space vehicle f r o m null positions i n the roll, pitch, and yaw planes. The r a t e package will consist of nine r a t e gyros, t h r e e of which a r e mounted i n each of the t h r e e planes of motion. Utilization of t h r e e r a t e gyros for m e a s u r e ment of movement r a t e i n each plane provides redundancy and reliability for these extremely important functions. The s a m e r a t e gyros a r e utilized for position and stability control of the vehicle during n o r m a l flight. Automatic a b o r t i s initiated i f a t l e a s t two of the t h r e e r a t e gyros sensing any one plane of motion (roll, pitch, o r yaw) indicate that vehicle r a t e s a r e excessive during S-IB stage powered flight. Under such excessive r a t e conditions automatic a b o r t i s mandatory i f dictated by m i s s i o n rules. Manual deactivation

of t h i s automatic a b o r t feature i s possible a f t e r completion of the S-IB stage powered flight and commencement of the period of S-IVB stage powered flight. At t h i s t i m e the Saturn IB vehicle will have reached a n altitude of approximately 4 2 nautical m i l e s . At such a n altitude the vehicle h a s sufficient space i n which to maneuver i n the event of e r r a t i c performance. Also, f r o m t h i s altitude the a s t r o n a u t s have adequate time to escape should the vehicle l o s e power and begin descent. The danger of f i r e o r explosion will s t i l l be p r e s ent, but t h i s danger will be greatly minimized after successful completion of the f i r s t stage separation procedure. The exact t i m e a t which the automatic a b o r t feature may be deactivated i s determined by the requirements of the individual m i s s i o n for each vehicle. A single o v e r r a t e light will be energized on the display panel before the a s t r o n a u t s i n the CM whenever r a t e s of motion a r e exceeded i n any plane. The light will be energized by a d i s c r e t e signal f r o m the s e n s o r s i n the r a t e package. The light will advise the a s t r o n a u t s of o v e r r a t e conditions for use i n making decisions regarding manual a b o r t a f t e r deactivation of the automatic a b o r t circuitry. During S-IVB stage powered flight, a b o r t because of o v e r r a t e conditions will be initiated manually. The l i m i t s may be varied to accommodate the conditions expected during each p a r t i c u l a r flight. The l o s s of t h r u s t f r o m any two of the eight H-1 engines of the S-IB stage initiates automatic abort. F o r special m i s s i o n s the astronauts a r e provided with the m e a n s of bypassing this S-IB stage engine failure automatic a b o r t feature. Back-up capability f o r deactivation of the engine failure automatic a b o r t capability i s provided i n the Saturn IB launch vehicle sequencer.

GLOSSARY

Item abort

Definition (1) To t e r m i n a t e , o r to l i m i t the objectives, a s a consequence of a malfunction o r o t h e r unscheduled c i r c u m s t a n c e . ( R e l a t e s t o a flight m i s s i o n , a development t e s t , etc. )

( 2 ) A m i s s i o n , t e s t , etc. , that i s a b o r t e d .
AFRM " A i r f r a m e . " Denotes a flight-weight module of the Apollo Spacecraft, manufactured with h a r d tooling (i. e . , nonimprovised tooling; tooling in which m a j o r changes a r e not anticipated), and equipped with such s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s a s n e c e s s a r y to accomplish the a s s i g n e d m i s s i o n . Antonym: boilerplate. Atlantic M i s s i l e Range. The Cape Kennedy, F l o r i d a , f a c i l i t i e s of the Atlantic M i s s i l e Range incl.ude the launch complexes f r o m which the Saturn-Apollo s p a c e vehicles a r e launched. The designation of the p r o j e c t and the a s s o c i a t e d s p a c e c r a f t by m e a n s of which a manned l u n a r landing i s to be accomplished within the p r e s e n t decade. In G r e e k and Roman mythology, Apollo i s the god of prophecy, a s well a s the god of m u s i c , poetry and medicine. The angular position of the space vehicle with r e s p e c t to a s e t of space-fixed coordinate a x e s . The angular distance, e x p r e s s e d i n d e g r e e s , m e a s u r e d clockwise, between the direction of t r u e North (in the Northern H e m i s p h e r e ) o r South ( i n the Southern H e m i s p h e r e ) and the d i r e c t i o n of flight.

AMR

Apollo

attitude

azimuth

Item boilerplate

Definition Denotes a simulated module of the Apollo Spacec r a f t , manufactured with soft tooling (i. e . , i m p r o v i s e d o r relatively inexpensive t e m p o r a r y tooling), and equipped with such s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s a s n e c e s s a r y to a c c o m p l i s h the a s s i g n e d m i s s i o n i n the development of the s p a c e c r a f t d e sign. Antonym: AFRM. In r e f e r e n c e to a propulsion engine of a S a t u r n launch vehicle: i n s t a l l e d i n the launch vehicle stage i n such a m a n n e r that the nominal l i n e of action of the t h r u s t f o r c e of the engine i s not p a r a l l e l to the f o r e - a n d - a f t a x i s of the stage. The point i n the s p a c e vehicle a t which the e n t i r e m a s s of the vehicle c a n be a s s u m e d to be conc e n t r a t e d , f o r the purpose of convenience i n s u c h calculations a s the motion of the vehicle along i t s t r a j e c t o r y . ( T h e C G of any p a r t of the vehicle, such a s a n individual stage of the launch vehicle, h a s c o m p a r a b l e meaning r e l a t i v e to that p a r t . ) The location of the C G changes a s fuel o r o t h e r s t o r e s a r e expended. Center of gravity. Denotes a m i s s i o n i n which "Around the Moon. a s p a c e c r a f t c i r c l e s the Moon one o r m o r e t i m e s , without a l u n a r landing, and r e t u r n s to E a r t h . Command Module. The p a r t of the Apollo S p a c e c r a f t which s e r v e s a s a command c e n t e r , living q u a r t e r s and environmental protection f o r the t h r e e - m a n c r e w . The Command Module r e - e n t e r s the E a r t h ' s a t m o s p h e r e and i s r e c o v e r e d a t the conclusion of a n Apollo m i s s i o n . The maneuver that i s p e r f o r m e d when the Command Module and the L u n a r E x c u r s i o n Module of the Apollo S p a c e c r a f t a r e aligned while physically s e p a r a t e f r o m e a c h other i n E a r t h o r b i t o r i n

canted

c e n t e r of gravity (CG)

CG circumlunar

CM Command Module (CM)

docking

Definition l u n a r orbit; a r e brought c l o s e r together until they a r e i n contact; and a r e locked together to p e r m i t the t r a n s f e r of c r e w m e m b e r s through connecting hatches. drogue p a r a c h u t e The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l parachute t h a t i s deployed f r o m the Command Module of the Apollo Spacec r a f t f o r the p u r p o s e of applying a f o r c e which s u p p r e s s e s p e r t u r b a t i o n s i n the attitude of the Command Module, and which r e t a r d s the speed of the Command Module. The drogue p a r a c h u t e i s deployed a f t e r the Command Module h a s p a s s e d through the c r i t i c a l aerodynamic heating r a n g e on r e - e n t r y into the E a r t h ' s a t m o s p h e r e , and i s jettisoned before the m a i n p a r a c h u t e s a r e deployed f r o m the Command Module. The flight c o u r s e t h a t i s followed by the Apollo S p a c e c r a f t i n t r a v e l i n g f r o m the vicinity of the Moon to the vicinity of the E a r t h . Exploding Bridge Wire. E l e c t r i c a l Support Equipment. A w i r e r e s i s t a n c e e l e m e n t t h a t b r e a k s up explosively when a suitable pulse of e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y i s applied to it. This action ignites a n explosive c h a r g e in a detonator unit. The a f t e r m o s t stage of the launch configuration of a S a t u r n launch vehicle. The stage which is f i r s t to provide propulsive t h r u s t f o r the s p a c e vehicle. Government- F u r n i s h e d Equipment. Gaseous Hydrogen ( a s distinguished f r o m liquid Hydrogen)

Earth transfer trajectory

EBW ESE exploding bridge wire

f i r s t stage

GFE GH2

.

gimbaled

(1) Mounted i n gimbals.

(2) Caused to pivot about the a x e s of the gimbals ( a colloquialism).

Item gimbals

Definition The mechanical mounting f o r a movable p r o p u l sion engine i n a Saturn launch vehicle s t a g e o r the Apollo S e r v i c e Module. The gimbals p e r m i t the engine to pivot about two mutually p e r p e n dicular a x e s that lie i n a plane that i s e i t h e r n o r m a l to o r n e a r l y n o r m a l to the longitudinal a x i s of the vehicle. Some o r a l l of the propulsion engines i n e a c h S a t u r n stage and the Apollo S e r v i c e Module a r e s o mounted, s o t h a t the d i r e c t i o n i n which the t h r u s t f o r c e a c t s c a n be v a r i e d a s n e c e s s a r y to s t e e r and stabilize the s p a c e vehicle o r the s p a c e c r a f t . Gaseous Nitrogen ( a s distinguished f r o m liquid Nitrogen).

GOX

Gaseous Oxygen ( a s distinguished f r o m liquid o r solid Oxygen). Ground Support Equipment. In r e f e r e n c e to a p a i r of liquid p r o p e l l a n t s : capable of igniting spontaneously when brought into contact. Integrated Mission Control C e n t e r . The ground organization located n e a r Houston, T e x a s , whose responsibility i s o v e r a l l m i s s i o n c o n t r o l and coordination. The IMCC u t i l i z e s the s e r v i c e s provided to i t by the Launch Control C e n t e r , the Global Tracking and Communications Networks, the Computer Complex a t Houston, the R e c o v e r y Control C e n t e r s and f o r c e s , and the data r e d u c tion facilities

GSE hypergolic

IMCC

.

I n s t r u m e n t Unit (IU)

The f o r w a r d section of the operational Saturn I, the Saturn IB and the Saturn V launch vehicles. Houses guidance and control and t e l e m e t r y equipm e n t , and provide s mounting points f o r Apollo payload. I n s t r u m e n t Unit,

Item launch complex

Definition An a r e a which contains the f a c i l i t i e s that a r e needed f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n and launch of a Saturn-Apollo s p a c e vehicle; p a r t of the Atlantic Mis s i l e Range. A special-purpose propulsion s y s t e m i n s t a l l e d on the Command Module, capable of lifting the C ommand Module f r e e of the r e s t of the s p a c e vehicle f o r p a r a c h u t e d e s c e n t , to p r e s e r v e the l i v e s of the s p a c e c r a f t c r e w i n the event of a s e r i o u s e m e r g e n c y during the e a r l y p a r t of a m i s s i o n . The Launch E s c a p e S y s t e m i s jettisoned during the c o u r s e of a n o r m a l m i s s i o n . The two- stage o r t h r e e - stage Saturn r o c k e t booster which lifts a n Apollo payload to high a l titude and p l a c e s i t on a specified flight c o u r s e f o r the p e r f o r m a n c e of a n Apollo m i s s i o n . Lunar E x c u r s i o n Module. Launch E s c a p e System. Liquid Hydrogen.

Launch E s c a p e S y s t e m (LES)

launch vehicle (LV)

LEM LES LH2 liftoff

(1) The action of the s p a c e vehicle i n s t a r t i n g to r i s e f r o m the launch platform.
( 2 ) The i n s t a n t i n t i m e a t which liftoff o c c u r s ,

when the velocity of the vehicle changes f r o m z e r o to a n infinitesimally s m a l l , positive value. LOC Launch Operations C e n t e r , Cocoa Beach, F l o r i d a , the National Aeronautics and Space Administration c e n t e r which i s responsible f o r launching the Saturn-Apollo s p a c e vehicles and obtaining flight data. Lunar - Orbit Rendezvous. Liquid Oxygen.

LOR LOX

Lunar E x c u r s i o n Module ( L E M )

The p a r t of the Apollo S p a c e c r a f t which l a n d s on the Moon. The Lunar E x c u r s i o n Module i s a self-contained vehicle which enables two m e m b e r s of the t h r e e - m a n s p a c e c r a f t c r e w to d e s c e n d f r o m the lunar-orbiting s p a c e c r a f t , land on the Moon, m a k e observations and collect s p e c i m e n s , take off and r e j o i n the s p a c e c r a f t . The technique by m e a n s of which the a s c e n t s t a g e of the L u n a r E x c u r s i o n Module, r i s i n g f r o m the s u r f a c e of the Moon a f t e r completion of the l u n a r landing phase of the m i s s i o n , i s c a u s e d to i n t e r cept the s p a c e c r a f t i n i t s c i r c u l a r l u n a r o r b i t , f o r the purpose of docking and enabling c r e w m e m b e r s to r e t u r n to the s p a c e c r a f t f r o m the Lunar E x c u r s i o n Module. The selection of the LOR technique i n p r e f e r e n c e to a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h niques w a s a m a j o r decision i n the Apollo p r o j e c t . The flight c o u r s e that i s followed by the Apollo Spacecraft in traveling f r o m the vicinity of the E a r t h to the vicinity of the Moon. The Apollo Spacecraft i s injected into a lunar t r a n s f e r t r a j e c t o r y f r o m an E a r t h parking o r b i t by the Saturn launch vehicle. Launch vehicle.

Lunar - Or bit Rendezvous (LOR)

lunar t r a n s f e r trajectory

Michoud Operations

The manufacturing facility operated by M a r s h a l l Space Flight Center n e a r New O r l e a n s , Louisiana, a t which f i r s t s t a g e s of Saturn launch v e h i c l e s , and other Saturn i t e m s , a r e manufactured. The middle region of a l u n a r t r a n s f e r t r a j e c t o r y o r Earth transfer trajectory. A change i n the speed o r direction of the Apollo Spacecraft which i s effected i n m i d c o u r s e along a lunar transfer o r E a r t h transfer trajectory f o r the purpose of ensuring t h a t the s p a c e c r a f t will a r r i v e a t a d e s i r e d position i n r e l a t i o n to the Moon o r the E a r t h .

midcour s e

midc our s e correction

Item mission

Definition The clearly-defined t a s k t h a t i s a s s i g n e d to a Saturn- Apollo s p a c e vehicle. The t a s k typically h a s multiple objectives which a r e identified a s e i t h e r the p r i m a r y o r the secondary objectives of the m i s s i o n . Manned Spacecraft C e n t e r , Houston, T e x a s , the National Aeronautics and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c e n t e r which i s responsible f o r the Apollo Spacec r a f t and the a s s o c i a t e d Support Equipment.

MSFC

George C. M a r s h a l l Space Flight C e n t e r , Huntsville, Alabama, the National A e r o n a u t i c s and Space AdmirAstration c e n t e r which i s r e s p o n sible f o r the Saturn launch vehicles and the a s sociated Support Equipment. M i s s i s s i p p i T e s t F a c i l i t y , the National Aeronaut i c s and Space Administration t e s t facility a t which flight s t a g e s of Saturn launch vehicles undergo s t a t i c testing and acceptance testing. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the civilian agency of the Executive Branch of the F e d e r a l Government which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the execution of the National Space Exploration P r o g r a m , including a manned l u n a r landing d u r ing the p r e s e n t decade. The l a t t e r i s to be achieved through the Saturn-Apollo p r o j e c t . Unit of m e a s u r e equal to 6076.10333 f e e t , o r 1. 15077 statute m i l e s , o r 1.852 k i l o m e t e r s . Office of Manned Space Flight, Washington, D. C . , the office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration which i s responsible f o r the o v e r - a l l direction of the Saturn-Apollo p r o j e c t . The c i r c u l a r o r b i t around the E a r t h o r Moon i n which a n Apollo Spacecraft on a l u n a r m i s s i o n c o a s t s (i.e. , i s ' p a r k e d ' ) while the s p a c e c r a f t , the c r e w and the navigation a r e checked out p r i o r to the d e p a r t u r e of the s p a c e c r a f t on a t r a n s f e r

MTF

NASA

nautical m i l e

OMSF

parking o r b i t

Item

Definition t r a j e c t o r y . The s p a c e c r a f t i s injected into the E a r t h parking orbit, and l a t e r into the l u n a r t r a n s f e r t r a j e c t o r y , by i t s Saturn launch vehicle.

payload

The i t e m ( s ) that a r e lifted by a SATURN launch vehicle, exclusive of the s y s t e m s of the launch vehicle itself, in support of the Apollo p r o j e c t . " P r o g r a m Evaluation and Review Technique. I ' A computer technique which picks a limiting path through a n a r r a y of identifiable activities that make up a complex p r o j e c t such a s the Saturn project, and indicates such information a s ( a ) the overall time r e q u i r e d to complete the project, under the envisioned plan of work, and ( b ) the activities which l i m i t the p r o g r e s s of the project, f r o m the standpoint of t i m e n e c e s s a r y for their completion. Rotational motion of the space vehicle about i t s center of gravity ( C G ) which causes the nose of the vehicle to r i s e o r drop relative to the flight path. Positive pitch i s taken to be a nose-up motion. The geometric plane i n which pitch o c c u r s . One of four locations, designated by Roman n u m e r a l s , around the circumference of the body of the launch vehicle. Position I l i e s i n the pitch plane, so located that the vehicle pitches down (pitches negatively) over Position I. P o s i t i o n s 11, I11 and IV a r e located 90°, 180° and 270° clockwise f r o m Position I, a s viewed f r o m the aft end of the vehicle, looking forward. The four Positions a r e established to aid in c o r r e l a t ing physical locations within the launch vehicles. The locations of the Positions a r e consistent among a l l of the launch vehicles and their stages.

PERT

pitch

pitch plane Position

Item propellant

Definition

A m a t e r i a l that i s burned in a propulsion engine of a Saturn launch vehicle stage o r the Apollo Service Module to provide propulsive t h r u s t . '~ The t e r m " p r ~ p e l l a n t include s both fuel and oxidizers, the l a t t e r being m a t e r i a l s that combine chemically with the f o r m e r to sustain combustion. A propellant may be a solid m a t e r i a l , a s well a s a p a i r of liquids.
The penetration of the E a r t h ' s atmosphere by an Apollo Command Module which previously was lifted out of the atmosphere by a Saturn launch vehicle. In p a r t i c u l a r , that p a r t of the penetration in which the r i s e of the t e m p e r a t u r e of the surface of the Command Module, due to aerodynamic heating, i s critically high. The scope of action associated with locating the Command Module of an Apollo Spacecraft a f t e r i t h a s landed on the surface of the E a r t h , taking physical possession of i t , and t r a n s f e r r i n g i t and i t s c r e w to a sheltered location. A forward-facing rocket motor that i s f i r e d during the staging period to ensure positive separation of a stage of the Saturn-Apollo space vehicle. Rotational motion of the space vehicle about the fore-and-aft axis that p a s s e s through the center of gravity (CG) of the vehicle. Positive r o l l i s taken to be r o l l that a p p e a r s to be clockwise when viewed f r o m the aft end of the vehicle, looking forward. The designation of the project and the launch vehicles by means of which Apollo Spacecraft will be placed in E a r t h orbit and on lunar t r a n s f e r t r a j e c t o r i e s for the performance of Apollo m i s sions. Saturn i s the second of the planets of our s o l a r s y s t e m , f r o m the standpoint of s i z e , following J u p i t e r , the l a r g e s t .

re-entry

recovery

retromotor

r oll

Saturn'

Item SC SE second s t a g e Spacecraft. Support Equipment.

Definition

The stage which i s immediately f o r w a r d of the f i r s t stage of a Saturn launch vehicle. The s t a g e which provides propulsive t h r u s t a f t e r the fir s t stage i s shut down and s e p a r a t e d . Staging. The p a r t of the Apollo Spacecraft which c a r r i e s equipment and s t o r e s that support the o p e r a t i o n of the Command Module, and the m a i n propulsion engine f o r the Apollo Spacecraft. The S e r v i c e Module r e m a i n s with the Command Module throughout m o s t of a n Apollo m i s s i o n a n d i s jettisoned shortly before the Command Module r e - e n t e r s the E a r t h ' s a t m o s p h e r e . S e r v i c e Module. Solid (i. e . , solidified) Oxygen. The Apollo Spacecraft, a self-contained vehicle which, a f t e r having been placed on a l u n a r t r a n s f e r t r a j e c t o r y by a Saturn launch vehicle, conveys a t h r e e - m a n c r e w to the vicinity of the Moon, p e r m i t s the descent of two c r e w m e m b e r s to the s u r f a c e of the Moon, and r e t u r n s the c r e w safely to E a r t h . The t e r m applies a l s o to Apollo configurations launched on m i s sions of m o r e l i m i t e d scope than the l u n a r landing m i s s i o n . The complete Apollo S p a c e c r a f t c o n s i s t s a t launch of a Launch E s c a p e S y s t e m , a Command Module, a S e r v i c e Module, a n Adapter and a L u n a r Exc u r sion Module. The Saturn-Apollo s p a c e vehicle, which c o n s i s t s of a Saturn launch vehicle in combination with a n Apollo Spacecraft.

separation S e r v i c e Module (SM)

SM SOX s p a c e c r a f t (SC)

space vehicle (SV)

Item specific i m p u l s e

Definition A m e a s u r e of r o c k e t propulsion engine p e r f o r m a n c e , the r a t i o of the t h r u s t f o r c e to the t i m e r a t e of propellant flow. Conventional units: seconds.

stage

A section of the Saturn launch vehicle which h a s a self-contained propulsion s y s t e m and which i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m the r e s t of the Saturn-Apollo s p a c e vehicle a f t e r having fulfilled i t s function of propelling the space vehicle during a specified p a r t of the m i s s i o n . Saturn I and S a t u r n IB a r e two-stage launch vehicles. Saturn V i s a t h r e e stage launch vehicle.
The sequence of events which effects the shutdown of the propulsion engines in a stage of a S a t u r n launch vehicle, i t s physical s e p a r a t i o n f r o m the next s t a g e , and the s t a r t i n g of the p r o pulsion engine(s) of the l a t t e r stage. The i n t e r v a l of t i m e that e l a p s e s between the initiation of the f i r s t event of the staging sequence and the completion of the l a s t event, Space vehicle. The stage which i s immediately f o r w a r d of the second stage of a Saturn launch vehicle. The stage which provides propulsive t h r u s t a f t e r the second stage i s shut down and s e p a r a t e d .

staging

staging p e r i o d

SV t h i r d stage

time tilt

A function p e r f o r m e d by the guidance and control s y s t e m of the Saturn launch vehicle, whereby the s p a c e vehicle i s c a u s e d to pitch over (i. e . , to "tilt") a t a given r a t e a f t e r liftoff, during the f i r s t - s t a g e burning period, in o r d e r to change the direction of flight f r o m v e r t i c a l a s c e n t to the desired trajectory.
An E a r t h t r a n s f e r t r a j e c t o r y .

transearth trajectory

Item translunar trajectory torispherical

Definition A lunar t r a n s f e r t r a j e c t o r y .

The shape of the domed end of a S a t u r n p r o p e l l a n t container; f o r m e d by the combination of a s e g m e n t of a t o r o i d , which blends into the c y l i n d r i c a l body of the container, and a segment of a s p h e r e , which blends into the toroid, forming a smooth, continuous c u r v e . The amount which a tank lacks of being full of a liquid propellant, i n a stage of a S a t u r n launch vehicle.

ullage

ullage m o t o r

A r o c k e t m o t o r that i s f i r e d p r i o r to a n inflight
engine s t a r t , a c c e l e r a t i n g the Saturn-Apollo space vehicle in the direction of flight f o r the purpose of forcing the propellants into the a f t ends of t h e i r tanks (i. e . , causing the ullage to e x i s t only a t the f o r w a r d ends of the t a n k s ) , to e n s u r e that the propellants c a n flow u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y to the engine(s) to be s t a r t e d .

VEDS Yaw

Vehicle Emergency Detection System.. Rotational motion of the space vehicle about i t s c e n t e r of gravity ( C G ) which c a u s e s the n o s e of the vehicle to swing r i g h t o r left r e l a t i v e to the flight path. Positive yaw i s taken to be yaw i n which the nose swings to the r i g h t , a s viewed while looking f o r w a r d i n the vehicle.

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