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Five Year Plans India


1st Five Year Plan of India

India has emerged as a super power. The transition was not easy. Guidelines for operating the economy was provided by the five year plans. The 1st five year plan was presented by Jawaharlal Nehru, who was the Prime Minister during that period. It was formulated for the execution of various plans between 1951 to 1956. The Planning Commission was responsible for working out the plan.

Objectives of the 1st five year plan (1951 to 1961):

The primary aim of the 1st five year plan was to improve living standards of the people of India. This could be done by making judicious use of India's natural resources. The total outlay of the 1st five year plan was worth Rs.2,069 crore. This amount was assigned to different sectors which included: Industrial sector Energy, Irrigation Transport, Communications Land rehabilitation Social services Development of agriculture and community Miscellaneous issues The target set for the growth in the gross domestic product was 2.1percent every year. In reality, the actual achieved with regard to gross domestic product was 3.6 percent per annum. This is a clear indication of the success of the 1st five year plan.

Some important events that took place during the tenure of the 1st five year plan:
The following Irrigation projects were started during that period: Mettur Dam Hirakud Dam Bhakra Dam. The government had taken steps to rehabilitate the landless workers, whose main occupation was agriculture. These workers were also granted fund for experimenting and undergoing training in agricultural know how in various cooperative institutions. Soil conservation, was also given considerable importance. The Indian government also made considerable effort in improving posts and telegraphs, railway services, road tracks, civil aviation. Sufficient fund was also allocated for the industrial sector. In addition measures were taken for the growth of the small scale industries.

2nd Five Year Plan of India

With India's five year plans the country has attained a more or less stable economic setup down the years. The 1st five year plan ended in the year 1956. The 2nd five year plan was effective from 1956 to 1961. Objectives of the 2nd five year plan (1956 to 1961): Industries got more importance in the 2nd five year plan. The focus was mainly on heavy industries. The Indian government boosted manufacturing of industrial goods in the country. This was done primarily to develop the public sector.

Mahalanobis Model:
The 2nd year five year plan, functioned on the basis of Mahalanobis model. The Mahalanobis model was propounded by the famous Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in the year 1953. His model addresses different issues pertaining to economic development.

Assumptions made by the Mahalanobis model:

According to this model, it is assumed that the economy is closed and has two segments. 1. Segment of consumption goods 2. Segment of capital goods. Capital goods cannot be moved or are non shiftable. Production is at its peak. Depending on the availability of capital goods, investments are decided upon. Capital is the scarce factor. Capital goods production is not influenced by consumer goods production. By following the Mahalanobis model, the then government wanted that there should be optimum assignment of the fund among the various productive segments. This was aimed with a view to achieve maximum returns on a long term basis. As many as five steel plants including the ones in Durgapur, Jamshedpur as well as Bhilai were set up as per the 2nd five year plan. Hydroelectric power plants were formed during the tenure of the 2nd five year plan. There was considerable increase in production of coal. The North eastern part of the country, witnessed increase in the number of railway tracks. During the term of the 2nd five year plan, Atomic Energy Commission came into being. The Commission was established in the year 1957. During the same period, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research was born. The institute conducted several programs to search for talented individuals. These individuals would eventually be absorbed into programs related to nuclear power.

3rd Five Year Plan of India

India's 1st and 2nd five year plans paved the way for the 3rd five year plan, the term of this plan being from the year 1961 to 1966. Five year plans were introduced by the Indian government, so that people could make the optimum use of the resources better their living standards. Effective usage of the resources would eventually ensure an enhancement in output.

Main events of the 3rd five year plan (1961 to 1966):

1. 3rd five year plan laid considerable stress on the agricultural sector. However, with the short lived Sino Indian War of 1962 India diverted its attention to the safety of the country. Again, during the period 1965 to 1966, owing to Green Revolution, once again agriculture attracted attention. 2. Due to the Sino Indian War, India witnessed increase in price of products. The resulting inflation was cost push in nature. Many dams were constructed during this period. It may be recalled, that when the 1st five year plan was tabled, construction of Hirakud dam, Mettur dam and Bhakra dam had taken place. Along with dams, India got many fertilizer plants and cement making plants. Abundant production of wheat took place in Punjab. 3. When the 1st five year plan was introduced people were slightly apprehensive about the success of the plan. So, when it was discovered that the 1st and the 2nd five year plans were successful, people pinned their hopes on the next five year plan. 4. Role of the states increased and they were given more prominence. Many primary schools had started functioning in the village areas. Various bodies looking into matters related to secondary education were also formed. To promote democracy, there was commencement of the Panchayat elections. 5. There was formation of state electricity boards. The state governments were entrusted with the responsibility of constructing roads.

Objectives of the 3rd five year plan:

In addition to the above measures and proposals, the Planning Commission aimed at the following: Increasing the national income by 5 percent per annum. Making India self sufficient by increasing agricultural production. This step was taken to ensure that India does not have to bank on others for food products. Minimizing rate of unemployment. Ensuring that people enjoy equal rights in the country.

4th Five Year Plan of India

Owing to India's five year plans, great advancement has been made with regard to India's national income. Since 1951, the year when the 1st five year plan was presented by the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, India has come a long way. India has taken giant strides and today it is considered as one of the emerging powers. India is currently following the 11th five year plan. The tenure of the 11th five year plan is from 2007 to 2012. The 4th five year plan of India also served as a stepping stone for the economic growth. The following section will highlight the main events that had taken place under the 4th five year plan.

Main events of the 4th five year plan(1969 to 1974):

1. India had to reform and restructure its expenditure agenda, following the attack on India in the year 1962 and for the second time in the year 1965. India had hardly recuperated when it was struck by drought. India also had a stint of recession. Due to recession, famine and drought, India did not pay much heed to long term goals. Instead, it responded to the need of the hour. It started taking measures to overcome the crisis. 2. Food grains production increased to bring about self sufficiency in production. With this attempt, gradually a gap was created between the people of the rural areas and those of the urban areas. 3. The need for foreign reserves was felt. This facilitated growth in exports. Import substitution drew considerable attention. All these activities widened the industrial platform. Following the 4th Five Year Plan an alteration in the socio economic structure of the society was observed.

5th Five Year Plan of India

India's development in every sector takes place through the five year plans which are laid out by the Planning Commission. They not only lay out the plans but also monitor the execution of those plans and make sure that all the machineries of the Center and the state work in coordination. The 5th Five Year Plan was also developed by the Planning Commission. The Commission has a Deputy Chairman and along with the Prime Minister, who acts as the Ex Officio Chairman, the plan is laid out. The present Deputy Chairman is Montek Singh Ahluwalia.

The 5th Five Year Plan

The 5th Five Year Plan commenced on 1974 and extended till 1979. Objective of the Fifth Year Plan The objective of the 5th Five Year Plan was to increase the level of employment, reduce poverty and to attain self sufficiency in agriculture.

Backdrop of the 5th Five Year Plan

The world economy was in a troublesome state when the fifth five year plan was chalked out. This had a negative impact on the Indian economy. Prices in the energy and food sector skyrocketed and as a consequence inflation became inevitable. Therefore, the priority in the fifth five year plan was given to the food and energy sectors . In the later stages the increase in the supply of food grains and the export of minerals and oil reserve earned quite a good amount of foreign exchange to the Indian Economy.

Contents of the 5th Five Year Plan

The 5th Five Year Plan was laid out during a crisis period to overcome the impediments posed by the wavering economic condition. The 5th Five Year Plan was designed in a way to meet the needs of the time. The issues that were emphasised were: Reducing the discrepancy between the economic development at the regional, national, international level. It emphasized on putting the economic growth at par with each other. Improving the agricultural condition by implementing land reform measures. Improving the scope of self-employment through a well integrated program. Reducing the rate of unemployment both in the urban and the rural sectors. Encouraging growth of the small scale industries. Enhancing the import substitution in the spheres including chemicals, paper, mineral and equipment industries. Applying policies pertaining to finance and credit in the industrial sector. Stressed on the importance of a labour intensive production technology in India.

6th Five Year Plan of India

6th Five Year Plan is also referred to as the Janata Government Plan and it was revolutionary since it marked a change from the Nehruvian model of Five Year Plans. The sixth five year plan has changed a lot of things in India. On one hand it had improved the tourism industry in India and on the other hand it aimed at development in the Information Technology sector.

Issues within the 6th Five Year Plan

The 6th Five Year Plan started from 1980 and covered a timespan of another five years that is till 1985. During this time the Prime Minister was Rajiv Gandhi and hence industrial development was the emphasis of this plan. His idea about the betterment of the industrial sector was welcomed by some and opposed by lot others specially the communist groups. Even the workers who were more inclined towards the leftist ideology were not much convinced. This slowed down the pace of progress.

Transport and Communication System

The transport and communication system also improved under this Plan. The National Highways were all built during this time . Apart from the construction of new highways, the condition of the roads were meliorated. This helped in the betterment of the traffic system in India. During this time the Indian currency was devalued and this led to a dramatic increase in the number of foreign travelers in India thus helping India to become a tourist destination.

New Introduction on the Economic Front

Economic Liberalization was introduced for the first time in India during this period. Ration shops were closed because government no more produced articles at a subsidized rate. Price control measures were no more useful. As a consequence the prices of various goods increased leading to growth in the standard of living of the residents of India.

Measures Against Population Explosion

Family Planning was implemented for the first time in India . Family Planning helped to create awareness among the Indians regarding population. However, this measure to control population was not accepted across India. It was readily accepted by the people residing in the developed areas of the country but the mass of the less developed areas refused to accept the plan and never implemented it.

7th Five Year Plan of India

7th Five Year Plan which covered a time span of another five years started on 1985 and went on till 1989. This Five Year Plan was the come back vehicle of the Indian National Congress Party into power. The primary aim of the five year plan was to upgrade the industrial sector and enable India to establish itself as one of the developed countries of the world. This Plan was released under the National Development Council of India.

Objective of the Five Year Plan

The objective of the 7th Five Year Plan was to generate more scope of employment for the people of India, to produce more in terms of food which would lead to an overall increase in productivity.

Backdrop of the 7th Five Year Plan

The 7th Five Year Plan started off on a string ground since the foundation for economic development was laid by the 6th Five Year Plan. The Sixth Five Year Plan had already paved the way for economic development by increasing the production in the agricultural and industrial sector, curbing the rate of inflation and maintaining a balance in the transaction of goods, services and money. Therefore, the 7th Five Year Plan had a strong base on which it could built the superstructure of industrial development for the betterment of India's economic position. This plan strove to achieve socialism and expand the production of energy.

Contents of the 7th Five Year Plan

The basic issues on which this plan put stress were: Introduction and application of modern technology Justice meted out to people from various social stratas Improving the position of the weak in the Indian society Development of agriculture Reducing poverty in India Assuring the essentials of food, shelter and clothing to the people Striving to achieve independence as per the Indian economy is concerned Help the small as well as the large farmers to increase their productivity This time Indian government was adamant to achieve self-sufficiency in the economic and production sector. They endeavored to develop on the factors that ensure a persistent growth in the economy. The rate of employment was anticipated to rise by 4% every year and the labor force was anticipated to grow by 39 million at the end of fifth year. Overall improvement was the aim of the 7th Five Year Plan. Therefore care was taken to establish a harmony in all the sectors that are contained in an economy. Special care was taken to spread education among girls, enhance telecommunication within the country. The government of India also strove to maintain a balance in the economy and by striking a balance within export and import.

8th Five Year Plan of India

8th Five Year Plan commenced on 1992 and carried on till 1997. The basic objective of this period was the modernization of industrial sector. This plan focused on technical development. Through this plan the reduction of deficit and foreign debt was aimed at. The rectification of certain flawed plans and policies were also done under this five year plan. During this period only India received a coveted opportunity to become a member of the World Trade Organization on January 1st 1995.

Agricultural Activities During this Period

Agriculture happens to be the largest contributor to the GDP of India. In fact two third of the work force was dependent on agriculture. Industries also made use of agricultural produce as inputs in their production process.

Self-Sufficiency in Agricultural Production

Self-sufficiency in agricultural production was a top priority during India's eighth Five Year Plan since most of the population depended on that. Production of food increased to 176.22 million from 51 million which was a huge leap in comparison to the previous years. Compar ive Analysis of the Eighth Five Year Plan Plan Investment as a Current Account Domestic Foreign Capital GDP Growth Per % of Deficit as % of Savings as a % Inflow as a % of Annum(Target rate) GDP(Target GDP(Target rate) of GDP(Target GDP(Target rate) rate) rate) 7 th 22.7 2.4 20.3 1.6 5.8 Plan 8 th 23.2 1.6 21.6 1.4 5.6 Plan

From the above table it is clear that the 7th Five Year Plan targeted a GDP growth rate of 5.8% while the 8th Five Year Plan projected a 5.6% growth rate. The achievements show that the GDP shot up to a whopping 6.3% during the 8th Five Year Plan and to 4.3% during the 7th Five Year Plan. Hence the 8th five year plan had overshooted its target. The target set for the current account deficit during the 7th Five Year Plan was fixed at 2.4% while it was set at 1.6% during 8th Five Year Plan . Results show that the 8th Five Year Plan had been more successful in this regard as the deficit was reduced by 0.7% in the 8th Five Year Plan and by only 0.1% in the 7th Five Year Plan. With regard to domestic savings as a percentage of GDP the 8th Five Year Plan reached 24.4% while in the 7th Year Plan the figure was 20.2%. As far as the contribution of the export earnings is concerned the 8th Year Plan contributed 10.1% to the GDP while the 7th Year Plan contributed 9.9% to the GDP. The import volume as a percentage of GDP was also more during the 8th Five Year Plan (10.9% ) compared to the 7th Five Year Plan (10.3%). In a nutshell the 8th five year Plan was more successful in meeting its objectives as compared to the previous five year plan.

9th Five Year Plan of India

Like all other Five Year Plans made so far, the 9th Five Year Plan (1997-2002) is formulated, executed and supervised by the Planning Commission. In the Ninth Five Year Plan period from 1997 to 2002, the recorded rate of growth was merely 5.35%. However, this economic growth rate is a percentage point lesser than the GDP growth of 6.5% targeted during this period.

Evolution of the 9th Five Year Plans: Some facts

Passed after 50 years of Indian independence, the 9th Five Year Plan was formulated to act as a tool for solving the economic and social problems existing in the country. The Plan in fact, was born out of the governments realization that the latent economic reserves of the country which were still not explored, should be utilized for the overall development and benefit of the Indian economy in the coming five years. However, this could only be done when the Indian government offers strong support and priority to the social spheres of the country, focusing especially on the complete elimination of poverty. Taking into consideration the past weaknesses, the 9th Five Year Plan endeavored to formulate fresh actions to initiate improvement in the overall economic and social sectors of the nation. To this effort, there was mutual contribution from the general population of India as well as the governmental agencies. This joint private and public attempt ultimately assured development of the Indian economy.

Primary objectives of the 9th Five Year Plan:

Each and every Five Year Plan of the Indian government is formulated, keeping in mind the fulfillment of certain objectives. The 9th Five Year Plan is no exception. The main objective of this Plan is to achieve the following goals: Industrialization at a rapid pace Reduction in poverty level Gaining self-sufficiency on local resources Complete employment for all countrymen Price stabilization should be initiated to hasten up the rate of growth of the Indian economy Control the ever-increasing rate of population Creating an independent market, for enhancing private financial investments Promotion of social events like conservation of specific benefits for special social groups, female empowerment, etc. Achieving self sufficiency in food production Generation of equal opportunities for employment and taking steps to reduce poverty

10th Five Year Plan of India

The 10th Five Year Plan (2002-2007) targets at a GDP growth rate of 8% per annum. Taking note of the inabilities of the earlier Five Years Plans, especially that of the 9th Five Year Plan, the Tenth Five Year Plan decides to take up a resolution for immediate implementation of all the policies formulated in the past. This amounts to making appeals to the higher government authorities, for successful completion of their campaigns associated with the rapid implementation of all past policies. The primary aim of the 10th Five Year Plan is to renovate the nation extensively, making it competent enough with some of the fastest growing economies across the globe. It also intends to initiate an economic growth of 10% on an annual basis. In fact, this decision was taken only after the nation recorded a consistent 7% GDP growth, throughout the past decade. The 7% growth in the Indian GDP is considered to be considerably higher that the average growth rate of GDP in the world. This enabled the Planning Commission of India to extend the GDP limit further and set goals, which will drive India to become one of the best industrial countries in the world, to be clubbed and recognized with the worlds best industrialized nations. Like all other Five Year Plans, the 10th Five Year Plan is also devised, executed and supervised by the Planning Commission of India.

Chief Objectives of the 10th Five Year Plan:

The Tenth Five Year Plan proposes schooling to be compulsory for children, by the year 2003. The mortality rate of children must be reduced to 45 per 1000 livings births and 28 per 1000 livings births by 2007 and 2012 respectively All main rivers should be cleaned up between 2007 and 2012 Reducing the poverty ratio by at least five percentage points, by 2007 Making provision for useful and lucrative employments to the population, which are of the best qualities According to the Plan, it is mandatory that all infants complete at least five years in schools by 2007. By 2007, there should be a decrease in gender discriminations in the spheres of wage rate and literacy, by a minimum of 50% Taking up of extensive afforestation measures, by planting more trees and enhance the forest and tree areas to 25% by 2007 and 33% by 2012 Ensuring persistent availability of pure drinking water in the rural areas of India, even in the remote parts The alarming rate at which the Indian population is growing must be checked and fixed to 16.2%, between a time frame of 2001 and 2011 The rate of literacy must be increased by at least 75%, within the tenure of the Tenth Five Year Plan There should be a decrease in the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to 2 per 1000 live births by 2007. The Plan also intended to bring down the Maternal Mortality Ratio to 1 per 1000 live birth by the year 2012.

The 10th Five year Plan of India in a nutshell:

Increasing the mobility of all the available financial resources of India, and optimizing them as well Setting up of a state-of-the-art infrastructure for all the existing industries in India. Encourage the initiative of capacity building within the Indian industrial sector Creating a friendly, amiable and pleasant investment environment in India Encouraging sufficient transparency in the corporate sectors of India Introduction of reforms in the industrial sectors, which are more investor-friendly in nature

11th Five Year Plan of India



Five Year Plans India

When India gained independence, its economy was groveling in dust. The British had left the Indian economy crippled and the fathers of development formulated 5 years plan to develop the Indian economy. The five years plan in India is framed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission of India. Currently, India is in its 11th five year plan. Let's see the journey of five year's plan in India and the objectives in each plan. Objectives of all the Five Year's Plan: 1st Plan (1951-56)

The first five year plan was presented by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951. The First Five Year Plan was initiated at the end of the turmoil of partition of the country. It gave importance to agriculture, irrigation and power projects to decrease the countries reliance on food grain imports, resolve the food crisis and ease the raw material problem especially in jute and cotton. Nearly 45% of the resources were designated for agriculture, while industry got a modest 4.9%.The focus was to maximize the output from agriculture, which would then provide the impetus for industrial growth. Though the first plan was formulated hurriedly, it succeeded in fulfilling the targets. Agriculture production increased dramatically, national income went up by 18%, per capita income by 11% and per capita consumption by 9%

2nd Plan (1956-61)

The second five year plan was initiated in a climate of economic prosperity, industry gained in prominence. Agriculture programmes were formulated to meet the raw material needs of industry, besides covering the food needs of the increasing population. The Industrial Policy of 1956 was socialistic in nature. The plan aimed at 25% increase in national income. In comparison to First Five Year plan, the Second Five Year Plan was a moderate success. Unfavorable monsoon in 1957-58 and 1959-60 impacted agricultural production and also the Suez crisis blocked International Trading increasing commodity prices.

3rd Plan (1961-66)

While formulating the third plan, it was realized that agriculture production was the destabilizing factor in economic growth. Hence agriculture was given due importance. Also allotment for power sector was increased to 14.6% of the total disbursement. Emphasis was on becoming self reliant in agriculture and industry. The objective of import substitution was seen as sacrosanct. In order to prevent monopolies and to promote economic developments in backward areas, unfeasible manufacturing units were augmented with subsidies. The plan aimed to increase national income by 30% and agriculture production by 30%. The wars with China in 1962 and Pakistan 1965 and bad monsoon in almost all the years, meant the actual performance was way of the target.

4th Plan (1969-74)

At the time of initiating the fourth plan it was realized that GDP growth and rapid growth of capital accumulation alone would not help improve standard of living or to become economically selfreliant. Importance was given to providing benefits to the marginalized section of the society through employment and education. Disbursement to agricultural sector was increased to 23.3% .Family planning programme was given a big stimulus. The achievements of the fourth plan were below targets. Agriculture growth was just at 2.8% and green revolution did not perform as expected. Industry too grew at 3.9%.

5th Plan (1974-79)

As a result of inflationary pressure faced during the fourth plan, the fifth plan focused on checking inflation. Several new economic and non-economic variables such as nutritional requirements, health, family planning etc were incorporated in the planning process. Investment mix was also formulated based on demand estimated for final domestic consumption. Industry got the highest allocation of 24.3% and the plan forecasted a growth rate of 5.5% in national income. The fifth plan was discontinued by the new Janata government in the fourth year itself.

6th Plan (1980-85)

The Janata government moved away from GNP approach to development, instead sought to achieve higher production targets with an aim to provide employment opportunities to the marginalized section of the society. But the plan lacked the political will. The Congress government on taking office in 1980 formulated a new plan with a strategy to lay equal focus on infrastructure and agriculture. The plan achieved a growth of 6% pa.

7th Plan (1985-89) The first three years of the seventh plan saw severe drought conditions, despite which the food grain production rose by 3.2%.Special programmes like Jawahar Rozgar Yojana were introduced. Sectors like welfare, education, health, family planning, employment etc got a larger disbursement. 8th Plan (1992-97)

The eighth plan was initiated just after a severe balance of payment crisis, which was intensified by the Gulf war in 1990.several structural modification policies were brought in to put the country in a path of high growth rate. They were devaluation of rupees, dismantling of license prerequisite and decrease trade barriers. The plan targeted an annual growth rate of 5.6% in GDP and at the same time keeping inflation under control.

9th Plan (1997-2002) It was observed in the eighth plan that, even though the economy performed well, the gains did not percolate to the weaker sections of the society. The ninth plans therefore laid greater impetus on increasing agricultural and rural incomes and alleviate the conditions of the marginal farmer and landless laborers.

10th Plan (2002-2007)

The aim of the tenth plan was to make the Indian economy the fastest growing economy in the world, with a growth target of 10%.It wanted to bring in investor friendly market reforms and create a friendly environment for growth. It sought active participation by the private sector and increased FDI's in the financial sector. Emphasis was laid on corporate transparency and improving the infrastructure. It sought to reduce poverty ratio by 5 percentage points by 2007and increase in literacy rates to 75 per cent by the end of the plan. Increase in forest and tree cover to 25 per cent by 2007 and all villages to have sustained access to potable drinking water.

11th Plan (2007-2012)

The eleventh plan has the objective to increase GDP growth to 10%. Increase agricultural GDP growth to 4% per year to ensure a wider spread of benefits. Create 70 million new work opportunities. Augment minimum standards of education in primary school. Reduce infant mortality rate to 28 and malnutrition among children of age group 0-3 to half of its present level. Ensure electricity connection to all villages and increase forest and tree cover by five percentage points.


Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khanan: He lived during the reign of Akbar. He translated Baburs Memoirs from Turkish to Persian. Abdussamad: He was honoured with the award of zariqalam by Akbar. Ages, Chronological order of: Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic Agrahara: Tax-free villages granted to the learned Brahmanas in ancient India were known as Agrahara. Akot: is a town, about 42 km from Akola, from where a stone idol of Lord Adinath, the first Jain Teerthankara, was found in 1993. Alien Powers in India, chronological sequence of: Indo-Greeks, Scythians, Kushanas, Huns. Amarasimha: was one of the nine gems in the court of the legendary Vikramaditya. His work Amarkosha occupies a dominant position in Sanskrit lexicography. Amoghavarsha-I: was the long ruling Rashtrakuta king (A.D. 814-78). He represented the height of development of his dynasty. Asanga: was a Buddhist philosopher. He was the originator of Buddhist Yogachara idealism. Ashvaghosha: was the spiritual adviser of Kanishka (the Kushan emperor) who took a leading part in the Fourth Buddhist Council at Srinagar which was presided by Vasumitra. He was a renowned Mahayana Sanskrit scholar and author of Sariputra-prakarana and Buddha Charitam. He was the greatest literary figure at Kanishkas court. Atisa Dipankara: was the most famous teacher of Vikramasila university founded in A.D. 810 by king Dharmapala of Pala dynasty. Battle of San Thomas: This battle during the Carnatic Wars (1746-61) definitely proved for the first time the superiority of European arms and discipline over the traditional Indian methods of warfare. Battle of Waihand: was fought between Mahmud Ghaznavi and Anandpala. Bhaskaravarman: was the king of Kamarupa (Upper Assam). He was a contemporary of king Sasanka of Gauda and was his arch-enemy. Bhaskaravarman was the eastern ally of king Harsha. Bilhana: was a Sanskrit historian and poet born in Kashmir. He left Kashmir about A.D. 1065 and became the court poet at Kalyana where he wrote an epic, Vikramadeva-charita to celebrate the reign of Vikramaditya-VI, the Chalukya king of Kalyana. Blue Water Policy: The Blue Water policy is attributed to Don Francisco de Almeida, the first Viceroy of the Portuguese possessions in India. His Blue Water policy was to be powerful at the sea instead of building fortresses on Indian land. Boghaz Koi inscriptions: are important in Indian history because inscriptions of the fourteenth century B.C. discovered here mention the names of Vedic gods and goddesses. Brahmagupta: (598-660) of Ujjain, was a great mathematician of his time. Brahui: is a language of Baluchistan. Linguistically, it is Dravidian. Busa Munda Revolt: occurred in Bihar. Catching the butterflies and setting them free: was the prominent feature of the foreign policy of Samudragupta. Chandernagore: was a French possession before its merger with India. Charvaka: is known as the greatest of the materialistic philosophers of ancient India. Chauth: was a tax levied by Marathasa contribution exacted by a military leader, which was justified by the exigencies of the situation. Coinage in Ancient India: Coins in ancient India were made of metalcopper, silver, gold, or lead. Nishka and Satamana in the Vedic texts were taken to be names of coins, but they seem to be only prestige objects. Coins made of metal first appeared in the age of Gautama Buddha. The earliest were made largely of silver though a few copper coins also appear. Coins made of burnt clay belong to the Kushan period i.e., the first three Christian centuries. Dadu: was the saint from Gujarat who preached non-sectarianism in medieval times. He founded the Brahma-Sampardaaya (the sect of Brahma).

Dahar (or Dahir): was the Brahmana king of Sind who was defeated by the Arab invasion in A.D. 712 by Mohammadbin-Kasim, nephew and son-inlaw of al-Hajjaj, governor of Irak. The Indian ruler (Dahar) offered a brave resistance in the battle near Raor but was defeated and killed. Darius: was the Iranian ruler who penetrated into north-west India in 516 B.C. and annexed Punjab, west of Indus, and Sindh. Devapala: (A.D. 830-850) was successor to Dharmapala, the famous Pala ruler. He established the third important Pala university of Somapura. He shifted his capital to Monghyr from where he maintained diplomatic relations with the Sailendra kings of Sumatra. Dhammapada: was the first major work to say that salvation by means of devotion is open to humans regardless of birth, gender or station in life. Dharmachakra: In the Gandhara art, it is the preaching mudra associated with the Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath. First Congress Split: took place in 1907 at Surat. First metal used by man: Copper. First Muslim invaders of India: Arabs were the first Muslim invaders of India. First Sultan of Delhi: was Qutb-ud-din who succeeded Muhammad Ghuri as sovereign of the new Indian conquests, and from 1206 may be reckoned as the first Sultan of Delhi. First to issue gold coins in India: Mauryas. First to set up department of agriculture: Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq was the first to set up a department of agriculture in India. First to start sea trade with India: Portugal. Gautamiputra Satakarni: was the great king of Satavahana dynasty. Gayatri mantra: is contained in Rig Veda. Gopuram: It has been the main feature of the South Indian temple architecture. Hasan Gangoo: entitled Zafar Khan was founder of the Bahmani kingdom in Deccan. Ibadat Khana: is a building at Fatehpur Sikri where Akbar held discussions on religious matters. Ibn-Batuta: was a great scholar and traveller from South Africa who came to India in A.D. 1333 during the reign of Mohammad Tughlak and wrote about him. Iqta: It was the land-grant system adopted by Ala-ud-din Khilji to grant his officers as reward for services rendered. Qutabuddin Aibak was assigned the first iqta in India by Mohd of Ghor. Jimutavahana: was a famous jurist of medieval India (fifteenth century). His work Dayabhaga is a commentary on the srutis, specially on Manu. Kalachuri era: counted from A.D. 248, it was mostly current in Central India. Their capital was Tripuri near Jabalpur. Kalachuris were the feudatories of the Pratiharas but soon acquired independence. Karshapana: was the most commonly used coin in the Chola kingdom. Khiraj: was the land tax imposed by Mohd-bin-Qasim after the Arabs occupation of Sind. Magazines started by National leaders: Young India (M.K. Gandhi); Kesari (B.G. Tilak); New India (Annie Besant); Bengali (S.N. Bannerji). Maski Rock edict: This minor Rock-edict is the only edict in which Ashoka refers to himself as the king of Magadha. Moplah Rebellion: broke out in Malabar (Kerala) in August 1921. Nastaliq: was a Persian script used in medieval India. Nauroj festival in India: Balban introduced the famous Persian festival of Nauroj in India. Nicolo Conti: was the Italian foreign traveller who visited Vijayanagar about A.D. 1420 during the reign of Deva Raya-II. Palas: who controlled most of Bengal and Bihar, was the third power involved in the three-sided conflict between Rashtrakutas and Pratiharas over the control of Kanauj. Pala dynasty was established by Gopala in the eighth century A.D. He attained renown from the fact that he was not hereditary king but was elected. Paragana: During the rule of the so-called Slave dynasty in India, the empire was divided into provincial units called Paraganas placed under the charge of a military officer.

Prakrit: This language received royal patronage during the reign of Satavahanas. Rajsekhar: was the Sanskrit poet who lived in the court of Mahendrapala-I. Ratika: or rati is a weight between 1.5 to 3 Gunjas; between 5 to 8 grains of rice. It was the basic weight (measure) in ancient India. Ratnakara: denoted the Arabiasn Sea in ancient Indian historical geography. Rishabha: is supposed to be the mythical founder of Jainism. Sardeshmukhi: was an additional levy of 10%, which Shivaji demanded on the basis of his claim as the hereditary Sardeshmukh (chief headman) of Maharashtra. Shahrukh: It was silver coin of the Mughals. Sharada script: The Kashmiri language was originally written in Sharada script. Subuktigin: was the first Turkish invader of India. Tanka: was a silver coin of the Sultanate period of India. Tehqiq-i-Hind: Alberunis work on India. It contains observations on Indian civilization which are remarkably incisive and acute. Turushkadanda: was a tax collected by the Gahadavalas during the early medieval India. Vagbhata: is regarded as unrivalled in his knowledge of the basic principles of Ayurveda. Vatapi (or Badami): now in the Bijapur district of Karnataka, where Pulakesin I, founder of the Chalukya dynasty in the middle of the sixth century, established himself as lord of Vatapi or Badami (capital of Chalukyas). It is well-known for Chalukyan sculpture found in the cave temples here. Vidushaka: the constant companion and confidant of the hero in Sanskrit dramas, was nearly always a Brahmin. Vikramasila University: was a great Tantrik University founded by the Pala king Dharmapala in A.D. 810. It was a hotbed of moral corruption, sorcery and idolatry. In A.D. 1198, the soldiers if Ikhtiar Khilji raised the structure to the ground and killed every monk in the University. Wood's Despatch of 1854: It related to educational reforms. Lord Dalhousie took measures to carry out the scheme embodied in the famous despatch of Sir Charles Wood (July 1854) which embraced vernacular schools throughout the districts, and above all the glorious measures of grants-in-aid to all schools, without reference to caste or creed. Yakshagana: was the south Indian dance tradition that appeared for the first time in the Vijayanagar period. Zabti System: was introduced by Akbar for land revenue administration. In Zabti system, land was measured and assessment of land revenue was based upon it.