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GAS OPERATED (BUCHHOLZ) RELAY The relay serves as the main protection for any minor or major faults that may develop inside a transformer. Such faults always result in generation of gases. Construction:-It comprises a cast housing which contains two pivoted buckets, each bucket being counter- balanced by a weight. Each assembly carries a mercury switch, the leads from which are taken to a moulded terminal block. Operation:-I. The relay is mounted in the pipe at an inclination of 3-7. In healthy condition of the transformer, the relay is full of oil and both the mercury switches are open. II. In the event of a minor fault like damage to core bolt insulation, local overheating, etc., the arcing causes slow generation of gas in the oil, which passes up in the pipe and gets trapped in the relay housing. As gas accumulates, the oil level in the relay falls, leaving the top bucket full of oil. III. When a sufficient volume of gas is collected in the relay, the top bucket, because of its extra weight due to oil contained, tilts, overcoming the balance weight which closes the mercury switch and initiates an audible alarm. IV. With a major fault like short-circuit between turns, coils or between phases; the generation of gases is rapid and the gas and the displaced oil surges through the relay and impinges on the baffle plates, causing the lower assembly to tilt and close the mercury switch and provide signal for tripping the circuit breaker, which disconnects the transformer from the network. Relays for Earthquake Zones I. Shock and vibrations acting on tube of the mercury switch can cause the mercury within it to move and momentarily bridge the switch contact, even though it may be tilted in open-circuit position. II. III. This is considered to be a mal-operation of the relay, as it is caused by the external disturbances like earth tremors and not by a fault within the transformer. Consequently, relays for such situations are provided with magnet operated reed switches in place of mercury switches. The reed type switches have rhodium contacts located midway along the glass tube which has an atmosphere of nitrogen. The external appearance and the principle of operation of these relays is exactly similar to those with mercury switches.


2. TEMPERATURE INDICATORS Temperature indicators are precision instruments and perform the following functions:- Indicate maximum oil temperature and maximum or hottest spot temperature of winding. Operate an alarm or a trip circuit at a predetermined temperature. Switch on the cooling equipment when the winding attains a preset high temperature and switch it off when the temperature drops by an established differential (so as to avoid too frequent on and off operation of the switch). Normally two separate instruments are used for indicating oil and winding temperatures. OIL TEMPERATURE INDICATOR I. These indicators normally work on the principle of liquid expansion, the liquid being sealed in the bellows. II. The indicator is provided with a sensing bulb placed in an oil filled pocket on the transformer tank cover. The bulb is connected to the instrument housing by means of flexible connecting tubing consisting of two capillary tubes. III. One capillary is connected to the operating bellow of the instrument and the other to a compensating bellow. IV. The operating system is filled with a liquid which changes volume with varying temperature. V. The compensating bellow acts upon the operating bellow through a linkage compensating for variations in the ambient temperature. VI. With change in the volume of the liquid, the bellows expand or contract, transmitting the movement through a linkage mechanism to the indicating pointer and switching disc. WINDING TEMPERATURE INDICATOR I. Oil and winding temperature indicators work on the same principle, except that winding temperature indicator is provided with an additional bellow heating element. II. As it is not possible to measure the winding temperature directly, it is done indirectly by means of a thermal image process. III. The heating element is fed by a current transformer. The temperature increase of the heating element is thereby proportional to the temperature increase of the winding over top oil temperature. IV. Up to four dry electrode mercury switches, each mounted on a steel carriage, are provided on a winding temperature indicator. The make-and-break temperature of each switch can be independently adjusted.

3. PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE I. A major fault inside a transformer causes instantaneous vaporization of the oil, leading to extremely rapid build-up of gaseous pressure. II. If this pressure is not relieved within a few milliseconds, the transformer tank can get ruptured, spilling oil over a wide area. The consequent damage and fire hazard possibilities are obvious. A pressure relief device provides instantaneous relieving of dangerous pressure. III. The valve is generally mounted on the tank cover above an opening. The valve has a corresponding port which is normally sealed by a stainless steel diaphragm. IV. As the pressure inside the tank rises above a preset limit due to a major fault, the diaphragm gets lifted instantaneously and excessive pressure drops, the diaphragm then restores to its original position. V. The lift of the diaphragm is utilized to operate a flag indicator and a micro-switch with the help of a rod. VI. Due to certain superior features of spring loaded pressure relief valve like smaller size, elimination of equalizer pipe and provision of a switch for alarm annunciation in event of its operation, it is finding a wide spread preference over the explosion vent. EXPLOSION VENT In the event of a serious fault, due to excessive pressure, the top diaphragm ruptures, thus releasing the pressure. 4. OIL LEVEL INDICATOR I. It is essential that the oil level in the conservator is maintained above a predetermined minimum level. All large transformers are, therefore, fitted with a magnetic oil level gauge which also incorporates a mercury switch. II. The switch closes and actuates an audible alarm in the event of oil level dropping to near empty position in the conservator. III. A float is used as a sensor which moves with the rise and fall of the oil level. Its movement gets transmitted to the switch mechanism by means of bevel gear and magnetic coupling, which ensures a complete seal between the conservator and switch compartment. IV. The pointer is also magnetically operated and picks up the correct oil level.

5. BUSHING AND CABLE SEALING BOX I. It is necessary to bring the low and high voltage leads out of transformer tank, to be able to make connections between transformer and generator or transmission lines, etc. This is accomplished by terminating these leads through what are known as bushings or cable box. II. A bushing is a structure carrying a conductor through a partition in the tank and insulating the conductor from partition. III. Generally used for termination of leads of low voltage, a cable sealing box is designed for the purpose of receiving and protecting the end of a metal-sheathed cable or cables and containing a suitable insulating medium. IV. Cable sealing box is a unit complete with bushings, to which the terminals of the transformer can be connected. The insulating medium in a cable box can be air or a bituminous compound.